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Ghazipur
Ghazipur
Location of Ghazipur
in Uttar Pradesh and India
Coordinates 25°35′N 83°34′E / 25.58°N 83.57°E / 25.58; 83.57
Country  India
State Uttar Pradesh
District(s) Ghazipur
Mayor or Chairman Mr. Rohini Kumar
Population
Density
105,243 (2001)
903 /km2 (2,339 /sq mi)
Sex ratio 943 /
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Area 36 km2 (14 sq mi)

Ghazipur (Hindi): ग़ाज़ीपुर, or Ghazipur City is a city/town and a municipal corporation and headquarter of Ghazipur district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is the administrative headquarters of Ghazipur Division and Sub-division. Back to the past, it was a place of administration under Guptas dynasty too than earlier as described in Hindu Mythology, as kingdom of King Vishwamitra, who later changed into saint and popularly known as Maharshi Vishwamitra.

Ghazipur is famous for its opium factory, which is the largest legal opium factory in the world started by British East India Company in 1820. It's also home to handloom weaving and a perfume industry. The town is an important agricultural market. Lord Cornwallis, governor-general of British India, died in Ghazipur and is buried there. The town is very close to the UP-Bihar border. The local language at the place is Bhojpuri. Ghazipur borders the important religious city of Varanasi and is situated about 70 km East of Varanasi.

Contents

History

Ghazipur was covered with dense forest during the Vedic era and it was a place for ashrams of saints during that period. The place is related to the Ramayana period. Maharshi Jamadagni, the father of Maharshi Parashurama is said to have resided here. The famous Gautama Maharishi and Chyavana were given teaching and sermon here in ancient period. Lord Buddha gave his first sermon in Sarnath, which is not far from the here. The Aurihar region of Ghazipur became the main centre of teachings of Lord Buddha. Many stupas and pillars are the main evidence of that period. Chinese traveller Hieun Tsang visited this area and has described this place as Chanchu "Kingdom of the Lord of battles."

Ghazipur is fortunate enough that the first scientific society of India was established here in 1862 by Mahatma Jain for propagating modern Western knowledge of science, technology and industry. It was a departure from the past in the sense that education made a paradigm shift from traditional humanisties and related disciplines to the new field of science and agriculture which ultimately paved the necessary background for the establishment of present Technical Education and Research Institute (TERI), a post-graduate college, in the city.

The area is home to many well known freedom fighters. The hero of first war of independence (which is also referred as Sepoy Mutiny) Mangal Pandey belonged to this area (now part of Ballia). The famous Raju Baxi revolt is also associated with this place where the farmers revolted against the British and set fire to several indigo godowns. This place has played a significant role in the Indian National movement. During the Home Rule movement and the Quit India movement people of Ghazipur took part courageously and fearlessly. During Quit India movement, a group of freedom fighters of Sherpur village under the leadership of Dr. Shiv Pujan Rai hoisted the Tricolour at Mr. Doshi Parashuram Rai took part in the India movement.

Geography

Ghazipur is located at 25°35′N 83°34′E / 25.58°N 83.57°E / 25.58; 83.57.[1] It has an average elevation of 62 metres (203 feet). The city of Ghazipur is located in the middleGanges valley of North India, in the Eastern part of the state of Uttar Pradesh, along the left is bank of the Ganges river. It is the headquarters of the Ghazipur district. The city nearly stretches parallel to the river Ganges. Its neighbouring cities are Varanasi, Jaunpur, Ballia, Mau, Chandauli and Azamgarh. Initially Ballia and Mau were part of Ghazipur district but latter were made separate districts. Being located in the plains of Ganges the soil is alluvial type and is fertile because of low level floods continually replenish the soil. This makes agriculture the most important profession of the people. The town is predominantly agrarian and so is the economy. The district is divided into four major sub parts Zamania, Mohammadabad, Saidpur and Jakhania.

Ghazipur has a humid subtropical climate with large variations between summer and winter temperatures. Summers are long, from early April to October, with intervening monsoon seasons. Cold waves from the Himalayan region cause temperatures to dip across the city in the winter from December to February. The temperature ranges between 32°C – 46°C (90°F – 115°F) in the summers, and 5°C – 15°C (41°F – 59°F) in the winters.[17] The average annual rainfall is 1110 mm (44 in).[18]. Fog is common in the winters, while hot dry winds, called loo, blow in the summers.

The city is relatively free from air pollution.[citation needed]. Through a combination of water pollution, new constructions of upstream dams, and increase in the local temperature, the water level of the Ganges has recently gone down significantly, and small islands have become visible in the middle of the river.

