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Ginseng
Panax quinquefolius foliage and fruit
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Araliaceae
Subfamily: Aralioideae
Genus: Panax
L.
Species
Subgenus Panax
Section Panax
Series Notoginseng
Panax notoginseng
Series Panax
Panax bipinnatifidus
Panax ginseng
Panax japonicus
Panax quinquefolius
Panax vietnamensis
Panax wangianus
Panax zingiberensis
Section Pseudoginseng
Panax pseudoginseng
Panax stipuleanatus
Subgenus Trifolius
Panax trifolius
Ginseng field in Wisconsin
.Ginseng, also known as Ginnsuu in some regions of Asia, mainly China, is any one of eleven distinct species of slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, belonging to the Panax genus in the family Araliaceae.^ Ginseng comes from the root of the Panax ginseng, a perennial herb indigenous to Eastern Asia.
  • Ginseng : BC Cancer Agency 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bccancer.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Panax Ginseng, the root of Araliaceae is a precious...
  • Red Panax Ginseng Extractum - Shop Smarter.com 16 September 2009 11:31 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ Allergies People with known allergies to  Panax  species and/or plants in the Araliaceae family should avoid ginseng.
  • Ginseng: MedlinePlus Supplements 16 September 2009 11:31 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It grows in the Northern Hemisphere in eastern Asia (mostly northern China, Korea, and eastern Siberia), typically in cooler climates; Panax vietnamensis, discovered in Vietnam, is the southernmost ginseng found.^ Panax Ginseng grows in China, Japan and Korea.
  • Ginseng Extract - The Answers Are Here 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www-ginseng.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ginseng was discovered five-thousand years ago in the mountainous region north of China, called Manchuria.
  • Ginseng Green Tea 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.adagio.com [Source type: General]

^ It grows in northern China, Korea, and Russia; its close relative, Panax quinquefolius , is cultivated in the United States.

.This article focuses on the Series Panax ginsengs, which are the adaptogenic herbs, principally Panax ginseng and P. quinquefolius.^ Panax quinquefolius L. American ginseng .
  • PLANTS Profile for Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) | USDA PLANTS 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC plants.usda.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Panax quinquefolius L. – American ginseng .
  • PLANTS Profile for Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) | USDA PLANTS 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC plants.usda.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ginseng Panax quinquefolius, T. ginseng .
  • Ginseng - Herbal Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.allnatural.net [Source type: Original source]

.Ginseng is characterized by the presence of ginsenosides.^ Abstract: The aim of the present study was to characterize the endothelium-dependent relaxation elicited by ginsenosides, a mixture of saponin extracted from Panax ginseng, in isolated rat aorta.

.Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) is not a true ginseng, but a different plant that was renamed as "Siberian ginseng" as a marketing ploy; instead of a fleshy root, it has a woody root; instead of ginsenosides, eleutherosides are the active compound.^ Siberian ginseng ( Eleutherococcus senticosus): current status as an adaptogen.

^ Effects of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus maxim.
  • Ginseng: MedlinePlus Supplements 16 September 2009 11:31 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Susan G. Komen for the Cure | Understanding Breast Cancer | Complementary Therapies | Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC ww5.komen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Panax ginseng should not be confused with Siberian ginseng ( Eleutherococcus senticosus ).
  • Susan G. Komen for the Cure | Understanding Breast Cancer | Complementary Therapies | Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC ww5.komen.org [Source type: Academic]

Eleutherosides are classified as another adaptogen. (see below).

Contents

Etymology

.The English word ginseng derives from the Chinese term rénshēn (simplified: 人参; traditional: 人蔘), literally "man root" (referring to the root's characteristic forked shape, resembling the legs of a man).^ According to Chinese medical tradition, ginseng: .
  • Ginseng Extract - The Answers Are Here 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www-ginseng.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When you run across the extremely rare ginseng root, which is called the "Emperors Root", that is shaped like a human body, where the head, arms, legs and the male sexual organ is pronounced.
  • Ginseng Planting Time, Site Prepatation and Maintenance 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ginseng-seed.com [Source type: General]

^ Chinese ginseng is prepared by roots bleached, boiled, steamed, or sugared in curing.
  • Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.herbmed.org [Source type: Academic]

The English pronunciation derives from a southern Chinese reading, similar to Cantonese jên shên (Jyutping: jan4sam1). It is closer to The Southern Min language, or Min Nan (Hokkien: Bân-lâm-gú), ("Southern Fujian" language) pronunciation "jîn-sim"
.The botanical/genus name Panax means "all-heal" in Greek, sharing the same origin as "panacea," and was applied to this genus because Linnaeus was aware of its wide use in Chinese medicine as a muscle relaxant.^ The genus name, Panax , is derived from the Greek "panakeia," which means universal remedy.

^ Asian (Chinese or Korean) ginseng ( Panax ginseng ) -- Probably the most widely studied form, used for thousands of years as a tonic to increase energy and vitality.
  • Ginseng | epilepsy.com 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.epilepsy.com [Source type: General]

^ Hundreds of years ago, herbalists took this appearance to mean that ginseng could cure all human ills, and it has, in fact, been used as a "cure-all" in many different cultures.
  • Asian ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

Traditional uses

.Both American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) and Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) roots are taken orally as adaptogens, aphrodisiacs, nourishing stimulants,[citation needed] and in the treatment of type II diabetes, as well as Sexual dysfunction in men.^ Panax ginseng is related to, but not identical with American ginseng.
  • Ginseng-Panax,American,Korean,Siberian Benefits-Side effects,uses, anticoagulant... 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cellhealthmakeover.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In one study of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) for diabetes, the dose used was 3 g daily.

^ I take panax ginseng, siberian ginseng, and american ginseng.

