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Gibraltar
Flag Coat of arms
MottoNulli Expugnabilis Hosti  (Latin)
"Conquered by no enemy."1
AnthemGibraltar Anthem
Royal anthemGod Save the Queen
Coat of arms of the Government and Mayor of Gibraltar
Coat of arms of the Government and Mayor of Gibraltar
Capital Gibraltar
36°8′N 5°21′W / 36.133°N 5.35°W / 36.133; -5.35
Largest Most populated district
Westside
Official language(s) English
Unofficial languages
Vernacular
Spanish
Llanito
Ethnic groups  Gibraltarian (of mixed Genoese, Maltese, Portuguese and Andalusian descent), other British, Moroccan and Indian
Demonym Gibraltarian
Government British Overseas Territory
 -  Head of state HM Queen Elizabeth II
 -  Governor Sir Adrian Johns
 -  Chief Minister Peter Caruana
Event Date 
 -  Captured 4 August 1704[1] 
 -  Ceded 11 April 1713[2] (Treaty of Utrecht
 -  National Day 10 September 
 -  Constitution Day 29 January 
EU accession 1 January 19732
Area
 -  Total 6.8 km2 (229th)
2.6 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0%
Population
 -  Jan 2008 estimate 29,286 (2008 estimate)[3] (209th)
 -  Density 4,290/km2 (3rd)
11,154/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $1066 million (197th)
 -  Per capita $38,200 (n/a)
HDI (n/a) n/a (n/a) (n/a)
Currency Gibraltar pound £3 (GIP)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Date formats dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the right4
Internet TLD .gi5
Calling code 3506
Patron saint Bernard of Clairvaux & Our Lady of Europe
1 [11]
2 As a Special Member State territory of the United Kingdom.
3 Coins and sterling notes are issued by the Government of Gibraltar.
4 Unlike all other UK dependencies but the BIOT.
5 The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union members.
6 Before 10 February 2007, 9567 from Spain.
.Gibraltar (pronounced /dʒɨˈbrɔːltər/) is a British overseas territory located on the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula and Europe at the entrance of the Mediterranean overlooking the Strait of Gibraltar.^ It is a British Overseas Territory that is famous for the Rock of Gibraltar, the vantage point that has stood through centuries .
  • Gibraltar Phone Cards | Gibraltar Calling Cards - Cheap Gibraltar Phone Card to Gibraltar 23 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.phonecardsmile.com [Source type: News]

The territory covers 6.843 square kilometres (2.642 sq mi) and shares a land border with Spain to the north. Gibraltar has historically been an important base for the British Armed Forces and is the site of a Royal Navy base.
.According to the Jane's Country Risk Ratings 2008, which measures the stability of 235 countries, territories and political entities in the world, Gibraltar is the 5th most stable territory worldwide, and the highest ranked British territory.^ It is a British Overseas Territory that is famous for the Rock of Gibraltar, the vantage point that has stood through centuries .
  • Gibraltar Phone Cards | Gibraltar Calling Cards - Cheap Gibraltar Phone Card to Gibraltar 23 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.phonecardsmile.com [Source type: News]

The ratings are based on five fundamental categories: political, social, economic, external and military and security.[4] Gibraltar has almost complete internal self-government, the Governor retaining responsibilities for external affairs, defence, internal security and the public service.[5]
The sovereignty of Gibraltar has been a major point of contention in Anglo-Spanish relations. Gibraltar was ceded by Spain to the Crown of Great Britain in perpetuity, under the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, though Spain asserts a claim to the territory and seeks its return.[6] In a referendum held in 2002, Gibraltarians rejected by an overwhelming majority (99%) a proposal of shared sovereignty on which Spain and Britain were said to have reached "broad agreement".[7][8] The British government has committed itself to respecting the Gibraltarians' wishes.[9]

Contents

Etymology

The name Gibraltar is the Spanish derivation of the Arabic name Jabal Tāriq (جبل طارق), meaning "mountain of Tariq".[10] It refers to the geological formation, the Rock of Gibraltar, which in turn was named after the Berber Umayyad general Tariq ibn-Ziyad who led the initial incursion into Iberia in advance of the main Moorish force in 711 under the command of Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I. Earlier, it was known as Mons Calpe, one of the Pillars of Hercules. Today, Gibraltar is known colloquially as Gib or The Rock.

History

German historical map of the promontory of Gibraltar.
There is evidence of human habitation in Gibraltar in Gorham's Cave between 128,000 and 24,000 BCE, by Neanderthal man, an extinct species of the genus Homo. Gibraltar was the last known holdout of Neanderthal man. Evidence at the cave shows the Neanderthals likely used it as a shelter for 100,000 years, sustained by the diversity of wildlife and plants in the surrounding areas. Cro-Magnon man took over Gibraltar around 24,000 BCE.[11]
Within recorded history, the first inhabitants were the Phoenicians, around 950 BCE. Subsequently, Gibraltar became known as one of the Pillars of Hercules, after the Greek legend of the creation of the Strait of Gibraltar. The Carthaginians and Romans also established semi-permanent settlements.
After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Gibraltar came briefly under the control of the Vandals. The area later formed part of the Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania until the Kingdom's collapse from the Muslim conquest in 711 CE.

The Moorish period

On 30 April 711, the Umayyad general Tariq ibn Ziyad led a Berber-dominated army across the Strait from Ceuta. He first attempted to land at Algeciras but failed. Subsequently, he landed undetected at the southern point of the Rock from present-day Morocco. However, the first four centuries of Moorish control brought little development.
The Almohad Sultan Abd al-Mu'min built the first permanent settlement in the 1150s. He ordered the construction of a fortification on the Rock, the remains of which are still present in the form of the Moorish Castle. Gibraltar would later become part of the Kingdom of Granada until 1309, when Castillian troops briefly occupied it. In 1333, the Marinids, who had invaded Muslim Spain, conquered it, but ceded Gibraltar to the Kingdom of Granada in 1374. Finally, the Duke of Medina Sidonia reconquered it in 1462, finally ending 750 years of Moorish control.

The Spanish period

The Battle of Gibraltar, 25 April 1607.
Although the Duke of Medina Sidonia had been left in sole possession of Gibraltar, the town was claimed by the king Henry IV, who added it to the Crown patrimony while adding King of Gibraltar to his many titles. In 1462, the king added the territory of the ruined town of Algeciras to Gibraltar, thus creating his extensive municipal term, a hinterland to be known as the Campo Llano de Gibraltar.[12]
However, during the quarrels that took place during the reign of Henry IV, the town and municipality of Gibraltar were restored to the Duke of Medina Sidonia in 1468. In 1474, Medina Sidonia sold Gibraltar to a population of Jewish conversos from Córdoba and Seville, led by Pedro de Herrera in exchange for maintaining the garrison of the town for two years. A group of 4,350 Jews established themselves in the town. However, this lasted only two years.[13] In 1476, the Duke of Medina Sidonia expelled the Conversos to Córdoba and the Inquisition.
In 1501 Gibraltar passed again under the hands of the Spanish Crown, which had been established in 1479. In 1501, in Toledo, Isabella of Castile issued a Royal Warrant granting Gibraltar the coat of arms that it still uses today.
The naval Battle of Gibraltar took place on 25 April 1607 during the Eighty Years' War when a Dutch fleet surprised and engaged a Spanish fleet anchored at the Bay of Gibraltar. During the four-hour action, the entire Spanish fleet was destroyed.

The British period

During the War of the Spanish Succession, English [14] and Dutch troops, allies of Archduke Charles, the Austrian pretender to the Spanish Crown, formed a joint fleet and attacked various towns on the southern coast of Spain. On 4 August 1704, after six hours of bombardment starting at 5:00 am, the fleet, under the command of Admiral Sir George Rooke, assisted by Field Marshal Prince George of Hesse-Darmstadt, comprising some 1800 Dutch marines and the English Royal Marines, captured the town of Gibraltar and claimed it in the name of the Archduke Charles. The terms of surrender provided certain assurances but commanders lost control, drunken sailors and marines engaged in rape and pillaged the town, desecrating most Catholic churches, whilst townspeople carried out reprisal killings[15][16][16][17][18][19]. By 7 August 1704, after order was restored, almost all the population felt that staying in Gibraltar was too dangerous and left without further violence for nearby areas of Spain.
Franco-Spanish troops failed to retake the town. The 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, which ended the war, awarded Britain sovereignty over Gibraltar. In this treaty, Spain ceded Gibraltar (Article X) and Minorca (Article XI) to the United Kingdom in perpetuity. Great Britain has retained sovereignty over Gibraltar (though not Minorca) ever since, despite attempts by Spain to recapture it.
Due to military incursions by Spain various fortifications were established and occupied by British troops in the area which came to be known as "the British Neutral Ground". This was the area to the north of the city wall, militarily conquered and continuously occupied by the British except during time of war. (The sovereignty of this area, which today contains the airport, cemetery, a number of housing estates and the sports centre, is separately disputed by Spain.)
Great Siege of Gibraltar, 13 September 1782.
During the American Revolution, the Spanish, who had entered the conflict against the British, imposed a stringent blockade against Gibraltar as part of an unsuccessful siege (the Great Siege of Gibraltar) that lasted for more than three years, from 1779 to 1783. On 14 September 1782, the British destroyed the floating batteries of the French and Spanish besiegers. The signing of peace preliminaries in February 1783 ended the siege.[20]
Gibraltar subsequently became a key base for the Royal Navy, first playing an important part prior to the Battle of Trafalgar. Its strategic value increased with the opening of the Suez Canal as it controlled the sea route between the UK and its colonies and Dominions east of Suez, such as India and Australia.
Spanish Civil War
After Britain recognised the Franco regime in 1938,[citation needed] Gibraltar had two Spanish Consulates, a Republican one and a Nationalistic one. During the Spanish Civil War there were several incidents that touched Gibraltar. In May 1937, HMS Arethusa had to tow HMS Hunter into port after Hunter hit a mine off Almeria that killed and wounded several British sailors. In June 1937, the German pocket battleship Deutschland arrived in Gibraltar with dead and wounded after Republican planes bombed it in Ibiza in retaliation for the Condor Legion's bombing of Guernica. In August 1938, the Republican destroyer Jose Luis Diez took refuge in Gibraltar after taking casualties from the guns of the National cruiser Canarias. The one incident that resulted in the death of Gibraltarians occurred in January 1938 when a submarine of unknown origin, though probably Italian, sank the SS Endymion, a small freighter taking a cargo of coal to Cartagena, which was in Republican hands.[21]
World War II
Władysław Sikorski's memorial in Gibraltar. He led Poland’s government in exile during World War II, died on 4 July 1943, when the British bomber he was in crashed into the sea after taking off from Gibraltar.[22]
During World War II, the British evacuated Gibraltar's women and children and turned the Rock into a fortress. They also converted the civilian racecourse into an airfield. Spain's reluctance to allow the German Army onto Spanish soil frustrated a German plan to capture the Rock, codenamed Operation Felix, later named Llona. Germany's Admiral Wilhelm Canaris, head of the Abwehr, secretly opposed Adolf Hitler and the Nazis, and filed a pointedly negative assessment of the options. Hitler sent Canaris to negotiate with Franco, but, according to some sources, Canaris privately told Franco it would be foolish for him to join or cooperate with the Axis.[23] Franco subsequently made exorbitant demands for his cooperation, and erected concrete barriers on roads leading to the Pyrenees.[24]

Recent history

In the 1950s, Spain, under the dictatorship of Franco, renewed its claim to sovereignty over Gibraltar, sparked in part by the visit of Queen Elizabeth II in 1954 to celebrate the 250th anniversary of the Rock's capture. For the next thirty years, Spain restricted movement between Gibraltar and Spain, in application of one of the articles of the Treaty. Gibraltar's first sovereignty referendum was held on 10 September 1967, in which Gibraltar's voters were asked whether they wished either to pass under Spanish sovereignty (when Spain was under the dictatorship of Franco), or remain under British sovereignty, with institutions of self-government. The vote was overwhelmingly in favour of continuance of British sovereignty, with 12,138 to 44 voting to reject Spanish sovereignty. This led to the passing of the Gibraltar Constitution Order, granting autonomy in May 1969, which the Government of Spain strongly opposed. In response, in June Spain completely closed the border with Gibraltar and severed all communication links.[25]
View of the frontier from the Spanish side.
In 1981 it was announced that the honeymoon for the royal wedding between Prince Charles and Diana Spencer would start from Gibraltar. The Spanish Government responded that King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofia had declined their invitation to the ceremony as an act of protest.[26]
The border with Spain was partially reopened in 1982, and fully reopened in 1985 prior to Spain's accession into the European Community. Joint talks on the future of The Rock held between Spain and the United Kingdom have occurred since the late 1980s under the Brussels Agreement.
In July 2002 proposals for joint sovereignty with Spain were revealed by British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw. A second sovereignty referendum was organised in Gibraltar in November 2002, which rejected any idea of joint sovereignty by 17,900 (98.97%) votes to 187 (1.03%). The British Government restated that, in accordance with the preamble of the Constitution of Gibraltar that "the UK will never enter into arrangements under which the people of Gibraltar would pass under the sovereignty of another state against their freely and democratically expressed wishes."[27]
"La Cuestión de Gibraltar" (Spanish: "The Question of Gibraltar"), as it is termed by Spain, continues to affect Spain–United Kingdom relations.
September 2006 saw representatives of the United Kingdom, Gibraltar and Spain conclude talks in Córdoba, Spain, with a landmark agreement on a range of issues affecting the Rock and the Campo de Gibraltar removing some of the restrictions imposed by Spain.[28] This agreement resolved a number of longstanding problems; improved flow of traffic at the frontier, use of the airport,[29] recognition of the +350 telephone code and the settlement of the long-running dispute regarding the pensions of former Spanish workers in Gibraltar who lost their jobs when Spain closed its border in 1969.[30]
The Trilateral process is ongoing, and the British Government now states as policy that it will not enter into talks about sovereignty with Spain without the consent of the Government and people of the territory.[31]
In December 2008, Gibraltar won its EU case on regional selectivity providing for a new tax system.[32] A public holiday in January 2009 was announced to celebrate this milestone.[33]
In 2009 there were a number of Spanish incursions into waters around Gibraltar, claimed as territorial waters by both the United Kingdom and Spain, leading to intervention by the Gibraltar Police and a diplomatic protest by the UK,[34][35] plus an incursion into the port area[36] which is not disputed.[37]
In July 2009 Miguel Ángel Moratinos, became the first serving Spanish foreign minister to visit Gibraltar for a meeting of the trilateral forum.[38]

Politics

Parliament of Gibraltar
The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who is represented by the Governor of Gibraltar. Under its 2006 Constitution Gibraltar is internally self-governing with an elected parliament.[5][39][40][41] Defence, foreign policy and internal security are formally the responsibility of the Governor, the representative of HM the Queen as head of State, who is responsible for judicial and other appointments made on her behalf in consultation with the head of the elected government.[42][43][44][45][46][46][47] Gibraltar nonetheless remains on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories[48] though politicians both from the British Foreign Office[49] and Gibraltar wish to see it removed citing that Gibraltar has effectively been decolonised.[50] Spain opposes any attempt to remove it from the list.[51]
The Parliament of Gibraltar is elected for a term of up to four years. The head of Government is the Chief Minister (as of March 2010, Peter Caruana QC[52]). The Government consists of ten elected members.
The unicameral Parliament presently consists of seventeen elected members, and the Speaker who is not elected, but appointed by a resolution of the Parliament.[53] There are three political parties currently represented in the Parliament: the governing Gibraltar Social Democrats (GSD), and two opposition parties - the Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party (GSLP) and the Gibraltar Liberal Party which are in an electoral alliance and form a single parliamentary grouping.
The 2007 election was contested by the GSD, GSLP-Liberal Alliance, the PDP and two independents. Two parties which fielded candidates in the 2003 election did not present candidates in the 2006 election; the Reform Party was wound up and Gibraltar Labour Party absorbed into the GSD in a merger in 2005. A new party, the Progressive Democratic Party (PDP) was formed in 2006 and fielded candidates in the 2007 election, but none were elected.
Gibraltar is a part of the European Union, having joined under the British Treaty of Accession (1973), with exemption from some areas such as the Customs Union and Common Agricultural Policy. After a ten-year campaign to exercise the right to vote in European Elections, from 2004, the people of Gibraltar participated in elections for the European Parliament as part of the South West England constituency.[54]
In March 2006, British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw announced that a new Gibraltar constitution had been agreed upon and would be published prior to a referendum on its acceptance in Gibraltar that year.[citation needed] In July, in a statement to the UK Parliament, Geoff Hoon, the Minister for Europe, stated that the new Constitution "confirms the right of self-determination of the Gibraltarian people", but mentioned that this right is limited insofar as Article X of the Treaty of Utrecht "gives Spain the right of refusal should Britain ever renounce Sovereignty".[55] On 30 November 2006, a referendum was held to approve a new constitution. The turnout was 60.4% of eligible voters, of whom 60.24% voted to approve the constitution; 37.75% voted against. The remainder returned blank votes. The Chief Minister, Peter Caruana, welcomed the result as a step forward for Gibraltar's political development.
All local political parties oppose any transfer of sovereignty to Spain, instead supporting self-determination. The main UK opposition parties also support this policy and it is currently UK Government policy not to engage in talks about the sovereignty of Gibraltar without the consent of the people of Gibraltar.[56]

Geography

The Rock of Gibraltar, West Side town area, 2006
A view of the Rock of Gibraltar from the south
A view from the Rock of Gibraltar looking north
Satellite view of the Bay of Gibraltar (NASA)
The territory covers 6.843 square kilometres (2.642 sq mi). It shares a 1.2 km (0.75 mi) land border with Spain. On the Spanish side is the town La Línea de la Concepción, a municipality of Cádiz province. The part of Cádiz province next to Gibraltar is called Campo de Gibraltar, literally Gibraltar Countryside. The shoreline measures 12 km (7.5 mi) in length. There are two coasts (sides) of Gibraltar– the East Side, which contains the settlements of Sandy Bay and Catalan Bay, and the Westside, where the vast majority of the population lives.
Having negligible natural resources and few natural freshwater resources, limited to natural wells in the north, until recently Gibraltar used large concrete or natural rock water catchments to collect water. Fresh water from the boreholes is supplemented by two desalination plants: a reverse osmosis plant, constructed in a tunnel within the rock, and a multi-stage flash distillation plant at North Mole.[57]
The Rock itself is made of limestone and is 426 metres (1,398 ft) high. It contains many tunnelled roads, most of which are operated by the military and closed to the public.

Flora and fauna

Over 500 different species of flowering plants grow on The Rock. One of them, the Gibraltar candytuft (Iberis gibraltarica), is endemic to Gibraltar, being the only place in Europe where it is found growing in the wild. It is the symbol of the Upper Rock nature reserve. Among the wild trees that grow all around The Rock, olive and pine trees are some of the most common.
Most of its upper area is covered by a nature reserve, which is home to around 230 Barbary Macaques, commonly known as apes, the only wild monkeys found in Europe.[58] They sometimes visit the town area. Recent genetic studies and historical documents point to their presence on the Rock before its capture by the British. A superstition analogous to that of the ravens at the Tower of London states that if the monkeys ever leave, so will the British. In 1944 British leader Winston Churchill was so concerned about the dwindling monkey population that he sent a message to the Colonial Secretary requesting that something be done about the situation.[59] Other mammals found in Gibraltar include rabbits, foxes and bats. Dolphins and whales are frequently seen in the Bay of Gibraltar. Migrating birds are very common and Gibraltar is home to the only specimens of Barbary Partridges found on the European continent.

