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Portrait of George III (1738-1820), whose reign includes all of Jane Austen's life.
By Sir William Beechey.

Georgian society in Jane Austen's novels is the ever-present background of her work, the world in which all her characters are set. Entirely situated during the reign of George III, the novels of Jane Austen describe their everyday lives, their joys and sorrows, as well as their loves, and provide in the process an irreplaceable insight into the period.

Jane Austen's novels deal with such varied subjects as the historical context, the social hierarchies of the time, the role and status of the clergy, gender roles, marriage, or the pastimes of well-off families. Without even the reader noticing, many details are broached, whether of daily life, of forgotten legal aspects, or of surprising customs, thus bringing life and authenticity to the English society of this period.

Nevertheless, the point of view from which Jane Austen describes England is that of a woman of the English gentry (albeit from its lower fringes), belonging to a reasonably well-off family, well connected and remarkably well educated for the time, and living in a very small village of rural England around the late 1790s or early 1800s. Thus, some essential aspects of the Georgian era are virtually absent from her novels, such as the American Revolutionary War and the loss of the Thirteen Colonies, the French Revolution, the beginning of the Industrial Revolution and the birth of the British Empire. Indeed, rather than a depiction of the history of English society at large, Jane Austen's novels provide an understanding of everyday life in rural England at the turn of the 19th century.

Contents

Georgian society

Perspective

Jane Austen, from a drawing by sister Cassandra.

Jane Austen's purpose never was to write historical or social novels, nor to provide a balanced and objective picture of late 18th century England. Her stories — considered as "comic", because of their happy endings —[1] all take place in the society she knew, that of a small rural gentry family, rather well-off though without fortune, around the 1800s. As she wrote in one of her letters to niece Anna Austen: "three or four families in a Country Village [is] the little bit (two Inches wide) of Ivory on which I work".[2]

Consequently, some aspects of Georgian society, despite their importance, are ignored, or, at most, hinted at, in Austen's novels: thus, the loss of the Thirteen Colonies, as the Declaration of Independence took place when she was barely one year old, as well as the war with the former colonies itself and the ensuing Treaty of Paris in 1783, when she was eight, do not have any part in her novels.

The 12th century Steventon church, which was that of George Austen, Jane Austen's father.

Similarly, the French Revolution does not find its way into her work, except as regards her cousin Eliza and her French husband, guillotined in 1794.

Even the birth of the British Empire is far from her world. The exception is India, since that is where Eliza and her mother, Philadelphia Hancock, had arrived from around 1786. Indeed, the Austens were warm supporters of Warren Hastings, Philadelphia's long time friend (and possibly Eliza's father),[N 1] when he was sued for serious misdemeanour in India[3] before being cleared in April 1795.

Though the Industrial Revolution had started in England as early as the 1750s, it is not apparent in the way she lived as well as in her novels.[4] Life in the small rural village of Steventon, Hampshire, where the family rectory was, kept her quite far from this new world.

Historical context

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George III

Various Georgian era types, during the reign of George III. By Isaac Cruikshank (1799).
Promis'd Horrors of the French Invasion : the French Revolution unleashed all kinds of fantasies in the British imagination (caricature by James Gillray, en 1796).

The reign of George III — if one includes in it the Regency period that took place during his final illness — encompasses all of Jane Austen's life, and even beyond, as it started in 1760, just before her parents married in 1764, and ended up in 1820, after the death of Austen in 1817 and the posthumous publication of her two novels, Persuasion and Northanger Abbey in 1818[5].

French Revolution

It is through her cousin Eliza de Feuillide, married to a French aristocrat, that Jane Austen first heard of the French Revolution and of its violence. Eliza stayed in England in 1786 and 1787, and made several trips between France and England from 1788 to 1792. In January 1791, Eliza was in Margate, and was hoping that her husband, who had just joined a royalist group in Turin, could come back to her in June. After a brief stay in England during the winter of 1791, he then returned to France, as he wanted to come to the assistance of a friend, the Marquise de Marbeuf, accused of conspiring against the Republic. Unfortunately, he was unmasked while trying to suborn a witness, and duly arrested and guillotined.[6]

The memory of Eliza de Feuillide can be seen in several of Austen's Juvenilia, such as Love and Freindship — dedicated, as it was, to "Madame la Comtesse de Feuillide" — or Henry and Eliza.

