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|Motto: Nulli Expugnabilis Hosti (Latin)
"Conquered by no enemy."1
|Anthem: Gibraltar Anthem
Royal anthem: God Save the Queen
|Coat of arms of the Government and Mayor of Gibraltar
36°8′N 5°21′W / 36.133°N 5.35°W
|Largest Most populated district
||Gibraltarian (of mixed Genoese, Maltese, Portuguese and Andalusian descent), other British, Moroccan and Indian
||British Overseas Territory
||Head of state
||HM Queen Elizabeth II
||Sir Adrian Johns
||4 August 1704
||11 April 1713 (Treaty of Utrecht)
||1 January 19732
||6.8 km2 (229th)
2.6 sq mi
||Jan 2008 estimate
||29,286 (2008 estimate) (209th)
||$1066 million (197th)
||n/a (n/a) (n/a)
||Gibraltar pound £3 (
|Drives on the
||Bernard of Clairvaux & Our Lady of Europe
||As a Special Member State territory of the United Kingdom.
||Coins and sterling notes are issued by the Government of Gibraltar.
||Unlike all other UK dependencies but the BIOT.
||The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union members.
||Before 10 February 2007, 9567 from Spain.
|.^ It is a British Overseas Territory that is famous for the Rock of Gibraltar, the vantage point that has stood through centuries .
- Gibraltar Phone Cards | Gibraltar Calling Cards - Cheap Gibraltar Phone Card to Gibraltar 23 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.phonecardsmile.com [Source type: News]
The territory covers 6.843 square kilometres (2.642 sq mi) and shares a land border with Spain
to the north. Gibraltar has historically been an important base for the British Armed Forces
and is the site of a Royal Navy
.^ It is a British Overseas Territory that is famous for the Rock of Gibraltar, the vantage point that has stood through centuries .
- Gibraltar Phone Cards | Gibraltar Calling Cards - Cheap Gibraltar Phone Card to Gibraltar 23 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.phonecardsmile.com [Source type: News]
The ratings are based on five fundamental categories: political, social, economic, external and military and security.
Gibraltar has almost complete internal self-government, the Governor retaining responsibilities for external affairs, defence, internal security and the public service.
The sovereignty of Gibraltar has been a major point of contention in Anglo-Spanish relations
. Gibraltar was ceded by Spain to the Crown of Great Britain in perpetuity, under the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht
, though Spain asserts a claim
to the territory and seeks its return.
In a referendum held in 2002
rejected by an overwhelming majority (99%) a proposal of shared sovereignty on which Spain and Britain were said to have reached "broad agreement".
The British government has committed itself to respecting the Gibraltarians' wishes.
German historical map of the promontory
There is evidence of human habitation in Gibraltar in Gorham's Cave
between 128,000 and 24,000 BCE, by Neanderthal
man, an extinct species of the genus Homo
. Gibraltar was the last known holdout of Neanderthal man. Evidence at the cave shows the Neanderthals likely used it as a shelter for 100,000 years, sustained by the diversity of wildlife and plants in the surrounding areas. Cro-Magnon
man took over Gibraltar around 24,000 BCE.
The Moorish period
On 30 April 711, the Umayyad
general Tariq ibn Ziyad
led a Berber-dominated army across the Strait from Ceuta
. He first attempted to land at Algeciras
but failed. Subsequently, he landed undetected at the southern point of the Rock from present-day Morocco
. However, the first four centuries of Moorish
control brought little development.
Sultan Abd al-Mu'min
built the first permanent settlement in the 1150s. He ordered the construction of a fortification on the Rock, the remains of which are still present in the form of the Moorish Castle
. Gibraltar would later become part of the Kingdom of Granada
until 1309, when Castillian troops briefly occupied it. In 1333, the Marinids
, who had invaded Muslim Spain, conquered it, but ceded Gibraltar to the Kingdom of Granada in 1374. Finally, the Duke of Medina Sidonia reconquered
it in 1462, finally ending 750 years of Moorish control.
The Spanish period
However, during the quarrels that took place during the reign of Henry IV, the town and municipality of Gibraltar were restored to the Duke of Medina Sidonia in 1468. In 1474, Medina Sidonia sold Gibraltar to a population of Jewish conversos
, led by Pedro de Herrera
in exchange for maintaining the garrison of the town for two years. A group of 4,350 Jews established themselves in the town. However, this lasted only two years.
In 1476, the Duke of Medina Sidonia expelled the Conversos
to Córdoba and the Inquisition
The naval Battle of Gibraltar
took place on 25 April 1607 during the Eighty Years' War
when a Dutch fleet surprised and engaged a Spanish fleet anchored at the Bay of Gibraltar. During the four-hour action, the entire Spanish fleet was destroyed.
The British period
During the War of the Spanish Succession
, English 
and Dutch troops, allies of Archduke Charles
, the Austrian pretender to the Spanish Crown, formed a joint fleet and attacked various towns on the southern coast of Spain. On 4 August 1704, after six hours of bombardment starting at 5:00 am, the fleet, under the command of Admiral Sir George Rooke
, assisted by Field Marshal Prince George of Hesse-Darmstadt
, comprising some 1800 Dutch marines and the English Royal Marines, captured the town of Gibraltar and claimed it in the name of the Archduke Charles. The terms of surrender
provided certain assurances but commanders lost control, drunken sailors and marines engaged in rape and pillaged
the town, desecrating most Catholic churches, whilst townspeople carried out reprisal killings
. By 7 August 1704, after order was restored, almost all the population felt that staying in Gibraltar was too dangerous and left without further violence for nearby areas of Spain.
Franco-Spanish troops failed to retake the town. The 1713 Treaty of Utrecht
, which ended the war, awarded Britain sovereignty over Gibraltar. In this treaty, Spain ceded Gibraltar (Article X
) and Minorca
) to the United Kingdom in perpetuity. Great Britain has retained sovereignty over Gibraltar (though not Minorca) ever since, despite attempts by Spain to recapture it.
Due to military incursions by Spain various fortifications were established and occupied by British troops in the area which came to be known as "the British Neutral Ground
". This was the area to the north of the city wall, militarily conquered and continuously occupied by the British except during time of war. (The sovereignty of this area, which today contains the airport
, cemetery, a number of housing estates and the sports centre
, is separately disputed by Spain.