.The root is most often available in dried form, either whole or sliced.^ American ginseng is generally available as the whole or powdered root.
  • Ginseng - Herbal Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.allnatural.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Oriental Ginseng, White (unsteamed) - sliced whole root - 16 oz Price $89.95  .
  • All About Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.drshen.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dried ginseng root can be softened without making tea by placing several pieces together in a microwave on medium or high for a few minutes at most.
  • MDA - Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.michigan.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ginseng leaf, although not as highly prized, is sometimes also used; as with the root it is most often available in dried form.^ Most commercial products use this Ginseng.

^ Asian (Chinese or Korean) ginseng ( Panax ginseng ) -- Probably the most widely studied form, used for thousands of years as a tonic to increase energy and vitality.
  • Ginseng | epilepsy.com 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.epilepsy.com [Source type: General]

^ Although ginseng is rich in germanium, calcium, magnesium, iron and B vitamins, the ingredients commonly thought to be most responsible for ginseng's adaptogenic properties are called ginsenosides (saponins).
  • The Greatest Ginseng on Earth! 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC hsu.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This ingredient may also be found in some popular energy drinks: usually the "tea" varieties or functional foods.^ Today, it is included in some of the "functional food" products, where it is considered an energy enhancing ingredient.
  • Safety Issues Affecting Chinese Herbs: The Case of Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.itmonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ginseng is a common ingredient in many energy drinks due to belief that ginseng may help increase alertness, longevity, and overall health (some studies have shown it to help reduce risk of cancer and act as an anti-biotic).

^ Light flavor, nothing too unappealing, and for some reason one of the few tea's i can drink without sugar."
  • Ginseng Green Tea 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.adagio.com [Source type: General]

.Usually ginseng is present in subclinical doses and it does not have measurable medicinal effects.^ Taken at recommended doses, ginseng causes no ill effects; however, ginseng is not recommended for pregnant or lactating women, or for persons with high, uncontrolled blood pressure.
  • Bodybuilding.com - Ginseng Information and Product Listing! Ginseng FAQ! 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: General]

^ Effect of Asian and Siberian ginseng on serum digoxin measurement by five digoxin immunoassays.
  • GINSENG PANAX (GINSENG, PANAX): Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some believe that the usual doses of ginseng may increase blood pressure while high doses may have the opposite effect of decreasing blood pressure.
  • Asian ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

.June 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] It can be found in cosmetic preparations as well, with similar lack of effect.^ In laboratory studies, various chemicals found in eleuthero have also shown antiviral and anticancer properties, but these effects have not been well studied in humans.
  • Ginseng-Panax,American,Korean,Siberian Benefits-Side effects,uses, anticoagulant... 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cellhealthmakeover.com [Source type: Academic]

Modern science and ginseng

.It has been difficult to either verify or quantify the medicinal benefits of ginseng using science, as there are contradictory results from different studies, possibly due to the wide variety and quality of ginseng used in the tests.^ Studies that use ginseng alone are needed.
  • Ginseng (American ginseng, Asian ginseng, Chinese ginseng, Korean red ginseng, Panax ginseng: Panax spp., including P. ginseng C.C. Meyer and P. quinquefolius L., excluding Eleutherococcus senticosus): Evidence - MayoClinic.com 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.mayoclinic.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies using ginseng alone are needed.
  • Ginseng (American ginseng, Asian ginseng, Chinese ginseng, Korean red ginseng, Panax ginseng: Panax spp., including P. ginseng C.C. Meyer and P. quinquefolius L., excluding Eleutherococcus senticosus): Evidence - MayoClinic.com 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.mayoclinic.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Asian (Chinese or Korean) ginseng ( Panax ginseng ) -- Probably the most widely studied form, used for thousands of years as a tonic to increase energy and vitality.
  • Ginseng | epilepsy.com 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.epilepsy.com [Source type: General]

.High-quality studies of the effects of ginseng are rare.^ High-quality studies looking at the effect of ginseng alone are needed.
  • Ginseng (American ginseng, Asian ginseng, Chinese ginseng, Korean red ginseng, Panax ginseng: Panax spp., including P. ginseng C.C. Meyer and P. quinquefolius L., excluding Eleutherococcus senticosus): Evidence - MayoClinic.com 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.mayoclinic.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Susan G. Komen for the Cure | Understanding Breast Cancer | Complementary Therapies | Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC ww5.komen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ High-quality studies are needed.
  • Ginseng (American ginseng, Asian ginseng, Chinese ginseng, Korean red ginseng, Panax ginseng: Panax spp., including P. ginseng C.C. Meyer and P. quinquefolius L., excluding Eleutherococcus senticosus): Evidence - MayoClinic.com 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.mayoclinic.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Susan G. Komen for the Cure | Understanding Breast Cancer | Complementary Therapies | Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC ww5.komen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Additional high-quality studies are needed.
  • Ginseng (American ginseng, Asian ginseng, Chinese ginseng, Korean red ginseng, Panax ginseng: Panax spp., including P. ginseng C.C. Meyer and P. quinquefolius L., excluding Eleutherococcus senticosus): Evidence - MayoClinic.com 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.mayoclinic.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Susan G. Komen for the Cure | Understanding Breast Cancer | Complementary Therapies | Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC ww5.komen.org [Source type: Academic]

[1]
.Ginseng is promoted as an adaptogen (a product that increases the body's resistance to stress), one which can to a certain extent be supported with reference to its anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties,[2] although animal experiments to determine whether longevity and health were increased in the presence of stress gave negative results.^ Ginseng increases resistance to innumerable stressors in many animal experiments.

^ Review of adaptogenic properties of Ginseng that enhance physical performance, promote vitality and increase resistance to stress and aging.
  • Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.herbmed.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Panax ginseng is well known for its anti-stress and adaptogenic properties.