Rivers in District---Ganges, Gomati, Gangai, Beson, Mangai, Bhainsai, Tons and Karmanasha.

Demographics

As of 2001 India census,[2] Ghazipur city had a population of 1,05,243 whereas district constitutes more than 31,00,000 people. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Ghazipur has an average literacy rate of 69%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 76%, and female literacy is 62%. There are four major post-graduation college in the city. It also has some elegant schools like Shah Faiz Public School, St. Mary's, St. John's, Lourdes Convent and St. Thomas's. In Ghazipur, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age. A larger percentage of the population lives in the rural area. The Municipal Area is small as compared to other cities nearby. It is poorly developed despite being a very important city under British rule. when it was a strategic river port. A military cantonment built by the British now houses a college and a colony for administrative officers and their subordinates. The opium factory located in the city was established by the British and continues to be a major source of opium production in India. It is the largest of its kind in the country. It is guarded under high security, and not easily accessible to the general public. The factory has its own residential accommodation for the employees, and is situated across the banks of river Ganges. There is also an important office of the narcotics department of Indian government in the city. The airport of Ghazipur was a commanding airport of most of the eastern part of the upper and western part of Bihar in those days, but now it remains vacant and is used when for VIP arrivals to Ghazipur or nearby areas. It is situated on the outer side of the city and is poorly maintained. Ghazipur has sixteen development blocks. The district is divided into five tehsils and another is proposed. Ghazipur has two members for Lok Sabha, and eight seats to UP Vidhan Sabha. The OPIUM factory is largest in Asia. Largest Village of Asia is in GHAZIPUR named as Gahmar. It is 35 KM from Ghazipur City.

Lok Sabha Parliamentary constituencies and the Vidhan Sabha Legislative Assembly constituencies after delimitation. 75-Ghazipur Lok Sabha and 74- Ballia Lok Sabha, Vidhan Sabha-373 Jakhania, 374 Saidpur (SC), 375 Ghazipur Sadar,376 Jangipur (SC), 379 Zamania, Mohammadabad and Zahoorabad. The latter two are shifted to Ballia Lok sabha. Earlier Saidpur, (Ghazipur) Lok sabha seat, Dildarnagar & Sadat seat of vidhan Sabha were also in existence, but they are demolished under new parameters.

Rails, roads, waterways and airport

Ghazipur is the major railhead of North Eastern Railways, Varanasi Division.Ghazipur City station serves as major railway station of city. Ghazipur Ghat is a halt station situated 7 km from city. Tarighat station of ECR, Danapur Division near city approx. 10 km byroad connects Ghazipur to Mughalsarai by a routine passenger train. Dildarnagar ECR on Delhi-Patna-Howrah route and Aunrihar Jn (N.E. Railway) on Varanasi-Ghazipur and Varanasi-Gorakhpur route are important Junctions.

Ghazipur is directly connected by Lucknow, New Delhi, Mumbai, Guwahati, Amritsar, Chennai by routine trains. Pawan Express, Ganga Kaveri Express, Dibrugarh Express, Harihar Express, Sadbhawna Express, Swatantra Senani and Sarnath Express are some important trains from Ghazipur City Station.

Railway Station--Ghazipur City Railway Station is the most important station in district. Dildarnagar Jn, Zamania and Aunrihar Jn also serves as good stations. Yusufpur, Sadat, Dullahpur, Jakhania and Ghazipur Ghat are others small stations which serves for a mass of population. Saidpur, Karimuddinpur, Gahmar, Nandganj are also some stations connected by routine trains between Varanasi-Ghazipur-Chappra route and Mughalsarai-Patna route.

In view of roads, it is well connected by important cities by means of national highways and state highways. National Highway 29 starts from Varanasi to Gorakhpur passes from here. National Highway 19 starts from here and terminates in Patna. National Highway 97 starts from here and terminated in Saiyedraja Distt. Chandauli, UP in order to join N.H.2 (Kolkatta-Delhi highway) to Ghazipur. Some major state highways starts from here which joins Lucknow, Jaunpur, Azamgarh, Buxar, Sultanpur, and Deoria.

Andhau Airport in Andhau, 9 km from City Railway Station serves as airport for city. But, it is not a public airport. It is used for V.I.P. arrivals only. Yet, Babatpur Airport, Varanasi Airport, 90 km from here is airport which serves Ghazipur.

Shahbaaz Kuli Airport in Shahbaaz Kuli, 13 km from City Railway Station. But, it is not working nowadays. It was constructed for government use in world war - II. It is not be able to use in any way due to lack of proper maintenance.

