Geraldine Ferraro: Wikis

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Geraldine Ferraro
Woman in her forties, smiling for portrait, in more relaxed setting than usual for officeholders

Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 9th district
In office
January 3, 1979 – January 3, 1985
Preceded by James Delaney
Succeeded by Thomas J. Manton

In office
January 3, 1983 – January 3, 1985
Preceded by Shirley Chisholm
Succeeded by Barbara B. Kennelly

In office
1994 – 1996
President Bill Clinton

Born August 26, 1935 (1935-08-26) (age 74)
Newburgh, New York
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) John Zaccaro
Religion Roman Catholic
Signature

Geraldine Anne Ferraro (born August 26, 1935) is an American attorney, a Democratic Party politician and a former member of the United States House of Representatives. She was the first female Vice Presidential candidate representing a major American political party.

Ferraro grew up in New York and became a teacher and lawyer. She joined the Queens County District Attorney's Office in 1974, where she headed the new Special Victims Bureau that dealt with sex crimes, child abuse, and domestic violence. She was elected to Congress in 1978, where she rose rapidly in the party hierarchy while focusing on legislation to bring equity for women in the areas of wages, pensions, and retirement plans. In 1984, former Vice President and presidential candidate Walter Mondale selected Ferraro to be his running mate in the upcoming election. In doing so she became the only Italian American to be a major-party national nominee in addition to being the first woman. The positive polling the Mondale-Ferarro ticket received when she joined it faded as questions arose about the finances of her and her husband. In the general election, Mondale and Ferraro were defeated in a landslide by incumbent President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George H. W. Bush.

Ferraro ran campaigns for a seat in the United States Senate from New York in 1992 and 1998, both times emerging as the front-runner for her party's nomination but losing in primary elections both times. She served as a United States Ambassador to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights from 1993 until 1996 in the presidential administration of Bill Clinton. She has also continued her career as a journalist, author, and businesswoman, and served in the 2008 presidential campaign of Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton.

Contents

Early life and education

Narrow, red three-story house with turret
Ferraro lived in this house in Newburgh until she was ten.

Ferraro was born in Newburgh, New York,[1] the daughter of Antonetta L. (née Corrieri), a first-generation Italian American seamstress, and Dominick Ferraro, an Italian immigrant and owner of two restaurants.[2][3][4] Geraldine had three older brothers, two of whom died early in life – one in infancy and one at age three.[4] She attended the parochial school Mount Saint Mary's in Newburgh when she was young,[5] but Geraldine's father died of a heart attack in May 1944 when she was eight.[6] Geraldine's mother soon invested and lost the remainder of the family's money, forcing the family to move to a low income area in the South Bronx while Geraldine's mother worked in the garment industry to support them.[1][4][7]

Geraldine stayed on at Mount Saint Mary's as a boarder for a while, then briefly went to parochial school in the South Bronx.[8] Beginning in 1947, Ferraro attended and lived at the parochial Marymount Academy in Tarrytown, New York, using income from a family rental property in Italy and skipping seventh grade.[8][9] At Marymount she was a member of the honor society, active in several clubs and sports, and voted most likely to succeed;[4] she graduated in 1952.[10] Her mother was adamant that she get a full education,[11] despite an uncle in the family saying "Why bother? She's pretty. She's a girl. She'll get married."[12] Ferraro attended Marymount Manhattan College with a scholarship[4] while sometimes holding two or three jobs at the same time.[13] During her senior year she began dating John Zaccaro of Forest Hills, Queens, who had graduated from Iona College with a commission in the U.S. Marine Corps.[14] Ferraro received a Bachelor of Arts in English in 1956;[7] she was the first woman in her family to gain a college degree.[14] She also passed the city exam to become a licensed school teacher.[14]

Ferraro began working as an elementary school teacher in public schools in Astoria, Queens,[1][7] "because that's what women were supposed to do."[4] Unsatisfied, she decided to attend law school;[4] an admissions officer said to her, "I hope you're serious, Gerry. You're taking a man's place, you know."[15] She earned a Juris Doctor degree with honors from Fordham University School of Law in 1960,[10][16] going to classes at night while continuing to work as a second-grade teacher at schools such as P.S. 57 during the day.[1][7][17] Ferraro was one of only two women in her graduating class of 179.[16] She was admitted to the bar of New York State in March 1961.[16]

Family, lawyer, prosecutor

Ferraro became engaged to Zaccaro in August 1959[9] and married him on July 16, 1960.[18] He became a realtor and businessman.[7] She kept her birth name professionally, as a way to honor her mother for having supported the family after her father's death,[1][2] but used his name in parts of her private life.[19] The couple has three children, Donna (born 1962), John Jr. (born 1964), and Laura (born 1966).[18] They lived in Forest Hills Gardens, Queens, and in 1971 added a vacation house in Saltaire on Fire Island.[20][21] They would buy a condominium in Saint Croix in the U.S. Virgin Islands in 1983.[20][22]

While raising the children, Ferraro worked part-time as a civil lawyer in her husband's real estate firm for 13 years.[16] She also occasionally worked for other clients and did some pro bono work for women in family court.[23][24] She spent time at local Democratic clubs, which allowed her to maintain contacts within the legal profession and become involved in local politics and campaigns.[23] In 1970, she was elected president of the Queens County Women's Bar Association.[25][26]

Ferraro's first full-time political job came in January 1974 when she was appointed Assistant District Attorney for Queens County, New York[27] by her cousin, District Attorney Nicholas Ferraro.[16] At the time, women prosecutors in the city were uncommon.[16] Grumblings that she was the beneficiary of nepotism were countered by her being rated as qualified by a screening committee and by her early job performance in the Investigations Bureau.[16] The following year, Ferraro was assigned to the new Special Victims Bureau, which prosecuted cases involving rape, child abuse, spouse abuse, and domestic violence.[16][27] She was named head of the unit in 1977, with two other assistant district attorneys assigned to her.[16] In this role, she became a strong advocate for abused children.[27] She was admitted to the U.S. Supreme Court Bar in 1978.[26]

As part of the D.A. office, Ferraro worked long hours, and gained a reputation for being a tough prosecutor but fair in plea negotiations.[16] Although her unit was supposed to turn cases over for court handling, she conducted some trials herself, and juries were persuaded by the summations she gave.[16] Ferraro was upset to discover that her superior was paying her less than equivalent male colleagues because she was a married woman and already had a husband.[23] Moreover, Ferraro found the nature of the cases she dealt with debilitating;[1] the work left her "drained and angry" and she developed an ulcer.[28] She grew frustrated that she was unable to deal with root causes, and talked about running for legislative office.[16]

House of Representatives

Ferraro ran for election to the U.S. House of Representatives from New York's 9th Congressional District in Queens in 1978, after longtime Democratic incumbent James Delaney announced his retirement.[29] The location for the television series All in the Family, the district was known for its ethnic composition and conservative views.[1] In a three-candidate primary race for the Democratic nomination, Ferraro faced two better-known rivals,[29] including the party organization candidate, City Councilman Thomas J. Manton.[30] Her main issues were law and order, support for the elderly, and neighborhood preservation.[23] She labeled herself a "'small c' conservative"[1] and emphasized that she was not a bleeding-heart liberal; her campaign slogan was "Finally, A Tough Democrat".[31] Her Italian heritage also appealed to ethnic residents in the district.[23] She won the three-way primary with 53 percent of the vote, and then captured the general election as well, defeating Republican Alfred A. DelliBovi by a 10 percentage point margin in a contest in which dealing with crime was the major issue and personal attacks by DelliBovi were frequent.[23][29] She had been aided by some $130,000 in campaign funds from her own family, including $110,000 in loans from Zaccaro.[32] The source and nature of these transactions were declared illegal by the Federal Election Commission shortly before the primary, causing Ferraro to pay back the loans in October 1978 via several real estate transactions.[32] In 1979, the campaign and Zaccaro paid $750 in fines for civil violations of election law.[32]

Larger, two-story house in leafy setting
Ferraro and her family lived in this house in Forest Hills Gardens, Queens during her time in the House, her vice-presidential campaign, and until the early 2000s.