As the same time, the French Revolution led in England to the Revolution Controversy, involving such thinkers as Mary Wollstonestonecraft and her groundbreaking book A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, William Godwin, Thomas Paine and Joseph Priestley. Austen, as the staunch Tory supporter she had always been, was herself in favour of the family as bringing stability in the midst of the turmoils of the times.[7]

Napoleonic Wars

Social and economic ranks

Income spread

A young and promising captain of the Royal Navy in 1781, Horatio Nelson.
By John Francis Rigaud.
Industrious Cottagers in 1801.
By William Ward, after James Ward.

The income spread seen in Jane Austen’s novels allows us to better determine the social status of her different characters. Except in the case of heiresses, where we talk about the total fortune, these revenues are always annual.

In any case, it is easy to calculate the income corresponding to a given fortune, since money invested in government funds pays 5% a year (or only 4% in the case of a small investment). Thus Caroline Bingley’s fortune of 20 000 pounds (Pride and Prejudice) guarantees her an income of 1000 pounds a year, already a large sum which guarantees her a competence, that is, everything that can be considered necessary to lead a pleasant life, including a carriage[8].

Jane Austen’s novels depict a whole income hierarchy which implies very different lifestyles.

One hundred pounds a year: in Jane Austen’s novels, this is a very low income, that of a poor curate, for example, or of a civil servant working in a government office, or again of a small shopkeeper. However, it is rather satisfactory compared with that of an farm labourer which can be as little as twenty-five pounds a year[N 2] including extra work at harvest time.[9] With 100 pounds a year, the best one can expect is to have a maid of all work, as Mrs. Jennings points out to Edward Ferrars and Lucy Steele (Sense and Sensibility) when they seem to be about to get married with only this level of income[10].

Two hundred pounds: this is the income of Jane Austen’s parents four years after their marriage in 1764; even though it is double what they had at the beginning of their married life, it is barely adequate due to the birth of their children. Three hundred pounds would better meet their needs, even though that is the income of which Colonel Brandon says to Edward Ferrars that it is a nice sum for a single man, but “insufficient to permit him to marry”.[10]

Four, or better, five hundred pounds: this is the level above which one can lead the life befitting a member of the gentry. It is the income enjoyed by Mrs. Dashwood, which permits her to give her daughters a decent existence, with two maids and a serving man, but neither carriage nor horses.

Seven hundred to a thousand pounds a year make a carriage possible: when George Austen, Jane’s father, reaches an income of 700 pounds he buys himself one, even though he realises that it is a pleasure that is slightly too expensive.[11]

Two thousand pounds a year might seem a very comfortable sum, even for a gentleman. It is, for example, Colonel Brandon’s income in Sense and Sensibility. But it is also the income of Mr. Bennet, who, with a wife and five daughters, has difficulty living well on this sum. It is, however, true that his abilities in household management are very poor.[11]

Four thousand pounds and above are the level above which even a gentleman ceases to need to do too much counting.[11] It is the income enjoyed by Henry Crawford, Mr. Rushworth (Mansfield Park), Bingley, and Mr. Darcy (Pride and Prejudice) who actually has 10,000 pounds a year.[11] At this level of income, one has a manor house or even a country estate, a carriage and everything that goes with it, and also no doubt a house in London in order to be able to make a comfortable stay in the capital.

But these incomes, large as they are, are exceeded by the real-life 100,000 pounds a year at the disposal of the owner of Chatsworth House, the Duke of Devonshire.[12] · [N 3]

The fact remains, however, that Jane Austen’s universe is a privileged world which conceals the harshness of the living conditions of the vast majority of the rural population, a population which is impoverished, uneducated and brutal. Thus common amusements include the omnipresent dog and cock fighting. In the spirit of the times, this brutality is considered by many politicians as being necessary to get the British people accustomed to the sight of blood, and to forge "the true British bulldog character".[13]

Gentry

Jane Austen’s novels are set in the social context of the gentry, to which Jane Austen herself belonged. Some of her heroines have no fortune (Pride and Prejudice, Mansfield Park), others on the other hand are very well off (Emma), but the social class remains the same.