Climate

The climate is Mediterranean / Subtropical with mild winters and warm summers. There are two main prevailing winds, an easterly one known as the Levante coming from the Sahara in Africa which brings humid weather and warmer sea and the other as Poniente which is westerly and brings fresher air in and colder sea. Its terrain consists of the 430 metre[60] (1,400 ft) high Rock of Gibraltar and the narrow coastal lowland surrounding it. Rain occurs mainly in winter, the summers are generally dry.
Its average annual temperature is 18 °C (64 °F): 21 °C (70 °F) during the day and 15 °C (59 °F) at night. In the coldest month - January, the typically temperature ranges from 10–17 °C (50–63 °F) during the day, 5–12 °C (41–54 °F) at night, the average sea temperature is 15–16 °C (59–61 °F). In the warmest month - August, the typically temperature ranges from 25–31 °C (77–88 °F) during the day, above 20 °C (68 °F) at night, the average sea temperature is 22 °C (72 °F). Average number of days above 21 °C (70 °F) is 181, average number of days above 32 °C (90 °F) is 5-6 (2 in July, 3 in August). Average morning relative humidity: 82%, evening relative humidity: 64%.[61] Sunshine hours is till 2,778 per year, from 150 in November (5 hours of sunshine every day) to 341 in July (11 hours of sunshine every day).[62]
Climate data for Gibraltar
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 16
(61)
16
(61)
17
(63)
18
(64)
21
(70)
24
(75)
27
(81)
27
(81)
26
(79)
21
(70)
18
(64)
16
(61)
21
(70)
Daily mean °C (°F) 13
(55)
13
(55)
15
(59)
16
(61)
18
(64)
21
(70)
23
(73)
24
(75)
22
(72)
19
(66)
16
(61)
14
(57)
18
(64)
Average low °C (°F) 11
(52)
11
(52)
12
(54)
13
(55)
15
(59)
17
(63)
20
(68)
20
(68)
20
(68)
16
(61)
13
(55)
12
(54)
15
(59)
Precipitation cm (inches) 12
(4.7)
10
(3.9)
10
(3.9)
6
(2.4)
3
(1.2)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
2
(0.8)
7
(2.8)
14
(5.5)
13
(5.1)
83
(32.7)
Source: Weatherbase[63]

Subdivisions

Map of Gibraltar
Gibraltar has no administrative divisions. It is, however, divided into seven Major Residential Areas, which are further divided into Enumeration Areas, used for statistical purposes.[64]
The Major Residential Areas are listed below, with population figures from the Census of 2001:
Residential area Population  % of total
1. East Side 429 1.56%
2. North District 4,116 14.97%
3. Reclamation Areas 9,599 34.91%
4. Sandpits Area 2,207 8.03%
5. South District 4,257 15.48%
6. Town Area 3,588 13.05%
7. Upper Town 2,805 10.20%
Remainder 494 1.79%
Gibraltar 27,495 100%

Economy

The barbary macaques form an integral part of Tourism in Gibraltar
The Rock of Gibraltar as seen from the northern end of Eastern Beach.
The British military traditionally dominated the economy of Gibraltar, with the naval dockyard providing the bulk of economic activity. This has however diminished in the last twenty years, and it is estimated to account for only 7% of the local economy, compared to over 60% in 1984. Today, Gibraltar has an extensive service-based economy, dominated by financial services and tourism.
Recently, many bookmakers and online gaming operators have relocated to Gibraltar to benefit from operating in a regulated jurisdiction with a favourable corporate tax regime. However, this corporate tax regime for non-resident controlled companies is due to be phased out by 2010.[65]
Tourism is also a significant industry. Gibraltar is a popular stop for cruise ships and attracts day visitors from resorts in Spain. The Rock is a popular tourist attraction, particularly among British tourists and residents in the southern coast of Spain. It is also a popular shopping destination, and all goods and services are VAT free. Many of the large British high street chains have branches or franchises in Gibraltar including Marks & Spencer, Bhs, Topshop, Miss Selfridge, Dorothy Perkins, Evans, Adams, Mothercare, Early Learning Centre, Monsoon, Next, Peacocks and the supermarket Morrisons. Branches and franchises of international retailers such as Tommy Hilfiger and Sunglass Hut are also present in Gibraltar, as is the Spanish clothing company Mango.
Figures from the CIA World Factbook show the main export markets in 2006 were United Kingdom 30.8%, Spain 22.7%, Germany 13.7%, Turkmenistan 10.4%, Switzerland 8.3%, Italy 6.7% while the corresponding figures for imports are Spain 23.4%, Russia 12.3%, Italy 12%, UK 9%, France 8.9%, Netherlands 6.8% and United States 4.7%.[66]
The Gibraltar Government state that economy grew in 2004/2005 by 7% to a GDP of £599,180,000. Based on statistics in the 2006 surveys, the Government statisticians estimate it has grown by 8.5% in 2005/6 and by 10.8% in 2006/7 and that the GDP is probably now around 730 million. Inflation was running at 2.6% in 2006 and predicted to be 2% to 3% in 2007. Speaking at the 2007 budget session, Peter Caruana, the Chief Minister said "The scale of Gibraltar's economic success makes it one of the most affluent communities in the entire world."
Preliminary work was begun in 2004 on a 10-year project to construct a new hotel and marina project on the Eastside of the Rock, overlooking Spain's Costa del Sol. Designed by world-famous British architect Norman Foster, the 2 billion euro mega-project will feature three, 200-metre long finger quays and a sweeping kilometre-long curved breakwater to surround them, totaling over 300,000 square metres of infill. The project, known as Sovereign Bay, will include several hotels and casinos and is scheduled for completion in 2014.[67] The deep-draft breakwater will be capable of berthing large ocean liners within the "bay", while the marina will accommodate 500 private boats. Spanish news outlets expressed outrage over the Sovereign Bay project in January 2009, particularly over the fact that infill material to create the quays and breakwater was reportedly coming from Spanish quarries in Andalucia.[68]

Banking

A number of British and international banks have operations based in Gibraltar. Jyske Bank claims to be the oldest bank in the country, based on Jyske's acquisition in 1987 of Banco Galliano, which began operations in Gibraltar in 1855. An ancestor of Barclays Bank, the Anglo-Egyptian Bank, entered in 1888, and Credit Foncier, now Credit Agricole Indosuez, entered in 1920.
In 1967, Gibraltar enacted the Companies (Taxation and Concessions) Ordinance, which provided for special tax treatment for international business. This was one of the factors leading to the growth of professional services such as private banking and captive insurance management. Gibraltar has several positive attributes as a financial centre, including a common law legal system and access to the EU single market in financial services. The Financial Services Commission, which was established by an ordinance in 1989 that took effect in 1991, regulates the finance sector. In 1997, the Department of Trade and Industry established its Gibraltar Finance Centre (GFC) Division to facilitate the development the financial sector's development.
Currently the FSC has licensed about 17 banks to provide full banking services in Gibraltar. Some banks are licensed by the EEA (European Economic Community) rather than the FSC and are subject to their home countries’ regulatory authorities. Lastly, five banks have only representative offices in Gibraltar.

Currency

Under the terms of the 1934 Currency Notes Act, the Government of Gibraltar issues banknotes that are legal tender alongside Bank of England banknotes in Gibraltar.[69][70] A currency board issues these notes against reserves of sterling.[70][71][72] Clearing and settlement of funds is conducted in sterling, and Gibraltar banknotes in circulation bear the words "Pounds sterling".[73] Most retail outlets in Gibraltar unofficially accept the euro, though some payphones and the Post Office do not.[74]

Demographics

Civilian population in British Gibraltar (censuses from 1725 to 2001)
Gibraltar is one of the most densely populated territories in the world, with a population of 29,286 estimated in 2008[75] approximately 4,290 inhabitants per square kilometre (11,100 /sq mi). The growing demand for space is being increasingly met by land reclamation; reclaimed land currently comprises approximately one tenth of the territory's total area.

Ethnic origins

One of the main features of Gibraltar’s population is the diversity of their ethnic origins. The demographics of Gibraltar reflects Gibraltarians' racial and cultural fusion of the many European and non-European immigrants who came to The Rock over three hundred years. They are the descendants of economic migrants that came to Gibraltar after the majority of the Spanish population left in 1704.
The main ethnic groups, according to the origin of names in the electoral roll, are Britons (27%), Spanish (26%, mostly Andalusians but also some 2% of Minorcans), Genoese and other Italians (19%), Portuguese (11%), Maltese (8%), and Jews (3%). There is a large diversity of other groups such as Moroccans, Indians, French, Austrians, Chinese, Japanese, Polish and Danish.[76]
The actual composition of the population by nationality from the 2001 census is as follows:
Nationality Number Percentage
Gibraltarian 22,882 83.2
Other British 2,627 9.6
Moroccan 961 3.5
Spanish 326 1.2
Other EU 275 1.0
Other 424 1.5

Main demographic indicators

Gibraltar’s population density is the 5th highest in the world: 4,558.8 persons/km2.[77]
Life expectancy is very high, similar to other EU-mediterranean countries/territories or other British overseas territories: 80.19 years.[78]
Fertility rate is 1.65 births per woman. The rate is slightly higher than the European average, but it has seen the biggest downward change in any European country/territory during the last 10 years (more than 20%).[79]
Other indicators are similar to those of other countries and territories in Gibraltar's European environs[80]:
  • Average population growth: 0.13% (2009 est.)
  • Median age: 41 (2008 est.)
  • Net migration: 0.00 migrants per 1,000 population (2009 est.)
  • Sex ratio: 1.05 males/female at birth and 1.00 males/female overall (2009 est.)

Religion

Gibraltar's main religion is Christianity, with the majority (78%) of Gibraltarians belonging to the Roman Catholic Church. The sixteenth century Saint Mary the Crowned is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Gibraltar, and also the oldest Catholic church in the territory. Other Christian denominations include the Church of England (7%), whose Cathedral of the Holy Trinity is the cathedral of the Anglican Bishop of Gibraltar in Europe; the Gibraltar Methodist Church,[81] Church of Scotland, various Pentecostal and independent churches mostly influenced by the House Church and Charismatic movements, as well as two Plymouth Brethren congregations. There is also a ward of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and Jehovah's Witnesses.
The second religion in size is Islam (4% of the population[82]). There are also a number of Hindu Indians, members of the Bahá'í Faith[83] and a long-established Jewish community.[84][85]

Language

The official language of Gibraltar is English, and it is used by the Government and in schools. Most locals are bilingual, also speaking Spanish, due to Gibraltar's proximity to Spain. However, because of the varied mix of ethnic groups which reside there, other languages are spoken on The Rock. Arabic is spoken by the Moroccan community, as are Hindi and Sindhi by the Indian community of Gibraltar. Hebrew is also spoken by the Jewish community and the Maltese language is still spoken by some families of Maltese descent.
Gibraltarians often converse in Llanito (pronounced [ʎaˈnito]).[86] It is an Andalusian Spanish based vernacular and unique to Gibraltar. It consists of an eclectic mix of Andalusian Spanish and British English as well as languages such as Maltese, Portuguese, Italian of the Genoese variety and Haketia (Ladino). Andalusian Spanish is the main constituent of Llanito, but is also heavily influenced by British English. However, it borrows words and expressions of many other languages, with over 500 words of Genoese and Hebrew origin.[87] It also often involves code-switching to English.
Gibraltarians also call themselves Llanitos.

Education

Comparison of school structures in Gibraltar and England.
Education in Gibraltar generally follows the English system operating within a three tier system. Schools in Gibraltar follow the Key Stage system which teaches the National Curriculum. Gibraltar has fifteen state schools, one MOD school, one private school and one College of Further Education. As there are no facilities in Gibraltar for full-time higher education, all Gibraltarian students must study elsewhere at degree level or equivalent and certain non-degree courses.[88] The Government of Gibraltar operates a scholarship/grant system to provide funding for students studying in the United Kingdom. All Gibraltarian students follow the student loans procedure of the UK, where they apply for a loan from the Student Loans Company which is then reimbursed in full by the Government of Gibraltar. In 2008, there were 224 Gibraltarian students enrolled in UK universities.[3]

Health care

All Gibraltarians are entitled to free health care in public wards and clinics at the hospital and primary health care centre. All other British citizens are also entitled to free of charge treatment on the Rock on presentation of a valid British passport during stays of up to 30 days. Other EU nationals are equally entitled to treatment on presentation of a valid European Health Insurance Card. Dental treatment and prescribed medicines are also free of charge for Gibraltarian students and pensioners.[89] First-line medical and nursing services are provided at the Primary Care Centre, with more specialised services available at St. Bernard's. Psychiatric care is provided by King George V Hospital.[90]

Culture

Tercentenary celebrations in Gibraltar.
The culture of Gibraltar reflects Gibraltarians' diverse origins. While there are Andalusian and British influences, the ethnic origins of most Gibraltarians are not confined to British or Andalusian ethnicities. Other ethnicities include Genoese, Maltese, Portuguese, and German. A few other Gibraltar residents are Jewish of Sephardic origin, North African, or Indians.
British influence remains strong. English is the language of government, commerce, education, and the media. Gibraltarians going on to higher education attend university in the UK. Patients requiring medical treatment not available on the Rock receive it as private patients paid for by the Gibraltar Government either in the United Kingdom, or more recently in Spain.
There exists a small but interesting amount of literary writings by native Gibraltarians. The first prominent work of fiction was probably Héctor Licudi's 1929 novel Barbarita, written in Spanish. It is a largely autobiographical account of the adventures and misadventures of a young Gibraltarian man. Throughout the 1940s and 1950s, several noteworthy anthologies of poetry were published by Leopoldo Sanguinetti, Albert Joseph Patron, and Alberto Pizzarello. The 1960s were largely dominated by the theatrical works of Elio Cruz and his two highly acclaimed Spanish plays La Lola se va pá Londre and Connie con cama camera en el comedor. In the 1990s, the Gibraltarian man-of-letters Mario Arroyo published Profiles (1994), a series of bilingual meditations on love, loneliness and death. Of late there have been interesting works by the essayist Mary Chiappe such as her volume of essays Cabbages and Kings (2006) and by the UK-educated academic M. G. Sanchez, author of the hard-hitting novel Rock Black 0-10: A Gibraltar fiction (2006).

Cuisine

Gibraltarian cuisine is the result of a rich diversity of civilizations, from the Arabs to the Andalucian Spaniards and the British. The culinary influences include those from Malta, Genoa, Portugal and Andalusia. This marriage of tastes has given Gibraltar an eclectic mix of Arabic cuisine, Mediterranean and British cuisine. Calentita, a baked bread-like dish made with chickpea flour, water, olive oil, salt and pepper, is considered Gibraltar's national dish.

Music

The music of Gibraltar is undergoing a renaissance with a multitude of local bands playing original material and covers. Local venues have begun accepting Gibraltarian bands and those from nearby Spain, resulting in a varied mix of live performances every weekend as well as some weekday nights.
Musicians from Gibraltar include Charles Ramirez, the first guitarist invited to play with the Royal College of Music Orchestra,[91] and successful rock bands like Breed 77, Melon Diesel and Taxi.
The best known Gibraltarian musician is Albert Hammond,[92] who has had top 10 hits in the UK & US, and has written many songs for international artists such as Whitney Houston, Tina Turner and Julio Iglesias among many others.

National Day

Symbolic release of 30,000 red and white balloons on Gibraltar National Day, one for every person living on The Rock.
Gibraltar National Day commemorates Gibraltar's first sovereignty referendum when the people of Gibraltar voted to reject Spanish sovereignty or association by a massive majority. It is celebrated annually on 10 September, the same day the referendum was held in 1967. The day is a public holiday, during which most Gibraltarians dress in their national colours of red and white.
Since the first Gibraltar National Day in 1992 until recently, the day's main event has been a political rally which was held at Grand Casemates Square. In recent years, the main event has been held at John Mackintosh Square and hosted by the Mayor of Gibraltar from the balcony of the City Hall. The main event culminates with the symbolic release of 30,000 red and white balloons representing the people of Gibraltar.
The Conservative MP Andrew Rosindell described the event as "...a magnificent celebration of the Gibraltarian people, showing not only their pride in being British, but also their love of their homeland – The Rock itself."[93]

Tercentenary

Gibraltarians encircle the Rock in 2004.
In 2004, Gibraltar celebrated the 300th anniversary of its capture. In recognition of and with thanks for its long association with Gibraltar, the Royal Navy was given the freedom of the City. Another event saw nearly the entire population, dressed in red, white and blue, link hands to form a human chain encircling the Rock.

Sport

In 2007 there were eighteen Gibraltar Sports Associations with official recognition from their respective International Governing Bodies. Others, including the Gibraltar National Olympic Committee, have submitted applications for recognition which are being considered. The Government supports the many sporting associations financially. Gibraltar also competes in the bi-annual Island Games, which it hosted in 1995. Football is the most popular sport in Gibraltar. The Gibraltar Football Association applied for full membership of UEFA, but their bid was turned down in 2007 in a contentious decision.[94] Cricket enjoys massive popularity in Gibraltar. The Gibraltar national cricket team recently won the European Cricket Championships. Rugby union is fairly popular, and Campo Gibraltar RFC now play in the Andalusian second division.

Communications

Site of the first telephone exchange in City Mill Lane.
Gibraltar has a digital telephone exchange supported by a fibre optic and copper infrastructure. The main telephone operator, Gibtelecom, also operates a GSM network and is an Internet Service provider.
A local company Gibnet Limited, started the first Internet service in January 1996 and later changed its name to Sapphire Networks Limited.
Victorian Post Box of standard 1887 UK design in use in Gibraltar Old Town in 2008
International Direct Dialling is provided, and Gibraltar was allocated the access code 350 by the International Telecommunication Union. This works from all countries with IDD, including Spain, which has accepted its use since 10 February 2007, when the telecom dispute was resolved. Gibraltar mobile and fixed service numbers are eight digits.
Dial-up, ADSL, and high-speed Internet lines are all available, as are some Wi-Fi hotspots in hotels. Local operator CTS is rolling out WiMAX. The TLD country code for Gibraltar is .gi, corresponding to Gibraltar's ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code of GI.
The Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation operates a television and radio station on UHF, VHF and medium-wave. The radio service is also Internet-streamed. Special events and the daily news bulletin are streamed in video.
The other local radio service is operated by British Forces Broadcasting Service who also provide a limited cable network for television to HM Forces.
The largest and most frequently published newspaper is the Gibraltar Chronicle, Gibraltar’s oldest established daily newspaper and the world’s second oldest English language newspaper to have been in print continuously[95] with daily editions six days a week. Panorama is published on weekdays, and Vox, 7 Days, The New People, and Gibsport are weekly.