WATERWAYS---Ghazipur is an important waterway port on river Ganga between Haldia to Allahabad, National Waterways No. 1 route.

Transport

In city, mainly Auto rickshaws and Rickshaw's are primary mode of transport. Taxis are even also available on railway stations. Earlier RTO was planning for City Buses, but it fails because of narrow roads. In old city, auto-rickshaws are not permitted during certain time interval, so, Rickshaws serves as most primary transport mode. No other means of transport available in city region. Still, in city, city buses are proposed and needs permission to start after clearance from State Government.

For District areas, taxis, buses and tempos are always available from Lanka, Shastrinagar, Rauza, Rajdepur, City Railway Station, Gorabazar and RTI square.

Industrial condition

The city has sound agriculture base and reasonably good infrastructure, yet the industrial potential is low. The lack of enterprise and technical knowledge of local people may be the major constraints in industrial growth. Ghazipur has long been famous for the manufacture of perfumes especially rose water (Ghazipuri Gulabjal )and Attar of roses (Rose oil). A local firm was awarded a medal for the quality of product in British empire exhibition in London in the last century. Now this industry is facing gradual decline due to the shrinkage of cultivation of perfume bearing plants. Sugar industry was important to this region but now there are few factories left. The manufacturing of saltpeter is done in Saidpur. Cloth weaving is centered in Bahariabad. There are 47 registered factory under section 1948. But scenario have change from last decade, a multi productive agro manufacturing unit M/s Sukhbhir Agro, an alcohol manufacturing unit M/s Lords Distillery, a Homoeopathic Medicines Manufacturing unit M/s M.D.Homoeo Lab. Pvt. Ltd., Maharajganj, Ghazipur worked successfully in district. These companies are provide many employment opportunity.

The manufacture of rice, agriculture goods, furniture, leather, footwear, utensils, steel trunk, almirah, khandsari, candles and handlooms are the main small scale industry of the city. Village and cottage industry include mostly the handicraft handed down from generation to generation like gur making, village oil industry, Leather tanning, pottery etc. Opium and Alkaloid Works, a Government of India enterprise, specializes in manufacture of excise opium and export opium. It is the largest of its kind in the country.

Places

Ganga Ghats

Different Ghats along holy river Ganga makes an it a visiting place in City. Some of Ghats are Dadarighat, Collectorghat, Steamerghat, Chitnath Ghat, Rameshwar ghat, Pakka Ghat, Kankadiya Ghat, Mahadeva Ghat, Sikandarpur ghat, Tadighat etc. Mainpur--- it is the famous village of ghazipur. it is famous for hear tample of maa bhawani.

Tomb of Lord Cornwallis

Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquis Cornwallis was a British military commander and a colonial era governor general. In the United States he is best remembered as the leading British officer in the American Revolutionary war. His 1781 defeat by a combined American-French troop is considered as the end of war. After the defeat he returned to Britain, and in 1789 he was appointed governor general and commander chief in India. He instituted land reforms and reorganised the British army and administration. In 1792 he defeated Tipu Sultan and captured his capital city Srirangapatna thus paving way for British dominance in South India. He was given the title of Marquis in the same year and returned to Britain. His time in India did much to restore his reputation.

He was reappointed governor general of India in 1805, but died on October 5 of the same year, soon after arrival, in the city of Ghazipur. In his memory the British built a large tomb in the city, using stones brought from England. The tomb located in the outer corner of the city near the old British cantonment is well maintained by the Ministry of Tourism. It is the major tourist attraction in the city. Each year a large crowd gathers at the tomb to celebrate new year but the rest of the year it remains free of crowds.

Bada Mahadev

In the South of the city is situated Bada Mahadev in Pirnagar area, which serves as the biggest Shiva Temple in the city.

Pavhari Baba's Ashram

On the bank of Ganges in Kurtha,3-4 KM from city border

Sankat Mochan

Temple of Shri Lord Hanumana situated in Dadrighat, which is the biggest temple of its kind in the city.

Budhe Hanuman

In the Chitnath area of the city, a temple of Hanumana, supposed to have been built in the time of Maharasi Viswamitra, the most popular place of worship for Hindus.

Kamakhya Dham Gahmar

Situated 40 KM from the city, under Gahmar police station ,Ma Kamkhya Temple, an Hindu Goddess Temple is situated, an subsidiary of Kamakhya Temple, Guwahati. The temple lies in Gadaipur Village. For the protection and safety of pilgrims a police booth has been established there. Well connected by road. It is old myth about the temple that whatever you wish the Goddess Kamakhya blesses you with that wish. There is lot of gathering in the months of Ramanavmi.