The gentleman

A gentleman in a blue coat, with powdered hair,[N 4] and wearing a Wellington tie (around 1800).

The concept of gentleman in England is more flexible than that of nobleman in France. A gentleman is distinguished by his personal qualities as much as by his status as a member of the landed gentry. He does not need to be of noble lineage, like his French counterpart the gentilhomme, or to have a noble name. As the successor to the franklin, the free landed proprietor, who occupied the lowest rank of the nobility in the Middle Ages, the simple gentleman therefore comes after the Esquire (title derived from Squire, the chief landed proprietor in a district), who in turn is inferior, in ascending order of precedence, to the Knight, the Baronet, the Baron, the Viscount, the Earl, the Marquess, and finally to the Duke. Only the titles of Baron or higher belong to the peerage, to which simple knights or baronets do not therefore belong.

It is the gentleman of the Georgian period who is the precursor to the gentleman of the Victorian period in that he establishes a code of conduct based on the three Rs: Restraint, Refinement and Religion. During the reign of George III, the British begin, by their reserve and emotional control, to distinguish themselves from the peoples of southern Europe who are of a more hot-headed temperament. The literature of the 19th century does nevertheless privilege emotion, often to the point of pathos, as in Dickens.

Country houses and parks, and their owners

Chatsworth House,[N 5] often believed to be Pemberley House,[14] and seat of the Dukes of Devonshire.

The differences in income and fortune reflected in Jane Austen’s novels are considerable. In real Georgian society, the Duke of Devonshire maintains a household of 180 people in his magnificent country house, Chatsworth House. Just to feed that number of people, five cattle and fifteen sheep are slaughtered each week. In return for this wealth, it is customary for the proprietor to use his huge kitchens to have thick soups prepared and distributed to the most needy villagers during the winter, when bad weather sets in and fuel becomes scarce.

In Great Britain, the 18th century is a period of considerable wealth generation; the nobility therefore live in sumptuous country houses, among them Blenheim, Knole House, Castle Howard, and of course Chatsworth, all of which are comparable with the royal family’s most beautiful homes. The style of the great houses and manors constructed at the beginning of the century is almost always Palladian, with the great architect William Kent. This strict Palladian style becomes freer with Robert Adam. It is possible to imagine that Rosings Park, Lady Catherine de Bourgh’s house, and Mansfield Park, both of which Jane Austen describes as modern, belong to the style of houses constructed by Robert Adam.

View of Chatsworth House from the top of the Cascade. The park of Chatsworth House had been redesigned by Capability Brown.

During the same period, rich owners devote a lot of time and money to beautifying the grounds surrounding their house, and to making the approaches and the views from the windows more impressive. The famous English landscape artist "Capability" Brown is in fact active during the Georgian period; his nickname is based on his favourite declaration that certain grounds offered "a great capability of improvement". The beauty of English estates at this time also becomes a symbol of national identity when in 1780 Horace Walpole contrasts their natural style, an expression of freedom, with the geometrical layout of French gardens, which according to him bears witness to the authoritarianism of France’s political régime.

We find this preoccupation with landscaping aesthetics reflected in Mansfield Park, during the long discussion where Mr. Rushworth speaks of his ambition to improve the grounds of his Sotherton house and the views it offers.

Following Capability Brown but going even further, Humphry Repton softens the transition between the houses themselves and their surroundings, where Brown had simply extended lawns right up to the house. This too is in reaction against French-style gardens. It is Repton who at Adlestrop in Gloucestershire, where Jane Austen’s cousins the Leighs live, remodels the vast grounds of Adlestrop House in order to combine them with the garden of the adjoining vicarage, and diverts a watercourse to compose a lovely landscape which can be admired equally well from the manor house and from the vicarage.