Transport

The Cable Car.
Within Gibraltar, the main form of transport is the car. Motorbikes are popular and there is a good modern bus service. Unlike in other British territories, traffic drives on the right, as the territory shares a land border with Spain.
There is a cable car which runs from ground level to the top of the rock, with an intermediate station at the apes’ den.
Restrictions on transport introduced by the Spanish dictator Francisco Franco closed the land frontier in 1969 and prohibited any air or ferry connections. In 1982, the land border was reopened. As the result of an agreement signed in Cordoba on 18 September 2006 between Gibraltar, the United Kingdom and Spain,[28] the Spanish government agreed to relax the border controls at the frontier that have plagued locals for decades; in return, Britain will pay increased pensions to workers who lost their jobs when Franco closed the border.[30] Restrictions on telephones were removed in 2007 and restrictions on movements at the airport were removed on 16 December 2006.[29][96]
The first Iberia flight lands at Gibraltar.
Gibraltar maintains regular flight connections to London and Manchester. Scheduled flights to Morocco and Madrid proved unsustainable due to insufficient demand.
GB Airways operated a service between Gibraltar and London and other cities for many years. The airline initially flew under the name "Gibraltar Airways." In 1989, and in anticipation of service to cities outside the UK, Gibraltar Airways changed its name to GB Airways with the belief that a new name would incur fewer political problems. As a franchise, the airline operated flights in full British Airways livery. In 2007 GB Airways was purchased by EasyJet[97] who operate flights under their name from April 2008 when British Airways re-introduced flights to Gibraltar under their name. Monarch Airlines operate a daily scheduled service between Gibraltar and Luton. From September 2008 they operate a scheduled service to Manchester, UK. The Spanish national airline, Iberia, operated a daily service to Madrid which ceased due to lack of demand. In May 2009 Ándalus Líneas Aéreas opened a Spanish service.[98] An annual return charter flight to Malta is operated by Maltese national airline, Air Malta.
Gibraltar Airport is unusual not only due to its proximity to the centre of the city resulting in the airport terminal being within walking distance of much of Gibraltar but also because the runway intersects Winston Churchill Avenue, the main north-south street, requiring movable barricades to close when aircraft land or depart. New roads and a tunnel for Winston Churchill Avenue, which will end the need to stop road traffic when aircraft use the runway, are planned to coincide with the building of a new airport terminal building with an originally estimated completion date of 2009,[99][100] although due to delays this is now more likely to be 2010 or even 2011.
Motorists, and on occasion pedestrians, crossing the border with Spain have been subjected to long delays and searches by the Spanish authorities.[citation needed] Spain has closed the border during disputes or incidents involving the Gibraltar authorities,[citation needed] such as the Aurora cruise ship incident and when fishermen from the Spanish fishing vessel Piraña were arrested for illegal fishing in Gibraltar waters.[citation needed]
The most popular alternative airport for Gibraltar is Malaga Airport in Spain, some 120 km (75 mi) to the east, which offers a wide range of destinations.
Gibraltar receives a large number of visits from cruise ships, and the Strait of Gibraltar is one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world.
Passenger and cargo ships anchor in the port of Gibraltar. Also, a daily ferry links Gibraltar with Tangier, Morocco. The ferry between Gibraltar and Algeciras, which had been halted in 1969 when the Spanish dictator severed the communications with Gibraltar, was finally reopened on December 16, 2009, served by the Spanish company Transcoma.[101]
There are no train or tram services within Gibraltar.

Military

Royal Navy base in Gibraltar.
Gibraltar's defence is the responsibility of the tri-service British Forces Gibraltar. In January 2007, the Ministry of Defence announced that the private company - SERCO - would provide services to the base. The announcement resulted in the affected trade unions striking.
  • The Royal Gibraltar Regiment provides the army garrison, based at Devils Tower Camp [102]. The regiment was originally a part-time reserve force but the British Army placed it on the permanent establishment in 1990. The regiment includes full-time and part-time soldiers recruited from Gibraltar, as well as British Army regulars posted from other regiments.
  • The Royal Navy maintains a squadron at the Rock. The squadron is responsible for the security and integrity of British Gibraltar Territorial Waters (BGTW). The shore establishment at Gibraltar is called HMS Rooke after Sir George Rooke who captured the Rock for Archduke Charles (pretender to the Spanish throne) in 1704. Gibraltar's strategic position provides an important facility for the Royal Navy and Britain's allies.
Ships from the Spanish Navy do not call at Gibraltar.
British and U.S. nuclear submarines frequently visit the Z berths at Gibraltar.[103] A Z berth provides the facility for nuclear submarines to visit for operational or recreational purposes, and for non-nuclear repairs.
  • The Royal Air Force station at Gibraltar forms part of Headquarters British Forces Gibraltar. Although aircraft are no longer permanently stationed at RAF Gibraltar, a variety of RAF aircraft make regular visits to the Rock and the airfield also houses a section from the Met Office.
The Rock is believed to be a SIGINT listening post.[104] Its strategic position provides a key GCHQ and National Security Agency location for Mediterranean and North African coverage.[105]

Gibraltar and the Falklands War

During the Falklands War, an Argentine plan to attack British shipping in the harbour using frogmen (Operation Algeciras) was foiled.[106] The naval base also played a part in supporting the task force sent by Britain to recover the Falklands.

Attempted IRA bombing

On 6 March 1988, as part of Operation Flavius, the British SAS killed three members of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) in Gibraltar. The three, Mairéad Farrell, Sean Savage, and Daniel McCann, were there on an IRA operation to plant a car bomb targeting the British Army band. All three IRA members were unarmed at the time, but a car they had hired was subsequently discovered in Spain with 64 kg (141 lb) of Semtex explosive. The incident became the subject of a contentious Thames Television documentary, Death on the Rock. The ensuing "Death on the Rock" controversy prompted a major political row in the UK.
An inquest ruled the SAS's action to be lawful.[107] The families of the deceased took the case to the European Court of Human Rights. In 1995 it held by ten votes to nine that the British government had violated Article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights. It also ruled that the three killed had been engaged in an act of terrorism, consequently dismissing unanimously the applicants' claims for damages, for costs and expenses incurred by the original inquest and for any remaining claims for just satisfaction.[108]

Town Twinnings

Current

Gibraltar is currently twinned with the following European cities:

Past

Gibraltar was once twinned with the following British town:

See also

References

  1. ^ Gibraltar was captured on 24 July 1704, Old Style, and 4 August 1704, New Style
  2. ^ The treaty was signed on 31 March 1713, Old Style, and 11 April 1713, New Style - Peace and Friendship Treaty of Utrecht between France and Great Britain
  3. ^ a b Abstract of Statistics 2008
  4. ^ New Online Service Ranks the World’s Most Unstable Entities, IHS Media Desk, March 25, 2008.
  5. ^ a b [1] UK House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee 2007-2008 Report, pg 16
  6. ^ Informe sobre la cuestión de Gibraltar, Spanish Foreign Ministry (Spanish)
  7. ^ "Regions and territories: Gibraltar". British Broadcasting Corporation. 2007-07-18. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/3851047.stm. Retrieved 2007-12-20. 
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  9. ^ Corrected transcript of evidence taken before the Foreign Affairs Select Committee; 2008-03-28; Answer to Question 257 by Jim Murphy: [T]he UK Government will never – "never" is a seldom-used word in politics – enter into an agreement on sovereignty without the agreement of the Government of Gibraltar and their people. In fact, we will never even enter into a process without that agreement.
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  11. ^ Choi, Charles (2006). "Gibraltar". MSNBC.COM. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/14817677/. Retrieved 2010-01-08. 
  12. ^ Maurice Harvey (1996). Gibraltar. A History. Spellmount Limited. pp. 50–51. ISBN 1-86227-103-8. 
  13. ^ Maurice Harvey (1996). Gibraltar. A History. Spellmount Limited. pp. 51–52. ISBN 1-86227-103-8. 
  14. ^ the British attacked the Rock of Gibraltar
  15. ^ Andrews, Allen, Proud Fortress The Fighting Story Of Gibraltar, p32-33:
  16. ^ a b Jackson, Sir William, Rock of the Gibraltarians, p100-101
  17. ^ Andrews, Allen, Proud Fortress The Fighting Story Of Gibraltar, p32-33
  18. ^ Jackson, Sir William, Rock of the Gibraltarians, p100-101:
  19. ^ Rock of Contention. A History of Gibraltar. George Hills (1974). London: Robert Hale. pp. 173-174. ISBN 0-7091-4352-4
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  22. ^ General's body to be exhumed
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  31. ^ Transcript of evidence taken before the Foreign Affairs Select Committee
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  35. ^ Return of the Armada
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  39. ^ [2] Chief Minister's UN Speech "Mr Chairman, nobody who visits Gibraltar and observes its society and self government can objectively think that Gibraltar, in reality, remains a colony." Speech to the United Nations Special Committee on Decolonisation 8 October 2009
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  42. ^ [4] The Secretariat of the Commonwealth: "The governor represents the British monarch who is head of state and retains direct responsibility for all matters not specifically allocated to local ministers: principally external affairs, defence and internal security"
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  88. ^ "Education & Training". Government of Gibraltar. 7 April 2003. http://www.gibraltar.gov.gi/gov_depts/education/education_index.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-20. 
  89. ^ "Gibraltar Health". TravelPuppy. http://travelpuppy.com/gibraltar/health.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-20. 
  90. ^ Gibraltar Health Authority
  91. ^ Mascarenhas, Alice. "Always a Pleasure to Perform in Gibraltar". The Gibraltar Chronicle. http://www.chronicle.gi/Features/Charles%20Ramirez/charles%20ramirez.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-20. 
  92. ^ "Newsletter No". Friends of Gibraltar Heritage Society. 70 November 2004. http://www.foghs.org.uk/nl/70.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-20. 
  93. ^ Hansard 27 October 2004: Column 1436
  94. ^ "UEFA snub the Rock". The Sun. 26 January 2007. http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/sport/football/article29250.ece. 
  95. ^ "Gibraltar: Fact File". Birmingham UK International Directory - Gibraltar. http://www.birminghamuk.com/cities/gibinfo.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-31. 
  96. ^ "Spain restores Gibraltar air link". British Broadcasting Corporation. 16 December 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/rss/-/2/hi/europe/6198314.stm. Retrieved 2007-12-20. 
  97. ^ Government of Gibraltar. "Press Release: Government of Gibraltar Reaction to GB Sale". http://www.gibraltar.gov.gi/latest_news/press_releases/2007/239-2007.pdf. Retrieved 2008-10-16. 
  98. ^ "Regional Andalusia airline begins Gibraltar-Madrid airbridge". MercoPress. http://en.mercopress.com/2009/04/30/regional-andalusia-airline-begins-gibraltar-madrid-airbridge. Retrieved 2010-03-09. 
  99. ^ Government of Gibraltar. "Press Release: New Air Terminal, tunnel under the runway and new road leading to all parts of Gibraltar north of the runway". http://www.gibraltar.gov.gi/latest_news/press_releases/2007/111-2007.pdf. Retrieved 2008-10-17.  and images of the proposals: "Press Release: New Terminal Building". http://www.gibraltar.gov.gi/latest_news/press_releases/2007/111-2007-images.pdf. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  100. ^ "The Chief Minister presented the plans for an ambitious new terminal building for Gibraltar Airport". 7 Days Gibraltar. http://www.7daysgibraltar.com/article.php?id=655. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  101. ^ New ferry 'repairs 40 year gap' says Spanish Diplomat, Gibraltar Chronicle, December 17, 2009
  102. ^ "HIVE Location overview - Gibraltar". Ministry of Defence. December 2007. http://www.mod.uk/NR/rdonlyres/1B9B3D6A-1D09-49B1-9209-3AE16C1614F8/0/20080201_gibraltar_lo.pdf. Retrieved January 2010. 
  103. ^ "House of Commons Hansard Written Answers". Parliament of the United Kingdom. 9 November 1999. http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/cm199798/cmhansrd/vo981109/text/81109w21.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-20. 
  104. ^ Vest, Jason; Wayne Madsen (1 March 1999). "Foreign-operated accommodation site that provides occasional SIGINT product to the USSS". http://jya.com/nsa-scs.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-20. 
  105. ^ "Early 20th century communications interception in Spain: a historical perspective". Statewatch. http://www.statewatch.org/news/2004/aug/10spain-gib-comint.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-20. 
  106. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2004/jul/24/gibraltar.falklands
  107. ^ Tweedie, June; Tony Ward (Winter 1989). "The Gibraltar Shootings and the Politics of Inquests". Journal of Law and Society 16 (4): 464–476. doi:10.2307/1410331. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0263-323X(198924)16%3A4%3C464%3ATGSATP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-7. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  108. ^ "World News Briefs; Rights Court Says Britain Illegally Killed 3 in I.R.A.". The New York Times. 28 September 1995. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=990CEED71F3DF93BA1575AC0A963958260&n=Top%2fReference%2fTimes%20Topics%2fOrganizations%2fE%2fEuropean%20Court%20of%20Human%20Rights. Retrieved 2007-07-07. 
  109. ^ Searle, Dominique (12 May 2009). "Gibraltar-Madeira Twinning". Gibraltar Chronicle. http://www.chronicle.gi/headlines_details.php?id=16040. Retrieved 2009-05-27. 
  110. ^ "Gibraltar Twinned". madeira4u. 15 May 2009. http://www.madeira4u.com/blog.html/4163. Retrieved 2009-05-27. 
  111. ^ Searle, Dominique (27 May 2009). "Twinned". Gibraltar Chronicle. http://www.chronicle.gi/headlines_details.php?id=16201. Retrieved 2009-05-27. 
  112. ^ "Mayor set for Gibraltar - Ballymena twinning". Gibraltar News Online. 25 April 2006. http://www.gibraltarnewsonline.com/2006/04/25/mayor-set-for-gibraltar-ballymena-twinning/. Retrieved 2007-12-20. 
  113. ^ "Newsletter No 24". Friends of Gibraltar Heritage Society. October 2005. http://www.foghs.org.uk/nl/74.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-20. 

External links

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Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Iberia : Gibraltar
Gibraltar, seen from the Spanish side of the frontier
Flag
Image:gi-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Gibraltar
Government overseas territory of United Kingdom
Currency Gibraltar pound (GIP)
Area 6.5 sq km
Population 27,928 (July 2006 est.)
Language English (used in schools and for official purposes) and Spanish.
Religion Roman Catholic 76.9%, Church of England 6.9%, Muslim 6.9%, Jewish 2.3%, none or other 7%
Electricity 230V/50Hz (UK 3 pin plug)
Calling Code +350
Internet TLD .gi
Time Zone UTC+1
.Gibraltar [1], colloquially known as The Rock, (or simply 'Gib'), is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom on the southern coast of Spain at the entrance to the Mediterranean sea.^ Gibraltar is a territory of the United Kingdom.
  • Gibraltar Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Gibraltarian Visas Online. 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC gibraltar.visahq.com [Source type: General]

^ Tourist visa not required Business visa not required Gibraltar is a territory of the United Kingdom.
  • Gibraltar Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Gibraltarian Visas Online. 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC gibraltar.visahq.com [Source type: General]

The people are British Citizens.

Understand

This is a unique place for the curious traveller. Take time to explore the caves and tunnels especially those not meant for tourists!
The inside of the rock is an absolute labyrinth with the secret internal roads and tunnels 4 times longer than those on the surface.
Military presence and security in this otherwise deserted area is strong but almost invisible.

History

In Greek mythology Gibraltar was Calpe, one of the Pillars of Hercules, which marked the edge of the Mediterranean and the known world.
In 711 Tariq ibn Ziyad, the Muslim governor of Tangier, landed at Gibraltar to launch the Islamic invasion of the Iberian Peninsula. The Rock took his name - Jabal Tariq (Mountain of Tariq) eventually became Gibraltar.
Strategically important, Gibraltar was ceded to Great Britain by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the British garrison was formally declared a colony in 1830. The topmost part of the Rock is still a British military installation, and off-limits to the public.
In referendums held in 1967 and 2002, the 27,800 Gibraltarians (2004 figure) ignored foreign pressure and voted overwhelmingly to reject any involvment by Spain in their government. On June 10th 2004, citizens of Gibraltar voted for the first time in the UK MEP (Member of the European Parliament) elections, as part of the South West constituency.

Respect

Remember that Gibraltar is British.
People from Gibraltar refer to themselves as Gibraltarian or 'Llanito' pronounced Ya-ni-to. They are easily offended if referred to as Spanish and they are very proud to be British Citizens. Remember that Gibraltar has been a British possession longer than it was Spanish. Take an interest in why they feel British, but never point out anything that you may think link them to Spain. Some Gibraltarians also feel sensitive to the use of the term 'colony' for their territory due to its connotations of being ruled or lacking in self-government.
Although the popular view is that the Spanish Government is the cause of many problems concerning Gibraltar, there is no animosity to individuals and Spanish tourists and workers experience no problems. Recent airport ageements have opened up the relationship Gibraltar has with Spain.

Talk

Gibraltar residents speak English and Spanish (with a local dialect).
The term gibberish came from the llanito habit of randomly alternating between English and Spanish words all the way through a sentence. New words appear at random and spread quickly through the tight-knit community, then disappear just as fast. The language of choice at any fast food joint is Spanish, as fast food joints tend to employ cheap Spanish workers from across the border. Everyone else is bilingual.
The airport runway and the border crossing with Spain [Photo: Rolf Palmberg]
The airport runway and the border crossing with Spain [Photo: Rolf Palmberg]
Map of Gibraltar

By plane

Gibraltar airport has daily scheduled flights to and from London-Gatwick (LGW) (British Airways and EasyJet), London-Luton (LTN) (Monarch Airlines) in the UK. Monarch Airlines also resumed their flights to and from Manchester a few times per week.
Iberia operated flights to Madrid-Barajas (MAD) but due to lack of passengers this route was terminated September 2008. Andalus Lineas Aereas[2] now operate morning and evening flights to Madrid using smaller jet aircraft, and a flight to Barcelona and back around lunchtime.
As of March 2008, easyJet introduced their scheduled service to The Rock with two daily flights arriving from and departing for London Gatwick since their takeover of GB Airways (the British Airways franchise). The flights arrive from London Gatwick at 10:50 and 18:45 respectively and prices start from £17.99 single, including taxes and charges. A reduced British Airways service is available, operating just one flight a day to and from Gatwick, and two per week to Heathrow. Flight schedules varies depending on season / time of year.
With the introduction of easyJet's operation from Gibraltar, together with the governments planned airport expansion and reduction of airport charges, it opens the door for new routes from Gibraltar to cities such as Berlin, Paris and possibly New York. Private jets are reported to have reached as far as Miami (Florida, USA) direct from Gibraltar Airport.
The most popular alternative airport for Gibraltar is Malaga Airport in Spain, some 120 km to the East, which offers a wide range of destinations. .Malaga can be reached by bus, but there are only a few services available per day and the trip is approximately 3 hours.^ Summer brings an average of eleven hours of sunshine per day whereas the summer drought frequently lasts 90 uninterrupted days.
  • Weather in Gibraltar, Asturias, United Kingdom 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.holiday-weather.com [Source type: News]

Jerez Airport is normally the second choice, despite being closer to Gibraltar.
Flights are also available from the African side of the Mediterranean. Specifically, twenty minute short haul flights are available from Agadir in Morocco.

By car

Queues at the border may make it less time-consuming to park cars in La Línea and walk across. This also has the advantage of avoiding Gibraltar's complex one way system with very narrow and badly signposted streets, and limited parking. The land border is open 24 hours a day, though expect delays when planes are landing - the only road into Gibraltar runs right across the airport runway!
However, once the airport expansion is complete, traffic (except buses) will be diverted around to the east side of the runway to ease overall traffic congestion.
Motorists, and on occasion pedestrians, crossing the border with Spain have been subjected to long delays and searches by the Spanish authorities. Spain has closed the border during disputes or incidents involving the Gibraltar authorities, such as the Aurora cruise ship incident and when fishermen from the Spanish fishing vessel Pirana were arrested for illegal fishing in Gibraltar waters. [3]

By bus

Buses from Spain stop just short of Gibraltar in La Línea, but its bus station is only 3 minutes walk from the border.
After walking across the border, you can get the number 9 bus to the centre of Gibraltar, or the number 3 bus to Europa Point. Both buses depart every 15 minutes on weekdays, and every half hour on weekends. Buses run from 6.30AM to 9PM Monday - Friday, 7AM - 9PM Saturday, and 8AM - 9PM on Sundays. Trips are just 60p, no matter how far you travel.
Alternatively, it's only a 10 minutes walk (across the runway and through a tunnel under the city walls) from the border to the main Casemates Square.
At La Línea there are regular buses to and from Seville, Malaga, Cadiz, Granada and hourly to Algeciras (the latter one direct or with stops on the way).
The bus station is in Algeciras on the opposite street corner than the train station. To go to the bus station from the harbour, turn left, walk along the main street for about 100m and then turn right. Continue about 200m along this street to the small building with railroads. There is a small sign for the bus stop. This bus can get you to La Línea for about €2.05 and it goes every 30 minutes during the day. There is a faster direct bus, and one that stops on the way. In La Línea you will arrive at the bus station about 500m from the border with Gibraltar. In the summer it can take up to 2 hours to cross the border.
Current info for Malaga bus station: Estación de Autobuses de Málaga [4]

By boat

When the frontier was closed, there was a ferry service from Gibraltar to Morocco. There's a passenger service geared up to the Moroccan workers in Gibraltar, who have problems crossing the frontier, but only about once per week on the weekend.
From 17 December 2009, Transcoma now operates a daily service from between Gibraltar and Algeciras in Spain. The ticket prices at about 6-8 euros and about 5 crossings per day, and each trip takes around half an hour.
Cruise ships often include Gibraltar as part of their itinerary.
Gibraltar receives a large number of visits from cruise ships, and the strait of Gibraltar is one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world.
Passenger and cargo ships anchor in the port of Gibraltar.