During the American Revolution
, the Spanish, who had entered the conflict against the British, imposed a stringent blockade against Gibraltar as part of an unsuccessful siege (the Great Siege of Gibraltar
) that lasted for more than three years, from 1779 to 1783. On 14 September 1782, the British destroyed the floating batteries of the French and Spanish besiegers. The signing of peace preliminaries in February 1783 ended the siege.
Gibraltar subsequently became a key base for the Royal Navy
, first playing an important part prior to the Battle of Trafalgar
. Its strategic value increased with the opening of the Suez Canal
as it controlled the sea route between the UK and its colonies and Dominions
east of Suez, such as India
Spanish Civil War
After Britain recognised the Franco regime in 1938,
Gibraltar had two Spanish Consulates, a Republican one and a Nationalistic one. During the Spanish Civil War
there were several incidents that touched Gibraltar. In May 1937, HMS Arethusa
had to tow HMS Hunter
into port after Hunter
hit a mine off Almeria
that killed and wounded several British sailors. In June 1937, the German pocket battleship Deutschland
arrived in Gibraltar with dead and wounded after Republican planes bombed it in Ibiza
in retaliation for the Condor Legion
's bombing of Guernica
. In August 1938, the Republican destroyer Jose Luis Diez
took refuge in Gibraltar after taking casualties from the guns of the National cruiser Canarias
. The one incident that resulted in the death of Gibraltarians occurred in January 1938 when a submarine of unknown origin, though probably Italian, sank the SS Endymion
, a small freighter taking a cargo of coal to Cartagena
, which was in Republican hands.
World War II
's memorial in Gibraltar. He led Poland’s government in exile during World War II, died on 4 July 1943, when the British bomber he was in crashed into the sea after taking off from Gibraltar.
During World War II
, the British evacuated Gibraltar's women and children and turned the Rock into a fortress. They also converted the civilian racecourse into an airfield
. Spain's reluctance to allow the German Army
onto Spanish soil frustrated a German plan to capture the Rock, codenamed Operation Felix
, later named Llona. Germany's Admiral Wilhelm Canaris
, head of the Abwehr
, secretly opposed Adolf Hitler
and the Nazis, and filed a pointedly negative assessment of the options. Hitler sent Canaris to negotiate with Franco, but, according to some sources, Canaris privately told Franco it would be foolish for him to join or cooperate with the Axis.
Franco subsequently made exorbitant demands for his cooperation, and erected concrete barriers on roads leading to the Pyrenees.
In the 1950s, Spain, under the dictatorship of Franco
, renewed its claim to sovereignty over Gibraltar, sparked in part by the visit of Queen Elizabeth II
in 1954 to celebrate the 250th anniversary of the Rock's capture. For the next thirty years, Spain restricted movement between Gibraltar and Spain, in application of one of the articles of the Treaty. Gibraltar's first sovereignty referendum
was held on 10 September 1967, in which Gibraltar's voters were asked whether they wished either to pass under Spanish sovereignty (when Spain was under the dictatorship of Franco
), or remain under British sovereignty, with institutions of self-government
. The vote was overwhelmingly in favour of continuance of British sovereignty, with 12,138 to 44 voting to reject Spanish sovereignty. This led to the passing of the Gibraltar Constitution Order
, granting autonomy
in May 1969, which the Government of Spain strongly opposed. In response, in June Spain completely closed the border with Gibraltar and severed all communication links.
View of the frontier from the Spanish side.
The border with Spain was partially reopened in 1982, and fully reopened in 1985 prior to Spain's accession into the European Community
. Joint talks on the future of The Rock held between Spain and the United Kingdom have occurred since the late 1980s under the Brussels Agreement
In July 2002 proposals for joint sovereignty with Spain were revealed by British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw
. A second sovereignty referendum
was organised in Gibraltar in November 2002, which rejected any idea of joint sovereignty by 17,900 (98.97%) votes to 187 (1.03%). The British Government restated that, in accordance with the preamble of the Constitution of Gibraltar
that "the UK will never enter into arrangements under which the people of Gibraltar would pass under the sovereignty of another state against their freely and democratically expressed wishes."
September 2006 saw representatives of the United Kingdom, Gibraltar and Spain conclude talks in Córdoba
, Spain, with a landmark agreement on a range of issues affecting the Rock and the Campo de Gibraltar
removing some of the restrictions imposed by Spain.
This agreement resolved a number of longstanding problems; improved flow of traffic at the frontier, use of the airport,
recognition of the +350
telephone code and the settlement of the long-running dispute regarding the pensions of former Spanish workers in Gibraltar who lost their jobs when Spain closed its border in 1969.
process is ongoing, and the British Government now states as policy that it will not enter into talks about sovereignty with Spain without the consent of the Government and people of the territory.
In December 2008, Gibraltar won its EU case on regional selectivity providing for a new tax system.
A public holiday in January 2009 was announced to celebrate this milestone.
In 2009 there were a number of Spanish incursions into waters around Gibraltar, claimed as territorial waters by both the United Kingdom and Spain, leading to intervention by the Gibraltar Police and a diplomatic protest by the UK,
plus an incursion into the port area
which is not disputed.
In July 2009 Miguel Ángel Moratinos
, became the first serving Spanish foreign minister to visit Gibraltar for a meeting of the trilateral forum.
The Parliament of Gibraltar is elected for a term of up to four years. The head of Government is the Chief Minister
(as of March 2010, Peter Caruana QC
). The Government consists of ten elected members.
The 2007 election
was contested by the GSD, GSLP-Liberal Alliance, the PDP and two independents. Two parties which fielded candidates in the 2003 election
did not present candidates in the 2006 election; the Reform Party
was wound up and Gibraltar Labour Party
absorbed into the GSD in a merger in 2005. A new party, the Progressive Democratic Party
(PDP) was formed in 2006 and fielded candidates in the 2007 election, but none were elected.
In March 2006, British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw announced that a new Gibraltar constitution had been agreed upon and would be published prior to a referendum on its acceptance in Gibraltar that year.