The memory of the beauty of English parks is a constant in Jane Austen’s novels, and she associates it with the poems of William Cowper, the poet of the English countryside. And in perfect keeping with the aesthetic principles promoted by Thomas Whately in his Observations on Modern Gardening in 1770, the description of the grounds of the houses she depicts is as important as that of the house itself, for the beauty of the place consists of the harmonious and natural union of the two:

[Pemberley House] was a large, handsome, stone building, standing well on rising ground, and backed by a ridge of high woody hills — and in front, a stream of some natural importance, was swelled into greater, but without any artificial appearance. Its banks were neither formal, nor falsely adorned. Elizabeth was delighted. She had never seen a place for which nature had done more, or where natural beauty had been so little counteracted by an awkward taste.Pride and Prejudice

Clergy

The clergy in Jane Austen's novels

The clergy ocupy an essential place in Jane Austen’s work, even more than the Royal Navy, because Jane Austen’s father himself was a clergyman, as were her brother James, and briefly her brother Henry. The moral principles taught by her father are found in the moral precepts sprinkled throughout the novels.

The position of clergyman at the time was a special one from several points of view. Firstly, becoming a clergyman was a profession like any other. Any well educated, well-spoken man of sound morals could enter it, and no particular religious vocation was called for. And as Mary Crawford points out in Mansfield Park, the “living” attached to the post of vicar guaranteed a good income for work that was not onerous. Moreover, thanks to the living, a clergyman was in a position to start a family earlier than a naval officer, who might have to wait for years before raising enough money to do so.

Nor do clergymen in the novels benefit from any special consideration on the part of the author. On the contrary, they are frequently depicted in a very unflattering light, although there are others who are shown as more sympathetic and admirable characters.

Mr. Elton, in Emma, demonstrates an excessive social ambition in proposing to the eponymous Emma Woodhouse, and once he is married later in the novel, he and his wife Augusta patronise the villagers and disgust Emma with their pretentiousness.

In Pride and Prejudice, Mr. Collins is an example of what a clergyman ought not to be. He is obsequious towards the powerful, arrogant towards the weak, sententious and narrow-minded. In spite of his faults, however, he seems to be more involved in his job than an Edward Ferrars or a Henry Tilney.

Henry Tilney, in fact, in Northanger Abbey, is absent from his parish half the time and takes holidays in Bath, so that in spite of his intellectual and moral qualities, he bears witness to the lack of commitment of certain clergymen towards their flock.

As for Edward Ferrars in Sense and Sensibility, he does give evidence of a more definite vocation when he insists that he has “always preferred the Church” as his profession, even though his family consider a career in the army or the Royal Navy “more appropriate”, or the law more worthy of a gentleman.

Edmund Bertram alone, in Mansfield Park, shows an unshakeable vocation that all Mary Crawford’s charm and seductiveness never succeed in weakening. Try as she may, incessantly praising the superior merits and prestige of a military career, the solidity of his principles and his deep conviction prevent him from doubting.

Revenues of the clergyman

Female occupations and pursuits

Education

In Jane Austen’s time, girls’ boarding schools already existed, even if for the aristocracy a governess was the normal choice for the education of the girls in the family.

Thus in Emma, young Harriet Smith, whose origins are very modest, is placed in Mrs. Goddard’s boarding school to receive a minimal education. On the other hand, Emma Woodhouse, daughter of a good family with a fine fortune, has her own governess, Miss Taylor. And Lady Catherine de Bourgh (Pride and Prejudice) is scandalised to learn that the five Bennet girls, who belong to the minor gentry, have not benefited from the services of a governess.

Jane Austen herself, whose family was no better off than the Bennets, got her education essentially through contact with her father and brothers, and through making good use of her father’s well-stocked library.

Feminine trades

Slow progress in the education of girls needs to be seen in relation to the absence of suitable employment for women from good families, except, in fact, for a job as a governess or schoolmistress. The very idea that a woman might have a profession, with the attendant status and financial independence, was virtually inconceivable. As Mary Wollstonecraft wrote in 1792 in her famous A Vindication of the Rights of Woman: How many women thus waste away the prey of discontent, who might have practiced as physicians, regulated a farm, managed a shop, and stood erect, supported by their own industry, instead of hanging their heads?