Mahahar Dham

Situated about 40 KMs from the city under Kasimabad Region, it is the biggest worship place in the city. Here supposed that, on Mahashivratri, Kashi Vishwanath arrives here and take bath in Kund located here.

Jama Masjid

Jama Masjid located in Vishweswarganj area of city is the biggest mosque in district. It is one the biggest mosque of its kind in state of Uttar Pradesh.

Nehru Stadium

The city of Ghazipur has a single stadium called Nehru Stadium, named after India's first prime minister, Jawahar Lal Nehru. It is a small, government owned to accommodate both indoor and outdoor games. It also has a gymnasium. The stadium is generally used for various district level sports competitions.

Ramlila Maidan

Ramlila maidan also popularly know as Lanka maidan is a playground located in the middle of the city. It is walled on all sides with two large gates and is well maintained. It has a small pond inside its boundary. Every year on Vijaydashmi day, Ravana's statue is burned here. Ramaleela is performed here during this period. This ground also serves as the venue for political campaigns during elections and as a location for circuses and local exhibitions. When it is not in use otherwise it serves as a playground.

Gorabazar

Gorabazar was a well known marketplace of the city but now after inception of Veer Abdul Hamid Setu its importance has declined since earlier that the place was only way for going other side of Ganga. Still the traditional market prevails here.

Dhamupur

From Ghazipur city, about 37 KMs distance, a small village is situated named DHAMUPUR which is the birth place of Paramveer chakra vijeta Veer Abdul Hamid.It is situated on District Road leading from Mardah region to Jakhaniya.

Buzurga

From Ghazipur City 10 kms A well Educated village is very famous & popular .

Others

reotipur is the second biggest village after gahmel 15kms far from city. Others places include [Reotipur]] (16 km from city) Gahmar (38 km from city), Aunrihar (42 km from city), Saidpur Bhitari (40 km from city), Bahadurganj (25 km from city), Pahar Khan ka Pokhara, (Saklenabad in City), Baba Majar (Nandganj) (16 km from city), Saidpur Mahadev (30 km), Sidheshwar Mahadeo, Bhurkura Math(30 km),Sherpur, Deva (Dullahpur), Sidhagar Ghat, Chanani, Sravanadeeh related to Sravana Kumar, Gauspur Usia Khas , Bara, Mircha, Mahend, Godsara, Raksha Sharif,Tajpur Kurra,Mania,Kusi,Jaboorna,Deoaitha and many more.

Educational Institutions

Degree College--

  • Post Graduate College, Ghazipur
  • Swami Sahajanand P G College, Ghazipur
  • Khardeeha Degree College, Khardeeha
  • Shahid Smarak Govt. Degree College, Mohamamadabad
  • Degree College, Malikpura
  • Rajkiya Degree College, Saidpur
  • Rajkiya Mahila Degree College, Ghazipur
  • Samata Degree College, Sadat
  • M G Sati Smarak Mahavidyalaya, Garua Makasudpur
  • Mahant Ramashraya Das Degree College, Bhurkura
  • Hindu Degree College, Zamania
  • S.G.M.unani & Ayurvedic Medical College ,Saheri Ghazipur

Technical Institute--

  • Technical Education and Research Institute Ghazipur
  • Industrial Training Institute, Ghazipur
  • Ghazipur Polytechnic, Ghazipur