In July, in a statement to the UK Parliament, Geoff Hoon
, the Minister for Europe, stated that the new Constitution "confirms the right of self-determination of the Gibraltarian people", but mentioned that this right is limited insofar as Article X of the Treaty of Utrecht "gives Spain the right of refusal should Britain ever renounce Sovereignty".
On 30 November 2006, a referendum
was held to approve a new constitution
. The turnout was 60.4% of eligible voters, of whom 60.24% voted to approve the constitution; 37.75% voted against. The remainder returned blank votes. The Chief Minister, Peter Caruana, welcomed the result as a step forward for Gibraltar's political development.
All local political parties oppose any transfer of sovereignty to Spain, instead supporting self-determination
. The main UK opposition parties also support this policy and it is currently UK Government policy not to engage in talks about the sovereignty of Gibraltar without the consent of the people of Gibraltar.
The Rock of Gibraltar, West Side town area, 2006
Satellite view of the Bay of Gibraltar (NASA
Having negligible natural resources and few natural freshwater resources, limited to natural wells in the north, until recently Gibraltar used large concrete or natural rock water catchments to collect water. Fresh water from the boreholes is supplemented by two desalination
plants: a reverse osmosis
plant, constructed in a tunnel within the rock, and a multi-stage flash distillation
plant at North Mole.
The Rock itself is made of limestone
and is 426 metres (1,398 ft) high. It contains many tunnelled roads, most of which are operated by the military and closed to the public.
Flora and fauna
Most of its upper area is covered by a nature reserve
, which is home to around 230 Barbary Macaques
, commonly known as apes, the only wild monkeys
found in Europe.
They sometimes visit the town area. Recent genetic studies and historical documents point to their presence on the Rock before its capture by the British. A superstition analogous to that of the ravens
at the Tower of London
states that if the monkeys ever leave, so will the British. In 1944 British leader Winston Churchill was so concerned about the dwindling monkey population that he sent a message to the Colonial Secretary requesting that something be done about the situation.
Other mammals found in Gibraltar include rabbits, foxes and bats. Dolphins and whales are frequently seen in the Bay of Gibraltar
. Migrating birds are very common and Gibraltar is home to the only specimens of Barbary Partridges
found on the European continent.
The climate is Mediterranean
with mild winters and warm summers. There are two main prevailing winds, an easterly one known as the Levante
coming from the Sahara in Africa which brings humid weather and warmer sea and the other as Poniente
which is westerly and brings fresher air in and colder sea. Its terrain consists of the 430 metre
(1,400 ft) high Rock of Gibraltar
and the narrow coastal lowland surrounding it. Rain occurs mainly in winter, the summers are generally dry.
Its average annual temperature is 18 °C (64 °F): 21 °C (70 °F) during the day and 15 °C (59 °F) at night. In the coldest month - January, the typically temperature ranges from 10–17 °C (50–63 °F) during the day, 5–12 °C (41–54 °F) at night, the average sea temperature is 15–16 °C (59–61 °F). In the warmest month - August, the typically temperature ranges from 25–31 °C (77–88 °F) during the day, above 20 °C (68 °F) at night, the average sea temperature is 22 °C (72 °F). Average number of days above 21 °C (70 °F) is 181, average number of days above 32 °C (90 °F) is 5-6 (2 in July, 3 in August). Average morning relative humidity
: 82%, evening relative humidity: 64%.
Sunshine hours is till 2,778 per year, from 150 in November (5 hours of sunshine every day) to 341 in July (11 hours of sunshine every day).
Climate data for Gibraltar
|Average high °C (°F)
|Daily mean °C (°F)
|Average low °C (°F)
|Precipitation cm (inches)
Gibraltar has no administrative divisions. It is, however, divided into seven Major Residential Areas, which are further divided into Enumeration Areas, used for statistical purposes.
The Major Residential Areas are listed below, with population figures from the Census of 2001:
|| % of total
The British military traditionally dominated the economy of Gibraltar, with the naval dockyard providing the bulk of economic activity. This has however diminished in the last twenty years, and it is estimated to account for only 7% of the local economy, compared to over 60% in 1984. Today, Gibraltar has an extensive service-based economy, dominated by financial services
Recently, many bookmakers and online gaming operators have relocated to Gibraltar to benefit from operating in a regulated jurisdiction with a favourable corporate tax regime. However, this corporate tax regime for non-resident controlled companies is due to be phased out by 2010.
Tourism is also a significant industry. Gibraltar is a popular stop for cruise ships and attracts day visitors from resorts in Spain. The Rock is a popular tourist attraction, particularly among British tourists and residents in the southern coast of Spain. It is also a popular shopping destination, and all goods and services are VAT
free. Many of the large British high street chains have branches or franchises in Gibraltar including Marks & Spencer
, Miss Selfridge
, Dorothy Perkins
, Early Learning Centre
and the supermarket Morrisons
. Branches and franchises of international retailers such as Tommy Hilfiger
and Sunglass Hut
are also present in Gibraltar, as is the Spanish clothing company Mango
Figures from the CIA World Factbook
show the main export markets in 2006 were United Kingdom
6.7% while the corresponding figures for imports are Spain
12%, UK 9%, France
6.8% and United States
The Gibraltar Government state that economy grew in 2004/2005 by 7% to a GDP of £599,180,000. Based on statistics in the 2006 surveys, the Government statisticians estimate it has grown by 8.5% in 2005/6 and by 10.8% in 2006/7 and that the GDP is probably now around 730 million. Inflation was running at 2.6% in 2006 and predicted to be 2% to 3% in 2007. Speaking at the 2007 budget session, Peter Caruana, the Chief Minister said "The scale of Gibraltar's economic success makes it one of the most affluent communities in the entire world."
Preliminary work was begun in 2004 on a 10-year project to construct a new hotel and marina project on the Eastside of the Rock, overlooking Spain's Costa del Sol. Designed by world-famous British architect Norman Foster
, the 2 billion euro mega-project will feature three, 200-metre long finger quays and a sweeping kilometre-long curved breakwater to surround them, totaling over 300,000 square metres of infill. The project, known as Sovereign Bay, will include several hotels and casinos and is scheduled for completion in 2014.
The deep-draft breakwater will be capable of berthing large ocean liners within the "bay", while the marina will accommodate 500 private boats. Spanish news outlets expressed outrage over the Sovereign Bay project in January 2009, particularly over the fact that infill material to create the quays and breakwater was reportedly coming from Spanish quarries in Andalucia.