[3]
.A comparative, randomized and double-blind study at the National Autonomous University of Mexico indicates it may be "a promising dietary supplement" when assessed for an increase in quality of life [4].^ Double-blind study of a multivitamin complex supplemented with ginseng extract.
  • Ginseng | ThirdAge Articles 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.thirdage.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Asian ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Ginseng | Lifescript.com 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Tufts Medical Center - Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.tufts-nemc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A nonblinded, randomized, comparative pilot study.
  • GINSENG PANAX (GINSENG, PANAX): Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies indicate that Panax quinquefolius may be able to prevent flu-like illness in seniors.

.A recent study at the University of Hong Kong has identified Ginseng to have anti-inflammatory effects.^ The anti-fatigue effects of Ginseng are the result of complex metabolic regulatory activities.

^ In western herbal medicine, Panax ginsengs regulating effects on the immune system have been studied for potential effectiveness in preventing colds, flu, and some forms of cancer.
  • Ginseng-Panax,American,Korean,Siberian Benefits-Side effects,uses, anticoagulant... 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cellhealthmakeover.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A Chinese study reports that the effects of the cardiac glycoside drug digoxin (Lanoxin®) may be increased when used with ginseng in patients with heart failure.
  • Susan G. Komen for the Cure | Understanding Breast Cancer | Complementary Therapies | Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC ww5.komen.org [Source type: Academic]

The study found that out of the nine ginsenosides they identified, seven could selectively inhibit expression of the inflammatory gene CXCL-10.[citation needed]
.P. ginseng appear to inhibit some characteristics associated with cancer in animal models; nevertheless, this effect is unclear in humans.^ Longer term use of Ginseng appears to cause numerous physiological changes in the animal or human consuming it, resulting in improved functioning which become more or less permanent.

^ An investigation was carried out to evaluate the effects of ginseng in inhibition or prevention of carcinogenesis (cancer producing) induced by various chemical carcinogens (cancer producing substances).
  • Ginseng : BC Cancer Agency 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.bccancer.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ In western herbal medicine, Panax ginsengs regulating effects on the immune system have been studied for potential effectiveness in preventing colds, flu, and some forms of cancer.
  • Ginseng-Panax,American,Korean,Siberian Benefits-Side effects,uses, anticoagulant... 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cellhealthmakeover.com [Source type: Academic]

[5] .A randomized, double-blind pilot study noted ginseng appeared to reduce fatigue in cancer patients.^ Asian ginseng was also found to decrease fatigue in a study of 332 patients.
  • Asian ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Double-blind study of a multivitamin complex supplemented with ginseng extract.
  • Ginseng | ThirdAge Articles 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.thirdage.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Asian ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Tufts Medical Center - Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.tufts-nemc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A nonblinded, randomized, comparative pilot study.
  • GINSENG PANAX (GINSENG, PANAX): Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[6]
.There are references in literature, including authoritative compendiums, that show interactions with ginseng.^ A review of randomised controlled trials and articles showing that P. ginseng monopreparations are rarely associated with adverse events or drug interactions.
  • Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.herbmed.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Phenelzine (Nardil®) • reports: Anecdotal reports have suggested possible interactions between phenelzine and ginseng, including a range of psychological symptoms such as excessive dreams.

^ There was a decreased risk with a rise in the frequency of ginseng intake, showing a dose-response relationship.

.Herbalist Jonathan Treasure of the United States National Institute of Mental Health traces the growth of misinformation on an alleged adverse herb-drug interaction between the monoamine oxidase inhibitor phenelzine and Asian ginseng (P. ginseng C.A. Meyer).^ Probable interaction between warfarin and ginseng.
  • Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.herbmed.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Panax ginseng and Drug Interactions .
  • Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.herbmed.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fugh-Berman A. Herb-drug interactions.

.This originally was mentioned in a 1985 editorial by Shader and Greenblatt in the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology.^ (Editorial) Shader RI, Greenblatt DJ. Phenelzine and the dream machine-ramblings and reflections.

.Shader and Greenblatt devoted a couple of lines to the case of 64 year-old woman who took an undisclosed dose for an undisclosed time of a dietary supplement product called “Natrol High” while concurrently taking phenelzine 60 mg qd.^ This product is regulated by the FDA as a dietary supplement.
  • Sloan-Kettering - Ginseng (Asian) 16 September 2009 11:31 UTC www.mskcc.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Sloan-Kettering - Ginseng (Asian) 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.mskcc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Growers who want to have ginseng roots to sell every year should plant a couple pounds of seeds in new beds, every fall, for future harvests.
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC pubs.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People with hypertension (high blood pressure) should not take Asian ginseng products without specific guidance and instruction from a qualified practitioner.
  • Asian ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

She experienced symptoms of “insomnia, headache, and tremulousness”. .Treasure contacted Natrol by email and discovered within ten minutes that there was no P. ginseng in the formula, but instead Eleutherococcus senticosus which was then called by the popular name "Siberian ginseng" and it was given in a subclinical dosage mixed with a variety of other herbs.^ There are three different herbs commonly called ginseng: Asian or Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) , American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) , and Siberian “ginseng” ( Eleutherococcus senticosus ) .

^ Siberian ginseng ( Eleutherococcus senticosus): current status as an adaptogen.

^ Effects of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus maxim.
  • Ginseng: MedlinePlus Supplements 16 September 2009 11:31 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Susan G. Komen for the Cure | Understanding Breast Cancer | Complementary Therapies | Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC ww5.komen.org [Source type: Academic]

.The purported interaction effects are well-known side effects of phenelzine alone, which had been given in a high dosage and are not at all suggestive of Eleutherococcus.^ However, this compound has serious side effects at high doses.
  • All About Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.drshen.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It has been suggested that since the actions of these various constituents are not well defined at this time, ginseng should not be used to treat diabetes until more is known.