Despite being a newcomer to the House, Ferraro made a vivid impression upon arrival[33] and quickly found prominence.[7] She became a protégé of House Speaker Tip O'Neil,[34] established a rapport with other House Democratic leaders,[27] and rose rapidly in the party hierarchy.[1] She was elected to be the Secretary of the House Democratic Caucus for 1981–1983 and again for 1983–1985;[35] this entitled her to a seat on the influential Steering and Policy Committee.[27] In 1983, she was named to the powerful House Budget Committee.[27] She also served on the Public Works and Transportation Committee[1] and the Post Office and Civil Service Committee,[36] both of which allowed Ferraro to push through projects to benefit her district.[37] Male colleagues viewed her with respect as someone who was tough and ambitious.[33]

Ferraro was active in Democratic presidential politics as well. She served as one of the deputy chairs for the 1980 Carter-Mondale campaign.[12][33] Following the election, she served actively on the Hunt Commission that in 1982 rewrote the Democratic delegate selection rules; Ferraro was credited as having been the prime agent behind the creation of superdelegates.[33] By 1983 she was regarded as one of the up-and-coming stars of the party.[12][38] She was the Chairwoman of the Platform Committee for the 1984 Democratic National Convention, the first woman to hold that position.[7] There she held multiple hearings around the country and further gained in visibility.[1]

While in Congress, Ferraro focussed much of her legislative attention on equity for women in the areas of wages, pensions, and retirement plans.[27] She was a cosponsor of the 1981 Economic Equity Act.[27] On the House Select Committee on Aging, she concentrated on the problems of elderly women.[27] In 1984, she championed a pension equity law revision that would improve the benefits of people who left work for long periods and then returned, a typical case for women with families.[39] The Reagan administration, at first lukewarm to the measure, decided to sign it to gain the benefits of its popular appeal.[39]

Regular size newsletter, red and blue ink in places, Ferraro's picture at top
As with many representatives, Ferraro issued regular newsletters to her constituents.

Ferraro also worked on some environmental issues. During 1980, she tried to prevent the federal government from gaining the power to override local laws on hazardous materials transportation, an effort she continued in subsequent years.[40][41] In August 1984, she led passage of a Superfund renewal bill and attacked the Reagan administration's handling of environmental site cleanups.[42]

Ferraro took a congressional trip to Nicaragua at the start of 1984, where she spoke to the Contras.[43] She decided that the Reagan Administration's military interventions there and in El Salvador were counterproductive towards reaching U.S. security goals, and that regional negotiations would be better.[43]

In all, Ferraro served three two-year terms, being re-elected in 1980 and 1982.[10] Her vote shares increased to 58 percent and then 73 percent and much of her funding came from political action committees.[23] While Ferraro's pro-choice views conflicted with those of many of her constituents as well as the Catholic Church to which she belonged, her positions on other social and foreign policy issues were in alignment with the district.[27] She broke with her party in favoring an anti-busing amendment to the Constitution.[36][44] She supported deployment of the Pershing II missile and the Trident submarine, although she opposed funding for the MX missile, the B-1B bomber, and the Strategic Defense Initiative.[44]

While in the House, Ferraro's political self-description evolved to "moderate".[1] In 1982, she said her experiences as assistant district attorney had changed some of her views: "... because no matter how concerned I am about spending, I have seen first hand what poverty can do to people's lives and I just can't, in good conscience, not do something about it."[16] For her six years in Congress, Ferraro had an average 78 percent "Liberal Quotient" from Americans for Democratic Action[45] and an average 8 percent rating from the American Conservative Union.[46] The AFL-CIO's Committee on Political Education gave her an average approval rating of 91 percent.[37]

1984 Vice-Presidential candidacy

As the 1984 U.S. presidential election primary season wound down and Walter Mondale became the likely Democratic nominee, the idea of picking a woman as his vice-presidential running mate gained considerable momentum.[47] The National Organization for Women and the National Women's Political Caucus pushed the notion, as did several top Democratic figures such as Speaker O'Neill.[47] Women mentioned for the role included Ferraro and Mayor of San Francisco Dianne Feinstein,[48] both of whom were on Mondale's five-person short list.[49]

Mondale selected Geraldine Ferraro to be his Vice-Presidential candidate on July 12, 1984, and Ferraro stated, "I am absolutely thrilled."[50] The Mondale campaign wagered that her selection would shake up a race in which he was a decided underdog; in addition to attracting women, they hoped she could attract ethnic Democrats in the Northeast U.S. who had abandoned their party for Reagan in 1980.[31][36] In turn, Mondale accepted the risk that came with her inexperience.[51]

As Ferraro was the first woman to run on a major party national ticket in the U.S.,[52] as well as the first Italian American, her July 19 nomination at the 1984 Democratic National Convention was one of the most emotional moments of that gathering, with female delegates appearing joyous and proud at the historic occasion.[53] In her acceptance speech, Ferraro said, "The daughter of an immigrant from Italy has been chosen to run for vice president in the new land my father came to love."[54] Convention attendees were in tears during the speech, not just for its significance for women but for all those who had immigrated to America.[55]

Dark blue type on pinkish background, Ferraro's name above Mondale's, large photo of them waving to an unseen crowd
A flyer advertised a post-convention Queens Borough Hall rally, for Ferraro to introduce Mondale to New York City voters.

Ferraro gained immediate, large-scale media attention.[56] At first, their treatment centered on her novelty as a woman and her rags-to-riches background story and was overwhelmingly favorable.[57] Nevertheless, Ferraro would face many press questions about her foreign policy inexperience, and responded by discussing her attention to foreign and national security issues in Congress.[56] She faced a threshold of proving competence that other high-level female political figures have had to face, especially those who might become commander-in-chief; the question "Are you tough enough?" was often directed to her.[58] Ted Koppel questioned her closely about nuclear strategy[59] and during Meet the Press she was asked, "Do you think that in any way the Soviets might be tempted to try to take advantage of you simply because you are a woman?"[60]

The choice of Ferraro was viewed as a gamble, and pundits were uncertain whether it would result in a net gain or loss of votes for the Mondale campaign.[61] In the days after the convention, Ferraro proved an effective campaigner, with a brash and confident style that forcefully criticized the Reagan administration and sometimes almost overshadowed Mondale.[31][53][54] Mondale had been 16 points behind Reagan in polls before the pick, and after the convention he pulled even for a short time.[50]

But by the last week of July, questions – due initially to reporting by The New York Times[38] – were simmering about Ferraro's finances, the finances of her husband, John Zaccaro, and their separately filed tax returns.[32] (While the Mondale campaign had anticipated some questions, the drawn-out vice-presidential selection process had not fully vetted her on this aspect.[38][62] This was also the first time the American media had to deal with a national candidate's husband.[59]) Ferraro said she would release both their returns within a month, but maintained she was correct not to have included her husband's financial holdings on her past annual Congressional disclosure statements.[32] Notice of the FEC's past investigation into Ferraro's 1978 campaign funds also came to light.[32] Although Ferraro and Zaccaro's finances were often interwoven on paper,[22] Zaccaro was of old-world habits, and Ferraro had little knowledge of his business, his finances, or even how much he was worth.[63] Zaccaro did not appreciate the intensity of the national exposure the two were now in and was resistant to releasing his financial information.[63] On August 12, Ferraro announced that her husband would not in fact be releasing his tax returns, on the grounds that to do so would disadvantage his real estate business and that such a disclosure was voluntary and not part of election law.[64] She then quipped, "You people who are married to Italian men, you know what it's like."[65]

This development dominated television and newspapers;[66] Ferraro was besieged by questions regarding the finances[67] as well as criticism for ethnic stereotyping.[65] As she later wrote, "I had created a monster."[65] Republicans saw her finances as a "genderless" issue that they could attack Ferraro with without creating a backlash.[64] Some Mondale staffers thought Ferraro might have to leave the ticket.[63] The Philadelphia Inquirer went even further in its investigations, seeking to link Zaccaro to organized crime figures, but most publishers backed off this angle and law enforcement officials did not treat the allegations with much seriousness.[68] A week after her previous statement, Ferraro said Zaccaro had changed his mind and would indeed release his tax records,[67] which was done on August 20.[69] The full statements included notice of payment of some $53,000 in back federal taxes that she owed due to what was described as an accountant's error.[69] Ferraro said the statements proved overall that she had nothing to hide and that there had been no financial wrongdoing.[69] The disclosures indicated that Ferraro and her husband were worth nearly $4 million, but much of it was tied up in real estate rather than being disposable income.[20]