This state of affairs was well-known to Jane Austen, since being unmarried herself, she was seeking through the sale of her novels to contribute to earning her own living by her work. Her writing perfectly reflects her situation, even though she did not rebel against it directly, in that she almost never depicts women involved in anything other than domestic activities, except for those who teach either as a governess or at a boarding school. The situation of Jane Fairfax in Emma is the best illustration of this: of very humble origin, but intelligent, cultured, close to the ideal of the accomplished woman (she sings and plays the piano perfectly), her only prospect for the future is a post as governess in the home of people much inferior to her in terms of talent.

Lady Bertram (Mansfield Park), whose faults Jane Austen makes fun of, offers a perfect example of the ideal fashionable at the time of the elegant, leisured lady so strongly denounced by Mary Wollstonecraft.

Legal rights

The situation of women appearing in Jane Austen's novels shows at times their inferior status, on a legal as well as a financial level.

Thus, according to William Blackstone, in his Commentaries on the Laws of England (Oxford, 1765), man and woman become, by marriage, one and the same person : as long as the marriage lasts, the women's legal existence is viewed as "suspended", and all her actions are done "under her husband's cover" (becoming herself a feme-covert). The rights and duties of the spouses derived from this principle. Thus, a man could not donate any piece of property, nor enter into any agreement with her, as her separate legal existence would be required for such deeds. On the other hand, he could bequeath property to his wife by will, since his wife's "coverture" would cease with his death. A woman who had been wronged — either herself or through her property — could not sue whoever had wronged her without the agreement and legal involvement of her husband. Conversely, no one could sue a married woman except through prosecuting her husband.[15]

A portrait of Caroline Norton, who became a feminist writer after her dramatic experience of the English laws of the times.

This lack of any legal existence for married women was at the heart of the long and sensational divorce case that opposed, starting in the 1830s, Caroline Norton and her brutal, drunkard husband.[16] Indeed, after years of conjugal misery, she finally left her husband, who retained total custody of her children; of top of which she came to realize that all her earnings as an author belonged to him (since he legally represented her), while at the same time he did not pay him the allowance he had agreed to. In spite of this much-publicized case, it was only in 1882 that, through the Married Women's Property Act, the legal rights of married women became equal to those of unmarried ones (called 'feme sole'), and, as such, entitled to retain full control of their own property.[17]

Marriage

In an England where propriety was essential, the opportunities for young people of both sexes to meet and be able to talk privately were rare. It was balls, rare as they were, with the attraction of music and the exercise afforded by dancing, that made social relationships possible. Even though the physical contact permitted by the country dance or later the quadrille were very limited, the possibility of having a regular partner who reserved several dances during the ball was an indispensable prelude to an engagement.

For a girl to be allowed to go to a ball, however, her parents had to consider her old enough to come out. Her first steps in the world thus marked a stage in her life, the stage when she could hope to get engaged and be married.

Thus we see Mary Crawford, in Mansfield Park, expressing great interest in the question of whether or not Fanny Price is “out”. She is puzzled because, she explains to Edmund Bertram, “[Fanny] dined at the parsonage one evening with the rest of you, which seemed like being out; and yet she says so little, that I can hardly suppose she is”.[18]

It was a question that had to be considered when there were several girls in the same family, since allowing the younger girls to come out when the eldest was not yet married was to risk the younger sisters attracting a suitor that she might have wished for, putting her in danger of remaining an old maid.

It was thus natural only to allow the younger sisters to come out once the elder were married. The fact that this is not the case with the Bennets earns Elizabeth a raised eyebrow during the interrogation she undergoes at the hands of Lady Catherine de Bourgh in Pride and Prejudice. All the more so since the married woman takes precedence over her single sisters, as Lydia, the youngest of the Bennet girls, doesn’t fail impertinently to remind Miss Bennet (Jane, the eldest daughter) after her wedding.