^ Problems like sleep disorders including insomnia , and the rare case of diarrhea , and some types of skin eruptions are the only known and well documented side effects of long term ginseng use.
  • Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.herbs2000.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However this misinformed article with a misidentified herb has been picked up in literature searches, megastudies and is now documented by conventional medical authorities such as Stockley’s, and is repeated in several botanical monographs e.g.^ Tonic herbs are complemented very well by wines as the wine "moves" the blood, the Chinese believe that such drinking wine improves and speeds up the circulation of blood.
  • Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.herbs2000.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chinese Health Bureau and National Medical Authorities in Beijing attempted to regulate the smuggling, in order to protect domestic production, however, poor implementation and enforcement has not deterred such occurrences .
  • Ginseng Wisdom 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As long as this research hasn't been done, Western medical regulators, such as the FDA, consider Ginseng (now don't laugh) as a kind of "snake oil."
  • Ginseng Extract - The Answers Are Here 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www-ginseng.com [Source type: Original source]

World Health Organization (WHO 1999).[7][8][9]

Ginseng and reproductive activity

.A 2002 study by the Southern Illinois University School of Medicine (published in the annals of the New York Academy of Sciences) found that in laboratory animals, both Asian and American forms of ginseng enhance libido and copulatory performance.^ Asian ginseng was also found to decrease fatigue in a study of 332 patients.
  • Asian ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Is the Asian or American ginseng the best to take?

^ There have been quite a few studies using Asian ginseng for athletic performance in humans and laboratory animals.
  • Asian ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These effects of ginseng may not be due to changes in hormone secretion, but to direct effects of ginseng, or its ginsenoside components, on the central nervous system and gonadal tissues.^ Ginseng low in ginsenosides may not be effective.

^ Ginseng can have both tranquilizing and exciting effects on the nervous system.

^ Ginseng may interact with sedatives or other supplements that affect the central nervous system.
  • Ginseng: MedlinePlus Supplements 16 September 2009 11:31 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[10][11] In males, ginsenosides can facilitate penile erection.[12] .This is consistent with traditional Chinese medicine and Native American medicinal uses of ginseng.^ What are the traditional uses of ginseng?
  • Ginseng - Learn More about Ginseng! 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Red ginseng is a classical traditional Chinese medicine.

^ Doctor experimenting with traditional Chinese medicine .
  • Ginseng root Stock Photos and Images. 96 Ginseng root pictures and royalty free photography available to search from over 100 stock photo brands. 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

Ginseng is known to contain phytoestrogens.[13][14][15]

Use With Other Medications

.Although generally well tolerated, caution is advised when consuming ginseng along with over-the-counter or prescription drugs.^ Avoid taking stimulant drugs along with Panax ginseng.
  • GINSENG PANAX (GINSENG, PANAX): Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ginseng (CVT-E002) may be safe, well tolerated, and potentially effective for preventing acute respiratory illnesses caused by the flu or the respiratory syncytial virus.
  • Ginseng: MedlinePlus Supplements 16 September 2009 11:31 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Ginseng (American ginseng, Asian ginseng, Chinese ginseng, Korean red ginseng, Panax ginseng: Panax spp., including P. ginseng C.C. Meyer and P. quinquefolius L., excluding Eleutherococcus senticosus): Evidence - MayoClinic.com 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.mayoclinic.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Panax ginseng interacts with many prescription drugs.
  • GINSENG PANAX (GINSENG, PANAX): Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

Side effects

.According to a Sports Nutrition FAQ published by UMass Amherst, one of P. ginseng's most common side-effects is the inability to sleep.^ SIBERIAN GINSENG -Benefits side effects...
  • Ginseng-Panax,American,Korean,Siberian Benefits-Side effects,uses, anticoagulant... 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cellhealthmakeover.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Panax Ginseng side effects .
  • Ginseng-Panax,American,Korean,Siberian Benefits-Side effects,uses, anticoagulant... 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cellhealthmakeover.com [Source type: Academic]

^ KOREAN GINSENG benefits and side effects...
  • Ginseng-Panax,American,Korean,Siberian Benefits-Side effects,uses, anticoagulant... 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cellhealthmakeover.com [Source type: Academic]

[16] .However, other sources state that ginseng causes no sleep difficulties.^ Ginseng is widely tauted as a sexual tonic, however, no serious double-blind clinical studies have been conducted to study the validity of this claim.

^ However, majonoside-R2, ginsenoside-Rg1 and ginsenoside-Rb1, the main saponin components of Vietnamese ginseng saponin fraction, had no effect on lipid peroxidation.

^ No estrogenic activity was evident in the sample of Panax ginseng extract tested or in a sample of ArginMax containing this extract in combination with other ingredients.
  • Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.herbmed.org [Source type: Academic]

[17] .Other side-effects can include nausea, diarrhea, headaches, epistaxis[18], high blood pressure, low blood pressure, and mastalgia.^ Other reported side effects include: .
  • Asian ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ High blood pressure .
  • Ginseng: MedlinePlus Supplements 16 September 2009 11:31 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Ginseng (American ginseng, Asian ginseng, Chinese ginseng, Korean red ginseng, Panax ginseng: Panax spp., including P. ginseng C.C. Meyer and P. quinquefolius L., excluding Eleutherococcus senticosus): Evidence - MayoClinic.com 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.mayoclinic.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Susan G. Komen for the Cure | Understanding Breast Cancer | Complementary Therapies | Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC ww5.komen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Condition: High blood pressure Grade: C .
  • Ginseng | LIVESTRONG.COM 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