Ferraro's strong performance at an August 22 press conference covering the final disclosure – where she answered all questions for two hours – effectively put the issue behind her for the remainder of the campaign, but significant damage had been done.[70][71] No campaign issue during the entire 1984 presidential campaign received more media attention than Ferraro's finances.[66] The exposure diminished Ferraro's rising stardom, removed whatever momentum the Mondale–Ferraro ticket gained out of the convention, and delayed formation of a coherent message for the fall campaign.[31][53][70] As a Catholic, Ferraro also came under fire from some members of the hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church for being pro-choice on abortion;[72] that issue had her on the defensive during the entire campaign.[73] Nevertheless, Ferraro resumed her role as a strong campaigner – not only taking on the traditional running mate role of attacking the opposition vigorously, but also drawing large crowds witnessing the historic candidacy and chanting, "Ger-ry! Ger-ry!"[74] Mondale and Ferraro rarely touched during their appearances together, to the point that he would not even place his palm on her back when they stood side-by-side; Ferraro later said this was because anything more and "people were afraid that it would look like, 'Oh, my God, they're dating.'"[75]

There was one vice-presidential debate between Congresswoman Ferraro and Vice President George H. W. Bush. Held on October 11, the result was proclaimed mostly even by the press and historians;[54][76] women voters tended to think Ferraro had won, while men, Bush.[73] At it, Ferraro criticized Reagan's initial refusal to support an extension to the Voting Rights Act.[77] Her experience was questioned at the debate and she was asked how her three terms in Congress stacked up with Bush's experience.[77] To one Bush statement she said, "Let me just say first of all, that I almost resent, Vice President Bush, your patronizing attitude that you have to teach me about foreign policy."[54] She strongly defended her position on abortion, which earned her applause and a respectful reply from her opponent.[77] In the days leading up to the debate, Second Lady of the United States Barbara Bush had publicly referred to Ferraro as "that four-million-dollar—I can’t say it, but it rhymes with 'rich'."[78] Barbara Bush soon apologized.[78] Ferraro's sex was a steady presence during the campaign; one study found that 27 percent of newspaper articles written about her contained gendered language.[79]

Ferraro received one more media jolt on October 18, when the New York Post accurately reported that her father had been arrested for possession of numbers slips in Newburgh shortly before his death, and inaccurately speculated that something mysterious had been covered up about that death.[80] Ferraro's mother had never told her about the arrest,[80] and the printing of the story led Ferraro to declaim that Post publisher Rupert Murdoch "does not have the worth to wipe the dirt under [my mother's] shoes."[81] Ferraro continued to campaign, by the end traveling more than Mondale and more than Reagan and Bush combined.[82]

On November 6, Mondale and Ferraro lost the general election in a landslide. They received only 41 percent of the popular vote compared to Reagan and Bush's 59 percent, and in the Electoral College won only Mondale's home state of Minnesota and the District of Columbia.[83] Ferraro failed to carry her own congressional district, which always tended to vote Republican in presidential races.[84] Ferraro's presence on the ticket had little measurable effect overall.[73] Reagan captured 55 percent of women voters,[84] while of the 10 percent of voters who decided based on the vice-presidential candidates, 54 percent went to Mondale–Ferraro,[73] establishing that Ferraro provided a net gain to the Democrats of 0.8 percent.[85] Reagan's personal appeal and campaign themes of prosperity and "It's morning again in America" were quite strong,[86] and political observers generally agree that no combination of Democrats could have won the election in 1984.[53] Mondale himself would later reflect that "I knew that I was in for it with Reagan" and that he had no regrets about choosing Ferraro.[87]

After the election, the House Ethics Committee found that Ferraro had technically violated the Ethics in Government Act by failing to report, or reporting incorrectly, details of her family's finances, and that she should have reported her husband's holdings on her Congressional disclosure forms.[88][89] However, the committee concluded that she had acted without "deceptive intent", and since she was leaving Congress anyway, no action against her was taken.[88][89] Ferraro said, "I consider myself completely vindicated."[89]

Ferraro is one of only two U.S. women to run on a major party national ticket. The other is Alaska governor Sarah Palin, the 2008 Republican vice-presidential nominee,[90] whose ticket also lost.

First Senate run and ambassadorship

Ferraro had relinquished her House seat to run for the vice-presidency. Her new-found fame led to an appearance in a Diet Pepsi commercial in 1985.[3][91] She published Ferraro: My Story, an account of the campaign with some of her life leading up to it, in November 1985. It was a best seller and earned her $1 million.[92] She also earned over $300,000 by giving speeches.[93] She founded the Americans Concerned for Tomorrow political action committee, which focused on getting ten women candidates elected in the 1986 Congressional elections (eight of whom would be successful).[94] Despite the one-sided national loss in 1984, Ferraro was still viewed as someone with a bright political future. Many expected her to run in the 1986 United States Senate election in New York against first-term Republican incumbent Al D'Amato,[92] and during 1985 she did Upstate New York groundwork towards that end.[95] A senate candidacy had been her original plan for her career, before she was named to Mondale's ticket. But in December 1985, she said she would not run, due to the overhanging cloud from an ongoing U.S. Justice Department probe on her and her husband's finances stemming from the 1984 campaign revelations.[92]

Members of Ferraro's family were indeed facing legal issues. Her husband John Zaccaro had pleaded guilty in January 1985 to fraudulently obtain bank financing in a real estate transaction and had been sentenced to 150 hours of community service.[96] Then in October 1986, he was indicted on unrelated felony charges regarding an alleged 1981 bribery of Queens Borough President Donald Manes concerning a cable television contract.[97] A full year later, he was acquitted at trial.[98] The case against him was circumstantial, a key prosecution witness proved unreliable, and the defense did not have to present its own testimony.[99][100] Ferraro said her husband never would have been charged had she not run for vice president.[100] Meanwhile, in February 1986, the couple's son John had been arrested for possession and sale of cocaine.[101] He was convicted, and in June 1988 sentenced to four months imprisonment; Ferraro broke down in tears in court relating the stress the episode had placed on her family.[101] Ferraro worked on an unpublished book about the conflicting rights between a free press and being able to have fair trials.[102] Asked in September 1987 whether she would have accepted the vice-presidential nomination had she known of all the family problems that would follow, she said, "More than once I have sat down and said to myself, oh, God, I wish I had never gone through with it.... I think the candidacy opened a door for women in national politics, and I don't regret that for one minute. I'm proud of that. But I just wish it could have been done in a different way."[103]

Ferraro remained active in raising money for Democratic candidates nationwide, especially women candidates.[94] During the 1988 presidential election, Ferraro served as vice chair of the party's Victory Fund.[102] She also did some commentating for television.[102] Ferraro was a fellow at the Harvard Institute of Politics from 1988 to 1992,[26] teaching in-demand seminars such as "So You Want to be President?"[94] She also took care of her mother, who suffered from emphysema for several years before her death in early 1990.[104]