The role of the ball as a prelude to marriage was so marked that married couples frequently refrained from going onto the dance floor themselves. Thus, Mr. Elton, just married, declares to Mrs. Weston during a ball: “I feel myself rather an old married man. My dancing days are over”.

Role

Daily life

Female fashion

Marie-Antoinette in muslin dress and wide-brimmed hat.
By Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun (1783).
Fashionable — but inflammable — the robe anglaise resorted to muslin for lightness and volume.
Hand coloured etching, by James Gillray (1802).

Starting in the 1780s, muslin dresses began to become fashionable, and their volume, their vaporous appearance, were supposed to make women's figures look "more natural". Likewise, the high headgears, pyramid-shaped and adorned with ostrich feathers, were progressively regarded as out of fashion; the hair was now allowed to fall down in loose curls, that could occasionally be powdered for greater formality. This new fashion enables Willoughby to cut a lock off Marianne's hair (in Sense and Sensibility).[19]

As in the French royal court, where Queen Marie-Antoinette set the fashion of 'pastoral' attires, wide-brimmed hats were worn, adorned with ribbons. This new fashion was explained with full details by Comtesse Eliza de Feuillide - who was quite familiar with the Court at Versailles - to cousin Phylly Walter, when she started asking eager questions about the latest fashion in France.[20]

Dressmaker taking a lady's measurements in order to make her a dress from a pattern.
From the 1811 "Book of English Trades", at the time Jane Austen had Sense and Sensibility first published.

The same Eliza complained about the stiff, outmoded fashion still in use at St James's Palace, where, she said, "she had to stand for two hours on end wearing a pannier dress whose weight was not negligible".[20]"

Homes

Meals and food

Country life

Carriages

The barouche was the fashionable carriage of the time.
Gig, drawn by one horse.

Average speed for carriages of this time was seven miles an hour. When general Tilney left Bath for Northanger, his 'handsome, highly-fed four horses' performed the journey of thirty miles at a sober pace, broken into two stages with a two hours rest in between.[21] Even then, roads could be in poor state, as remarked by Mrs. Norris, between Mansfield and Sotherton, (Mansfield Park)[21] or even snowy.

Visiting

Writing letters

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Warren Hastings was one of the first admirers of Pride and Prejudice ((David Cecil 2009, p. 35))
  2. ^ Twenty-five pounds a year is also the yearly income about which Mary Wollstonecraft wrote to her sister for a governess's position, which would provide food and shelter, though nothing beyond. See also Janet M. Todd, 2005, p. 320.
  3. ^ To these 100,0000 pounds per annum — corresponding to the income from his Devonshire estate — must be added profits from his mining interests in Derbyshire, as well as rents from property in London. See Deirdre Le Faye, 2003, p. 129.
  4. ^ Powdering one's hair appears in The Watsons; it fell out of fashion around 1805 (Margaret Drabble, "Social Background", Jane Austen, 2003, p. 35, Lady Susan, The Watsons and Sanditon).
  5. ^ Indeed, Chatsworth House appears as Pemberley in the 2005 film Pride and Prejudice, directed by Joe Wright, and starring Keira Knightley. Jane Austen had very probably visited Chatsworth in 1811, when revising Pride and Prejudice, during a stay in Derbyshire in an inn a few miles from Chatsworth House (The selected essays of Donald Greene, p. 303). However, as there is no direct reference to Chatsworth House in the novel, whereas there is a specific description of Pemberley, it may be assumed that Pemberley is partly an imagined place, as are Longbourn or Meriton.