[19] .Ginseng may also lead to induction of mania in depressed patients who mix it with antidepressants.^ However, ginseng may have estrogenic effects; therefore, patients with hormone-sensitive cancers should use it with caution.
  • Sloan-Kettering - Ginseng (Asian) 16 September 2009 11:31 UTC www.mskcc.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Sloan-Kettering - Ginseng (Asian) 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.mskcc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A Chinese study reports that the effects of the cardiac glycoside drug digoxin (Lanoxin®) may be increased when used with ginseng in patients with heart failure.
  • Ginseng: MedlinePlus Supplements 16 September 2009 11:31 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Susan G. Komen for the Cure | Understanding Breast Cancer | Complementary Therapies | Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC ww5.komen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ But this may not be a result of taking the ginseng, because the patients in the study were also more likely to be treated with the prescription cancer drug tamoxifen.
  • GINSENG, AMERICAN: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[20]

Overdose

.The common adaptogen ginsengs (P. ginseng and P. quinquefolia) are generally considered to be relatively safe even in large amounts.^ American ginseng has not been studied as extensively as Panax ginseng, but, in general, ginsengs are considered to be adaptogens, or substances that may help individuals adjust to physical and emotional stress.
  • Ginseng-Panax,American,Korean,Siberian Benefits-Side effects,uses, anticoagulant... 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cellhealthmakeover.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Taking all these factors into consideration, it can be said that at least for the vast majority of users and potential users of the herb, perhaps even a prolonged or the excessive dosage of herbal ginseng remedy has relatively low risk for the user and that the herb is generally safe for use with patients.
  • Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.herbs2000.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like members of the Panax (true ginseng) family of plants, eleuthero is considered to be an adaptogen, a substance that may help individuals cope with physical and emotional stress.
  • Ginseng-Panax,American,Korean,Siberian Benefits-Side effects,uses, anticoagulant... 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cellhealthmakeover.com [Source type: Academic]

.P. ginseng is not recommended within Chinese Medicine to be administered along with anti-infective herbs unless a person is quite debilitated, because of the fear that the pathogen will be tonified.^ Ginseng is a medicinal herb taken to improve a person's health.
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC pubs.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American and Asian ginsengs contain some of the same as well as some different ginsenosides which explains their different actions as expressed in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).
  • Ginseng - Herbal Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.allnatural.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Ginseng Your Way to Energy and Vitality The first recorded use of ginseng is over two thousand years old in Chinese Medicine.
  • Ginseng Your Way to Energy and Vitality 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.chinese-herbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Herbalists in China believed this and according to Xu Dachun in his brief essay on ginseng (1757 A.D., during the Qing Dynasty): "if one administers Ginseng of a purely supplementing nature, then one will merely supplement the evil influences and help them settle down.^ Brain efficiency of people on ginseng is believed to be greater, because the herb acts in "priming" the hypothalamus, resulting in the initiation of hormonal secretions that lead to greater efficiency in brain functioning, according to the studies of one ginseng researcher.
  • Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.herbs2000.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One study failed to find Panax ginseng helpful for menopausal symptoms .
  • Ginseng | ThirdAge Articles 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.thirdage.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Ginseng | Lifescript.com 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Tufts Medical Center - Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.tufts-nemc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, it is commonly believed in China that the first Emperor, Huang Ti, also known as the Yellow Emperor (2698-2589 BC), used Ginseng.

.In minor cases, the evil influences will, as a result of such mistaken therapy, never leave the body again.^ RESULTS: Ginseng therapy elevated mood, improved psychophysical performance, and reduced fasting blood glucose (FBG) and body weight.

In serious cases, death is inevitable."[21]

Common classification

Ginseng roots in a market in Seoul, 2003

P. quinquefolius American ginseng (root)

According to .Traditional Chinese Medicine, American Ginseng promotes Yin energy, cleans excess Yang in the body, and calms the body.^ Chinese medicine, a bowl and ginseng .
  • Ginseng Stock Photos and Images. 258 Ginseng pictures and royalty free photography available to search from over 100 stock photo brands. 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ According to Chinese medical tradition, ginseng: .
  • Ginseng Extract - The Answers Are Here 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www-ginseng.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Red ginseng is a classical traditional Chinese medicine.

.The reason it has been claimed that American ginseng promotes Yin (shadow, cold, negative, female) while East Asian ginseng promotes Yang (sunshine, hot, positive, male) is because, according to traditional Chinese medicine, things living in cold places or northern side of mountains or southern side of rivers are strong in Yang and vice versa, so that the two are balanced.^ According to Chinese medical tradition, ginseng: .
  • Ginseng Extract - The Answers Are Here 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www-ginseng.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Is the Asian or American ginseng the best to take?

^ Modulating angiogenesis: the yin and the yang in ginseng.
  • GINSENG, AMERICAN: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Chinese/Korean ginseng grows in northeast China and Korea, the coldest area known to many Koreans in traditional times.^ According to Chinese medical tradition, ginseng: .
  • Ginseng Extract - The Answers Are Here 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www-ginseng.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In these traditions Ginseng is known for: .
  • Ginseng Extract - The Answers Are Here 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www-ginseng.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Asian ginseng, which includes both Korean and Chinese ginseng, is cultivated in China, Korea, and Japan.
  • Ginseng - Herbal Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.allnatural.net [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, ginseng from there is supposed to be very Yang.^ North Korean Ginseng is very yang and thus has a hot energy.

^ North Korean Ginseng is very hot and very yang.

.Originally, American ginseng was imported into China via subtropical Guangzhou, the seaport next to Hong Kong, so Chinese doctors believed that American ginseng must be good for Yin, because it came from a hot area.^ It is widely believed that Ginseng originated in Manchuria.