By train

There is no train service to Gibraltar.

Get around

Gibraltar is less than 7 square kilometres, so most of it can be seen on foot. Bear in mind, though, that some of the roads (especially up to the Upper Rock) are very steep. Taxis will take the strain out of the climbs, and all the taxi drivers seem to know all the apes by name. There is a (number 3) bus service that runs from the frontier, through the town and on to Europa Point.
Barbary Macaque on the Rock of Gibraltar
Barbary Macaque on the Rock of Gibraltar
  • Europa Point - where the Atlantic meets the Mediterranean, and from which the coast of Africa can be seen
  • Upper Rock - military installation, and nature reserve where the famous apes live (Barbary macaques)
  • St Michael's Cave - an impressive natural grotto used by the neolithic inhabitants of the Rock
  • Siege Tunnels - a system of tunnels dug during the Great Siege which acted as a defence system
  • Dolphin Watching - short trips in the bay (several times a day) - there are plenty of playful dolphins to see
  • Gibraltar Museum
  • The Mediterranian Steps - for those not afraid of walking (and with a head for heights), this is a walk that starts at Jew's Gate bird observatory (at the end of Engineer Road) and winds it's way up the East side of the rock to the top. The views are fantastic, and the path underwent renovation work in 2007, so is less treacherous than it has been in the past. If you don't fancy the uphill struggle, you can always get the cable car up and then come down this way.
Cable cars run from 9.30AM until 5.45PM to the Upper Rock, the last car up the hill might leave as early as 17.00PM. A "cable car and apes" ticket costs £8 return, while a ticket including entrance to St. Michael's Cave and the Siege Tunnels costs £16. Entrance to each sight costs £8 without this ticket. Alternatively, a 'Taxi-Tour' (typically for 8 people in an MPV) will cost £16 for a 1.5 hr tour, and this includes the fees for entry to the Cave, tunnels and upper rock.

Do

Tarifa beach is the best place to go for surfing and bodyboarding.

Buy

Gibraltar uses the Gibraltar Pound with coins and notes issued by the Government of Gibraltar.
The currency is pegged to the UK pound sterling at a 1:1 conversion rate (one UK pound equals one Gibraltar pound). The UK pound can be used freely in Gibraltar, so there is no need to convert UK pounds to Gibraltar pounds. However, Gibraltarian notes and coins are not legal tender in the UK.
Most shops will accept Euros and US dollars. Bear in mind that shops will generally give you a more expensive rate of exchange than the numerous exchange offices and generally won't accept small change.
Government departments and the Post Office will only take Gibraltar and UK pounds.

Eat

If you like to sit outside and watch the world go by, head for Casemates Square [5] where a number of pubs & restaurants serve fairly similar meals, with the exception of Cafe Solo which serves good Italian food.
Irish Town, the road which runs parallel to Main Street has a number of bars, like The Clipper which has good food, friendly staff, and satellite television. They serve a hearty English breakfast. There is also Corks which serves more substantial lunches.
If you fancy dining waterside the marinas are worth a visit. [6]
The Edinburgh Arms [7] The most southerly pub in Europe. Good food, draught Bass and many others on tap. Happy hour daily at 10.30pm. Full Sunday lunch available.
Queensway Quay [8] is home to The Waterfront, which serves a good quality, if somewhat eclectic menu which ranges from steak to high quality local fish and Indian food. Casa Pepe's, on the other side of the marina is probably Gibraltar's best restaurant, but is also by far the most expensive.
Marina Bay [9] is home to several restaurants. Bianca's and Charlie's Tavern at Marina Bay are worth a visit, the former being very well known for its busy ambience. Marina Bay has recently also become home to Gibraltar's first Mexican restaurant.
Ocean Village [10], Gibraltar's newest marina, is an extension to Marina Bay. It is home to several new pubs and restaurants, including a Chinese, and an Indian.
'O'Reilly's' Situated on Leisure Island, part of the Ocean Village marina complex, the traditional Victorian Irish bar has been designed and built by Ireland's leading design teams.
''''The Gibraltar Arms'''' is situated next to Stag Bros' at 184 Main Street, telephone 200 72133 or e-mail gibraltararms@events.gi and is open from 7.30am (9.30am on a Sunday) serving meals all day until late.
'The Star Bar' in Parliament Lane holds itself out as Gibraltar's Oldest bar. With a menu and drinks selection to appeal to most tastes the pub seeks to cater to a wide audience.The Star Bar in Parliament Lane holds itself out as Gibraltar's Oldest bar. With a menu and drinks selection to appeal to most tastes the pub seeks to cater to a wide audience
'The Lord Nelson' In Casemates Square, the official home of the Gibraltar Rugby Club and Live Music Venue Of The Year, top entertainment on stage every night. Offers free WiFi.
  • Miss Seruya's Guest House in Irish Town is a little dearer but even crazier! Still just about better than one of the many caves.
  • Emile Youth Hostel, Montagu Bastion, Line Wall Road (Centrally located just off Casemates Square), +350 51106 / +350 57686000 (, fax: +350 51106), [11]. checkout: 10:30. A family-run hostel with basic shared rooms for £15 or €25, though the dad only wanted €20. including continental breakfast consiting of two pices of toast and jam.It should be noted that the kitchen is not for guests use. Certainly not the best,but closest thing to the border. £15.  edit
  • The Cannon Hotel, 9 Cannon Lane, just off the middle of Main Street, [12]. Single room and breadkfast for £24.50.
  • The Queens Hotel, Boyd Street, is located at the south entrance to Main Street, [13]. Marketing themselves as "Gibraltar's 'only' Budget Hotel" (not what category they'd put the Cannon in), a single room starts at £50 per night.
  • The Bristol Hotel , Cathedral Square, [14] near the south end of Main Street.
  • The Elliot Hotel, Governor's Parade, [15] is just off Main Street, located roughly half-way between the Cannon, and The Queens. Good location and good quality.
  • The Rock Hotel, Europa Road, [16] located approximately 400 metres south of the Entrance to Main Street, up a fairly steep hill, the Rock Hotel isn't as central as some of the others mentioned here, but has great views of the bay. It's one of the more expensive hotels in Gibraltar and was where John Lennon and Yoko Ono got married.
  • The Caleta Hotel, Catalan Bay, [17] on the opposite side of the rock, is about a 2 miles by road from the town centre. The upside to this is a quiet relaxing atmosphere, that you're unlikely to get in the Town Centre.

Contact

Phone

Gibraltar's international telephone code is +350. Spain finally recognized this code in 2007 and the old domestic (Spanish) code of 9567 was discontinued, making calls from Spain into Gibraltar in sync with the rest of the world. Another indirect consequence of this was that all landline numbers in Gibraltar have been prefixed with 200 in October 2008, making all numbers 8-digit long now. If you come across with a 5-digit number, just prefix it with 200 (and, of course, with the country code prior to that if you are calling from out of Gibraltar). Mobile phone numbers have not been effected by this change, however.
.The prefix to dial prior to country code for international calls is 00 in Gibraltar.^ Gibraltar Phone Dial Code: 350 .
  • Gibraltar Phone Cards | Gibraltar Calling Cards - Cheap Gibraltar Phone Card to Gibraltar 23 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.phonecardsmile.com [Source type: News]

^ Calling Plans NEW! FREE Phone Cards NEW! UNLIMITED Calling Cards My Referral Affiliate Program My Rewards Program My Account Tell A Friend International Dialing Code Domestic Dialing Code How To Buy Prepaid Calling Card Resources (Links) Telecom News Check Your Country Local Time .
  • Gibraltar Phone Cards | Gibraltar Calling Cards - Cheap Gibraltar Phone Card to Gibraltar 23 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.phonecardsmile.com [Source type: News]

^ Country Dialing Code .
  • Gibraltar Phone Cards | Gibraltar Calling Cards - Cheap Gibraltar Phone Card to Gibraltar 23 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.phonecardsmile.com [Source type: News]

Internet

Free wireless is available in the following places:
  • Fresh - a cafe/bar just down through the archway when leaving the main square towards the bus stops.
  • The Gibraltar Arms - about half way down the main street.
  • The Lord Nelson - just by the tunnel exiting the main square.
  • The Cannon Bar - behind the Catholic Cathedral.
  • The Clipper - on Irish Town near Tuckey's lane. Ask bartender for password.
  • Corks Wine Bar - on Irish Town near the Clipper. WEP key is written on a chalkboard above the bar.

Stay safe

Gibraltar has a low crime rate and a large and efficient police force modelled on the British system to ensure it stays that way.
There are a few recent reports, however, of people being attacked near the border while returning to Gibraltar on foot late at night. It might be smart to take a taxi home after dark if you have been drinking at the bars in Spain, especially if you are by yourself.

Stay healthy

Medical treatment

Gibraltar is part of the European Health Insurance Scheme and has a health service similar to the United Kingdom, with a modern Hospital. .If you are from a participating country, your EHIC card will entitle you to full free emergency medical treatment.^ Gibraltar Neighboring Countries: Andorra 0.5¢ »  Algeria 3.5¢ »  Morocco 5.0¢ »  Portugal 0.3¢ »  Spain 0.3¢    Using this phone card to call Gibraltar will save you money!
  • Gibraltar Phone Cards | Gibraltar Calling Cards - Cheap Gibraltar Phone Card to Gibraltar 23 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.phonecardsmile.com [Source type: News]

For more information see this wikipedia article: .

Apes

Tourists should be aware that the apes are wild animals and do bite. It is advisable not to feed the apes, despite encouragement from irresponsible taxi drivers. It is illegal (hefty fines are in force) and bad for their health. Never try to pick up a baby ape - its mother will not be happy, and neither will you. .If you are bitten by an ape, you will require hospital treatment, whilst the apes are rabies-free they can infect you with hepatitis, they are most aggressive on the top of the rock, as the most successful animals claim the uppermost reaches of the rock, their less successful fellows being shoved down the rock and the social pecking order.^ Most destinations, including Gibraltar, require that you have adequate un-used pages in your passport, allowing for any necessary stamps upon arrival and departure.
  • Gibraltar Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Gibraltarian Visas Online. 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC gibraltar.visahq.com [Source type: General]

This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.GIBRALTAR, a British fortress and crown colony at the western entrance to the Mediterranean.^ Gibraltar is a British colony with a local government.
  • Culture of Gibraltar - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1830, Gibraltar was named a crown colony.
  • Gibraltar - MSN Encarta 23 September 2009 3:18 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1830, Gibraltar was made a Crown Colony.
  • Gibraltar - ninemsn Encarta 23 September 2009 3:18 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Gibraltar - MSN Encarta 23 September 2009 3:18 UTC uk.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The whole territory is rather less than 3 m.^ Rather less than 4 m.

^ The whole territory is rather less than 3 m.

in length from north to south and varies in width from 4 to I m. .Gibraltar is called after Tariq (or Tarik) ben Zaid, its name being a corruption of Jebel Tariq (Mount Tariq).^ Gibraltar is called after Tariq (or Tarik) ben Zaid, its name being a corruption of Jebel Tariq (Mount Tariq).

^ The name Gibraltar derives from the Arabic Jabal-al-Tarik [mount of Tarik], dating from the capture (711) of the peninsula by the Moorish leader Tarik.
  • Gibraltar News - Breaking World Gibraltar News - The New York Times 23 September 2009 3:18 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ The Rock of Gibraltar was named Jabal Tariq (Arabic, “Mount of Tariq”) in honour of the Muslim general Tariq ibn-Ziyad (died about 720), who invaded Spain in 711.
  • Gibraltar - ninemsn Encarta 23 September 2009 3:18 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Gibraltar - MSN Encarta 23 September 2009 3:18 UTC uk.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tariq invaded Andalusia in A.D. 711 with an army of 12,000 Arabs and Berbers, and in the last days of July of that year destroyed the Gothic power in a three days' fight on the banks of the river Guadalete near where Jerez de la Frontera now stands.^ Tariq invaded Andalusia in A.D. 711 with an army of 12,000 Arabs and Berbers , and in the last days of July of that year destroyed the Gothic power in a three days' fight on the banks of the river Guadalete near where Jerez de la Frontera now stands.

^ In 711, the Umayyad general Tariq ibn Ziyad, leading a Berber-dominated army, sailed across the Strait from Ceuta, landed undetected at the southern point of the Rock from present-day Morocco in his quest for Spain.
  • Gibraltar History 23 September 2009 3:18 UTC workmall.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first week in September is generally Gibraltar’s fair week which culminates in Gibraltar’s National Day, a bank-holiday celebrated on 10 September each year.
  • The Rock of Gibraltar: Beaches, Bunkers and Birding 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.gonomad.com [Source type: News]

.In order to secure his communications with Africa he ordered the building of a strong castle upon the Rock, known to the Romans as Mons Calpe.^ In order to secure his communications with Africa he ordered the building of a strong castle upon the Rock, known to the Romans as Mons Calpe.

^ Gibraltar was known to the Greek and Roman geographers as Calpe or Alybe, the two names being probably corruptions of the same local (perhaps Phoenician) word.

.This work, begun in the year of the great battle, was completed in 742. It covered a wide area, reaching from the shores of the bay to a point half-way up the northwestern slope of the rock; here the keep, a massive square tower, still stands and is known as the Moorish castle.^ This work, begun in the year of the great battle, was completed in 742.

^ Here's a close-up of the Rock.
  • Picasa Web Albums - Dick - Gibraltar 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC picasaweb.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It covered a wide area, reaching from the shores of the bay to a point half-way up the northwestern slope of the rock; here the keep, a massive square tower , still stands and is known as the Moorish castle.

.The Rock itself is about 22 m.^ The Rock itself is about 22 m.

in length, and at its northern end rises almost perpendicularly from the .strip of flat sandy ground which connects it with the Spanish mainland.^ The peninsula is connected with the mainland by a low sandy area of neutral ground.
  • Gibraltar News - Breaking World Gibraltar News - The New York Times 23 September 2009 3:18 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Connecting the Rock with the Spanish mainland is a narrow, sandy isthmus containing a neutral zone that separates the British dependency from Spain.
  • Gibraltar - ninemsn Encarta 23 September 2009 3:18 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Gibraltar - MSN Encarta 23 September 2009 3:18 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Gibraltar - MSN Encarta 23 September 2009 3:18 UTC uk.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A large quantity of brackish water for flushing purposes and baths is pumped from the sandy flats of the north front on the Spanish side of the Rock.

.At the north end, on the crest of the Rock 1200 ft.^ At the north end, on the crest of the Rock 1200 ft.

^ A small variety of pigeon breeds in the steep cliffs at the north end of the Rock.

above sea-level, is the .Rock gun, famous in the great siege.^ Rock gun , famous in the great siege .

^ The Great Siege was the 14th siege here at a time when the Brits had only held the Rock for 75 years.
  • Picasa Web Albums - Dick - Gibraltar 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC picasaweb.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some six furlongs to the south is the signal station (1255 ft.^ Some six furlongs to the south is the signal station (1255 ft.

), through which the names and messages of passing ships are cabled to all parts of the world. .Rather less than 4 m.^ The whole territory is rather less than 3 m.

^ Rather less than 4 m.

south of the signal station is O'Hara's Tower (1408 ft.), the highest point of the Rock. .South of O'Hara's Tower the ground falls steeply to Windmill Hill, a fairly even surface about s of a sq.^ South of O'Hara's Tower the ground falls steeply to Windmill Hill, a fairly even surface about s of a sq.

^ South of Windmill Hill are Europa Flats, a wall-like cliff 200 ft.

m. in area, and sloping from 400 to 300 ft. above the sea-level. .South of Windmill Hill are Europa Flats, a wall-like cliff 200 ft.^ South of Windmill Hill are Europa Flats, a wall-like cliff 200 ft.

^ Europa Flats, sloping south, end in cliffs 50 ft.

^ South of O'Hara's Tower the ground falls steeply to Windmill Hill, a fairly even surface about s of a sq.

or more in height dividing them. .Europa Flats, sloping south, end in cliffs 50 ft.^ South of Windmill Hill are Europa Flats, a wall-like cliff 200 ft.

^ Europa Flats, sloping south, end in cliffs 50 ft.

high, which at and around .Europa Point plunge straight down into deep water.^ Europa Point plunge straight down into deep water.

^ The Rock shelves down to the sea at Great Europa Point, which faces Ceuta.
  • Gibraltar (British colony, Europe) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Moors arrived in 711, sneaking into the southern part of the peninsula today called The Great Europa Point.
  • Picasa Web Albums - Dick - Gibraltar 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC picasaweb.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Europa Point is the most southern point of the Rock, and is distant I12 nautical miles from the opposite African coast.^ From the frontier, northern most part, to Europa point, southern most...
  • Gibraltar Vacations, Tourism and Gibraltar Travel Reviews - TripAdvisor 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Europa Point is the most southern point of the Rock, and is distant I12 nautical miles from the opposite African coast.

^ The Rock shelves down to the sea at Great Europa Point, which faces Ceuta.
  • Gibraltar (British colony, Europe) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On Europa Point is the lighthouse in 5 0 21' W. and 36° 6' 30" N. On the Mediterranean side the Rock is almost as steep and inaccessible as it is from the north.^ On Europa Point is the lighthouse in 5 0 21' W. and 36° 6' 30" N. On the Mediterranean side the Rock is almost as steep and inaccessible as it is from the north.

^ The Honda Civic is a protected species and worshipped, its breeding ground is at Europa point by the lighthouse.
  • Gibraltar - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Europa Point is the most southern point of the Rock, and is distant I12 nautical miles from the opposite African coast.

.Below the signal station, at the edge of the Mediterranean, lies Catalan Bay, where there is a little village chiefly inhabited by fishermen and others who make their living upon the waters; but Catalan Bay can only be approached by land from the north or by a tunnel through the Rock from the dockyard; from Catalan Bay to Europa Point the way is barred by impassable cliffs.^ Below the signal station, at the edge of the Mediterranean, lies Catalan Bay, where there is a little village chiefly inhabited by fishermen and others who make their living upon the waters; but Catalan Bay can only be approached by land from the north or by a tunnel through the Rock from the dockyard; from Catalan Bay to Europa Point the way is barred by impassable cliffs.

^ On one side there is the Bay of Algeciras, and on the other the Mediterranean Sea.

^ The water-supply for drinking and cooking purposes is almost wholly derived from rain-water stored chiefly in underground tanks; there are very few good wells .