By October 1991, Ferraro was ready to enter elective politics again, and ran for the Democratic nomination in the 1992 United States Senate election in New York.[105] Her opponents were State Attorney General Robert Abrams, Reverand Al Sharpton, Congressman Robert J. Mrazek, and New York City Comptroller and former Congresswoman Elizabeth Holtzman. Abrams was considered the early front-runner.[105] The D'Amato campaign feared facing Ferraro the most among these, as her Italian ancestry, effective debating and stump speech skills, and her staunch pro-choice views would eat into several of D'Amato's usual bases of support.[106] Ferraro emphasized her career as a teacher, prosecutor, congresswoman, and mother, and talked about how she was tough on crime.[107] Ferraro drew renewed attacks during the primary campaign from the media and her opponents over Zaccaro's finances and business relationships.[108] She objected that a male candidate would not receive nearly as much attention regarding his wife's activities.[108] Ferraro became the front-runner, capitalizing on her star power from 1984 and using the campaign attacks against her as an explicitly feminist rallying point for women voters.[108] As the primary date neared, her lead began to dwindle under the charges, and she released additional tax returns from the 1980s to try to defray the attacks.[93] Holtzman ran a negative ad accusing Ferraro and Zaccaro of taking more than $300,000 in rent in the 1980s from a pornographer with purported ties to organized crime.[109] The final debates were nasty, and Holtzman in particular constantly attacked Ferraro's integrity and finances.[110][111] In an unusual election-eve television broadcast, Ferraro talked about "the ethnic slur that I am somehow or other connected to organized crime. There's lots of innuendo but no proof. However, it is made plausible because of the fact that I am an Italian-American. This tactic comes from the poisoned well of fear and stereotype ..."[112] On the September 15, 1992 primary, Abrams edged out Ferraro by less than percentage point, winning 37 percent of the vote to 36 percent.[111] Ferraro did not concede she had lost for two weeks.[113]

Abrams spent much of the remainder of the campaign trying to get Ferraro's endorsement.[114] Ferraro, enraged and bitter after the nature of the primary,[110][113] ignored Abrams and accepted Bill Clinton's request to campaign for his presidential bid instead.[115] She was eventually persuaded by state party leaders into giving an unenthusiastic endorsement with just three days to go before the general election, in exchange for an apology by Abrams for the tone of the primary.[114] D'Amato won the election by a very narrow margin.[110] The Ferraro-Holtzman fighting of the campaign was viewed as a disaster by many feminists,[116] but overall the 1992 U.S. Senate elections saw so many victories that it became known as the "Year of the Woman".

Following the primary loss, Ferraro became managing partner in the New York office of Keck, Mahin & Cate, a Chicago-based law firm.[117][118] There she organized the office and spoke with clients, but did not actively practice law and left before the firm fell into difficulties.[118] Ferraro's second book, a collection of her speeches, was titled Changing History: Women, Power and Politics and was published in 1993.[119]

President Clinton appointed Ferraro as a member of the United States delegation to United Nations Commission on Human Rights in January 1993.[120] She attended the June 1993 World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna as the alternate U.S. delegate.[121] Then in October 1993, Clinton promoted her to be head of the U.N. Commission on Human Rights delegation, with the rank of United States Ambassador, saying that Ferraro had been "a highly effective voice for the human rights of women around the world."[122] The Clinton administration named Ferraro vice-chair of the U.S. delegation to the landmark September 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing; in this role she picked a strong team of experts in human rights issues to serve with her.[123] During her stint on the commission, it for the first time condemned anti-Semitism as a human rights violation,[124] and also for the first time prevented China from blocking a motion criticizing its human rights record.[125] Regarding a previous China motion that had failed, Ferraro had told the commission, "Let us do what we were sent here to do – decide important questions of human rights on their merits, not avoid them."[124] Ferraro held the U.N. position into 1996.[10]

Commentator and second Senate run

In February 1996, Ferraro joined the high-visibility CNN political talk show Crossfire,[126] as the co-host representing the "from the left" vantage. She kept her brassy, rapid-fire speech and New York accent intact, and her trial experience from her prosecutor days was a good fit for the program's format.[127] She sparred effectively with "from the right" co-host Pat Buchanan,[127] for whom she developed a personal liking.[128] The show stayed strong in ratings for CNN,[129] and the job was lucrative.[91][130] She welcomed how the role "keeps me visible [and] keeps me extremely well informed on the issues."[127]

At the start of 1998, Ferraro left Crossfire and ran for the Democratic nomination again in the 1998 United States Senate election in New York.[129] The other candidates were Congressman Charles Schumer and New York City Public Advocate Mark J. Green.[131] She had done no fundraising, out of fear of conflict of interest with her Crossfire job, but was nonetheless immediately perceived as the front-runner.[131] Indeed, December and January polls had her 25 percentage points ahead of Green in the race and even further ahead of Schumer.[91][132] Unlike the previous campaigns, her family finances never became an issue.[91] However, she lost ground during the summer, with Schumer catching up in the polls by early August and then soon passing her.[133] Schumer, a tireless fundraiser, outspent her by a five-to-one margin, and Ferraro failed to establish a political image current with the times.[91][134] In the September 15, 1998 primary, she was beaten soundly by Schumer by a 51 percent to 26 percent margin.[91] Unlike 1992, the contest was not divisive, and Ferraro and third-place finisher Green endorsed Schumer at a unity breakfast the following day.[135] Schumer would go on to decisively unseat D'Amato in the general election.

The 1998 primary defeat brought an end to Ferraro's political career. The New York Times wrote at the time: "If Ms. Ferraro's rise was meteoric, her political career's denouement was protracted, often agonizing and, at first glance, baffling."[91] She still retained admirers, though. Anita Perez Ferguson, president of the National Women's Political Caucus, noted that female New York political figures in the past had been reluctant to enter the states's notoriously fierce primary races, and said: "This woman has probably been more of an opinion maker than most people sitting for six terms straight in the House of Representatives or Senate. Her attempts, and even her losses, have accomplished far beyond what others have accomplished by winning."[91]

Business career

Framing a Life: A Family Memoir was published by Ferraro in November 1998. It depicts the life story of her mother and immigrant grandmother; it also portrays the rest of her family, and is a memoir of her early life, but includes relatively little about her political career.[136]

Ferraro had felt unusually tired at the end of her senate campaign.[137] In November 1998, she was diagnosed with multiple myeloma, a form of cancer where plasma cells secrete abnormal antibodies known as Bence-Jones proteins.[138] She did not publicly disclose the illness until June 2001, when she went to Washington to successfully press in Congressional hearings for passage of the Hematological Cancer Research Investment and Education Act.[138] A portion of the Act created the Geraldine Ferraro Cancer Education Program, which directs the U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services to establish an education program for patients of blood cancers and the general public.[139] Ferraro became a frequent speaker on the disease,[140] and an avid supporter and honorary board member of the Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation.[138] Though initially given only three to five years to live, by virtue of several new drug therapies and a bone marrow transplant,[138] she has beaten the disease's Stage 1 survival mean of 62 months by a factor of two.[141] She is not in remission, but the disease is managed through continually adjusting her treatments.[137]

Ferraro joined Fox News Channel as a regular political commentator in October 1999.[142] By 2005 she was making sporadic appearances on the channel,[140] which continued into 2007 and beyond.[138] She partnered with Laura Ingraham, starting in December 1999, in writing the alternate-weeks column "Campaign Countdown" on the 2000 presidential election for The New York Times Syndicate.[143] During the 2000s, Ferraro was an affiliated faculty member at the Georgetown Public Policy Institute.[144]

In January 2000, Ferraro and Lynn Martin – a former Republican Congresswoman and U.S. Secretary of Labor who had played Ferraro in George H.W. Bush's debate preparations in 1984[145] – co-founded, and served as co-presidents of, G&L Strategies, a management consulting firm underneath Weber McGinn.[146] Its goal was to advise corporations on how to develop more women leaders and make their workplaces more amenable to female employees.[145] G&L Strategies subsequently became part of Golin Harris International.[147] In June 2003, Ferraro was made executive vice president and managing director of the public affairs practice of the Global Consulting Group,[147] an international investor relations and corporate communications component of Huntsworth. There she worked with corporations, non-profit organizations, state governments and political figures.[148] She continues there as a senior advisor working about two days a month.[138]

Ferraro became a principal in the government relations practice of the Blank Rome law firm in February 2007, working both in New York and Washington[148][149] about two days a week in their lobbying and communications activities.[138] As she passed the age of 70, she was thankful for still being alive, and said “This is about as retired as I get, which is part time,”[138] and that if she fully retired, she would "go nuts".[149]

Ferraro has been a member of the board of directors of Goodrich Petroleum since August 2003.[150] She was also a board member for New York Bancorp in the 1990s.[130]

Four adult women standing in a lobby perhaps, stiff pose, large indoor plant in background
Ferraro (left) marked Women's History Month in March 2003 with Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton, House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, and opera singer Denyce Graves.