^ The chinese believe that ginseng is a panacea for their health.
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC pubs.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) either is found growing wild in the mountainous areas of the United States or is cultivated under shade on ginseng farms.
  • Ginseng Your Way to Energy and Vitality 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.chinese-herbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However they did not know that American ginseng can only grow in temperate regions.^ They were referring to cultivated American ginseng.
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC pubs.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) either is found growing wild in the mountainous areas of the United States or is cultivated under shade on ginseng farms.
  • Ginseng Your Way to Energy and Vitality 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.chinese-herbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are approximately 300 landowners in Virginia growing ginseng today and they all prefer to remain anonymous.
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC pubs.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nonetheless the root is legitimately classified as more Yin because it generates fluids.^ Most notably, this herb strongly nourishes the Yin and generates fluids.
  • All About Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.drshen.com [Source type: Academic]

^ White roots are milder and more yin than red roots.

^ Effects: Invigorating Qi, nourishing Yin, clearing heat and promoting the generation of the body fluid.
  • All About Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.drshen.com [Source type: Academic]

[22]
The two main components of ginseng are in different proportions in the Asian and American varieties, and may well be the cause of the excitatory versus tonic natures.[23]
The ginseng is sliced and a few slices are simmered in hot water to make a decoction.
Most North American ginseng is produced in the Canadian provinces of .Ontario and British Columbia and the American state of Wisconsin, according to Agri-food Canada.^ This must be approved by the Agriculture and Agri-food Canada agency.
  • Ginseng Wisdom 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was implemented in Ontario and British Columbia (in addition to the small quantities propagated in essentially all provinces), in attempt to cease reduction of the wild herb populations.
  • Ginseng Wisdom 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American ginseng culture in the arid climates of British Columbia.

.P. quinquefolius is now also grown in northern China.^ It grows in northern China, Korea, and Russia; its close relative, Panax quinquefolius , is cultivated in the United States.

A randomized, .double-blind study shows that an extract of American ginseng reduces influenza cases in the elderly when compared to placebo.^ Double-blind study of a multivitamin complex supplemented with ginseng extract.
  • Ginseng | ThirdAge Articles 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.thirdage.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Asian ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Ginseng | Lifescript.com 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Interactions herb affecting drug performance : Influenza Vaccine • herbal synergy: A multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study involving 227 people, found that administration of Panax ginseng with the influenza vaccine induced a higher immune response against influenza.

^ A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 323 people found meaningful evidence that an extract of American ginseng taken at 400 mg daily may help prevent the common cold .
  • Ginseng | ThirdAge Articles 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.thirdage.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Ginseng | Lifescript.com 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: Academic]

[1]
The treasured aromatic root resembles a small parsnip that forks as it matures. .The plant grows 6 to 18 inches tall, usually bearing three leaves, each with three to five leaflets 2 to 5 inches long.^ Using one corner of the hoe, make three narrow furrows 18 inches apart, all the way down the length of the bed.
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC pubs.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those plants would then be up and growing for you, leaving time to balance your woods, work on soil and lighting requirements, etc.
  • Ginseng Planting Time, Site Prepatation and Maintenance 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ginseng-seed.com [Source type: General]

^ The ginseng plant has leaves that grow in a circle around a straight stem.
  • Asian ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

Panax ginseng Asian ginseng (root)

Ginseng and reishi mushrooms in bottles being sold in Seoul, Korea.
According to Traditional Chinese Medicine Panax Ginseng promotes .Yang energy, improves circulation, increases blood supply, revitalizes and aids recovery from weakness after illness, and stimulates the body.^ Improves recovery from chronic illness .
  • Ginseng Extract - The Answers Are Here 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www-ginseng.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ginseng tea increases resistance to the effects of stress and improves circulation and mental functioning.

^ Taking Panax ginseng along with stimulant drugs might cause serious problems including increased heart rate and high blood pressure.
  • GINSENG PANAX (GINSENG, PANAX): Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

Panax Ginseng is available in four forms:
The form called fresh ginseng is the raw product.
The form called white ginseng .(WG) white ginseng is fresh ginseng which has been dried.^ White Ginseng is dried Ginseng that has not been steamed.

^ Dried, unprocessed ginseng root is called white ginseng, and steamed, heat-dried root is red ginseng.

^ It takes nearly three hours to dig up three pounds of fresh roots that shrink to one pound of dried ginseng.
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC pubs.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is grown for four to six years, and then peeled and dried to reduce the water content to 12% or less.^ Analytical studies done in the United States indicate that the steam processing used to make red Ginseng is less destructive to ginsenoside content that sun drying.

^ Ginseng growers and gatherers in the United States and Canada produce about four million pounds of dried roots for export to Asia each year.
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC pubs.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The crude saponin contents in cultured Ginseng cells can reach 22%, in contrast to the 4% which is standard for earth-grown, sun-dried Ginseng.

.White Ginseng is air dried in the sun and may contain less of the therapeutic constituents.^ Ginseng contains the following constituents: 1.

^ White Ginseng is dried Ginseng that has not been steamed.

^ The crude saponin contents in cultured Ginseng cells can reach 22%, in contrast to the 4% which is standard for earth-grown, sun-dried Ginseng.

.It is thought by some that enzymes contained in the root break down these constituents in the process of drying.^ Do not add wet roots after the drying process has started.
  • Woods-Grown Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.wvu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Panax ginseng might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications.
  • GINSENG PANAX (GINSENG, PANAX): Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Store the roots in a dry, airy, rodent-proof container just above freezing.

