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German nouns: Wikis

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German grammar

Nouns
Verbs
Articles
Adjectives
Pronouns
Adverbial phrases
Conjugation
Sentence structure
Declension
Modal particle

A German noun has one of three specific grammatical genders (masculine, feminine, neuter) and belongs to one of three declension classes, only partly dependent of gender. A fourth declension is used for plural declension. These features remain unaltered by inflection but must be considered in this process. The grammatical gender influences articles, adjectives and pronouns. Note that gender has no relation to sex of the noun (e.g. the word 'girl' is neuter, while 'tree' is masculine). It is best considered as an attribute of the noun.

Number (singular, plural) and case (nominative, accusative, dative, genitive) must be taken into account in the process of declension.

The declension can be more difficult than in other languages such as Latin; not only the word ending, but also the root may be altered by inflecting.

"Der Mann" - "Die Männer"

Some nouns only have a singular form (Singulariatantum); other nouns only have a plural form (Pluraliatantum):

"Das All", "Der Durst", "der Sand" (space/universe, thirst, sand)
"Die Kosten", "die Ferien" (costs, the holidays)

Traps abound in both directions here; common singular-only words in English are not singular in German, and vice versa:

information = "Information", "die Information" (one tidbit of information)

"die Informationen" (the pieces of information)

the police are (pl.) = "die Polizei ist (sg.)"

Some words change their meaning when changing their number:

Geld (English, "money") - Gelder (English, "different sources of money")
Wein (wine) - die Weine (wines: meaning different kinds of wine)

A few words have two different plurals with distinct meanings. For example:

Wort (word) - Wörter (isolated words, as in five words) - Worte (connected, meaningful words, as in his last words)
Band - Bande (bonds) - Bänder (ribbons)

Contents

Types of declensions

The four general case declension classes are:
Singular:
I: no declension: used for all and only feminine nouns
die Frau, die Frau, der Frau, der Frau

II: genitive -(e)s, dative -(e): used for all neuter and most masculine nouns
der Mann, den Mann, dem Mann(e), des Mann(e)s
das Kind, das Kind, dem Kind(e), des Kind(e)s

III: -(e)n for genitive, dative and accusative: used for masculine nouns on -e and a few others, mostly animate nouns. This class of nouns is often called the n-nouns.
a) der Drache, den Drachen, dem Drachen, des Drachen
b) der Prinz, den Prinzen, dem Prinzen, des Prinzen

Plural:
IV: dative -n: used for all nouns except those ending in -n or -s in the nominative plural
a) die Kinder, die Kinder, den Kindern, der Kinder
b) die Frauen, die Frauen, den Frauen, der Frauen
Note that these classes do not yet show how to put a singular noun into its plural form.

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General rules of declension

  • Given the nominative singular, genitive singular, and nominative plural of a noun, it is possible to determine its declension.
  • Note that in all feminine nouns, all singular forms are identical.
  • The dative plural of all nouns ends in -n if such an ending does not already exist, except that of nouns that form the plural with -s, which are usually loan words.
  • Most nouns do not take declensions in the accusative or dative cases. A small class of mostly masculine nouns called "weak nouns" takes the ending -n or -en in all cases except the nominative.

Declension classes

Singular
Plural
Class Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. Example
der/das/die den/das/die dem/dem/der des/des/der die die den der
-(e)s, -e Berg Berg Berg(e) Berg(e)s Berge Berge Bergen Berge der Berg, des Berg(e)s, die Berge
-(e)s, -er Bild Bild Bild(e) Bild(e)s Bilder Bilder Bildern Bilder das Bild, des Bild(e)s, die Bilder
-(e)s, -en Staat Staat Staat(e) Staat(e)s Staaten Staaten Staaten Staaten der Staat, des Staat(e)s, die Staaten
-s, - Fahrer Fahrer Fahrer Fahrers Fahrer Fahrer Fahrern Fahrer der Fahrer, des Fahrers, die Fahrer
-s, -e Lehrling Lehrling Lehrling Lehrlings Lehrlinge Lehrlinge Lehrlingen Lehrlinge der Lehrling, des Lehrlings, die Lehrlinge
-s, -s Radio Radio Radio Radios Radios Radios Radios Radios das Radio, des Radios, die Radios
-en, -en Student Studenten Studenten Studenten Studenten Studenten Studenten Studenten der Student, des Studenten, die Studenten
-, - Mutter Mutter Mutter Mutter Mütter Mütter Müttern Mütter die Mutter, der Mutter, die Mütter
-, -en Meinung Meinung Meinung Meinung Meinungen Meinungen Meinungen Meinungen die Meinung, der Meinung, die Meinungen
-, -e Kraft Kraft Kraft Kraft Kräfte Kräfte Kräften Kräfte die Kraft, der Kraft, die Kräfte
-ns, -n Name Namen Namen Namens Namen Namen Namen Namen der Name, des Namens, die Namen

Irregular declensions

Singular Plural
Nominative der Herr die Herren
Accusative den Herrn die Herren
Dative dem Herrn den Herren
Genitive des Herrn der Herren
Singular Plural
Nominative das Herz(the heart) die Herzen
Accusative das Herz die Herzen
Dative dem Herz(en) den Herzen
Genitive des Herzens der Herzen

Many foreign nouns have irregular plurals, for example: -s, -en das Thema, des Themas, die Themen (the theme) -0-, -en der Kommunismus, des Kommunismus, (die Kommunismen) (the communism) -s, PL das Thema, des Themas, die Themata (the theme) -0-, PL der Uterus, des Uterus, die Uteri (the uterus)

In some religious publications (especially Catholic), the name of Jesus is declined as in Latin, that is:

sing.
nom. Jesus
voc. Jesu
acc. Jesum
gen. Jesu
dat. Jesu
abl. Jesu
loc. Jesu

Although the ablative is absent in German, it will be used then if it would be used in Latin. The genitive "Jesu" is much more frequent than the other cases, as in "Die Kreuzigung Jesu", "Jesus' crucifixion".

Orthography

All German nouns are capitalised. This applies even to infinitives used as nouns.

See also

External links


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