In 1980, Ferraro co-founded the National Organization of Italian American Women,[151] which sought to support the educational and professional goals of its members and put forward positive role models in order to fight ethnic stereotyping.[152] She continues to be a member of its board.[153] Ferraro has been connected with many other political and non-profit organizations. She is a board member of the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs,[154] and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.[26] She became president of the newly established International Institute for Women's Political Leadership in 1989.[155] In 1992 she was on the founding board of Project Vote Smart.[156] By 1993, she was serving on the Fordham Law School Board of Visitors, as well as on the boards of the National Breast Cancer Research Fund, the New York Easter Seal Society, and the Pension Rights Center, and was one of hundreds of public figures on the Planned Parenthood Federation of America's Board of Advocates.[26][117] In 1999 she joined the board of the Bertarelli Foundation,[157] and in 2003, the board of the National Women's Health Resource Center.[158] During the 2000s she has been on the board of advisors to the Committee to Free Lori Berenson.[159]

After living for many years in Forest Hills Gardens, Queens, she and her husband moved to Manhattan in 2002.[127][149][160] She republished Ferraro: My Story in 2004, with a postscript summarizing her life in the twenty years since the campaign.[161]

2008 presidential campaign involvement

In December 2006, Ferraro announced her support for Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Rodham Clinton. Later, she vowed to help defend Clinton from being "swiftboated" in a manner akin to 2004 presidential candidate John Kerry.[162] She assisted with fundraising by assuming an honorary post on the finance committee for Clinton's 2008 presidential campaign.[163] A heated nomination battle emerged between Clinton and Barack Obama, in which racial dust-ups caused by perceptions of remarks made by campaign surrogates took place.[164]

Ferraro inserted herself into the heat via a March 2008 interview with the small California newspaper Daily Breeze in which she said: "If Obama was a white man, he would not be in this position. And if he was a woman (of any color) he would not be in this position. He happens to be very lucky to be who he is. And the country is caught up in the concept."[163][165][166] Ferraro justified the statements by referring to her own run for vice president, saying that: "I was talking about historic candidacies and what I started off by saying (was that) if you go back to 1984 and look at my historic candidacy, which I had just talked about all these things, in 1984 if my name was Gerard Ferraro instead of Geraldine Ferraro, I would have never been chosen as a vice-presidential candidate. It had nothing to do with my qualification."[163] Her comments drew criticism and charges of racism from many supporters of Obama[167] and Obama called them "patently absurd".[164] Clinton publicly expressed disagreement with Ferraro's remarks, while Ferraro vehemently denied she was a racist.[163] Again speaking to the Breeze, Ferraro responded to the attacks by saying: "I really think they're attacking me because I'm white. How's that?"[164][168] Ferraro resigned from Clinton's finance committee on March 12, 2008, two days after the firestorm began, saying that she didn't want the Obama camp to use her comments to hurt Clinton's campaign.[169]

Ferraro continued to engage the issue and criticize the Obama campaign via her position as a Fox News Channel contributor.[170][171][172] By early April, Ferraro said people were deluging her with negative comments and trying to get her removed from one of the boards she was on: "This has been the worst three weeks of my life."[172] Ferraro stated in mid-May 2008 that Clinton had "raised this whole woman candidate thing to a whole different level than when I ran".[173] She thought Obama had behaved in a sexist manner and that she might not vote for him.[173]

During September 2008, Ferraro gained attention yet again after the announcement of Sarah Palin as the Republican vice-presidential nominee, the first such major party bid for a woman since her own in 1984.[174][175][176] In reaction, Ferraro said, "It's great to be the first, but I don't want to be the only. And so now it is wonderful to see a woman on a national ticket."[90] Ferraro speculated that the pick might win Republican presidential nominee John McCain the election,[177] but said that she was supporting Obama now due to his running mate selection of Joe Biden having resolved her concerns about Obama's lack of experience in certain areas.[174][178] Ferraro criticized the media's scrunity of Palin's background and family as gender-based and saw parallels with how she was treated by the media during her own run;[174][179] a University of Alabama study also found that media framing of Ferraro and Palin was similar and often revolved around their nominations being political gambles.[180] A Newsweek cover story detected a change in how women voters responded to a female vice presidential candidate from Ferraro's time to Palin's, but Ferraro correctly predicted that the bounce that McCain received from the Palin pick would dissipate.[175] In a friendly joint retrospective of her 1984 debate with George H. W. Bush, Ferraro said she had had more national issues experience in 1984 than Palin did now, but that it was important that Palin make a good showing in her vice presidential debate so that "little girls [could] see someone there who can stand toe to toe with [Biden]."[176] McCain and Palin ended up losing, but regardless of the 1984 or 2008 election result, Ferraro said that "Every time a woman runs, women win."[175]

Awards and honors

Ferraro was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in 1994.[181]

Ferraro received a number of honorary degrees during the 1980s and early 1990s, including from Marymount Manhattan College (1982), New York University Law School (1984), Hunter College (1985), Plattsburgh College (1985), College of Boca Raton (1989), Virginia State University (1989), Muhlenberg College (1990), Briarcliffe College for Business (1990), and Potsdam College (1991).[26] She subsequently received an honorary degree from Case Western Reserve University (2003).[182]

During her time in Congress, Ferraro received numerous awards from local organizations in Queens.[3]

In 2007, Ferraro received a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Sons of Italy Foundation.[183] In 2008, Ferraro was the initial recipient of the annual Trailblazer Award from the National Conference of Women’s Bar Associations.[184]

Electoral history

Democratic primary for New York's 9th congressional district, 1978[185]

  • Geraldine Ferraro – 10,254 (52.98%)
  • Thomas J. Manton – 5,499 (28.41%)
  • Patrick C. Deignan – 3,603 (18.61%)

New York's 9th congressional district, 1978[186]

New York's 9th congressional district, 1980[187]

  • Geraldine Ferraro (D) (Inc.) - 63,796 (58.34%)
  • Vito P. Battista (R, Conservative, Right to Life) - 44,473 (40.67%)
  • Gertrude Geniale (Liberal) - 1,091 (1.00%)

New York's 9th congressional district, 1982[188]

  • Geraldine Ferraro (D) (Inc.) - 75,286 (73.22%)
  • John J. Weigandt (R) - 20,352 (19.79%)
  • Ralph G. Groves (Conservative) - 6,011 (5.85%)
  • Patricia A. Salargo (Liberal) - 1,171 (1.14%)

1984 Democratic National Convention (Vice-Presidential tally)[189]

United States presidential election, 1984[190]

Democratic primary for the United States Senate, 1992[113]

Democratic primary for the United States Senate, 1998[191]

  • Chuck Schumer - 388,701 (50.83%)
  • Geraldine Ferraro - 201,625 (26.37%)
  • Mark Green - 145,819 (19.07%)
  • Eric Ruano-Melendez - 28,493 (3.73%)