In 1967, Gibraltar enacted the Companies (Taxation and Concessions) Ordinance, which provided for special tax treatment for international business. This was one of the factors leading to the growth of professional services such as private banking and captive insurance management. Gibraltar has several positive attributes as a financial centre, including a common law legal system and access to the EU single market in financial services. The Financial Services Commission, which was established by an ordinance in 1989 that took effect in 1991, regulates the finance sector. In 1997, the Department of Trade and Industry established its Gibraltar Finance Centre (GFC) Division to facilitate the development the financial sector's development.
Currently the FSC has licensed about 17 banks to provide full banking services in Gibraltar. Some banks are licensed by the EEA (European Economic Community) rather than the FSC and are subject to their home countries’ regulatory authorities. Lastly, five banks have only representative offices in Gibraltar.
Under the terms of the 1934 Currency Notes Act
, the Government of Gibraltar
issues banknotes that are legal tender
alongside Bank of England banknotes in Gibraltar.
A currency board
issues these notes against reserves of sterling
Clearing and settlement of funds is conducted in sterling, and Gibraltar banknotes in circulation bear the words "Pounds sterling".
Most retail outlets in Gibraltar unofficially accept the euro
, though some payphones and the Post Office do not.
Civilian population in British Gibraltar (censuses from 1725 to 2001)
Gibraltar is one of the most densely populated territories in the world, with a population of 29,286 estimated in 2008
approximately 4,290 inhabitants per square kilometre (11,100 /sq mi). The growing demand for space is being increasingly met by land reclamation
; reclaimed land currently comprises approximately one tenth of the territory's total area.
One of the main features of Gibraltar’s population is the diversity of their ethnic origins
. The demographics of Gibraltar reflects Gibraltarians' racial and cultural fusion
of the many European
and non-European immigrants who came to The Rock
over three hundred years. They are the descendants of economic migrants that came to Gibraltar after the majority of the Spanish population left in 1704.
The main ethnic groups, according to the origin of names in the electoral roll, are Britons
(26%, mostly Andalusians
but also some 2% of Minorcans
and other Italians
(8%), and Jews
(3%). There is a large diversity of other groups such as Moroccans
The actual composition of the population by nationality from the 2001 census is as follows:
Main demographic indicators
Gibraltar’s population density is the 5th highest in the world: 4,558.8 persons/km2
Life expectancy is very high, similar to other EU-mediterranean countries/territories or other British overseas territories: 80.19 years.
is 1.65 births per woman. The rate is slightly higher than the European average, but it has seen the biggest downward change in any European country/territory during the last 10 years (more than 20%).
Other indicators are similar to those of other countries and territories in Gibraltar's European environs
- Average population growth: 0.13% (2009 est.)
- Median age: 41 (2008 est.)
- Net migration: 0.00 migrants per 1,000 population (2009 est.)
- Sex ratio: 1.05 males/female at birth and 1.00 males/female overall (2009 est.)
Gibraltarians also call themselves Llanitos.
Comparison of school structures in Gibraltar and England
Tercentenary celebrations in Gibraltar.
The culture of Gibraltar reflects Gibraltarians' diverse origins. While there are Andalusian
and British influences, the ethnic origins of most Gibraltarians are not confined to British or Andalusian ethnicities. Other ethnicities include Genoese
, and German
. A few other Gibraltar residents are Jewish of Sephardic
origin, North African
, or Indians
British influence remains strong. English is the language of government, commerce, education, and the media. Gibraltarians going on to higher education attend university in the UK. Patients requiring medical treatment not available on the Rock receive it as private patients paid for by the Gibraltar Government either in the United Kingdom, or more recently in Spain.
There exists a small but interesting amount of literary writings by native Gibraltarians. The first prominent work of fiction was probably Héctor Licudi's 1929 novel Barbarita
, written in Spanish. It is a largely autobiographical account of the adventures and misadventures of a young Gibraltarian man. Throughout the 1940s and 1950s, several noteworthy anthologies of poetry were published by Leopoldo Sanguinetti, Albert Joseph Patron, and Alberto Pizzarello. The 1960s were largely dominated by the theatrical works of Elio Cruz and his two highly acclaimed Spanish plays La Lola se va pá Londre
and Connie con cama camera en el comedor
. In the 1990s, the Gibraltarian man-of-letters
Mario Arroyo published Profiles
(1994), a series of bilingual meditations on love, loneliness and death. Of late there have been interesting works by the essayist Mary Chiappe such as her volume of essays Cabbages and Kings
(2006) and by the UK-educated academic M. G. Sanchez, author of the hard-hitting novel Rock Black 0-10: A Gibraltar fiction
The music of Gibraltar
is undergoing a renaissance
with a multitude of local bands playing original material and covers. Local venues have begun accepting Gibraltarian bands and those from nearby Spain
, resulting in a varied mix of live performances every weekend as well as some weekday nights.
Symbolic release of 30,000 red and white balloons on Gibraltar National Day
, one for every person living on The Rock.
Since the first Gibraltar National Day in 1992 until recently, the day's main event has been a political rally
which was held at Grand Casemates Square. In recent years, the main event has been held at John Mackintosh Square and hosted by the Mayor of Gibraltar
from the balcony of the City Hall
. The main event culminates with the symbolic release of 30,000 red and white balloons
representing the people of Gibraltar.
The Conservative MP Andrew Rosindell
described the event as "...a magnificent celebration of the Gibraltarian people, showing not only their pride in being British, but also their love of their homeland – The Rock itself."
Gibraltarians encircle the Rock in 2004.
In 2004, Gibraltar celebrated the 300th anniversary of its capture. In recognition of and with thanks for its long association with Gibraltar, the Royal Navy
was given the freedom of the City
. Another event saw nearly the entire population, dressed in red, white and blue, link hands to form a human chain encircling the Rock.