Famous personalities

  • Nazir Hussain Nazir Hussain was concerned with the Indian film and multimedia.He was born in Usia village near Dildarnagar , famous character hero at his time. He was earlier associated with the Azad Hind Fauz set up by Subhas Chandra Bose. He established the "Kamsaar Film" , under the banner of which many hit films in Bhojpuri were produced. He always gave priority to Bhojpuri culture of the district in his film.His nephew Mr. Tahir Hussain is at moment noted film Director and Producer.
  • Mushirul Haq Born in Bahariabad, Ghazipur was Vice Chancellor of University of Kashmir (1987-91). He was Professor of Islamic Studies at Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi. He had received his masters degree from AMU and PhD from McGill University in Canada and had served at Indian Institute of Advanced Studies, Simla, AMU and JMI
  • Moulvi Qamar Ahmad of Bahariabad, Ghazipur was a graduate of MAO College, Aligarh and LLB from University of Allahabad. He joined Khilafat Movement and was editor of Daily Khilafat for three years and also travelled to Saudi Ariabai for Haj as a part of official delegation of Khilafat Movement. A very close friend of Maulana Mohammad Ali, Maulana Shaukat Ali, he was well known to Pandit Nehru.
  • Furqan Qamar born in Bahariabad, Ghazipur, did his M.Com. and PhD from University of Lucknow. Ex.Professor and Director of the Centre for Management Studies at Jamia Millia Islamia, Former Adviser (Education) in Planning Commission, Govt. of India.Currently join asa Vice Chancelor Himachal Central University.
  • Shah Abdus Salam born in Bahariabad, Ghazipur, did his MA and PhD from University of Lucknow and taught at University of Minnesota, USA. He retired as Professor & Head, Arab Culture Department of University of Lucknow
  • V.S. Gahmari Former MP Lok Sabha
  • Brij Mangal Rai Freedom fighter and Social worker
  • Sarjoo Pandey Ex MP LoksabhaSarjoo Pandey (19 November 1919- 25 August 1989)was a Member of ParliamentLok Sabha from Ghazipur in 1967 $ 1971. He won the Loksabha and was presented Rose by Pt Nehru in the Parliamnent which he carried in his coat.He was a communist leader and freedom fighter. Pandey was born in Urha[small village in Kasimabad] on 19th november 1919 in the family of a Brahimin farmer Mahaveer Pandey. He was in 8th standard when he took a plunge into Freedom Movement. He was ordered shoot at sight for his National Activities against the British rule. All the IPC Dhara was labelled against him. He was the only freedom fighter from Ghazipur who accepted the charges in the court and sought punishment from the court.Although he was member of parliament for 4 terms,he lived a simple life.
  • Dr Bhanu Pandey-Younger son of Late Sarjoo Pandey.Was born on June 1st in 1961 at Ghazipur.A Doctorate from PFU Moscow.Currently works in Pharma company as Vice President -Marketing.Had contested for a MLA seat for Jahurabad constituency in 1989-90.Dr Bhanu Pandey has a dream to serve the country as a social worker if the right platform is available to him.
  • The Eminent Broadcaster Hasan Razvi (Syed Hasanreza Razvi) was born in village Susandih (originally Sausandih) in Ghazipur block,on Kasimabad Road.

His (Baritone) voice ruled the airwaves of Radio Ceylon (later known as Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corpn), All India Radio (Vividh Bharti Service), Doordarshan & Film Division of India, where he was Grade I commentator for Urdu & Hindi. Highly intellectual personality and very jovial.

  • Advocate Khursheed of Husainpur (block Muhammadabad) better known as 'Khursheed Vakil'

was a living legend of his time. He could recite Marsias (poems composed on the tragedy of Karbala & the suffering of Hazrat Imam Husain and his family at the Hands of Greatest Curse of Mankind Yazid (lanatullah). He would sit on the Mimbar and begin composing the ashars (couplets) extempore, i.e. without any homework done before. It was like Hazrat Imam Husain (AS)gave him the words to recite the 'ashaars' for as long as hours. I, Syed Moosareza Rizvi, was a witness to one such Majlis at the Imambara of Adv. Syed Ahmad Jamal Zaidi, at Husainpur during Moharram. Hujjat-ul-Islam Aghae Moosavi Qibla recognised his this achievement and felicitated him.

References


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

GHAZIPUR, a town and district of British India, in the Benares division of the United Provinces. The town stands on the left bank of the Ganges, 44 m. E. of Benares. It is the headquarters of the government opium department, where all the opium from the United Provinces is collected and manufactured under a monopoly. There are also scent distilleries, using the produce of the rose-gardens in the vicinity. Lord Cornwallis, governor-general of India, died at Ghazipur in 1805, and a domed monument and marble statue (by Flaxman) are erected over his grave. Pop. (1901) 39,429.

The district of Ghazipur has an area of 1389 sq. m. It forms part of the great alluvial plain of the Ganges, which divides it into two unequal portions. The northern subdivision lies between the Gumti and the Gogra, whose confluences with the main stream mark its eastern and western limits respectively. The southern tract is a much smaller strip of country, enclosed between the Karamnasa and the great river itself. There are no hills in the district. A few lakes are scattered here and there, formed where the rivers have deserted their ancient channels. The largest is that of Suraha, once a northern bend of the Ganges, but now an almost isolated sheet of water, 5 m. long by about 4 broad. Ghazipur is said to be one of the hottest and dampest districts in the United Provinces. In 1901 the population was 913,818, showing a decrease of i i % in the decade. Sugar refining is the chief industry, and provides the principal article of export. The main line of the East Indian railway traverses the southern portion of the district, with a branch to the Ganges bank opposite Ghazipur town; the northern portion is served by the Bengal & North-Western system.


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