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Perlez, Jane (1984-04-10). "Woman in the News: Democrat, Peacemaker: Geraldine Anne Ferraro". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/search/restricted/article?res=F60E17FD3C5C0C738DDDAD0894DC484D81.  
  2. ^ a b Ferraro and Francke, My Story, p. 17.
  3. ^ a b c "The Geraldine A. Ferraro Papers" (PDF). Marymount Manhattan College. http://marymount.mmm.edu/study/resources/library/archives/Ferraro_Papers_guide.pdf. Retrieved 2008-09-01.   pp. 2–3, 88–90.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Lague, Louise (1984-07-30). "The Making of a Trailblazer". People. http://www.people.com/people/archive/article/0,,20088346,00.html. Retrieved 2008-09-01.  
  5. ^ Ferraro and Whitney, Framing a Life, p. 45.
  6. ^ Ferraro, Framing a Life, pp. 50–51, 54.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Watson, Anticipating Madam President, pp. 157–160.
  8. ^ a b Ferraro, Framing a Life, pp. 65–67.
  9. ^ a b "John Zaccaro Fiance Of Geraldine Ferraro". The New York Times. 1959-08-09. http://select.nytimes.com/mem/archive/pdf?res=F30A15F73F5F1A7B93CBA91783D85F4D8585F9.  
  10. ^ a b c d "Ferraro, Geraldine Anne, (1935 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=F000088. Retrieved 2008-08-30.  
  11. ^ Ferraro, Framing a Life, pp. 70, 72.
  12. ^ a b c Hall, Stephen S. (1983-05-15). "Italian-Americans Coming Into Their Own". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1983/05/15/magazine/italian-americans-coming-into-their-own.html.  
  13. ^ Ferraro, My Story, p. 18.
  14. ^ a b c Ferraro, Framing a Life, p. 90.
  15. ^ Ferraro, Framing a Life, p. 91.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Raab, Selwyn (1984-07-21). "Ex-Colleagues Praise Rep. Ferraro As Lawyer". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/search/restricted/article?res=FB0B13FE355D0C728EDDAE0894DC484D81.  
  17. ^ Ferraro, Framing a Life, plate 12.
  18. ^ a b Blumenthal, Ralph (1984-08-18). "Ferraro's Husband: Competitive, Private Man". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/search/restricted/article?res=FB0910FC395C0C7B8DDDA10894DC484D81.  
  19. ^ Jamieson, Beyond the Double Bind, p. 166.
  20. ^ a b c Magnuson, Ed, Stacks, John F., and Ungeheuer, Frederick (1984-09-03). "Mistakes and Misunderstandings". Time. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,951269,00.html?iid=chix-sphere.  
  21. ^ May, Clifford D. (1986-06-14). "On Fire Island, Family Haven From City Life". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1986/06/14/nyregion/on-fire-island-family-haven-from-city-life.html.  
  22. ^ a b Gerth, Jeff (1984-08-16). "Finances of Ferraro and Husband Are Interwoven". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1984/08/16/us/finances-of-ferraro-and-husband-are-interwoven.html.  
  23. ^ a b c d e f g Moritz (ed.), Current Biography Yearbook 1984, p. 119.
  24. ^ Ferraro, Framing a Life, p. 104.
  25. ^ Ferraro, Framing a Life, p. 105.
  26. ^ a b c d e f Who's Who of American Women 2006-2007, p. 610.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Foerstel, Climbing the Hill, pp. 33–34.
  28. ^ Ferraro, Framing a Life, p. 107.
  29. ^ a b c "Two for the House". The New York Times. 1978-11-06. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F50C11FE3D5511728DDDAF0894D9415B888BF1D3.  
  30. ^ O'Neill and Novak, Man of the House, p. 357.
  31. ^ a b c d Scala, Shade, Campbell (eds.), American Presidential Campaigns and Elections, p. 962.
  32. ^ a b c d e f Gerth, Jeff and Blumenthal, Ralph (1984-07-26). "Rep. Ferraro's Transactions Detailed in Public Records". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/search/restricted/article?res=F40E14FE345D0C758EDDAE0894DC484D81.  
  33. ^ a b c d Germond and Witcover, Wake Us When It's Over, p. 372
  34. ^ Goldman and Fuller, The Quest for the Presidency 1984, p. 209.
  35. ^ "Women Elected to Party Leadership Positions". Women in Congress. U.S. House of Representatives. http://womenincongress.house.gov/data/leadership.html. Retrieved 2008-11-23.  
  36. ^ a b c Women in Congress, 1917-1990, pp. 69–70.
  37. ^ a b Current Biography Yearbook 1984, p. 120.
  38. ^ a b c Blumenthal, Ralph (2008-09-04). "When the Press Vetted Geraldine Ferraro". The New York Times. http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/09/04/when-the-press-vetted-geraldine-ferraro/. Retrieved 2009-06-25.  
  39. ^ a b Cohn (ed.), Congress and the Nation 1981–1984, pp. 669–670.
  40. ^ Gottro (ed.), Congress and the Nation 1977–1980, p. 334.
  41. ^ Congress and the Nation 1981–1984, p. 300.
  42. ^ Congress and the Nation 1981–1984, pp. 459, 461.
  43. ^ a b Ferraro, My Story, pp. 122–124.
  44. ^ a b "In the Party's Mainstream". Time. 1984-07-23. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,952427,00.html.  
  45. ^ "Voting Records". Americans for Democratic Action. http://www.adaction.org/pages/publications/voting-records.php. Retrieved 2009-01-23.   From 1979 through 1984, her scores were 74, 72, 85, 75, 90, and 70 (the decline in the last year was partly due to missed votes while campaigning for vice president).
  46. ^ "Ratings of Congress". American Conservative Union. http://www.acuratings.org/. Retrieved 2008-09-04.   From 1979 through 1984, her scores were 16, 17, 7, 10, 0, and 0.
  47. ^ a b Morrow, Lance (1984-06-04). "Why Not a Woman?". Time. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,951137-2,00.html.  
  48. ^ Thomas, Evan (1984-07-02). "Trying to Win the Peace". Time. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,926644,00.html.  
  49. ^ Goldman and Fuller, The Quest for the Presidency 1984, p. 208.
  50. ^ a b Glass, Andrew (2007-07-12). "Ferraro joins Democratic ticket July 12, 1984". The Politico. http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0707/4891.html. Retrieved 2008-06-08.  
  51. ^ Goldman and Fuller, The Quest for the Presidency 1984, p. 212.
  52. ^ Although Ferraro was the first woman to be on a major-party ticket for one of the nation's two highest offices, she was not the first woman to receive an electoral college vote. That woman was Theodora Nathan, a Libertarian Vice-Presidential candidate who got the support of Roger MacBride, a faithless elector from Virginia who in 1972 voted for her instead of the pledged Spiro Agnew. However, Ferraro was the first woman to receive more than one electoral vote. See "Women Presidential and Vice Presidential Candidates: A Selected List". Rutgers University Center for American Women and Politics. 2008. http://www.cawp.rutgers.edu/fast_facts/levels_of_office/documents/prescand.pdf. Retrieved 2009-01-23.  
  53. ^ a b c d Congress and the Nation 1981–1984, pp. 18–20.
  54. ^ a b c d Nelson (ed.), Historic Documents on Presidential Elections 1787–1988, pp. 785ff.
  55. ^ Goldman and Fuller, The Quest for the Presidency 1984, p. 239.
  56. ^ a b Andersen, Kurt and Stacks, John F. (1984-07-30). "The Life off the Party". Time. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,926699-1,00.html.  
  57. ^ Braden, Women Politicians and the Media, p. 111.
  58. ^ Jamieson, Beyond the Double Bind, p. 129.
  59. ^ a b Braden, Women Politicians and the Media, p. 110.
  60. ^ Jamieson, Beyond the Double Bind, p. 107.
  61. ^ Chaze, William L. (1984-07-23). "Why it's Ferraro for veep". U.S. News & World Report. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-3358753.html?refid=hbw_sw.  
  62. ^ Goldman and Fuller, The Quest for the Presidency 1984, p. 213.
  63. ^ a b c Goldman and Fuller, The Quest for the Presidency 1984, pp. 278–281.
  64. ^ a b Raines, Howell (1984-08-14). "G.O.P. Seizes 'Genderless Issue' of Tax Returns to Attack Ferraro". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/search/restricted/article?res=F70610FC3E5C0C778DDDA10894DC484D81.  
  65. ^ a b c Ferraro, My Story, pp. 156–158.
  66. ^ a b Patterson and Dani, The Media Campaign, p. 119.
  67. ^ a b Perlez, Jane (1984-08-19). "Husband Plans Tax Disclosure With Ferraro". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/search/restricted/article?res=F30813FA395C0C7A8DDDA10894DC484D81.  