.On the west side of the Rock the slopes are less steep, especially as they near the sea, and on this side lie the town, the Alameda or public gardens, the barracks and the dockyard.^ On the west side of the Rock the slopes are less steep, especially as they near the sea, and on this side lie the town, the Alameda or public gardens, the barracks and the dockyard.

^ The Rock of Gibraltar, West Side town area, 2006.

^ Stop off at the cemetery on the far side of town, then cross the main car park to the Botanical Gardens.
  • Gibraltar: Weekending - Telegraph 23 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

Table of contents

Geology

.The rock of Gibraltar consists, for the most part, of pale grey limestone of compact and sometimes crystalline structure, generally stratified but in places apparently amorphous.^ The Rock of Gibraltar - the most famous rock in the world.

^ The rock of Gibraltar consists, for the most part, of pale grey limestone of compact and sometimes crystalline structure, generally stratified but in places apparently amorphous.

^ The Rock of Gibraltar is a massive limestone rock rising out of the sea to a height of 425m (1,396 ft.
  • Gibraltar : Introduction | Frommers.com 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

.Above the limestone are found layers of dark grey-blue shales with intercalated beds of grit, mudstone and limestone.^ Above the limestone are found layers of dark grey-blue shales with intercalated beds of grit, mudstone and limestone.

.Both limestone and shales are of the Lower Jurassic age.^ Both limestone and shales are of the Lower Jurassic age.

.Professors A. C. Ramsay and James Geikie (Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, August 1878) found also in the superficial formations of the Rock various features of interest to the students of Pleistocene geology, including massive accumulations of limestone breccia or agglomerate, bone breccias, deposits of calcareous sandstone, raised beaches and loose sands.^ Professors A. C. Ramsay and James Geikie ( Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London , August 1878) found also in the superficial formations of the Rock various features of interest to the students of Pleistocene geology, including massive accumulations of limestone breccia or agglomerate , bone breccias, deposits of calcareous sandstone , raised beaches and loose sands.

^ The formation of the Rock of Gibraltar began during the Jurassic Period, when shells of marine organisms accumulated in an Atlantic Ocean much narrower than today and formed a layer of limestone.
  • Earlham College - Geology 211 - Template 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.earlham.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Rock of Gibraltar is a massive limestone rock rising out of the sea to a height of 425m (1,396 ft.
  • Gibraltar : Introduction | Frommers.com 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

.The oldest of these superficial formations is the limestone breccia of Buena Vista, devoid of fossils and apparently formed under the stress of hard frosts, indicating conditions of climate of great severity.^ The oldest of these superficial formations is the limestone breccia of Buena Vista, devoid of fossils and apparently formed under the stress of hard frosts, indicating conditions of climate of great severity.

.To account for frosts like these, it is suggested that the surface of the Rock must have been raised to an elevation much greater than its present height.^ To account for frosts like these, it is suggested that the surface of the Rock must have been raised to an elevation much greater than its present height.

^ To a large extent, this place seems more like a mall than a town and we found it to be much less interesting than the history and wildlife looming over it.
  • Picasa Web Albums - Dick - Gibraltar 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC picasaweb.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In that case Europe and Africa would probably have been connected by an isthmus across some part of the present site of the Straits, and there would have been a wider area of low ground round the base of the Rock.^ The peninsula is connected with the mainland by a low sandy area of neutral ground.
  • Gibraltar News - Breaking World Gibraltar News - The New York Times 23 September 2009 3:18 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ In that case Europe and Africa would probably have been connected by an isthmus across some part of the present site of the Straits, and there would have been a wider area of low ground round the base of the Rock.

^ In 711, the Umayyad general Tariq ibn Ziyad, leading a Berber-dominated army, sailed across the Strait from Ceuta, landed undetected at the southern point of the Rock from present-day Morocco in his quest for Spain.
  • Gibraltar History 23 September 2009 3:18 UTC workmall.com [Source type: Original source]

.The low ground at this, and probably at a later period, must have been clothed with a rich vegetation, necessary for the support of a varied mammalian fauna, whose remains have been found in the Genista caves.^ The mammalian remains of the Genista cave have been described by G. Busk (" Quaternary Fauna of Gibraltar " in Trans.

^ The low ground at this, and probably at a later period, must have been clothed with a rich vegetation, necessary for the support of a varied mammalian fauna , whose remains have been found in the Genista caves.

^ It is especially significant because plant and animal remains found in the cave (and others nearby) indicate that the Neanderthals had a highly varied diet.
  • Earlham College - Geology 211 - Template 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.earlham.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After this there would seem to have been a subsidence to a depth of some Lighthouse Europa Poiht z.^ After this there would seem to have been a subsidence to a depth of some Lighthouse Europa Poiht z.

Church S.. Commercial Moie _.
Bay Buena Vista Pt. Shingle Scale w 700 ft. below the existing level. .This would account for the ledges and platforms which have been formed by erosion of the sea high above the present sea-level, and for the deposits of calcareous sandstone containing sea shells of existing Mediterranean species.^ This would account for the ledges and platforms which have been formed by erosion of the sea high above the present sea-level, and for the deposits of calcareous sandstone containing sea shells of existing Mediterranean species.

^ To "Save" the Mediterranean Sea Basin's beaches, ports and mega-cities from an unnatural 0.5-1 m global sea-level rise as postulated by hydraulic experts is an appealing reason to do so!
  • Gibraltar strait superdam 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC 2100.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Mediterranean Sea-Black Sea is ~0.8225% of the Earth-ocean's area and contains 0.3094% of its volume; the Mediterranean Sea-Black Sea is one of the two most land-dominated of all Earth-ocean subdivisions with a land:ocean area ratio of 4.4.
  • Gibraltar strait superdam 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC 2100.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The extent of some of these eroded ledges shows that pauses of long duration intervened between the periods of depression.^ The extent of some of these eroded ledges shows that pauses of long duration intervened between the periods of depression.

^ Many caves, some of them of great extent, penetrate the interior of the rock; the best known of these are the Genista and St Michael's caves.

^ It was fun to explore some of these byways that had interesting names from colorful characters of long ago Gibraltar.
  • Gibraltar 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.dakare.com [Source type: General]

.The Rock seems after this to have been raised to a level considerably above that at which it now stands; Europe and Africa would then again have been united.^ The Rock seems after this to have been raised to a level considerably above that at which it now stands; Europe and Africa would then again have been united.

^ In that case Europe and Africa would probably have been connected by an isthmus across some part of the present site of the Straits, and there would have been a wider area of low ground round the base of the Rock.

^ Africa & Middle East Asia Australia & South Pacific Central America & Caribbean Europe South America North America United States View All Alphabetically .
  • Gibraltar Travel Guide || Jaunted 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.jaunted.com [Source type: News]

.At a later date still the Rock sank once more to its present level.^ At a later date still the Rock sank once more to its present level.

^ In 1462, however, success attended the efforts of Alonzo de Arcos (8th siege), and in August the Rock passed once more under Christian sway.

.Many caves, some of them of great extent, penetrate the interior of the rock; the best known of these are the Genista and St Michael's caves.^ Many caves, some of them of great extent, penetrate the interior of the rock; the best known of these are the Genista and St Michael's caves.

^ St Michael's cave , about 1 too ft.

^ Thus the many findings of offerings made to the Gods by these and other civilisations such as the Phoenicians and Carthaginians in the many caves on the shorelines.

.St Michael's cave, about 1 too ft.^ St Michael's cave , about 1 too ft.

^ Well worth a visit is St Michaels Cave, a part of complex interlinked caverns, which is used for concerts and ballet.
  • Gibraltar | Kuoni Destination Management | Incoming Travel Europe 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.kuoni-dmc.com [Source type: News]

^ Many caves, some of them of great extent, penetrate the interior of the rock; the best known of these are the Genista and St Michael's caves.

above sea-level at its mouth, slopes rapidly down and extends over 400 ft. into the .Rock; its extreme limits have not, however, been fully explored.^ Rock; its extreme limits have not, however, been fully explored.

.It consists of a series of five or more chambers of considerable extent, connected by narrow and crooked passages.^ It consists of a series of five or more chambers of considerable extent, connected by narrow and crooked passages.

.The outermost cave is 70 ft.^ The outermost cave is 70 ft.

in height and 200 in length, with massive pillars of stalactite reaching from roof to floor. .The second cave was named the Victoria cave by its discoverer Captain Brome; beyond these are three caves known as the Leonora caves.^ The second cave was named the Victoria cave by its discoverer Captain Brome; beyond these are three caves known as the Leonora caves.

^ Many caves, some of them of great extent, penetrate the interior of the rock; the best known of these are the Genista and St Michael's caves.

." Nothing," writes Captain Brome, " can exceed the beauty of the stalactites; they form clusters of every imaginable shape - statuettes, pillars, foliages, figures," and he adds that American visitors have admitted that even the Mammoth cave itself could not rival these giant stalactites in picturesque beauty.^ Nothing," writes Captain Brome, " can exceed the beauty of the stalactites ; they form clusters of every imaginable shape - statuettes, pillars, foliages, figures," and he adds that American visitors have admitted that even the Mammoth cave itself could not rival these giant stalactites in picturesque beauty.

^ The second cave was named the Victoria cave by its discoverer Captain Brome; beyond these are three caves known as the Leonora caves.

.The mammalian remains of the Genista cave have been described by G. Busk (" Quaternary Fauna of Gibraltar " in Trans.^ The mammalian remains of the Genista cave have been described by G. Busk (" Quaternary Fauna of Gibraltar " in Trans.

^ The low ground at this, and probably at a later period, must have been clothed with a rich vegetation, necessary for the support of a varied mammalian fauna , whose remains have been found in the Genista caves.

^ Fossil Contents of the Genista Cave, G. Busk and Hugh Falconer ; reprinted in Palaeontological Memoirs, H. Falconer, London, 1868).

of Zool. Soc.
vol. x. p. 2, 1877). .They were found to contain remains of a bear, probably Ursus fossilis of Goldfuss; of a hyena, H. crocuta or spelaea; of cats varying from a leopard to a wild cat in size; of a rhinoceros, resembling in species remains found in the Thames valley; two forms of ibex; the hare and rabbit.^ They were found to contain remains of a bear , probably Ursus fossilis of Goldfuss; of a hyena , H. crocuta or spelaea; of cats varying from a leopard to a wild cat in size; of a rhinoceros , resembling in species remains found in the Thames valley; two forms of ibex ; the hare and rabbit .

^ Above is a copy of an important Neanderthal skull found at the peninsula's Forbe's quarry 8 years before the species got its name from the West German valley in the mid 1800s.
  • Picasa Web Albums - Dick - Gibraltar 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC picasaweb.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The low ground at this, and probably at a later period, must have been clothed with a rich vegetation, necessary for the support of a varied mammalian fauna , whose remains have been found in the Genista caves.

.No trace has been found as yet of Rhinoceros tichorinus, of Ursus spelaeus or of the reindeer; and of the elephant only a molar tooth of Elephas antiquus. Further details may be found in the Quarterly Journ.^ No trace has been found as yet of Rhinoceros tichorinus, of Ursus spelaeus or of the reindeer ; and of the elephant only a molar tooth of Elephas antiquus.

^ Further details may be found in the Quarterly Journ.

of Geol. .Soc.
(James Smith of Jordanhill), vol.^ (James Smith of Jordanhill), vol.

ii. and in vol. xxi. .(Fossil Contents of the Genista Cave, G. Busk and Hugh Falconer; reprinted in Palaeontological Memoirs, H. Falconer, London, 1868).^ Fossil Contents of the Genista Cave, G. Busk and Hugh Falconer ; reprinted in Palaeontological Memoirs, H. Falconer, London, 1868).

^ The mammalian remains of the Genista cave have been described by G. Busk (" Quaternary Fauna of Gibraltar " in Trans.

Flora

.The upper part of the Rock is in summer burnt up and brown, but after the first autumn rains and during the winter, spring and early summer, it abounds in wild flowers and shrubs.^ The upper part of the Rock is in summer burnt up and brown, but after the first autumn rains and during the winter, spring and early summer, it abounds in wild flowers and shrubs.

^ The frontier which separates Gibraltar from Spain can get extremely busy, especially during ‘peak’ times or during the summer months when thousands of tourists visit the Rock each day.
  • The Rock of Gibraltar: Beaches, Bunkers and Birding 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.gonomad.com [Source type: News]

^ The first autumn rains, however, which sometimes begin in September, are usually heavy.

.In the public and other gardens on the lower ground, where there is a greater depth of soil, the vegetation is luxuriant and is only limited by the supply of water available for summer irrigation.^ In the public and other gardens on the lower ground, where there is a greater depth of soil, the vegetation is luxuriant and is only limited by the supply of water available for summer irrigation .

^ The water-supply for drinking and cooking purposes is almost wholly derived from rain-water stored chiefly in underground tanks; there are very few good wells .

.Dr E. F. Kelaart (Flora Calpensis, London, 1846) enumerates more than four hundred varieties of plants and ferns indigenous to Gibraltar, and about fifty more which have been introduced from abroad.^ A case can be made that the Jews were more integrated into Gibraltar than any other community in the Western world and the vernacular language (Llanito) contains hundreds of Jewish-derived words.
  • Picasa Web Albums - Dick - Gibraltar 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC picasaweb.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are more than 500 species of small flowering plants on Gibraltar.
  • Gibraltar (British colony, Europe) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Would you like to k now more about your family and ancestry in Gibraltar ?
  • Gibraltar Genealogy, Ancestry, Family History 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.mygenealogist.com [Source type: General]

Of the former a few are said to be species peculiar to the Rock. .The stone-pine and wild-olive are perhaps the only trees found growing in a natural state.^ Wild olive and pine trees grow on the Upper Rock.
  • Gibraltar (British colony, Europe) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of its upper area is covered by a nature reserve, which is home to around 250 Barbary Macaques , the only wild monkeys in Europe.

.In the public and private gardens and by the roadside may be seen the pepper tree, the plane, the white poplar, the acacia, the bella-sombra (Phytolacca dioica), the eucalyptus or blue gum tree, and palms of different species; and, of fruit trees, the orange, lemon, fig, pomegranate, loquat and almond.^ In recent years, Gibraltar has seen major structural change from a public to a private sector economy, but changes in government spending still have a major impact on the level of employment.
  • Flag Counter » Gibraltar 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC flagcounter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World Facts and Figures - Gibraltar 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.worldfactsandfigures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The aloe, flowering aloe and prickly pear are common, and on the eastern side of the Rock the palmito or dwarf palm (Chamaerops humilis) is abundant.^ The aloe , flowering aloe and prickly pear are common, and on the eastern side of the Rock the palmito or dwarf palm ( Chamaerops humilis ) is abundant.

Fauna

.The fauna of Gibraltar, from want of space, is necessarily scanty.^ The fauna of Gibraltar, from want of space, is necessarily scanty.

.The Barbary apes, said to be the only wild monkeys in Europe, are still to be found on the upper part of the Rock, but in very reduced numbers; about the beginning of the 10th century four or five only remained, which were said to be all females; a young male, however, was brought from Africa.^ The Barbary apes, said to be the only wild monkeys in Europe, are still to be found on the upper part of the Rock, but in very reduced numbers; about the beginning of the 10th century four or five only remained, which were said to be all females; a young male, however, was brought from Africa.

^ Barbary macaques have roamed the Rock for hundreds of years and are Europe’s only wild monkeys.
  • Gibraltar (British colony, Europe) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Salmon are still being found in some locations around Michigan , but it is getting harder to find fresh fish, the state Department of Natural Resources said.
  • Gibraltar News - Topix 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]
  • Gibraltar News - Topix 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: General]

.The last male of the original stock, an old patriarch, who had died shortly before this, is believed to have killed and, it is said, eaten all the young ones.^ The last male of the original stock, an old patriarch , who had died shortly before this, is believed to have killed and, it is said, eaten all the young ones.

^ An old patriarch unites for his birthday all members of his family.
  • Rocket Gibraltar (1988) 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A small variety of pigeon breeds in the steep cliffs at the north end of the Rock.^ A small variety of pigeon breeds in the steep cliffs at the north end of the Rock.

^ At the north end of the yard are the administrative offices, slipways for destroyers, a slip for small craft, an ordnance wharf and a boat camber .

^ On Europa Point is the lighthouse in 5 0 21' W. and 36° 6' 30" N. On the Mediterranean side the Rock is almost as steep and inaccessible as it is from the north.

.A few red-legged partridges, some rabbits, two or three foxes and a badger or two will complete the list.^ A few red-legged partridges, some rabbits, two or three foxes and a badger or two will complete the list.

^ Conversion factors generally have six significant figures, but some may have as few as three.
  • Calculator for Gibraltar Pound (GIP) Currency Exchange Rate Conversion 23 September 2009 3:18 UTC coinmill.com [Source type: General]

Climate

.The climate of Gibraltar is pleasant and healthy, mild in winter, and only moderately hot in summer; but the heat, though not excessive, is lasting.^ The climate of Gibraltar is pleasant and healthy, mild in winter, and only moderately hot in summer; but the heat, though not excessive, is lasting.

^ The Bay of Gibraltar, NASA Satellite view The climate is Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers.

^ The climate is mild and pleasant, and tourism is also a significant industry.
  • Gibraltar News - Breaking World Gibraltar News - The New York Times 23 September 2009 3:18 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.The three months of June, July and August are almost always without rain, and it is not often that rain falls in the months of May and September.^ The three months of June, July and August are almost always without rain , and it is not often that rain falls in the months of May and September.

^ The thermometer in summer does not often reach 90° F. in the shade; from 83° to 85° may be taken to be the average maximum for July and August, and these are the hottest months of the year.

.The first autumn rains, however, which sometimes begin in September, are usually heavy.^ The first autumn rains, however, which sometimes begin in September, are usually heavy.

^ The upper part of the Rock is in summer burnt up and brown, but after the first autumn rains and during the winter, spring and early summer, it abounds in wild flowers and shrubs.

.From October to May the climate is for the most part delightful, warm sunshine prevailing, tempered by cool breezes; the spells of bad weather, although blustering enough at times, are seldom of more than a few days' duration.^ From October to May the climate is for the most part delightful, warm sunshine prevailing, tempered by cool breezes; the spells of bad weather, although blustering enough at times, are seldom of more than a few days' duration.

^ Most individual currency factors are updated daily, although some may be slightly older.
  • Calculator for Gibraltar Pound (GIP) Currency Exchange Rate Conversion 23 September 2009 3:18 UTC coinmill.com [Source type: General]

^ Only the uppermost part of the Earth within, at most, a few tens of kilometers of the solid crust's interface with the planet's atmosphere, is capable of supporting long-term stresses over Geological Time(10).
  • Gibraltar strait superdam 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC 2100.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The thermometer in summer does not often reach 90° F. in the shade; from 83° to 85° may be taken to be the average maximum for July and August, and these are the hottest months of the year.^ The thermometer in summer does not often reach 90° F. in the shade; from 83° to 85° may be taken to be the average maximum for July and August, and these are the hottest months of the year.

^ The three months of June, July and August are almost always without rain , and it is not often that rain falls in the months of May and September.

^ H. Petroski, "Engineers' Dreams", American Scientist 85: 310-313 (July-August 1997).
  • Gibraltar strait superdam 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC 2100.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The average yearly rainfall is 34.4 in., and in fifty years from 1857 to 1906 the greatest recorded rainfall was 59.35 in., and the smallest 16.75 in.^ The average yearly rainfall is 34.4 in., and in fifty years from 1857 to 1906 the greatest recorded rainfall was 59.35 in., and the smallest 16.75 in.

.The water-supply for drinking and cooking purposes is almost wholly derived from rain-water stored chiefly in underground tanks; there are very few good wells.^ The water-supply for drinking and cooking purposes is almost wholly derived from rain-water stored chiefly in underground tanks; there are very few good wells .