.Drying in the sun bleaches the root to a yellowish-white color.^ Dried, unprocessed ginseng root is called white ginseng, and steamed, heat-dried root is red ginseng.
  • Ginseng | ThirdAge Articles 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.thirdage.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Ginseng | Lifescript.com 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: Academic]

^ White ginseng is simply the dried root; translucent, rust-colored "red" ginseng is made by steaming the roots for three hours, then drying them; it is considered stronger than white ginseng.
  • Ginseng - Herbal Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.allnatural.net [Source type: Original source]

The form called red ginseng .(RG) is harvested after six years, is not peeled and is steam-cured at standard boiling temperatures of 100 degree celcius, thereby giving them a glossy reddish-brown coloring.^ Chinese ginseng is prepared by roots bleached, boiled, steamed, or sugared in curing.
  • Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.herbmed.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ginseng can be treated with hot water, then steamed in a closed room, and finally dried, in the process of which it turns a glossy reddish brown.

.Steaming the root is thought to change its biochemical composition and also to prevent the breakdown of the active ingredients.^ Sell Ginseng Root extract Changsha Active Ingredients Group, Inc.
  • ginseng root - China ginseng root manufacturers, wholesalers, suppliers, exporters, distributors 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.tradevv.com [Source type: General]

The roots are then dried. .RG is more common as herbal medicine than WG, and there is increasing research on the pharmacological activities of RG specific ginsenosides.^ There are more than eighteen active chemicals called ginsenosides in Asian ginseng.
  • Ginseng - Herbal Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.allnatural.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Furthermore, within a few years, Professor Ding is certain that specific ginsenosides can be generated in pre-defined ratios, that creating designer Ginseng which can have clearly defined pharmacological activity based on the amounts and ratios of its constituents.

^ Of the ginsenosides studied, Rg1, Re, Rg2, Rg3 and Rb1 have more potent adjuvant properties than the others, indicating that they are the major constituents contributing to the adjuvant activities of total ginseng saponins.
  • All About Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.drshen.com [Source type: Academic]

The form called sun ginseng .(SG) is created from a heat processing method which increases ginsenoside components such as ginsenoside-[Rg.sub.3], -[Rk.sub.1] and -[Rg.sub.5] by steaming white ginseng at a higher temperature than red ginseng.^ Dried, unprocessed ginseng root is called white ginseng, and steamed, heat-dried root is red ginseng.

^ White Ginseng is dried Ginseng that has not been steamed.

^ Raw ginsen is white (more yin natured) red Ginseng is prepared by steaming and drying (makes it more Yang) Panax refers to Korean and Chinese types with korean generaly accepted as being stronger.

.The herb is steamed for three hours at 120 [degrees]C. Research has shown that SG has increased nitric oxide, superoxide, hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite scavenging activities compared with conventionally processed RG or WG. The increased steaming temperature produces an optimal amount of biological activity due to its ability to amplify specific ginsenosides.^ Ginseng extracts scavenged 40% of hydroxyl radical, completely scavenged superoxide radical but did not scavenge nitric oxide.
  • Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.herbmed.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The stereospecificity was found to exist in *OH scavenging activities of ginsenosides produced by heat processing.
  • Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.herbmed.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ginsenoside-induced relaxation of human bronchial smooth muscle via release of nitric oxide.
  • GINSENG PANAX (GINSENG, PANAX): Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Japanese researchers set out to investigate the antioxidant effect of SG on oxidative stress.^ At hepatic level, G115 increases the antioxidant capacity, with a marked reduction of the effects of the oxidative stress induced by the exhaustive exercise.

^ This is the first report demonstrating ginsenoside Re has significant antioxidant efficacy in diabetes, and prevents the onset of oxidative stress in some vascular tissues.
  • All About Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.drshen.com [Source type: Academic]

Red ginseng

Red ginseng
.Red ginseng (Korean=홍삼(hong-sam), simplified Chinese: traditional Chinese: ), is Panax ginseng that has been heated, either through steaming or sun-drying.^ Dried, unprocessed ginseng root is called white ginseng, and steamed, heat-dried root is red ginseng.

^ According to Chinese medical tradition, ginseng: .
  • Ginseng Extract - The Answers Are Here 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www-ginseng.com [Source type: Original source]

^ White Ginseng is dried Ginseng that has not been steamed.

.It is frequently marinated in an herbal brew which results in the root becoming extremely brittle.^ Results of a recent chemical analysis show that some of Panax ginsengs possible estrogenic effects may be due to a fungus that frequently contaminates Panax ginseng roots.
  • Ginseng-Panax,American,Korean,Siberian Benefits-Side effects,uses, anticoagulant... 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cellhealthmakeover.com [Source type: Academic]

.This version of ginseng is traditionally associated with stimulating sexual function and increasing energy.^ Ginseng due to its adaptogens effects is widely used to lower cholesterol, increase energy and endurance, reduce fatique and effects of stress and prevent infections.

^ Stimulation of endogenous production of nitric acid is also implicated in Ginseng's anti-nephritic function.

^ Reproductive: Ginseng stimulates sexual function, sperm count and motility, onset of puberty, size and weight of reproductive organs and plasma concentration of luteotropic hormones.

.Red ginseng is always produced from cultivated roots, usually from either South Korea or China.^ It grows in northern China, Korea, and Russia; its close relative, Panax quinquefolius , is cultivated in the United States.
  • Ginseng | Lifescript.com 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Tufts Medical Center - Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.tufts-nemc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1999, quite a few pounds of field-cultivated, dried ginseng roots, produced under artificial shade, sold for $10 per pound.
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC pubs.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike Panax Ginseng or American Ginseng (which are roots and also hard to cultivate), Siberian Ginseng (Ci Wu Jia) is a cheap and abundant weed that grows in many areas.
  • All About Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.drshen.com [Source type: Academic]

.In 2002, a preliminary double-blind, crossover study of Korean red ginseng's effects on impotence reported that it can be an effective alternative for treating male erectile dysfunction.^ Clinical efficacy of Korean red ginseng for erectile dysfunction.