References

  1. ^ A. Walton Litz, 1965, p. 142.
  2. ^ Ronald Carter, John McRae, The Routledge history of literature in English, Routledge, 2001, p. 213
  3. ^ (David Cecil 2009, p. 35)
  4. ^ In her last novel, Sanditon, however, which remained unfinished because of her death, there appear some definetely modern aspects, in connection with the speculation in this fast developing seaside resort
  5. ^ Deirdre Le Faye, 2003, p. 7
  6. ^ Warren Roberts, 1995, p. 11.
  7. ^ Warren Roberts, 1995, p. 11.
  8. ^ Edward Copeland, Juliet McMaster, 1997, p. 134
  9. ^ Janet M. Todd, 2005, p. 320
  10. ^ a b Edward Copeland, Juliet McMaster, 1997, p. 135
  11. ^ a b c d Edward Copeland, Juliet McMaster, 1997, p. 136
  12. ^ Deirdre Le Faye, 2003, p. 129
  13. ^ John Cassell's Illustrated history of England. W. Kent and Co.. 1862. http://books.google.fr/books?id=AS8OAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA574&dq=wages+labourer+%22Georgian+era%22+teacher+OR+governess+OR+clergyman+OR+servant+OR+policeman&lr=&as_drrb_is=q&as_minm_is=0&as_miny_is=&as_maxm_is=0&as_maxy_is=&as_brr=0#v=onepage&q=&f=false. , p. 574
  14. ^ Greene, Donald Johnson; Abbott, John Lawrence (2004). The selected essays of Donald Greene, "The Original of Pemberley". Bucknell University Press. ISBN 9780838755723. http://books.google.fr/books?id=FDvOixDOHhEC&pg=PA303&dq=pemberley+%22Chatsworth+House%22&lr=&as_drrb_is=q&as_minm_is=0&as_miny_is=&as_maxm_is=0&as_maxy_is=&as_brr=0#v=onepage&q=pemberley%20%22Chatsworth%20House%22&f=false. , ff. 301
  15. ^ Jane Austen, Kristin Flieger Samuelian, Emma, Broadview Press, 2004, p. 437
  16. ^ Barbara Caine, English feminism, 1780-1980, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 66-70
  17. ^ Richard L. Abel, Philip S C Lewis, Lawyers in Society, Beard Books, 1989, p. 201
  18. ^ Jane Austen, (2008, first published in 1814) Mansfield Park, chapter 5, p=39-41
  19. ^ Deirdre Le Faye, 2003, p. 96
  20. ^ a b Janet M. Todd, 2005, p. 237
  21. ^ a b Deirdre Le Faye, 2003, p. 54-58

Bibliography

Jane Austen's novels 
  • Jane Austen (1948, first published in 1811). Sense and Sensibility. Plain Label Books. ISBN 9781603037280. 
  • Jane Austen (1853; first published in 1813). Pride and Prejudice. R. Bentley. pp. 340. 
  • Jane Austen (2008; first published in 1814). Mansfield Park. Forgotten Books. ISBN 9781606208182. 
  • Jane Austen (1961; first published in 1815). Emma. Plain Label Books. pp. 427. ISBN 9781603037273. 
  • Jane Austen (1856; first published in 1818). Northanger Abbey. R. Bentley. 
  • Jane Austen (2008; first published in 1818). Persuasion. Forgotten Books. ISBN 9781606208205. 
  • Jane Austen (2003). Lady Susan, The Watsons and Sanditon. Penguins Classics. ISBN 97801431025. 
Major reference books 
  • Nicolson, Nigel. The World of Jane Austen. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1991.
  • Todd, Janet, ed. Jane Austen in Context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
  • Deirdre Le Faye, Jane Austen: The World of Her Novels, 2003.
  • Sales, Roger. Jane Austen and Representations of Regency England. London: Routledge, 1994.
  • Hart, Roger. English Life in the Eighteenth Century. London: Wayland, 1970.
More specific aspects 
  • Giffin, Michael. Jane Austen and Religion: Salvation and Society in Georgian England. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.
  • Batey, Mavis. Jane Austen and the English Landscape. London: Barn Elsm, 1996.
  • Piggott, Patrick. The Innocent Diversion, Music in the Life and Writings of Jane Austen. London: Douglas Cleverdon, 1979.
  • Selwyn, David. Jane Austen and Leisure. London: Hambledon Press, 1999.
  • Byrde, Penelope. Jane Austen Fashion. Ludlow: Excellent Press, 1999.
  • Neill, Edmund. The Politics of Jane Austen. London: Macmillan, 1999.
  • Mooneyham, Laura G. Romance, Language and Education in Jane Austen's Novels. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1988.


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