^ Gibraltar has hot, humid, and almost rainless summers; mild winters during which there is usually adequate rain; and warm, moderately rainy, transitional seasons.
  • Gibraltar (British colony, Europe) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The water was stored in a number of tanks blasted into the Rock.
  • Gibraltar (British colony, Europe) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many of the better class of houses have their own rainwater tanks, and there are large tanks belonging to the naval and military authorities.^ Many of the better class of houses have their own rainwater tanks, and there are large tanks belonging to the naval and military authorities.

^ There is a sanitary commission which is vested; with large powers of spending and with the control of buildings and streets and other matters managed by local authorities in England .

.Large storage tanks have been constructed by the sanitary commissioners with specially prepared collecting areas high up the Rock.^ Large storage tanks have been constructed by the sanitary commissioners with specially prepared collecting areas high up the Rock.

^ The collecting areas cover 16 acres, and the storage tanks have a capacity of over six million gallons.

.The collecting areas cover 16 acres, and the storage tanks have a capacity of over six million gallons.^ The collecting areas cover 16 acres, and the storage tanks have a capacity of over six million gallons.

^ Large storage tanks have been constructed by the sanitary commissioners with specially prepared collecting areas high up the Rock.

.The tanks are excavated in the solid rock, whereby the water is kept in the dark and cool.^ The tanks are excavated in the solid rock, whereby the water is kept in the dark and cool.

^ The water was stored in a number of tanks blasted into the Rock.
  • Gibraltar (British colony, Europe) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A large quantity of brackish water for flushing purposes and baths is pumped from the sandy flats of the north front on the Spanish side of the Rock.^ A large quantity of brackish water for flushing purposes and baths is pumped from the sandy flats of the north front on the Spanish side of the Rock.

^ It has negligible natural resources and limited natural freshwater resources, until recently using large concrete or natural rock water catchments to collect rain water.

^ On Europa Point is the lighthouse in 5 0 21' W. and 36° 6' 30" N. On the Mediterranean side the Rock is almost as steep and inaccessible as it is from the north.

The Town. - .The modern town of Gibraltar is of comparatively recent date, nearly all the older buildings having been destroyed during the great siege (1779-1783).^ The modern town of Gibraltar is of comparatively recent date, nearly all the older buildings having been destroyed during the great siege (1779-1783).

^ Nearly all the fresh meat consumed in Gibraltar comes from Morocco, also large quantities of poultry and eggs.

^ Neither in the War of the Austrian Succession nor in that of 1762 did Spain endeavour to besiege the rock, but the War of American Independence gave her better opportunities, and the great siege of 1779-1783 is justly regarded as one of the most memorable sieges of history.

.The town lies, with most of its buildings crowded together, at the north-western corner of the Rock, and covers only about one-ninth part of the whole area; only a small part of it is on level ground, and those of its narrow streets and lanes which are at right angles to the line wall, or sea front, are for the most part, except at their western ends, little more than ramps or rough stairs formed of rubble stones, contracting in places into stone steps.^ It is formed of rubble stone floated into position in barges.

^ The town lies, with most of its buildings crowded together, at the north-western corner of the Rock, and covers only about one-ninth part of the whole area; only a small part of it is on level ground, and those of its narrow streets and lanes which are at right angles to the line wall, or sea front, are for the most part, except at their western ends, little more than ramps or rough stairs formed of rubble stones, contracting in places into stone steps.

^ Spain has made several unsuccessful attempts to recapture it: the Rock has endured 15 sieges, the most famous of which started in 1779 and lasted more than three years.
  • Gibraltar | Politics | guardian.co.uk 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.The public buildings present few, if any, features of general interest.^ The public buildings present few, if any, features of general interest.

.The " Convent " rebuilt upon the remains of an old Franciscan monastery is the official residence of the governor.^ The " Convent " rebuilt upon the remains of an old Franciscan monastery is the official residence of the governor.

.The Anglican cathedral is a poor imitation of Moorish architecture.^ The Anglican cathedral is a poor imitation of Moorish architecture .

.The garrison library has excellent reading rooms and a large number of volumes of miscellaneous interest.^ The garrison library has excellent reading rooms and a large number of volumes of miscellaneous interest.

.The civil hospital is a well-planned and roomy modern building.^ The civil hospital is a well-planned and roomy modern building.

.The courthouse and exchange buildings are suited to the needs of the town.^ The courthouse and exchange buildings are suited to the needs of the town.

.The antiquary may here and there find the remains of a Moorish bath forming part of a stable, or fragments of a sculptured stone gateway bearing the arms of Castile or of Aragon built into the wall of a modern barrack.^ The antiquary may here and there find the remains of a Moorish bath forming part of a stable , or fragments of a sculptured stone gateway bearing the arms of Castile or of Aragon built into the wall of a modern barrack.

.In a small disused graveyard, near Southport gate, lie buried a number of those who fell at Trafalgar.^ In a small disused graveyard, near Southport gate , lie buried a number of those who fell at Trafalgar.

.To the south of the town are the Alameda parade and gardens, a lunatic asylum, the dockyard, graving docks and the naval and military hospitals.^ The British military traditionally dominated the economy of Gibraltar, with the naval dockyard providing the bulk of economic activity.

Population

.The inhabitants of Gibraltar are of mixed race; after the capture of the town by the British nearly the whole of the former Spanish population emigrated in a body and founded, 6 m.^ The inhabitants of Gibraltar are of mixed race; after the capture of the town by the British nearly the whole of the former Spanish population emigrated in a body and founded, 6 m.

^ The poor are thus being gradually pushed across the frontier into the neighbouring Spanish town of La Linea de la Concepcion , itself a mere suburb of Gibraltar, whose population, however, is nearly double that of the parent city.

^ Gibraltar was captured in 1704 during the war of Spanish succession by an Anglo-Dutch fleet.
  • Gibraltar | Politics | guardian.co.uk 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

away. the little town of San Roque. .Most of the native inhabitants 'are of Italian or Genoese descent; there are also a number of Maltese, and between two and three thousand Jews.^ Most of the native inhabitants 'are of Italian or Genoese descent; there are also a number of Maltese, and between two and three thousand Jews .

^ Among the thirty thousand inhabitants, about twenty-five thousand have the status of British Gibraltarians, two thousand are other British citizens (mainly military), and two thousand are Moroccan workers.
  • Culture of Gibraltar - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Jews never intermarry with other races and form a distinct society of their own.^ The Jews never intermarry with other races and form a distinct society of their own.

.The language of the people is Spanish, not very correctly spoken.^ The language of the people is Spanish, not very correctly spoken.

^ LANGUAGE The official and spoken language is English although because of Gibraltar’s close proximity to Spain, Spanish is spoken widely.
  • off shore incorporations, offshore companies, off-shore places, Gibraltar 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.offshoresimple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ English is learnt as a foreign language and is rarely, if ever, spoken by the people in their own homes.

.English is learnt as a foreign language and is rarely, if ever, spoken by the people in their own homes.^ English is learnt as a foreign language and is rarely, if ever, spoken by the people in their own homes.

^ LANGUAGE The official and spoken language is English although because of Gibraltar’s close proximity to Spain, Spanish is spoken widely.
  • off shore incorporations, offshore companies, off-shore places, Gibraltar 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.offshoresimple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Locally, Yanito, an Andalusian-based creole language with many English, Italian, Hebrew, and Maltese words, is spoken.
  • Culture of Gibraltar - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gibraltar being primarily a fortress and naval base, every effort, in view of war contingencies, is made by the authorities to prevent the natural increase of the population.^ Friends and neighbours Everyone is up in arms about the deplorable action being taken by the La Linea authorities on vehicular traffic which is destined for Gibraltar.
  • Gibraltar, Gibraltar News - Topix 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: News]

^ To honour them for their effort and in recognition of the long association as a naval base, the freedom of the City was awarded to the Royal Navy .

^ Gibraltar subsequently became an important naval base for the Royal Navy and played an important part in the Battle of Trafalgar.

.Sanitary and building regulations, modelled upon English statutes designed with quite different objects, are administered with some ingenuity and not a little severity.^ There are several  GRIB files and all are  based upon computer modeling.
  • Gibraltar 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.dakare.com [Source type: General]

.In this way the house room available for the poorer classes is steadily reduced.^ One of the major marinas, Shepard's, has given way to a luxury building complex, thus reducing the amount of available slips there are here for transients.
  • Gibraltar 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.dakare.com [Source type: General]

.The poor are thus being gradually pushed across the frontier into the neighbouring Spanish town of La Linea de la Concepcion, itself a mere suburb of Gibraltar, whose population, however, is nearly double that of the parent city.^ The foreground here are the Spanish towns of Linea de la Concepción and Algeciras.
  • Picasa Web Albums - Dick - Gibraltar 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC picasaweb.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ La linea dela concepcion .
  • WTZ – Properties Gibraltar, GIBRALTAR 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC travel.ian.com [Source type: General]

^ In the distance is the Spanish town of La Linea (which means the line of the border).
  • Picasa Web Albums - Dick - Gibraltar 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC picasaweb.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A large army of workers come daily from " the Lines " into Gibraltar, returning at " first evening gunfire " shortly after sunset, at which time the gates are closed and locked for the night.^ A large army of workers come daily from " the Lines " into Gibraltar, returning at " first evening gunfire " shortly after sunset, at which time the gates are closed and locked for the night.

^ Nearly all the fresh meat consumed in Gibraltar comes from Morocco, also large quantities of poultry and eggs.

^ When Francisco Franco closed the border in the 1960s, the Spanish workforce that crossed into town daily was replaced by Moroccans who were housed in this area.
  • Picasa Web Albums - Dick - Gibraltar 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC picasaweb.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Aliens are not allowed to reside in Gibraltar without a special permit, which must be renewed at short intervals.^ Aliens are not allowed to reside in Gibraltar without a special permit, which must be renewed at short intervals.

^ If the company is incorporated outside Gibraltar, it must keep a true copy of its register of members within Gibraltar; The company must not, without the approval of the Financial and Development Secretary, carry on any trade or business in Gibraltar or with Gibraltarians or residents of Gibraltar except where these are other exempt companies.

^ Partnership agreements and financial accounts do not have to be filed although a partnership that is resident in Gibraltar must submit accounts annually to the Commissioner of Income Tax.

.By an order in council, taking effect from November 1900, the like disabilities were extended to British subjects not previously resident.^ By an order in council , taking effect from November 1900, the like disabilities were extended to British subjects not previously resident.

Yearly Average.
Births.
Marriages.
Deaths.
[883-1885 .
621
177
513
[886-1890 .
603
167
514
[891-1895 .
626
186
460
1896-1900 .
641
201
498
1901-1905 .
629
201
472
The recorded births, marriages and deaths over a period of 23 years are as follows: - The numbers of the population from causes which have been referred to are almost stationary, showing a slight tendency to decrease. .There are no available statistics later than those of a census taken in 1901, from which it appeared that the population then numbered 27,460, of whom the garrison and its families amounted to 6595, the civil population, being British subjects, to 17,818, and aliens resident under permits to 3047. The latter are chiefly working men and domestic servants.^ The latter are chiefly working men and domestic servants.

^ There are no available statistics later than those of a census taken in 1901, from which it appeared that the population then numbered 27,460, of whom the garrison and its families amounted to 6595, the civil population, being British subjects, to 17,818, and aliens resident under permits to 3047.

^ One of the major marinas, Shepard's, has given way to a luxury building complex, thus reducing the amount of available slips there are here for transients.
  • Gibraltar 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.dakare.com [Source type: General]

.Constitution.-Gibraltar is a crown colony.^ Constitution.-Gibraltar is a crown colony.

^ POLITICAL STRUCTURE Gibraltar is a British Dependent Territory and is a Crown Colony with internal self-government.
  • off shore incorporations, offshore companies, off-shore places, Gibraltar 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.offshoresimple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GIBRALTAR, a British fortress and crown colony at the western entrance to the Mediterranean.

.Of local government properly so called there is none.^ Of local government properly so called there is none.

.There is a sanitary commission which is vested; with large powers of spending and with the control of buildings and streets and other matters managed by local authorities in England.^ There is a sanitary commission which is vested; with large powers of spending and with the control of buildings and streets and other matters managed by local authorities in England .

.Its members are appointed by the governor.^ Its members are appointed by the governor.

.An appeal from their decisions, so far as they affect individuals, lies to the supreme court.^ An appeal from their decisions, so far as they affect individuals, lies to the supreme court .

^ Supreme Court; Court of Appeal .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Gibraltar 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Apart from the garrison and civil officials there are comparatively few members of the Anglican Church.^ Apart from the garrison and civil officials there are comparatively few members of the Anglican Church.

.The great majority of the people belong to the Church of Rome.^ The great majority of the people belong to the Church of Rome .

^ The main religion is Christianity, with the majority of Gibraltarians belonging to the Roman Catholic Church .

.The Jews have four synagogues.^ The Jews have four synagogues.

.The Protestant dissenters have two places of worship, Presbyterian and Wesleyan.^ The Protestant dissenters have two places of worship, Presbyterian and Wesleyan.

.Education is not compulsory for the civil population, but most of the children, if not all, receive a fair education in private or private aided schools.^ Education is not compulsory for the civil population, but most of the children, if not all, receive a fair education in private or private aided schools.

^ The number of the children on the rolls of the private and private aided schools was in 1905: boys, 1504; girls, 1733; total 3237.

The number of the children on the rolls of the private and private aided schools was in 1905: boys, 1504; girls, 1733; total 3237.
.Commerce.-Except in respect of alcoholic liquors and tobacco Gibraltar has been a free port since the year 1705-a distinction due, it is said, to the refusal of a sultan of Morocco to allow of muchneeded exports from Morocco to Gibraltar if full liberty of trade were not granted to his subjects.^ Commerce.-Except in respect of alcoholic liquors and tobacco Gibraltar has been a free port since the year 1705-a distinction due, it is said, to the refusal of a sultan of Morocco to allow of muchneeded exports from Morocco to Gibraltar if full liberty of trade were not granted to his subjects.

^ Goods are also landed for reexport to Morocco, but the bulk of the Morocco trade, much of which formerly came to Gibraltar, is now done by lines of steamers trading to and from Morocco direct to British, German or French ports.

^ Quite simply, a Gibraltar non-resident company is not subject to Gibraltar taxation at all, due to full location of its management and business outside Gibraltar.
  • off shore incorporations, offshore companies, off-shore places, Gibraltar 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.offshoresimple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the great wars of the beginning of the 19th century trade was most active in Gibraltar, and some large fortunes were made; but trade on a large scale has almost disappeared.^ During the great wars of the beginning of the 19th century trade was most active in Gibraltar, and some large fortunes were made; but trade on a large scale has almost disappeared.

^ The great depreciation of the Spanish currency during the war with the United States led in 1898 to the reintroduction of British currency as the legal tender money of Gibraltar.

^ During World War II , the civilian residents of Gibraltar were evacuated, and the Rock was turned into a fortress.

.At the point of contact of two continents, on the direct line of ocean trade with the far East, in regular steam communication with all the great ports of Europe and with North and South America, Gibraltar, by its position, is fitted to be a trade centre of the world, but the unrest and suspicion engendered in Morocco by the intrigues and designs of the European powers, and excessive protective duties and maladministration in Spain, have done much to extinguish the trade of Gibraltar.^ At the point of contact of two continents, on the direct line of ocean trade with the far East, in regular steam communication with all the great ports of Europe and with North and South America , Gibraltar, by its position, is fitted to be a trade centre of the world, but the unrest and suspicion engendered in Morocco by the intrigues and designs of the European powers, and excessive protective duties and maladministration in Spain , have done much to extinguish the trade of Gibraltar.

^ From here Africa can be seen across the Straits of Gibraltar to the south; to the west is the City of Gibraltar and a wonderful view across the bay to Algeciras; to the north lies the vast expanse of Spain and a great view of Gibraltar Airport; and to the east lies the Mediterranean Sea with its long beaches and the cities of the Costa del Sol.
  • easyJet.com - Gibraltar 23 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.easyjet.com [Source type: General]

^ Southwestern europe, bordering the strait of gibraltar, which links the mediterranean sea and the north atlantic ocean, on the southern coast of spain .
  • Jobs in Gibraltar Careers, Jobs, Education - Careers.org 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC international.careers.org [Source type: News]

.There are, however, no trustworthy statistics of imports and exports.^ There are, however, no trustworthy statistics of imports and exports.

^ Castile and Leon , who, in order to attract inhabitants to the spot, offered an asylum to thieves and murderers, and promised to levy no taxes on the import or export of goods.

.Before the year 1898 wine, beer and spirits were the only goods which paid duty.^ Before the year 1898 wine , beer and spirits were the only goods which paid duty.

^ Before 1898 Spanish money only was in use.

.In that year a duty of id.^ In that year a duty of id.

per lb was for the first time put upon tobacco and produced £1444; the duty was, however, in force only for a part of the year; in .1899 the duty, at the same rate, produced £ 7703. In 1902 the duty on tobacco was raised to 2d.^ In 1902 the duty on tobacco was raised to 2d.

per lb and produced £29,311. .In 1905 this duty produced £24,575. The chief business of Gibraltar is the coaling of passing steamers; this gives work to several thousand men.^ The chief business of Gibraltar is the coaling of passing steamers; this gives work to several thousand men.

^ In 1905 this duty produced £24,575.

.Goods are also landed for reexport to Morocco, but the bulk of the Morocco trade, much of which formerly came to Gibraltar, is now done by lines of steamers trading to and from Morocco direct to British, German or French ports.^ Goods are also landed for reexport to Morocco, but the bulk of the Morocco trade, much of which formerly came to Gibraltar, is now done by lines of steamers trading to and from Morocco direct to British, German or French ports.

^ At the point of contact of two continents, on the direct line of ocean trade with the far East, in regular steam communication with all the great ports of Europe and with North and South America , Gibraltar, by its position, is fitted to be a trade centre of the world, but the unrest and suspicion engendered in Morocco by the intrigues and designs of the European powers, and excessive protective duties and maladministration in Spain , have done much to extinguish the trade of Gibraltar.

^ Other groups including Minorcans (forced to leave their homes when that island was returned to Spain in 1802), Sardinians, Sicilians, French, Germans, Italians, and, of course, the British.

.Nearly all the fresh meat consumed in Gibraltar comes from Morocco, also large quantities of poultry and eggs.^ Nearly all the fresh meat consumed in Gibraltar comes from Morocco, also large quantities of poultry and eggs.

^ The modern town of Gibraltar is of comparatively recent date, nearly all the older buildings having been destroyed during the great siege (1779-1783).

.A fair amount of retail business is done with the passengers of ocean steamers which call on their way to and from the East and from North and South America.^ A fair amount of retail business is done with the passengers of ocean steamers which call on their way to and from the East and from North and South America .

Yearly Average.
British.
Foreign.
Total.
1883-1885
3,5 2 5, 1 35
81 7,9 26
4,343,061
1886-1890 .
.
4,507,101
9 08 ,4 1 9
5,415,520
1891-1895 .
3,710,856
975,390
4,686,246
1896-1900 .
.
3,281,165
1, 06 3,3 6 7
4,344,532
1901-1905 .
.
2,810,849
1,309,649
4,120,498
.The steam tonnage cleared annually since 1883 is shown in the following table: The main sources of revenue are (i.^ The steam tonnage cleared annually since 1883 is shown in the following table: The main sources of revenue are (i.

) duties upon wine, spirits, malt liquors and tobacco; (ii.) port and harbour dues; (iii.) tavern and other licences; (iv.) post and telegraph; (v.) ground and other rents; (vi.) stamps and miscellaneous. .The returns before 1898 were made in pesetas (5=$1).^ The returns before 1898 were made in pesetas (5=$1).