In 2007 there were eighteen Gibraltar Sports Associations with official recognition from their respective International Governing Bodies. Others, including the Gibraltar National Olympic Committee, have submitted applications for recognition which are being considered. The Government supports the many sporting associations financially. Gibraltar also competes in the bi-annual Island Games
, which it hosted in 1995. Football
is the most popular sport in Gibraltar. The Gibraltar Football Association
applied for full membership of UEFA
, but their bid was turned down in 2007 in a contentious decision. Cricket
enjoys massive popularity in Gibraltar. The Gibraltar national cricket team
recently won the European Cricket Championships. Rugby union
is fairly popular, and Campo Gibraltar RFC
now play in the Andalusian second division.
Site of the first telephone exchange in City Mill Lane.
Gibraltar has a digital telephone exchange supported by a fibre optic and copper infrastructure. The main telephone operator, Gibtelecom
, also operates a GSM
network and is an Internet Service provider.
A local company Gibnet Limited, started the first Internet service in January 1996 and later changed its name to Sapphire Networks Limited.
Victorian Post Box of standard 1887 UK design in use in Gibraltar Old Town in 2008
The Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation
operates a television and radio station on UHF, VHF and medium-wave. The radio service is also Internet-streamed. Special events and the daily news bulletin are streamed in video.
The largest and most frequently published newspaper is the Gibraltar Chronicle
, Gibraltar’s oldest established daily newspaper and the world’s second oldest English language
newspaper to have been in print continuously
with daily editions six days a week. Panorama
is published on weekdays, and Vox
, 7 Days
, The New People
, and Gibsport
Within Gibraltar, the main form of transport is the car. Motorbikes are popular and there is a good modern bus service. Unlike in other British territories, traffic drives on the right, as the territory shares a land border with Spain.
There is a cable car
which runs from ground level to the top of the rock, with an intermediate station at the apes’ den.
Restrictions on transport introduced by the Spanish dictator Francisco Franco
closed the land frontier in 1969 and prohibited any air or ferry
connections. In 1982, the land border was reopened. As the result of an agreement signed in Cordoba
on 18 September 2006 between Gibraltar, the United Kingdom and Spain,
the Spanish government agreed to relax the border controls
at the frontier that have plagued locals for decades; in return, Britain will pay increased pensions to workers who lost their jobs when Franco closed the border.
Restrictions on telephones were removed in 2007 and restrictions on movements at the airport were removed on 16 December 2006.
The first Iberia flight lands at Gibraltar.
Gibraltar maintains regular flight connections to London
. Scheduled flights to Morocco
proved unsustainable due to insufficient demand.
operated a service between Gibraltar and London and other cities for many years. The airline initially flew under the name "Gibraltar Airways." In 1989, and in anticipation of service to cities outside the UK, Gibraltar Airways changed its name to GB Airways with the belief that a new name would incur fewer political problems. As a franchise, the airline operated flights in full British Airways livery. In 2007 GB Airways was purchased by EasyJet
who operate flights under their name from April 2008 when British Airways
re-introduced flights to Gibraltar under their name. Monarch Airlines
operate a daily scheduled service between Gibraltar and Luton. From September 2008 they operate a scheduled service to Manchester, UK. The Spanish national airline
, operated a daily service to Madrid which ceased due to lack of demand. In May 2009 Ándalus Líneas Aéreas
opened a Spanish service.
An annual return charter flight
to Malta is operated by Maltese national airline, Air Malta
is unusual not only due to its proximity to the centre of the city resulting in the airport terminal being within walking distance of much of Gibraltar but also because the runway intersects Winston Churchill Avenue
, the main north-south street, requiring movable barricades to close when aircraft land or depart. New roads and a tunnel for Winston Churchill Avenue, which will end the need to stop road traffic when aircraft use the runway, are planned to coincide with the building of a new airport terminal building
with an originally estimated completion date of 2009,
although due to delays this is now more likely to be 2010 or even 2011.
Motorists, and on occasion pedestrians, crossing the border with Spain have been subjected to long delays and searches by the Spanish authorities.
Spain has closed the border during disputes or incidents involving the Gibraltar authorities,
such as the Aurora cruise ship incident
and when fishermen from the Spanish fishing vessel Piraña
were arrested for illegal fishing in Gibraltar waters.
The most popular alternative airport for Gibraltar is Malaga Airport
in Spain, some 120 km (75 mi) to the east, which offers a wide range of destinations.
Gibraltar receives a large number of visits from cruise ships, and the Strait of Gibraltar is one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world.
Passenger and cargo ships anchor in the port of Gibraltar. Also, a daily ferry links Gibraltar with Tangier
. The ferry between Gibraltar and Algeciras, which had been halted in 1969 when the Spanish dictator severed the communications with Gibraltar, was finally reopened on December 16, 2009, served by the Spanish company Transcoma.
There are no train or tram services within Gibraltar.
Royal Navy base in Gibraltar.
Gibraltar's defence is the responsibility of the tri-service British Forces Gibraltar
. In January 2007, the Ministry of Defence announced that the private company - SERCO - would provide services to the base. The announcement resulted in the affected trade unions striking.
- The Royal Gibraltar Regiment provides the army garrison, based at Devils Tower Camp . The regiment was originally a part-time reserve force but the British Army placed it on the permanent establishment in 1990. The regiment includes full-time and part-time soldiers recruited from Gibraltar, as well as British Army regulars posted from other regiments.
- The Royal Navy maintains a squadron at the Rock. The squadron is responsible for the security and integrity of British Gibraltar Territorial Waters (BGTW). The shore establishment at Gibraltar is called HMS Rooke after Sir George Rooke who captured the Rock for Archduke Charles (pretender to the Spanish throne) in 1704. Gibraltar's strategic position provides an important facility for the Royal Navy and Britain's allies.
- Ships from the Spanish Navy do not call at Gibraltar.
- British and U.S. nuclear submarines frequently visit the Z berths at Gibraltar. A Z berth provides the facility for nuclear submarines to visit for operational or recreational purposes, and for non-nuclear repairs.
- The Royal Air Force station at Gibraltar forms part of Headquarters British Forces Gibraltar. Although aircraft are no longer permanently stationed at RAF Gibraltar, a variety of RAF aircraft make regular visits to the Rock and the airfield also houses a section from the Met Office.
Gibraltar and the Falklands War
During the Falklands War
, an Argentine plan to attack British shipping in the harbour using frogmen (Operation Algeciras
) was foiled.