  68. ^ Braden, Women Politicians and the Media, pp. 113–115.
  69. ^ a b c Roberts, Sam (1984-08-22). "Ferraro Denies Any Wrongdoing; 2d Loan By Zaccaro From Estate". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A06EFDF1338F931A1575BC0A962948260.  
  70. ^ a b Germond and Witcover, Wake Us When It's Over, pp. 447–448.
  71. ^ Goldman and Fuller, The Quest for the Presidency 1984, pp. 283–284.
  72. ^ "Pressing the Abortion Issue". Time. 1984-09-24. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,923636,00.html.  
  73. ^ a b c d Light and Lake, The Elections of 1984, pp. 103, 107–108.
  74. ^ Germond and Witcover, Wake Us When It's Over, pp. 487–488.
  75. ^ Bumiller, Elisabeth (2008-09-08). "To have (as a running mate), and hold (politely)". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/09/us/politics/09etiquette.html. Retrieved 2008-09-09.  
  76. ^ Scala, American Presidential Campaigns and Elections, p. 966.
  77. ^ a b c "The 1984 Vice Presidential Debate". NewsHour. PBS. 1984-10-11. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/debatingourdestiny/84debates/vp1.html. Retrieved 2007-06-09.  
  78. ^ a b Ferraro, My Story, p. 249.
  79. ^ Falk, Women for President, p. 86.
  80. ^ a b Ferraro, My Story, pp. 275–277, and Ferraro, Framing a Life, pp. 160–162.
  81. ^ "'No one in charge,' Mondale maintains". The Milwaukee Sentinel. 1984-10-19.  
  82. ^ Clift and Brazaitis, Madam President, p. 82.
  83. ^ Germond and Witcover, Wake Us When It's Over, p. 537.
  84. ^ a b Ferraro, My Story, pp. 312, 313.
  85. ^ Falk, Women for President, p. 146.
  86. ^ Scala, American Presidential Campaigns and Elections, p. 959.
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  88. ^ a b Congress and the Nation 1981–1984, p. 818.
  89. ^ a b c "Money Trail". Time. 1984-12-17. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,923811,00.html.  
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  92. ^ a b c "Sitting It Out". Time. 1985-12-23. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,960474,00.html.  
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  104. ^ Ferraro, Framing a Life, pp. 171–181.
  105. ^ a b Kolbert, Elizabeth (1991-10-21). "In Senate Campaign, Ferraro Picks Up Where She Left Off". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE5DE1E30F932A15753C1A967958260.  
  106. ^ Lurie, Senator Pothole, p. 464.
  107. ^ Braden, Women Politicians and the Media, p. 135.
  108. ^ a b c Mitchell, Alison (1992-09-01). "For Ferraro, Cheers of '84 Are Still Resonating". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE6DD1239F932A3575AC0A964958260.  
  109. ^ Mitchell, Alison (1992-08-27). "Holtzman Draws Criticism From Feminists Over Ads". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1992/08/27/nyregion/holtzman-draws-criticism-from-feminists-over-ads.html.  
  110. ^ a b c Lurie, Senator Pothole, pp. 465, 467.
  111. ^ a b Purdum, Todd S. (1992-09-16). "Abrams, In Tight Senate Vote, Appears to Edge Out Ferraro". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE6DC1E31F935A2575AC0A964958260.  
  112. ^ Purdum, Todd S. (1992-09-15). "Senate Race Ends in Whirl Of Appeals". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1992/09/15/nyregion/the-1992-campaign-senate-race-ends-in-whirl-of-appeals.html.  
  113. ^ a b c Verhovek, Sam Howe (1992-10-01). "Abrams Gets A Concession From Ferraro". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1992/10/01/nyregion/abrams-gets-a-concession-from-ferraro.html.  
  114. ^ a b Manegold, Catherine S. (1992-11-01). "Ferraro Gets An Apology From Abrams". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1992/11/01/nyregion/ferraro-gets-an-apology-from-abrams.html.  
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  128. ^ Ferraro, Framing a Life, p. 201.
  129. ^ a b "Ferraro out of 'Crossfire,' into political frying pan". Variety. 1998-01-06. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117433993.html.  
  130. ^ a b "Joint Tax Returns Show Ferraro Made $150,000 in CNN Job". The New York Times. 1998-02-21. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F05E2DB1E3FF932A15751C0A96E958260.  
  131. ^ a b Nagourney, Adam (1998-01-04). "Friends Say Ferraro Will Seek D'Amato's Seat". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9402EFDF1430F937A35752C0A96E958260.  
  132. ^ Schumer, Positively American, p. 17.
  133. ^ Schumer, Positively American, p. 31.
  134. ^ Schumer, Positively American, pp. 18, 30.
  135. ^ Schumer, Positively American, pp. 33, 39.
  136. ^ "Framing a Life: A Family Memoir". Amazon.com. http://www.amazon.com/Framing-Life-Family-Geraldine-Ferraro/dp/068485404X/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1246590942&sr=1-1. Retrieved 2009-07-02.  
  137. ^ a b "Geraldine Ferraro Takes Your Questions". Newsweek. 2007-10-26. http://www.newsweek.com/id/57545/page/1. Retrieved 2008-12-14.  
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  143. ^ Business Wire (1999-12-09). "Geraldine Ferraro and Laura Ingraham Write 'Campaign Countdown' For the New York Times Syndicate". Press release. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_/ai_58120664. Retrieved 2008-12-13.  
  144. ^ "Georgetown University: Georgetown Public Policy Institute". Peterson's. 2008-08-25. http://www.petersons.com/GradChannel/code/ProgramVC.asp?sn=Georgetown-University&mu=The-Georgetown-Public-Policy-Institute&inunid=42142&sponsor=1&related=true. Retrieved 2008-12-13.  
  145. ^ a b Clift and Brazaitis, Madam President, p. 81.
  146. ^ PR Newswire (2000-01-27). "Lynn Martin Joins Geraldine Ferraro in Advising Businesses On Workplace and Marketplace Issues". Press release. http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-27408074_ITM. Retrieved 2008-12-09.  
  147. ^ a b Timmons, Heather (2003-06-17). "The Media Business: Advertising – Addenda: People". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9806E4D71238F934A25755C0A9659C8B63.  
  148. ^ a b Blank Rome (2007-02-01). "Geraldine Ferraro Joins Blank Rome". Press release. http://www.blankromegr.com/index.cfm?contentID=31&itemID=184. Retrieved 2008-12-09.  
  149. ^ a b c Lattman, Peter (2007-02-01). "Law Blog Q&A: Geraldine Ferraro". The Wall Street Journal. http://blogs.wsj.com/law/2007/02/01/law-blog-qa-geraldine-ferraro/. Retrieved 2008-09-01.  
  150. ^ "Officers and Directors For Goodrich Petroleum Corp". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/companyOfficers?symbol=GDP.N&viewId=bio. Retrieved 2008-12-10.  
  151. ^ "NIAF Milestones". National Italian American Foundation. http://www.niaf.org/milestones/year_1971.asp. Retrieved 2008-11-24.  
  152. ^ "Mission Statement". National Organization of Italian American Women. http://www.noiaw.org/pages/about/mission_statement.php. Retrieved 2008-11-24.  
  153. ^ "Board Members". National Organization of Italian American Women. http://www.noiaw.org/pages/about/board_members.php. Retrieved 2008-08-28.  
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  155. ^ May, Clifford D. and Halloran, Richard (1989-02-28). "Washington Talk: Briefing; Ferraro Back in Capital". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DEED81439F93BA15751C0A96F948260.  
  156. ^ "Project Vote Smart's Founding & Executive Board Members". Project Vote Smart. http://www.votesmart.org/founding_board.php. Retrieved 2008-12-13.  
  157. ^ Rush, George and Malloy, Joanna (1999-11-18). "Paris Will Always Have Cher". New York Daily News. https://nydailynews.com/archives/gossip/1999/11/18/1999-11-18_paris_will_always_have_cher.html.  
  158. ^ National Women's Health Resource Center (2003-01-02). "Geraldine Ferraro Joins Board of National Women's Health Resource Center". Press release. http://www.healthywomen.org/newsroom/pressreleases/dbnwhrcnews/geraldineferrarojoinsboardofnationalwomenshealthresourcecenter. Retrieved 2008-12-10.  
  159. ^ "About the Committee to Free Lori Berenson". freelori.org. http://www.freelori.org/thecommittee.html. Retrieved 2008-12-13.  
  160. ^ "Neighborhood History and Neighborhood Feel". Forest Hills Chamber of Commerce. http://www.foresthillschamber.org/en/history/. Retrieved 2008-12-17.  