In the following table these have been converted into sterling at an average of exchange 30=£1.
.The money, weights and measures in legal use are British.^ The money, weights and measures in legal use are British.

^ The great depreciation of the Spanish currency during the war with the United States led in 1898 to the reintroduction of British currency as the legal tender money of Gibraltar.

.Before 1898 Spanish money only was in use.^ Before 1898 Spanish money only was in use.

^ The great depreciation of the Spanish currency during the war with the United States led in 1898 to the reintroduction of British currency as the legal tender money of Gibraltar.

^ Before the year 1898 wine , beer and spirits were the only goods which paid duty.

.The great depreciation of the Spanish currency during the war with the United States led in 1898 to the reintroduction of British currency as the legal tender money of Gibraltar.^ The great depreciation of the Spanish currency during the war with the United States led in 1898 to the reintroduction of British currency as the legal tender money of Gibraltar.

^ The naval Battle of Gibraltar took place on 1607-04-25 during the Eighty Years' War when a Dutch fleet surprised and engaged a Spanish fleet anchored at the Bay of Gibraltar.

^ During the great wars of the beginning of the 19th century trade was most active in Gibraltar, and some large fortunes were made; but trade on a large scale has almost disappeared.

.Notwithstanding this change the Spanish dollar still remains in current use; much of the retail business of the town being done with persons resident in Spain, the dollar fully holds its own.^ Notwithstanding this change the Spanish dollar still remains in current use; much of the retail business of the town being done with persons resident in Spain, the dollar fully holds its own.

.Harbour and Fortifications.-Great changes were made in the defences of Gibraltar early in the 20th century.^ Harbour and Fortifications.-Great changes were made in the defences of Gibraltar early in the 20th century.

^ After this the Spaniards made great efforts to strengthen the place, and they succeeded so well that throughout Europe Gibraltar was regarded as impregnable, the engineer Daniel Speckle (1536-1589) being chiefly responsible for the design of the fortifications.

^ During the great wars of the beginning of the 19th century trade was most active in Gibraltar, and some large fortunes were made; but trade on a large scale has almost disappeared.

.Guns of the newest types replaced those of older patterns.^ Guns of the newest types replaced those of older patterns.

.The heavier pieces instead of being at or near the sea-level, are now high up, many of them on the crest line of the Rock; their lateral range and fire area has thereby been greatly increased and their efficiency improved in combination with an elaborate system of range finding.^ The heavier pieces instead of being at or near the sea-level, are now high up, many of them on the crest line of the Rock; their lateral range and fire area has thereby been greatly increased and their efficiency improved in combination with an elaborate system of range finding.

^ At a later date still the Rock sank once more to its present level.

^ Buoys floating attached to the screen's non-gaudy shore-visible rim will take up the slack membrane thereby keeping the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea at equal levels.
  • Gibraltar strait superdam 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC 2100.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With the completion of the new dockyard works the value of Gibraltar as a naval base has greatly increased.^ With the completion of the new dockyard works the value of Gibraltar as a naval base has greatly increased.

^ Gibraltar being primarily a fortress and naval base, every effort, in view of war contingencies, is made by the authorities to prevent the natural increase of the population.

It can now undertake all the ordinary repairs and coaling of a large fleet. There is an enclosed harbour in which a fleet can safely anchor secure from the attacks of torpedo boats. .A mole, at first intended for commercial purposes, closes the north end of the new harbour.^ A mole , at first intended for commercial purposes, closes the north end of the new harbour.

^ The Admiralty, ` ,however, soon found that their needs had outgrown the first design and the so-called Commercial Mole has been taken over for naval purposes, plans for a new commercial mole being prepared.

^ It encloses the harbour to the north and extends westward from the end of the Devil's Tongue.

.The Admiralty, ` ,however, soon found that their needs had outgrown the first design and the so-called Commercial Mole has been taken over for naval purposes, plans for a new commercial mole being prepared.^ The Admiralty, ` ,however, soon found that their needs had outgrown the first design and the so-called Commercial Mole has been taken over for naval purposes, plans for a new commercial mole being prepared.

^ A mole , at first intended for commercial purposes, closes the north end of the new harbour.

^ All the scientific reasons adduced in 1997 by its author are equally relevant and useful on which to found this new plan.
  • Gibraltar strait superdam 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC 2100.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The funds for these extensive works were provided by the Naval Works Loan Acts of 1895 and subsequent years.^ The funds for these extensive works were provided by the Naval Works Loan Acts of 1895 and subsequent years.

.The land space available for the purposes of dockyard extension being very limited, a space of about 64 acres was reclaimed from the sea in front of the Alameda and the road to Rosia; some of the land reclaimed was as much as 40 ft.^ The land space available for the purposes of dockyard extension being very limited, a space of about 64 acres was reclaimed from the sea in front of the Alameda and the road to Rosia; some of the land reclaimed was as much as 40 ft.

^ On the west side of the Rock the slopes are less steep, especially as they near the sea, and on this side lie the town, the Alameda or public gardens, the barracks and the dockyard.

under water. .The large quantity of material required for this purpose was obtained by tunnelling the Rock from W. to E. and from quarries above Catalan Bay village, to which access was gained through the tunnel.^ The large quantity of material required for this purpose was obtained by tunnelling the Rock from W. to E. and from quarries above Catalan Bay village, to which access was gained through the tunnel.

^ Below the signal station, at the edge of the Mediterranean, lies Catalan Bay, where there is a little village chiefly inhabited by fishermen and others who make their living upon the waters; but Catalan Bay can only be approached by land from the north or by a tunnel through the Rock from the dockyard; from Catalan Bay to Europa Point the way is barred by impassable cliffs.

^ A large quantity of brackish water for flushing purposes and baths is pumped from the sandy flats of the north front on the Spanish side of the Rock.

.The graving docks occupy the dug-out site of the former New Mole Parade.^ The graving docks occupy the dug-out site of the former New Mole Parade.

^ To the south of the town are the Alameda parade and gardens, a lunatic asylum , the dockyard, graving docks and the naval and military hospitals.

.There are three of these docks, 850,550 and 450 ft.^ There are three of these docks, 850,550 and 450 ft.

in length respectively. .The largest dock is divisible by a central caisson so that four ships can be docked at one time.^ The largest dock is divisible by a central caisson so that four ships can be docked at one time.

.The docks are all 95 ft.^ The docks are all 95 ft.

wide at the entrance with 352 ft. of water over the sills at low-water spring tides. .The pumping machinery can empty the largest dock, 105,000 tons of water, in five hours.^ The pumping machinery can empty the largest dock, 105,000 tons of water, in five hours.

.There are two workshops for the chief constructor's and chief engineer's departments, each 407 ft.^ There are two workshops for the chief constructor's and chief engineer's departments, each 407 ft.

^ For the staff captain's department and stores there are buildings with 250,000 ft.

long and 322 broad. .For the staff captain's department and stores there are buildings with 250,000 ft.^ For the staff captain's department and stores there are buildings with 250,000 ft.

^ There are two workshops for the chief constructor's and chief engineer's departments, each 407 ft.

of floor space. .At the north end of the yard are the administrative offices, slipways for destroyers, a slip for small craft, an ordnance wharf and a boat camber.^ At the north end of the yard are the administrative offices, slipways for destroyers, a slip for small craft, an ordnance wharf and a boat camber .

^ A small variety of pigeon breeds in the steep cliffs at the north end of the Rock.

^ At the end nearest the town are large stores; there is also a small wharf on its outer side which is used by the tenders of ocean steamers and by the small boats which ply to Algeciras .

.The reclaimed area is faced with a wharf wall of concrete blocks for an unbroken length of 1600 ft.^ The reclaimed area is faced with a wharf wall of concrete blocks for an unbroken length of 1600 ft.

^ The Detached Mole is a vertical wall formed of concrete blocks, each block weighing 28 tons.

^ The jetties and western arm have extensive coal sheds and are faced with a concrete wharf wall of a total length of 7000 ft.

with 33 ft. of water alongside at low tide; on this wharf are powerful shears and cranes.
.The enclosed harbour covers 440 acres, 250 of which have a minimum depth of 30 ft.^ The enclosed harbour covers 440 acres, 250 of which have a minimum depth of 30 ft.

at low water. .It is closed on the S. and S.W. by the New Mole (1400 ft.^ New Mole extension (2700 ft.

^ The New Mole, with its latest extension, has a width at top of 102 ft.

^ It is closed on the S. and S.W. by the New Mole (1400 ft.

) and the .New Mole extension (2700 ft.^ The New Mole, with its latest extension, has a width at top of 102 ft.

^ New Mole extension (2700 ft.

^ The New Mole, so called to distinguish it from the Old Mole and its later extension the Devil's Tongue at the north end of the town, is said to have been begun by the Spaniards in 1620.

), together .4100 ft.; on the W. by the Detached Mole (2720 ft.^ W. by the Detached Mole (2720 ft.

) and on the N. by the Commercial Mole.
.The New Mole, so called to distinguish it from the Old Mole and its later extension the Devil's Tongue at the north end of the town, is said to have been begun by the Spaniards in 1620. It was successfully assaulted by landing parties from the British fleet under Sir George Rooke at the capture of Gibraltar by the British in 1704. It was extended at different times.^ The New Mole, so called to distinguish it from the Old Mole and its later extension the Devil's Tongue at the north end of the town, is said to have been begun by the Spaniards in 1620.

^ It was successfully assaulted by landing parties from the British fleet under Sir George Rooke at the capture of Gibraltar by the British in 1704.

^ New Mole extension (2700 ft.

and before the beginning of the new works was 1400 ft. in length. .The New Mole, with its latest extension, has a width at top of 102 ft.^ The New Mole, with its latest extension, has a width at top of 102 ft.

^ New Mole extension (2700 ft.

^ The New Mole, so called to distinguish it from the Old Mole and its later extension the Devil's Tongue at the north end of the town, is said to have been begun by the Spaniards in 1620.

.It is formed of rubble stone floated into position in barges.^ It is formed of rubble stone floated into position in barges.

^ These blocks were built together on the sloping block system upon a rubble foundation of stone deposited by barges and levelled by divers for the reception of the concrete blocks.

.It has a continuous wharf wall on the harbour side 35 00 ft.^ It has a continuous wharf wall on the harbour side 35 00 ft.

^ The jetties and western arm have extensive coal sheds and are faced with a concrete wharf wall of a total length of 7000 ft.

^ The reclaimed area is faced with a wharf wall of concrete blocks for an unbroken length of 1600 ft.

long, with water alongside 30 to 35 ft. deep. .On the outer side coal is stacked in sheds extending nearly the whole length of the mole.^ On the outer side coal is stacked in sheds extending nearly the whole length of the mole.

^ The jetties and western arm have extensive coal sheds and are faced with a concrete wharf wall of a total length of 7000 ft.

Yearly Average.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
Total.
1886-1890
9,692
1 7, 0 7 0
53 8 7
6 ,8 0 5
6485
2, 8 73
48,312
1891-1895
9,250
1 3, 1 57
4 2 75
7, 8 33
6208
10,113
50,836
1896-1900
14,071
8,435
4136
10,016
59 2 4
1 4,4 60
57,042
1 9 01 - 1905
35,900
6,028
3905
12,091
6 945
1 5, 8 59
80,728
Year 1905
36,554
5,872
4050
16 ,55 1
74 8 9
17,007
87,523
The Detached Mole is a vertical wall formed of concrete blocks, each block weighing 28 tons. .These blocks were built together on the sloping block system upon a rubble foundation of stone deposited by barges and levelled by divers for the reception of the concrete blocks.^ These blocks were built together on the sloping block system upon a rubble foundation of stone deposited by barges and levelled by divers for the reception of the concrete blocks.

^ It is formed of rubble stone floated into position in barges.

.The Commercial Mole is now chiefly used by the navy as a convenient wharf for destroyers.^ The Commercial Mole is now chiefly used by the navy as a convenient wharf for destroyers.

.It encloses the harbour to the north and extends westward from the end of the Devil's Tongue.^ It encloses the harbour to the north and extends westward from the end of the Devil's Tongue.

^ The New Mole, so called to distinguish it from the Old Mole and its later extension the Devil's Tongue at the north end of the town, is said to have been begun by the Spaniards in 1620.

^ A mole , at first intended for commercial purposes, closes the north end of the new harbour.

.At the end nearest the town are large stores; there is also a small wharf on its outer side which is used by the tenders of ocean steamers and by the small boats which ply to Algeciras.^ At the end nearest the town are large stores; there is also a small wharf on its outer side which is used by the tenders of ocean steamers and by the small boats which ply to Algeciras .

^ At the north end of the yard are the administrative offices, slipways for destroyers, a slip for small craft, an ordnance wharf and a boat camber .

.This mole is built of rubble, and at its western end it has an arm about 1600 ft.^ This mole is built of rubble, and at its western end it has an arm about 1600 ft.

^ The jetties and western arm have extensive coal sheds and are faced with a concrete wharf wall of a total length of 7000 ft.

long running .S. in the direction of the Detached Mole.^ S. in the direction of the Detached Mole.

.Parallel with and inside the western arm are five jetties.^ Parallel with and inside the western arm are five jetties.

^ The jetties and western arm have extensive coal sheds and are faced with a concrete wharf wall of a total length of 7000 ft.

.The jetties and western arm have extensive coal sheds and are faced with a concrete wharf wall of a total length of 7000 ft.^ The reclaimed area is faced with a wharf wall of concrete blocks for an unbroken length of 1600 ft.

^ The jetties and western arm have extensive coal sheds and are faced with a concrete wharf wall of a total length of 7000 ft.

^ On the outer side coal is stacked in sheds extending nearly the whole length of the mole.

with 20 to 30 ft. of water alongside. .The Devil's Tongue was an extension of the Old Mole, constructed during the great siege 1 7791783 in order to bring a flanking fire to bear upon part of the Spanish lines.^ The Devil's Tongue was an extension of the Old Mole, constructed during the great siege 1 7791783 in order to bring a flanking fire to bear upon part of the Spanish lines.

^ The great depreciation of the Spanish currency during the war with the United States led in 1898 to the reintroduction of British currency as the legal tender money of Gibraltar.

^ The modern town of Gibraltar is of comparatively recent date, nearly all the older buildings having been destroyed during the great siege (1779-1783).

.It owes its name to the success with which it played its destined part.^ It owes its name to the success with which it played its destined part.

(H. M. *) History. - .Gibraltar was known to the Greek and Roman geographers as Calpe or Alybe, the two names being probably corruptions of the same local (perhaps Phoenician) word.^ Gibraltar was known to the Greek and Roman geographers as Calpe or Alybe, the two names being probably corruptions of the same local (perhaps Phoenician) word.

^ In order to secure his communications with Africa he ordered the building of a strong castle upon the Rock, known to the Romans as Mons Calpe.

^ Gibraltar is called after Tariq (or Tarik) ben Zaid, its name being a corruption of Jebel Tariq (Mount Tariq).

.The eminence on the African coast near Ceuta which bears the modern English name of Apes' Hill was then designated Abyla; and Calpe and Abyla, at least according to an ancient and widely current interpretation, formed the renowned Pillars of Hercules (Hercules columnae, `HparcMovs crijXai), which for centuries were the limits of enterprise to the seafaring peoples of the Mediterranean world.^ The eminence on the African coast near Ceuta which bears the modern English name of Apes' Hill was then designated Abyla; and Calpe and Abyla, at least according to an ancient and widely current interpretation, formed the renowned Pillars of Hercules (Hercules columnae, `HparcMovs crijXai ), which for centuries were the limits of enterprise to the seafaring peoples of the Mediterranean world.

.The military history of the Rock begins with its capture and fortification by Tariq in 711. In 1309 it was retaken by Alonzo Perez de Guzman for Ferdinand IV.^ In 1309 it was retaken by Alonzo Perez de Guzman for Ferdinand IV .

^ The military history of the Rock begins with its capture and fortification by Tariq in 711.

^ In 1462, however, success attended the efforts of Alonzo de Arcos (8th siege), and in August the Rock passed once more under Christian sway.

of .Castile and Leon, who, in order to attract inhabitants to the spot, offered an asylum to thieves and murderers, and promised to levy no taxes on the import or export of goods.^ Castile and Leon , who, in order to attract inhabitants to the spot, offered an asylum to thieves and murderers, and promised to levy no taxes on the import or export of goods.

^ There are, however, no trustworthy statistics of imports and exports.

.The attack of Ismail ben Ferez in 1315 (2nd siege) was frustrated; but in 1 333 Vasco Perez de Meyra, having allowed the fortifications and garrison to decay, was obliged to capitulate to Mahomet IV. (3rd siege) after a defence of five months.^ The attack of Ismail ben Ferez in 1315 (2nd siege) was frustrated; but in 1 333 Vasco Perez de Meyra, having allowed the fortifications and garrison to decay, was obliged to capitulate to Mahomet IV. (3rd siege) after a defence of five months.

^ In 1540 the garrison had to defend itself against a much more formidable attack (11th siege) - the pirates of Algiers having determined to recover the Rock for Mahomet and themselves.

^ In 1309 it was retaken by Alonzo Perez de Guzman for Ferdinand IV .

.Alonzo's attempts to recover possession (4th siege) were futile, though pertinacious and heroic; but after his successful attack on Algeciras in 1344 he was encouraged to try his fortune again at Gibraltar.^ Alonzo's attempts to recover possession (4th siege) were futile, though pertinacious and heroic; but after his successful attack on Algeciras in 1344 he was encouraged to try his fortune again at Gibraltar.

^ Don Juan tried in 1506 to recover possession, and added a 10th to the list of sieges.

.In 1 349 he invested the Rock, but the siege (5th siege) was brought to an untimely close by his death in March 1350. The next or 6th siege resulted simply in the transference of the position from the hands of the king of Morocco to those of Yussef III. of Granada (1411), and the 7th, undertaken by the Spanish count of Niebla, Enrique de Guzman, proved fatal to the besieger and his forces (1435).^ The next or 6th siege resulted simply in the transference of the position from the hands of the king of Morocco to those of Yussef III. of Granada (1411), and the 7th, undertaken by the Spanish count of Niebla, Enrique de Guzman, proved fatal to the besieger and his forces (1435).

^ In 1 349 he invested the Rock, but the siege (5th siege) was brought to an untimely close by his death in March 1350.

^ In 1462, however, success attended the efforts of Alonzo de Arcos (8th siege), and in August the Rock passed once more under Christian sway.

.In 1462, however, success attended the efforts of Alonzo de Arcos (8th siege), and in August the Rock passed once more under Christian sway.^ In 1462, however, success attended the efforts of Alonzo de Arcos (8th siege), and in August the Rock passed once more under Christian sway.

^ Alonzo's attempts to recover possession (4th siege) were futile, though pertinacious and heroic; but after his successful attack on Algeciras in 1344 he was encouraged to try his fortune again at Gibraltar.

^ At a later date still the Rock sank once more to its present level.

.The duke of Medina Sidonia, a powerful grandee who had assisted in its capture, was anxious to get possession of the fortress, and though Henry IV.^ The duke of Medina Sidonia , a powerful grandee who had assisted in its capture, was anxious to get possession of the fortress, and though Henry IV .

at first managed to maintain the claims of the crown, the duke ultimately made good his ambition by force of arms (9th siege), and in 1469 the king was constrained to declare his son and his heirs perpetual governors of Gibraltar. .In 1479 Ferdinand and Isabella made the second duke marquess of Gibraltar, and in 1492 the third duke, Don Juan, was reluctantly allowed to retain the fortress.^ In 1479 Ferdinand and Isabella made the second duke marquess of Gibraltar, and in 1492 the third duke, Don Juan , was reluctantly allowed to retain the fortress.