The naval base also played a part in supporting the task force sent by Britain to recover the Falklands.
Attempted IRA bombing
An inquest ruled the SAS's action to be lawful.
The families of the deceased took the case to the European Court of Human Rights
. In 1995 it held by ten votes to nine that the British government had violated Article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights
. It also ruled that the three killed had been engaged in an act of terrorism
, consequently dismissing unanimously the applicants' claims for damages, for costs and expenses incurred by the original inquest and for any remaining claims for just satisfaction.
Gibraltar is currently twinned
with the following European cities:
Gibraltar was once twinned with the following British town:
- ^ Gibraltar was captured on 24 July 1704, Old Style, and 4 August 1704, New Style
- ^ The treaty was signed on 31 March 1713, Old Style, and 11 April 1713, New Style - Peace and Friendship Treaty of Utrecht between France and Great Britain
- ^ a b Abstract of Statistics 2008
- ^ New Online Service Ranks the World’s Most Unstable Entities, IHS Media Desk, March 25, 2008.
- ^ a b  UK House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee 2007-2008 Report, pg 16
- ^ Informe sobre la cuestión de Gibraltar, Spanish Foreign Ministry (Spanish)
- ^ "Regions and territories: Gibraltar". British Broadcasting Corporation. 2007-07-18. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/3851047.stm. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
- ^ Mark Oliver; Sally Bolton, Jon Dennis, Matthew Tempest (4 August 2004). "Gibraltar". Guardian Unlimited. http://www.guardian.co.uk/gibraltar/story/0,,634007,00.html. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
- ^ Corrected transcript of evidence taken before the Foreign Affairs Select Committee; 2008-03-28; Answer to Question 257 by Jim Murphy: [T]he UK Government will never – "never" is a seldom-used word in politics – enter into an agreement on sovereignty without the agreement of the Government of Gibraltar and their people. In fact, we will never even enter into a process without that agreement.
- ^ "History of Gibraltar". Government of Gibraltar. http://www.gibraltar.gov.gi/gov_depts/port/port_index.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
- ^ Choi, Charles (2006). "Gibraltar". MSNBC.COM. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/14817677/. Retrieved 2010-01-08.
- ^ Maurice Harvey (1996). Gibraltar. A History. Spellmount Limited. pp. 50–51. ISBN 1-86227-103-8.
- ^ Maurice Harvey (1996). Gibraltar. A History. Spellmount Limited. pp. 51–52. ISBN 1-86227-103-8.
- ^ the British attacked the Rock of Gibraltar
- ^ Andrews, Allen, Proud Fortress The Fighting Story Of Gibraltar, p32-33:
- ^ a b Jackson, Sir William, Rock of the Gibraltarians, p100-101
- ^ Andrews, Allen, Proud Fortress The Fighting Story Of Gibraltar, p32-33
- ^ Jackson, Sir William, Rock of the Gibraltarians, p100-101:
- ^ Rock of Contention. A History of Gibraltar. George Hills (1974). London: Robert Hale. pp. 173-174. ISBN 0-7091-4352-4
- ^ "Gibraltar." Microsoft Encarta 2006 [DVD]. Microsoft Corporation, 2005.
- ^ Paco Galliano (2003). History of Galliano's Bank (1855 - 1987): The Smallest Bank in the World. Gibraltar: Gibraltar Books. pp. 57–9.
- ^ General's body to be exhumed
- ^ Anthony Cave Brown, Bodyguard of Lies, Harper& Row, 1975, p. 239
- ^ Waller, John H.. The Unseen War in Europe: Espionage and Conspiracy in the Second World War. p. 264.
- ^ Cahoon, Ben (2000). "Gibraltar". WorldStatesmen. http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Gibraltar.html. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
- ^ "Gibraltar". The New York Times. http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/gibraltar/index.html?s=oldest&. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
- ^ http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/cm200708/cmhansrd/cm081009/debtext/81009-0021.htm
- ^ a b "Communiqué of the ministerial meeting of the forum of dialogue on Gibraltar". Government of Gibraltar. 18 September 2006. http://www.gibraltar.gov.gi/pensions/Ministerial_Statement.pdf. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
- ^ a b "Press Release. Airport Agreement". Government of Gibraltar. 18 September 2006. http://www.gibraltar.gov.gi/latest_news/press_releases/2006/271-2006.pdf. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
- ^ a b Government of Gibraltar (18 September 2006). "Trilateral Forum. Ministerial Statement on Pensions". http://www.gibraltar.gov.gi/latest_news/press_releases/2006/Ministerial_Statement_On_Pensions.pdf. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
- ^ Transcript of evidence taken before the Foreign Affairs Select Committee
- ^ European Court Judgement
- ^ Chief Minister's statement
- ^ Britain tells Spain violation unacceptable
- ^ Return of the Armada
- ^ Govan, Fiona (08 Dec 2009). "Spain apologies after incursion into Gibraltar waters". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/spain/6761318/Spain-apologies-after-incursion-into-Gibraltar-waters.html. Retrieved March 10, 2010. "Gibraltarian police detained the Spaniards and two suspected smugglers, who grounded their dinghy on rocks near a supermarket inside the port."
- ^ Gerry, O’Reilly (1999). "Gibraltar: Sovereignty Disputes and Territorial Water". IBRU Boundary and Security Bulletin Spring. http://www.dur.ac.uk/resources/ibru/publications/full/bsb7-1_oreilly.pdf. Retrieved March 10, 2010. "Spain claims that Britain has no right to territorial waters, except for a small portion in the Gibraltar port area in accordance with the Spanish interpretation of the Treaty of Utrecht."
- ^ Graham, Keeley (July 21, 2009). "Miguel Ángel Moratinos, Spanish Foreign Minister, met by protests on visit to Gibraltar". The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/europe/article6722187.ece. Retrieved March 10, 2010.
- ^  Chief Minister's UN Speech "Mr Chairman, nobody who visits Gibraltar and observes its society and self government can objectively think that Gibraltar, in reality, remains a colony." Speech to the United Nations Special Committee on Decolonisation 8 October 2009
- ^  David Blair, Gibraltar makes plans for self-government, Daily Telegraph, 28 February 2002 "GIBRALTAR'S parliament approved an ambitious package of constitutional reform yesterday designed to give the colony almost complete self-government."