  161. ^ "Ferraro: My Story (Paperback)". Amazon.com. http://www.amazon.com/Ferraro-My-Story-Geraldine/dp/0810122111/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1239100399&sr=8-1. Retrieved 2009-04-07.  
  162. ^ Sherwell, Philip (2007-04-02). "Female ex-candidate to 'protect' Hillary Clinton". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/1547299/Female-ex-candidate-to-%27protect%27-Hillary-Clinton.html. Retrieved 2008-10-16.  
  163. ^ a b c d Kuhnhenn, Jim (2008-03-12). "Clinton supporter quits over Obama remarks". Associated Press. MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23590166/. Retrieved 2008-03-13.  
  164. ^ a b c Sinderbrand, Rebecca (2008-03-11). "Ferraro: 'They're attacking me because I'm white'". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/03/11/ferraro.comments/index.html. Retrieved 2008-12-14.  
  165. ^ Farber, Jim (2008-03-07). "Geraldine Ferraro lets her emotions do the talking". Daily Breeze.  
  166. ^ Ferraro had made a similar comment in 1988 about Jesse Jackson's presidential candidacy. See Sinderbrand, Rebecca (2008-03-14). "Ferraro steps down from Clinton campaign". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/03/12/ferraro.comments/?iref=mpstoryview. Retrieved 2008-03-14. "In an April 15, 1988, article in The Washington Post, Ferraro is quoted as saying that because of his 'radical' views, 'if Jesse Jackson were not black, he wouldn't be in the race.'"  
  167. ^ Coates, Ta-Nehisi (2008-03-14). "Playing the Racist Card: Ferraro's comments about Senator Obama were racist. Why can't we say that?". Slate. http://www.slate.com/id/2186553/. Retrieved 2008-04-15.  
  168. ^ Maddaus, Gene (2008-03-11). "Ferraro defends controversial comments on Barack Obama". Daily Breeze.  
  169. ^ Seelye, Katharine Q. (2008-03-12). "Ferraro Quits Clinton Post". The New York Times. http://thecaucus.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/03/12/ferraro-quits-clinton-post/. Retrieved 2008-03-12.  
  170. ^ "Geraldine Ferraro Reacts to Barack Obama's Speech on Race". America's Election HQ (Fox News Channel). 2008-03-24. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,341301,00.html. Retrieved 2008-05-19.  
  171. ^ "Geraldine Ferraro Reacts to Liberal Radio Host's Foul Comments". America's Election HQ (Fox News Channel). 2008-04-03. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,346392,00.html. Retrieved 2008-05-19.  
  172. ^ a b "Can People Talk About Race in America Without Being Branded Racist?". The O'Reilly Factor (Fox News Channel). 2008-04-07. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,348330,00.html. Retrieved 2008-05-19.  
  173. ^ a b Kantor, Jodi (2008-05-19). "Gender Issue Lives On as Clinton’s Bid Wanes". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/19/us/politics/19women.html. Retrieved 2008-12-05.  
  174. ^ a b c "Huckabee & Ferraro on 'Hannity & Colmes'". Hannity & Colmes (Fox News Channel). 2008-09-04. http://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2008/09/huckabee_ferraro_on_hannity_co.html. Retrieved 2009-12-14.  
  175. ^ a b c Baird, Julia (2008-09-13). "From Seneca Falls to … Sarah Palin?". Newsweek. http://www.newsweek.com/id/158893. Retrieved 2009-07-11.  
  176. ^ a b "Ex-rivals Bush, Ferraro preview Biden-Palin face-off". Today (NBC). 2008-10-01. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26973494/. Retrieved 2008-12-14.  
  177. ^ Ferraro, Geraldine (2008-08-29). "This Might Do It for McCain". Fox News. http://foxforum.blogs.foxnews.com/2008/08/29/this-might-do-it-for-mccain/. Retrieved 2008-08-29.  
  178. ^ "Geraldine Ferraro Speaks Out". Public Broadcasting Service. 2008-10-31. http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/443/Geraldine-Ferraro.html. Retrieved 2008-12-05.  
  179. ^ Baldwin, Tom (2008-09-05). "Geraldine Ferraro accuses media over 'sexist' scrutiny of Sarah Palin". London: The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/us_and_americas/us_elections/article4677831.ece. Retrieved 2009-07-11.  
  180. ^ "Study: Media treat Ferraro, Palin the same". United Press International. 2008-10-27. http://www.upi.com/Top_News/2008/10/27/Study-Media-treat-Ferraro-Palin-the-same/UPI-59311225086192/. Retrieved 2009-07-11.  
  181. ^ "Women of the Hall: Geraldine Ferraro". National Women's Hall of Fame. http://www.greatwomen.org/women.php?action=viewone&id=61. Retrieved 2008-08-28.  
  182. ^ Case Western Reserve University (2003-05-19). "Five receive honorary degrees". Press release. http://www.cwru.edu/pubaff/univcomm/2003/5-03/honordegrees.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-25.  
  183. ^ Blank Rome (2007-05-24). "Geraldine Ferraro Receives Lifetime Achievement Award from Sons of Italy". Press release. http://www.blankromegr.com/index.cfm?contentID=31&itemID=195. Retrieved 2009-06-25.  
  184. ^ Blank Rome (2008-08-08). "Geraldine Ferraro Honored at National Conference of Women’s Bar Associations with Trailblazer Award". Press release. http://www.blankrome.com/index.cfm?contentID=46&itemID=1339. Retrieved 2009-06-25.  
  185. ^ Barone, Michael, Ujifusa, Grant, and Matthews, Douglas (1979). Almanac of American Politics, 1980: The Senators, the Representatives, the Governors - Their Records, States, and Districts. E. P. Dutton. p. 593. http://books.google.com/books?um=1&q=ferraro+10254+manton+5499+3603&btnG=Search+Books.  
  186. ^ Guthrie, Benjamin J. (1979-04-01). "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 7, 1978". U. S. Government Printing Office. p. 25. http://clerk.house.gov/member_info/electionInfo/1978election.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-27.  
  187. ^ Ladd, Thomas E. (1981-04-15). "Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 4, 1980". U. S. Government Printing Office. p. 41. http://clerk.house.gov/member_info/electionInfo/1980election.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-27.  
  188. ^ Ladd, Thomas E. (1983-05-05). "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 1982". U. S. Government Printing Office. p. 27. http://clerk.house.gov/member_info/electionInfo/1982election.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-27.  
  189. ^ Holland, Keating (1996). "All The Votes...Really". CNN. Archived from the original on 2000-09-30. http://web.archive.org/web/20000930224301/http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1996/conventions/san.diego/facts/weird.facts/votes.shtml.   In actuality, the 1984 Democratic vice-presidential roll call only went through Alabama, Alaska, and Arizona. Arkansas then passed to New York; New York cast all its votes for Ferraro; and New York then moved that Ferraro be nominated by acclamation, which was approved by overwhelming voice vote. See Ferraro, My Story, pp. 6–7.
  190. ^ Ladd, Thomas E. (1985-05-01). "Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 6, 1984". U. S. Government Printing Office. p. 69. http://clerk.house.gov/member_info/electionInfo/1984election.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-27.  
  191. ^ "Federal Elections 98: 1998 U.S. Senate Results". Federal Election Commission. April 1999. http://www.fec.gov/pubrec/fe1998/98senate.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-27.  

Bibliography

External links

United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
James J. Delaney
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 9th congressional district

1979-01-03 – 1985-01-03
Succeeded by
Thomas J. Manton
Party political offices
Preceded by
Shirley Chisholm
Secretary of Democratic Caucus of the United States House of Representatives
1981–1985
Succeeded by
Mary Rose Oakar
Preceded by
Walter Mondale
Democratic Party Vice-Presidential nominee
1984
Succeeded by
Lloyd Bentsen
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Simple English

Geraldine Ferraro was born on August 26, 1935. She ran for Vice President in the 1984 US Presidential Election against Walter Mondale. She is also a member of and politician from the Democratic Party. Geraldine is an attorney.


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