.At length in 1502 it was formally incorporated with the domains of the crown.^ At length in 1502 it was formally incorporated with the domains of the crown.

.Don Juan tried in 1506 to recover possession, and added a 10th to the list of sieges.^ Don Juan tried in 1506 to recover possession, and added a 10th to the list of sieges.

^ Alonzo's attempts to recover possession (4th siege) were futile, though pertinacious and heroic; but after his successful attack on Algeciras in 1344 he was encouraged to try his fortune again at Gibraltar.

.In 1540 the garrison had to defend itself against a much more formidable attack (11th siege) - the pirates of Algiers having determined to recover the Rock for Mahomet and themselves.^ In 1540 the garrison had to defend itself against a much more formidable attack (11th siege) - the pirates of Algiers having determined to recover the Rock for Mahomet and themselves.

^ The attack of Ismail ben Ferez in 1315 (2nd siege) was frustrated; but in 1 333 Vasco Perez de Meyra, having allowed the fortifications and garrison to decay, was obliged to capitulate to Mahomet IV. (3rd siege) after a defence of five months.

^ Alonzo's attempts to recover possession (4th siege) were futile, though pertinacious and heroic; but after his successful attack on Algeciras in 1344 he was encouraged to try his fortune again at Gibraltar.

.The conflict was severe, but resulted in the repulse of the besiegers.^ The conflict was severe, but resulted in the repulse of the besiegers.

.After this the Spaniards made great efforts to strengthen the place, and they succeeded so well that throughout Europe Gibraltar was regarded as impregnable, the engineer Daniel Speckle (1536-1589) being chiefly responsible for the design of the fortifications.^ After this the Spaniards made great efforts to strengthen the place, and they succeeded so well that throughout Europe Gibraltar was regarded as impregnable, the engineer Daniel Speckle (1536-1589) being chiefly responsible for the design of the fortifications.

^ Harbour and Fortifications.-Great changes were made in the defences of Gibraltar early in the 20th century.

^ During the great wars of the beginning of the 19th century trade was most active in Gibraltar, and some large fortunes were made; but trade on a large scale has almost disappeared.

.Gibraltar was taken by the allied British and Dutch forces, after a three days' siege, on the 2 4 th of July 1704 (see Spanish Succession, War Of The).^ Gibraltar was taken by the allied British and Dutch forces, after a three days' siege, on the 2 4 th of July 1704 (see Spanish Succession, War Of The ).

^ Gibraltar has historically been an important base for the British Armed Forces and is the site of a Royal Navy base.
  • SuperLine | What They Said About Gibraltar 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.superline.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ It was successfully assaulted by landing parties from the British fleet under Sir George Rooke at the capture of Gibraltar by the British in 1704.

.The capture was made, as the war was being fought, in the interests of Charles, archduke of Austria, but Sir George Rooke (q.v.^ The capture was made, as the war was being fought, in the interests of Charles , archduke of Austria , but Sir George Rooke (q.v.

^ It was successfully assaulted by landing parties from the British fleet under Sir George Rooke at the capture of Gibraltar by the British in 1704.

^ Gibraltar being primarily a fortress and naval base, every effort, in view of war contingencies, is made by the authorities to prevent the natural increase of the population.

), the British admiral, on his own responsibility caused the British flag to be hoisted, and took possession in name of Queen Anne, whose government ratified the occupation. A great number of the inhabitants of the town of Gibraltar abandoned their homes rather than recognize the authority of the invaders. .The Spaniards quickly assembled an army to recapture the place, and a new siege opened in October 1704 by troops of France and Spain under the marquess of Villadarias.^ The Spaniards quickly assembled an army to recapture the place, and a new siege opened in October 1704 by troops of France and Spain under the marquess of Villadarias.

The activity of the British admiral, Sir John Leake, and of the military governor, Prince George of Hesse-Darmstadt (who had commanded the land forces in July), rendered the efforts of the besiegers useless. A notable incident of this siege was the gallant attempt made by 50o chosen volunteers to surprise the garrison (31st of October), an attempt which, at first successful, in the end failed disastrously. .Finally, in April 1705 the French marshal de Tesse, who had replaced Villadarias, gave up the siege and retired.^ Finally, in April 1705 the French marshal de Tesse, who had replaced Villadarias, gave up the siege and retired.

.During the next twenty years there were endless negotiations for the peaceful surrender of the fortress, varied in 1720 by an abortive attempt at a coup de main, which was thwarted by the resourcefulness of the governor of Minorca (Colonel Kane), who threw reinforcements and supplies into Gibraltar at the critical moment.^ During the next twenty years there were endless negotiations for the peaceful surrender of the fortress, varied in 1720 by an abortive attempt at a coup de main, which was thwarted by the resourcefulness of the governor of Minorca (Colonel Kane ), who threw reinforcements and supplies into Gibraltar at the critical moment.

^ The place had been strengthened since 1705, and the defence of the garrison under Brigadier Clayton, the lieutenant-governor, Brigadier Kane of Minorca, and the governor, the earl of Portmore, who arrived with reinforcements, was so effective that the armistice of the 12th of June practically put a close to the siege, though two years elapsed before the general pacification ensued.

^ They will affect people who have shopped in Gibraltar and are crossing into Spain or travelling to the UK. .
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.In 1726 the Spaniards again appealed to arms.^ In 1726 the Spaniards again appealed to arms.

.But the count of las Torres, who had the chief command, succeeded no better than his predecessors.^ But the count of las Torres, who had the chief command, succeeded no better than his predecessors.

.The place had been strengthened since 1705, and the defence of the garrison under Brigadier Clayton, the lieutenant-governor, Brigadier Kane of Minorca, and the governor, the earl of Portmore, who arrived with reinforcements, was so effective that the armistice of the 12th of June practically put a close to the siege, though two years elapsed before the general pacification ensued.^ The place had been strengthened since 1705, and the defence of the garrison under Brigadier Clayton, the lieutenant-governor, Brigadier Kane of Minorca, and the governor, the earl of Portmore, who arrived with reinforcements, was so effective that the armistice of the 12th of June practically put a close to the siege, though two years elapsed before the general pacification ensued.

^ During the next twenty years there were endless negotiations for the peaceful surrender of the fortress, varied in 1720 by an abortive attempt at a coup de main, which was thwarted by the resourcefulness of the governor of Minorca (Colonel Kane ), who threw reinforcements and supplies into Gibraltar at the critical moment.

.Neither in the War of the Austrian Succession nor in that of 1762 did Spain endeavour to besiege the rock, but the War of American Independence gave her better opportunities, and the great siege of 1779-1783 is justly regarded as one of the most memorable sieges of history.^ Rock gun , famous in the great siege .

^ Neither in the War of the Austrian Succession nor in that of 1762 did Spain endeavour to besiege the rock, but the War of American Independence gave her better opportunities, and the great siege of 1779-1783 is justly regarded as one of the most memorable sieges of history.

^ Gibraltar was taken by the allied British and Dutch forces, after a three days' siege, on the 2 4 th of July 1704 (see Spanish Succession, War Of The ).

The governor, General Sir George Augustus Elliot (afterwards Lord 1783). Heathfield), was informed from England on the 6th of July 1779 that hostilities had begun. A short naval engagement in the straits took place on the 11th, and General Elliot made every preparation for resistance. It was not, however, until the month of August that the Spaniards became threatening. The method of the besiegers appeared to be starvation, but the interval between strained relations and war had been well employed by the ships, and supplies were, for the time at any rate, sufficient. While the Spanish siege batteries were being constructed the fortress fired, and many useful artillery experiments were carried out by the garrison at this time and subsequently throughout the siege. On the 14th of November there took place a spirited naval action in which the privateer " Buck," Captain Fagg, forced her way into harbour. This was one of many such incidents, which usually arose from the attempts made from time to time by vessels to introduce supplies from Tangier and elsewhere. December 1779, indeed, was a month of privation for the garrison, though of little actual fighting. In January 1780, on the rumour of an approaching convoy, the price of foods " fell more than twothirds," and Admiral Sir George Rodney won a great victory over De Langara and entered the harbour. Prince William Henry (afterwards King William IV.) served on board the British fleet as a midshipman during this expedition. Supplies and reinforcements were thrown into the fortress by Rodney, and the whole affair was managed with the greatest address both by the home government and the royal navy. " The garrison, " in spite of the scurvy, " might now be considered in a perfect state of defence," says Drinkwater.
On the 7th of June took place an attack by Spanish fireships, which were successfully dealt with by the naval force in the bay under Captain Lesley of H.M. frigate " Enterprise." Up to October the state of things within the fortress was much what it had been after Rodney's success. " The enemy's operations on the land side had been for many months so unimportant as scarcely to merit our attention " (Drinkwater). Scurvy was,. however, prevalent (see Drinkwater, p. 121), and the supply question had again become acute. Though the enemy's batteries did not open fire, the siege works steadily progressed, in spite of the fire from the fortress, and there were frequent small engagements at sea in which the English were not always successful. Further, the expulsion, with great harshness, of the English residents of Barbary territory put an end to a service of supply and information which had been of the greatest value to Elliot (January 1781). Three more months passed in forced inaction, which the garrison, stinted as it was, endured calmly. Then, on the 12th of April 1781, on the arrival of a British relieving squadron under Admiral Darby, the whole of the Spanish batteries opened fire. Stores were landed in the midst of a heavy bombardment, and much damage was done both to the fortifications and military buildings and to the town. At this time there was a good deal of indiscipline in the garrison, with which General Elliot dealt severely. This was in the last degree necessary, for the bombardment continued up to the 1st of June, after which the rate of the enemy's fire decreased to 500 rounds per day. By the 12th of July it had almost ceased. In September the firing again became intense and the casualties increased, the working parties suffering somewhat heavily. In October there was less expenditure of ammunition, as both sides were now well covered, and in November the governor secretly prepared a great counterstroke. The sortie made on the night of the 26th-27th of November was brilliantly successful, and the Spanish siege works were mostly destroyed. At the close of the year the garrison was thus again in an excellent position.
Early in 1782 a new form of gun-carriage wheel, allowing of a large angle of depression being given, was invented by an officer of the Royal Artillery, and indeed throughout the siege many experiments (such as would nowadays be carried out at a school of gunnery) were made with guns, mountings, ammunition, methods of fire, &c., both in Gibraltar and in the Spanish camp. The gun-carriage referred to enabled 93% of hits to be obtained at 1400 yds. range. In April grates for heating shot were constructed by order of the governor; these were destined to be famous. At the same time it was reported that the duc de Crillon was now to command the besiegers (French and Spaniards) with D'Argon as his chief engineer. The grand attack was now imminent, and preparations were made to repel it (July 1782). The chief feature of the attack was to be, as reported on the 26th of July, ten ships " fortified 6 or 7 ft. thick. .. with green timber bolted with iron, cork and raw hides; which were to carry guns of heavy metal and be bombproof on the top with a descent for the shells to slide off; that these vessels. .. were to be moored within half gunshot of the walls," &c. On the other side many of the now existing rock galleries were made about this time. The count of Artois and another French prince arrived in the French lines in August to witness the culminating effort of the besiegers, and some polite correspondence passed between Crillon and the governor (reprinted in Drinkwater, p. 267). The garrison made a preliminary trial of the red-hot shot on the 8th of September, and the success of the experiment not only elated the garrison but was partly instrumental in causing Crillon to hasten the main attack. After a preliminary bombardment the famous battering ships took up their positions in broad daylight on the 13th and opened fire. The British solid shot seem to have failed absolutely to penetrate the massive wooden armour on the sides and the roofs of the battering ships, and about noon the ships had settled down to their work and were shooting coolly and accurately. But between 1 and 2 P.M. the British artillerymen began to use the red-shot freely. All day the artillery duel went on, the shore guns, though inferior in number, steadily gaining the upper hand, and the battering ships were in great distress by nightfall. The struggle continued in the dark, the garrison now shooting rapidly and well, and one by one the ten ships were set on fire. Before noon on the 14th the attack had come to an end by the annihilation of the battering fleet, every ship having been blown up or burnt to the water's edge. Upwards of 8300 rounds were expended by the garrison though less than a hundred pieces were in action. The enemy's bombardment was, however, resumed and partial engagements continued up to the third naval relief of the fortress by Lord Howe, who won a great victory at sea over the Spaniards. The long siege came to an end on the 6th of February 1783, when the duc de Crillon informed Elliot that the preliminaries of peace had been signed. On the 31st of March the duke visited the fortress, and many courtesies passed between the late enemies. Captain (afterwards Colonel) John Drinkwater (1762-1844), the historian of the siege, first published his work in 1785. A new edition of A History of the Siege of Gibraltar was published in 1905. The history of the four eventful years' siege is fully detailed also in the Memoir, attached to Green's Siege of Gibraltar (1784), of its gallant defender Sir George Augustus Elliot, afterwards Lord Heathfield, whose military skill and moral courage place him among the best soldiers and noblest men of his time.
Since 1783 the history of Gibraltar has been comparatively uneventful. In the beginning of 1801 there were rumours of a Spanish and French attack, but the Spanish ships were defeated off Algeciras in June by Admiral Saumarez. Improvements in the fortifications, maintenance of military discipline and legislation in regard to trade and smuggling, are the principal matters of recent interest.
Bibliography. - To the works which have been already mentioned may be added: I. L. de Ayala, Historia de Gibraltar (Madrid, 1792); Jas. Bell, translation of Ayala's history (London, 1845); F. Carter, Gibraltar to Malaga (London, 1 7771 7 80); G. Cockburn, Gibraltar, Cadiz, eec. (London, 1815); O. Debeaux and G. Dautez, Synopsis de la fore de Gibraltar (1889); E. D. Fenton, Sorties from Gibraltar, (1872); H. M. Field, Gibraltar (New York, 1888); J. Galt, Gibraltar, Sardinia, eec. (London, 1813); J. Heriot, Historical Sketch of Gib-' raitar (London, 1792); R. Hort, The Rock of Gibraltar (London, 1839); L. W. L. Irby, Ornithology of the Straits (London, 18 75); Thos. .James, History of the Herculean Straits (London, 1771); J. H. Mann, Gibraltar and its Sieges (London, 1870); Montero, Historia de Gibraltar (Cadiz, 1860); A. M. Monti, Historia de Gibraltar (Seville, 1851); J. Navarrete, Las Llaves del Estrecho (Madrid, 1882); M. S. Pasley, Wild Flowers of Gibraltar (Portsmouth, 1887); John Purdy, Gibraltar and Mediterranean Sailing Directions (London, 1840); H. J. M. Rey, Essai sur la topographie medicale de Gibraltar (Paris, 1833); Captain Sayer, History of Gibraltar (London, 1862); D. Sutherland, Gibraltar to Constantinople (London, 1790); Walker, A Year's Insect Hunting in Gibraltar (London, 1888).^ Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southern coast of Spain .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Gibraltar 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Gibraltar 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(C. F. A.) (1867-), American artist and illustrator, was born at Roxbury, Massachusetts, on the 14th of September 1867. After a year's study at the schools of the Art Students' League, he began with some modest little drawings for the humorous weekly Life. These he followed up with more serious work, and soon made a place for himself as the delineator of the American girl, at various occupations, particularly those out of doors. These obtained an enormous vogue, being afterwards published in book form, running through many editions. The " Gibson Girl " stood for a type of healthy, vigorous, beautiful and refined young womanhood. Some book illustrations followed, notably for The Prisoner of Zenda. He was imitated by many of the younger draughtsmen, copied by amateurs, and his popularity was shown in his engagement by Collier's Weekly to furnish weekly for a year a double page, receiving for the fifty-two drawings the sum of $50,000, said to have been the largest amount ever paid to an illustrator for such a commission. These drawings covered various local themes and were highly successful, being drawn with pen and ink with masterly facility and great directness and economy of line. So popular was one series, " The Adventures of Mr Pipp," that a successful play was modelled on it. In 1906, although besieged with commissions, Gibson withdrew from illustrative work, determining to devote himself to portraiture in oil, in which direction he had already made some successful experiments; but in a few years he again returned to illustration.
(1669-1748), English divine and jurist, was born at Bampton in Westmorland in 1669. In 1686 he was entered a scholar at Queen's College, Oxford, where in 1692 he published a valuable edition of the Saxon Chronicle with a Latin translation, indices and notes. This was followed in 1693 by an annotated edition of the De institutione oratoria of Quintilian, and in 1695 by a translation in two volumes folio of Camden's Britannia, " with additions and improvements," in the preparation of which he had been largely assisted by William Lloyd, John Smith and other English antiquaries. Shortly after Thomas Tenison's elevation to the see of Canterbury in 1694 Gibson was appointed chaplain and librarian to the archbishop, and in 1703 and 1710 respectively he became rector of Lambeth and archdeacon of Surrey. In the discussions which arose during the reigns of William and Anne relative to the rights and privileges of the Convocation, Gibson took a very active part, and in a series of pamphlets warmly argued for the right of the archbishop to continue or prorogue even the lower house of that assembly. The controversy suggested to him the idea of those researches which resulted in the famous Codex juris ecclesiastici Anglicani, published in two volumes folio in 1713, - a work which discusses more learnedly and comprehensively than any other the legal rights and duties of the English clergy, and the constitution, canons and articles of the English Church. In 1716 Gibson was presented to the see of Lincoln, whence he was in 1720 translated to that of London, where for twenty-five years he exercised an immense influence, being regularly consulted by Sir Robert Walpole on all ecclesiastical affairs. While a conservative in church politics, and declaredly opposed to methodism, he was no persecutor, and indeed broke with Walpole on the Quakers' Relief Bill of 1736. He exercised a vigilant oversight over the morals of his diocese; and his fearless denunciation of the licentious masquerades which were popular at court finally lost him the royal favour. Among the literary efforts of his later years the principal were a series of Pastoral Letters in defence of the " gospel revelation," against " lukewarmness " and " enthusiasm," and on various topics of the day; also the Preservative against Popery, in 3 vols. folio (1738), a compilation of numerous controversial writings of eminent Anglican divines, dating chiefly from the period of James II. Gibson died on the 6th of September 1748.
A second edition of the Codex juris, " revised and improved, with large additions by the author," was published at Oxford in 1761. Besides the works already mentioned, Gibson published a number of Sermons, and other works of a religious and devotional kind. The Vita Thomae Bodleii with the Historia Bibliothecae Bodleianae in the Catalogi librorum manuscriptorum (Oxford, 1697), and the Reliquiae Spelmannianae (Oxford, 1698), are also from his pen.


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Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

English

Etymology

.From the Arabic جبل طارق (Jabal Ţāriq), meaning Mountain of Tariq.^ "Gibel Tariq" means the Mountain of Tariq.
  • off shore incorporations, offshore companies, off-shore places, Gibraltar 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.offshoresimple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The name of the rock comes from the Arabic name of Jebel at-Tariq ( ) meaning mountain of Tariq.
  • Car Rental Gibraltar | Cheap Car Rentals Gibraltar - Beneluxcar 27 January 2010 23:56 UTC www.beneluxcar.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ The name of the territory is derived from the original Arabic name Jabal Ţāriq (جبل طارق), meaning "mountain of Tariq".

Proper noun

Singular
Gibraltar
Plural
-
Gibraltar
  1. An overseas territory of the United Kingdom at the southern end of Iberia.
  2. A strait connecting the Mediterranean to the Atlantic between Gibraltar and Morocco.

Translations

Synonyms

  • (land territory) Mons Calpe (former name)
  • (strait) Strait of Gibraltar, Straits of Gibraltar, STROG

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 11, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Gibraltar, which are similar to those in the above article.








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