- ^ "Gibraltar". Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/233245/Gibraltar. Retrieved 18 August 2009. "Gibraltar is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom and is self-governing in all matters but defence."
- ^  The Secretariat of the Commonwealth: "The governor represents the British monarch who is head of state and retains direct responsibility for all matters not specifically allocated to local ministers: principally external affairs, defence and internal security"
- ^  PriceWaterhouseCoopers "About Gibraltar"
- ^  Gibraltar Police Authority, About the Gibraltar Police Authority - Other Duties and Responsibilities - Accountability: "1. to be accountable to the Governor on policing aspects of national security including internal security (section 12); 2. to be accountable to the Government for those parts of the Annual Policing Plan which do not relate to national security (section 15)."
- ^  Gibraltar Chief Minister’s address at the United Nations Committee of 24 on 5 June 2007: The new Constitution "maximises self Government in all areas of Governance except defence, external affairs and internal security which, under our own Constitution vest in the Governor as a matter of distribution of powers."
- ^ a b  Regions and territories: Gibraltar "Gibraltar is self-governing in all areas except defence and foreign policy."
- ^  Page 6, "Lords of Appeal in Ordinary in the House of Lords are appointed by the Queen on the recommendation of the Prime Minister, but the Lord Chancellor's opinion is generally sought. This method of appointment is a matter of practice and convention, not of written law."
- ^ "Non-Self Governing Territories". United Nations. http://www.un.org/Depts/dpi/decolonization/trust3.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-18.
- ^ "Official Government of Gibraltar London website". http://www.gibraltar.gov.uk/int/Today/chronicle.asp?fld_ID=8595. Retrieved 18 October 2008.
- ^ "Address to UN". http://www.gibraltar.gov.gi/latest_news/topical_speeches/un_fourth_committee.htm. Retrieved 18 October 2008.
- ^  Special Committee on Decolonisation hears petitioner from Gibraltar as Spain opposes its removal from list of Non-Self-Governing Territories "the representative of Spain opposed any attempt to remove it from the list of Non-Self-Governing Territories undergoing decolonisation"
- ^ "Gibraltar Chronicle". http://www.chronicle.gi/. Retrieved 16 March 2010.
- ^ The Gibraltar Parliament http://www.gibraltar.gov.gi/the-gibraltar-parliament
- ^ "Gibraltar should join South West for elections to European Parliament". Electoral Commission. 28 August 2003. http://www.electoralcommission.org.uk/media-centre/newsreleasereviews.cfm/news/226. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
- ^ "UK Parliament - Written Answers: Mr. Hoon's answer to Mr. Hoyle's question about Gibraltar's referendum on the Constitution and self-determination". UK Parliament. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200506/cmhansrd/vo060704/text/60704w0007.htm#06070466000072. Retrieved 2010-02-26.
- ^ Statement by the Minister for Europe
- ^ "Gibraltar Water Supply". AquaGib. http://www.aquagib.gi/gibraltar_water_supply.html. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
- ^ C. Michael Hogan (2008) Barbary Macaque: Macaca sylvanus, Globaltwitcher.com, ed. Nicklas Stromberg
- ^ BBC news - Churchill sends telegram to protect apes
- ^ http://www.gibraltar.gov.uk/hol/WhatToSee/upper_rock.asp
- ^ Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Gibraltar
- ^ "Weather2Travel.com: Gibraltar Climate Guide". http://www.weather2travel.com/climate-guides/index.php?destination=gibraltar.
- ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Gibraltar". http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weatherall.php3?s=59480&refer=&units=metric.
- ^ "Census of Gibraltar 2001". Government of Gibraltar. 2001. http://www.gibraltar.gov.gi/gov_depts/Statistics/Census_of_Gibraltar_2001.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
- ^ "Direct Corporate Taxation". LawAndTax-News.com. June 2007. http://www.lawandtax-news.com/html/gibraltar/jgilatdctx.html. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
- ^ CIA World Fact Book "Gibraltar". The World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gi.html#Econ CIA World Fact Book. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
- ^ http://www.fosterandpartners.com/Projects/1268/Default.aspx
- ^ http://www.zibb.com/article/4738650/Gibraltar+accused+of+illegal+expansion+into+Spanish+waters
- ^ European Central Bank Monthly Bulletin, April 2006, page 96
- ^ a b "Currency Notes Act, Section 6". Government of Gibraltar. 11 May 1934. http://www.gibraltarlaws.gov.gi/articles/1934-06o.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
- ^ Managing a Global Enterprise, William R. Feist, James A. Heely, Min H. Lu, page 40
- ^ Currency Board Arrangements, Tomás J. T. Baliño, Charles Enoch, International Monetary Fund, page 1
- ^ Madge, A; A. Simons (June 2000). "Gibraltar". Guardian International Currency Corp. http://www.guardianfx.com/information/europe/gibraltar.html. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
- ^ Noble, John; Forsyth, Susan; Hardy, Paula; Hannigan, Des (2005). Andalucía. Lonely Planet. p. 221. ISBN 978-1740596763.
- ^ Statistics Office, Government of Gibraltar: Abstract of Statistics 2008,
- ^ Archer, Edward G.: Gibraltar, identity and empire. Routledge Advances in European Politics
- ^ Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (.PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.1. 2008 revision. United Nations. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-12.
- ^ List by the CIA World Factbook (2009 estimates)
- ^ United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2007). "United Nations World Population Prospects: 2006 revision, Table A.15". New York: UN. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2006/WPP2006_Highlights_rev.pdf. Retrieved 7 December 2009.
- ^ ‘’The World Factbook’’. CIA
- ^ "Gibraltar Methodist Church". The Methodist Church. http://www.methodist.org.gi/. Retrieved 2007-10-30.
- ^ Abstract of Statistics 2008, Office of Statistics, Government of Gibraltar
- ^ Official Gilbraltarian Baha'i Website
- ^ "People". Official Government of Gibraltar London website. 2005. http://www.gibraltar.gov.uk/hol/people.asp. Retrieved 2007-11-06.
- ^ Jacobs, Joseph. "Gibraltar". JewishEncyclopedia.com. http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=220&letter=G. Retrieved 2007-11-06.
- ^ "Culture of Gibraltar". Everyculture. http://www.everyculture.com/Ge-It/Gibraltar.html#orientation. Retrieved 2007-10-05.
- ^ "Gibraltar Ethnologue profile". Ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng#Gibraltar. Retrieved 2007-09-21.
- ^ "Education & Training". Government of Gibraltar. 7 April 2003. http://www.gibraltar.gov.gi/gov_depts/education/education_index.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
- ^ "Gibraltar Health". TravelPuppy. http://travelpuppy.com/gibraltar/health.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
- ^ Gibraltar Health Authority
- ^ Mascarenhas, Alice. "Always a Pleasure to Perform in Gibraltar". The Gibraltar Chronicle. http://www.chronicle.gi/Features/Charles%20Ramirez/charles%20ramirez.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
- ^ "Newsletter No". Friends of Gibraltar Heritage Society. 70 November 2004. http://www.foghs.org.uk/nl/70.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
- ^ Hansard 27 October 2004: Column 1436
- ^ "UEFA snub the Rock". The Sun. 26 January 2007. http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/sport/football/article29250.ece.
- ^ "Gibraltar: Fact File". Birmingham UK International Directory - Gibraltar. http://www.birminghamuk.com/cities/gibinfo.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-31.
- ^ "Spain restores Gibraltar air link". British Broadcasting Corporation. 16 December 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/rss/-/2/hi/europe/6198314.stm. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
- ^ Government of Gibraltar. "Press Release: Government of Gibraltar Reaction to GB Sale". http://www.gibraltar.gov.gi/latest_news/press_releases/2007/239-2007.pdf. Retrieved 2008-10-16.
- ^ "Regional Andalusia airline begins Gibraltar-Madrid airbridge". MercoPress. http://en.mercopress.com/2009/04/30/regional-andalusia-airline-begins-gibraltar-madrid-airbridge. Retrieved 2010-03-09.
- ^ Government of Gibraltar. "Press Release: New Air Terminal, tunnel under the runway and new road leading to all parts of Gibraltar north of the runway". http://www.gibraltar.gov.gi/latest_news/press_releases/2007/111-2007.pdf. Retrieved 2008-10-17. and images of the proposals: "Press Release: New Terminal Building". http://www.gibraltar.gov.gi/latest_news/press_releases/2007/111-2007-images.pdf. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
- ^ "The Chief Minister presented the plans for an ambitious new terminal building for Gibraltar Airport". 7 Days Gibraltar. http://www.7daysgibraltar.com/article.php?id=655. Retrieved 2007-12-21.
- ^ New ferry 'repairs 40 year gap' says Spanish Diplomat, Gibraltar Chronicle, December 17, 2009
- ^ "HIVE Location overview - Gibraltar". Ministry of Defence. December 2007. http://www.mod.uk/NR/rdonlyres/1B9B3D6A-1D09-49B1-9209-3AE16C1614F8/0/20080201_gibraltar_lo.pdf. Retrieved January 2010.
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- ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2004/jul/24/gibraltar.falklands
- ^ Tweedie, June; Tony Ward (Winter 1989). "The Gibraltar Shootings and the Politics of Inquests". Journal of Law and Society 16 (4): 464–476. doi:10.2307/1410331. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0263-323X(198924)16%3A4%3C464%3ATGSATP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-7. Retrieved 2007-12-21.
- ^ "World News Briefs; Rights Court Says Britain Illegally Killed 3 in I.R.A.". The New York Times. 28 September 1995. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=990CEED71F3DF93BA1575AC0A963958260&n=Top%2fReference%2fTimes%20Topics%2fOrganizations%2fE%2fEuropean%20Court%20of%20Human%20Rights. Retrieved 2007-07-07.
- ^ Searle, Dominique (12 May 2009). "Gibraltar-Madeira Twinning". Gibraltar Chronicle. http://www.chronicle.gi/headlines_details.php?id=16040. Retrieved 2009-05-27.
- ^ "Gibraltar Twinned". madeira4u. 15 May 2009. http://www.madeira4u.com/blog.html/4163. Retrieved 2009-05-27.
- ^ Searle, Dominique (27 May 2009). "Twinned". Gibraltar Chronicle. http://www.chronicle.gi/headlines_details.php?id=16201. Retrieved 2009-05-27.
- ^ "Mayor set for Gibraltar - Ballymena twinning". Gibraltar News Online. 25 April 2006. http://www.gibraltarnewsonline.com/2006/04/25/mayor-set-for-gibraltar-ballymena-twinning/. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
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- General information
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|Capitals of European states and territories
|Capitals of non-sovereign territories or constituent nations shown in bold italics
Andorra la Vella, Andorra
Brussels, Belgium 5
Douglas, Isle of Man4
London, United Kingdom
Paris, France 1
Saint Helier, Jersey4
Saint Peter Port, Guernsey4
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Tórshavn, Faroe Islands
Prague, Czech Republic
Ankara, Turkey 1
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San Marino, San Marino
Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Vatican City, Vatican City
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Sukhumi, Abkhazia 3
Tbilisi, Georgia 1
Tskhinvali, South Ossetia 3
Yerevan, Armenia 2
|1 Transcontinental country. 2 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe. 3 Partially recognised country. 4 Crown Dependency or Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom. 5 Also the seat of the European Union, see Location of European Union institutions and Brussels and the European Union.
|Capitals of British territories
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, British Antarctic Territory
, British Indian Ocean Territory
, British Virgin Islands
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Edinburgh of the Seven Seas
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Grytviken (de jure)
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|Non-sovereign territories of Europe
Adjara, Georgia · Åland Islands, Finland · Azores, Portugal · Crimea, Ukraine · Friuli – Venezia Giulia, Italy · Gagauzia, Moldova · Madeira,1 Portugal · Mount Athos, Greece · Nakhchivan,1 Azerbaijan · Sardinia, Italy · Sicily, Italy · Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Italy · Valle d'Aosta, Italy · Vojvodina, Serbia
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|1 Entirely on another continent but having sociopolitical connexions with Europe. 2 Recognised only by a small number of other states. 3 Recognised by 65 UN member states. 4 Recognised only by Turkey.
Gibraltar and the United Kingdom