^ Early studies suggest that ginseng may help treat erectile dysfunction.
  • Ginseng: MedlinePlus Supplements 16 September 2009 11:31 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Susan G. Komen for the Cure | Understanding Breast Cancer | Complementary Therapies | Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC ww5.komen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A double-blind crossover study evaluating the efficacy of Korean red ginseng in patients with erectile dysfunction: a preliminary report.
  • Ginseng | ThirdAge Articles 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.thirdage.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • GINSENG PANAX (GINSENG, PANAX): Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Ginseng | Lifescript.com 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Tufts Medical Center - Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.tufts-nemc.org [Source type: Academic]

[24]
.A study shows that Red ginseng reduces the relapse of gastric cancer versus control.^ Lung cancer and gastric cancer were particularly reduced.
  • Ginseng | Lifescript.com 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In some but not all studies, the same researchers reported potential benefit with Korean red ginseng as well.
  • Ginseng | Lifescript.com 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Among ginseng preparations, fresh ginseng extract consumers were significantly associated with a decreased risk of gastric cancer (RR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.12-0.88).

[25]
.A study of ginseng's effects on rats shows that while both white ginseng and red ginseng reduce the incidence of cancer, the effects appear to be greater with red ginseng.^ Red ginseng has anticarcinogenic effect on the development of liver cancer induced by DEN in rats.
  • Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.herbmed.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ginseng showed a radioprotective effect in mice.
  • Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.herbmed.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cancer incidence was lower among ginseng users.
  • Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.herbmed.org [Source type: Academic]

[26]
.A study by Sung H, Jung YS, Cho YK. shows potentially beneficial effects of a combination of Korean Red Ginseng and highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-Infected patients.^ Effect of Korean red ginseng on psychological functions in patients with severe climacteric syndromes.
  • GINSENG PANAX (GINSENG, PANAX): Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In some but not all studies, the same researchers reported potential benefit with Korean red ginseng as well.
  • Ginseng | ThirdAge Articles 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.thirdage.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Ginseng | Lifescript.com 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These data suggest that ginseng extract possesses a beneficial effect regarding spatial cognitive impairment and that the water-soluble fraction of ginseng extract mainly contributes to the effect of the ethanol extract.

[27]
.Falcarinol, a seventeen-carbon diyne fatty alcohol was isolated from carrot and red ginseng, shown to have potent anticancer properties on primary mammary epithelial (breast cancer) cells.^ Benzo(a)pyrene (0.5 mg) induced cancer was decreased by 4-6 year old red or white ginseng in drinking water of mice for 6 weeks Yun 1996 .
  • Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.herbmed.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Steaming ginseng at high temperature increased its cytotoxicity to SK-Hep-1 hepatoma cancer cells.
  • Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.herbmed.org [Source type: Academic]

^ American ginseng and breast cancer therapeutic agents synergistically inhibit MCF-7 breast cancer cell growth.

[28] .Other acetylenic fatty alcohols in ginseng (panaxacol, panaxydol, panaxytriol) have antibiotic properties.^ Descriptors: panax-ginseng; callus; acetylenes; chemical-analysis; sarcoma; inhibition; medicinal-properties 4.
  • Ginseng, QB 96-07 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[29]

Wild ginseng

Harvested ginseng in Germany.
.Wild ginseng is ginseng that has not been planted and cultivated domestically, rather it is that which grows naturally and is harvested from wherever it is found to be growing.^ The ginseng plants are left to the vagaries of nature.
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC pubs.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wild ginseng grows in close association with other plants.
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC pubs.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ginseng and domestic cultivation of it; 2.

.Wild ginseng is relatively rare and even increasingly endangered, due in large part to high demand for the product in recent years, which has led to the wild plants being sought out and harvested faster than new ones can grow (it requires years for a ginseng root to reach maturity).^ Wild Ginseng is now very rare.

^ One-year old plants of American ginseng.
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC pubs.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seeds and roots also can be planted in the wild.
  • Woods-Grown Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.wvu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wild ginseng can be either Asian or American and can be processed to be red ginseng.^ Is the Asian or American ginseng the best to take?

^ The two most commonly used species are Asian ginseng ( Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer), which is almost extinct in its natural habitat but is still cultivated, and American ginseng ( P .
  • Susan G. Komen for the Cure | Understanding Breast Cancer | Complementary Therapies | Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC ww5.komen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ American wild ginseng is so much sought after that much of it has disappeared.
  • Woods-Grown Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.wvu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are woods grown American ginseng programs in Maine, Tennessee, Virginia, North Carolina and West Virginia.^ American ginseng is wild-harvested and grown in eastern North America.
  • Ginseng - Herbal Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.allnatural.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There are three main types of ginseng .
  • Ginseng | LIVESTRONG.COM 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ There are two main types of ginseng : Asian and American.
  • Ginseng | LIVESTRONG.COM 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

[30][31] and .United Plant Savers has been encouraging the woods planting of ginseng both to restore natural habitats and to remove pressure from any remaining wild ginseng, and they offer both advice and sources of rootlets.^ The ginseng plants are left to the vagaries of nature.
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC pubs.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two most commonly used species are Asian ginseng ( Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer), which is almost extinct in its natural habitat but is still cultivated, and American ginseng ( P .
  • Susan G. Komen for the Cure | Understanding Breast Cancer | Complementary Therapies | Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC ww5.komen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There are approximately 300 landowners in Virginia growing ginseng today and they all prefer to remain anonymous.
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC pubs.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Woods grown plants have comparable value to wild grown ginseng of similar age.^ It is less severe in woods-grown ginseng.
  • Woods-Grown Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.wvu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plants are grown in large prepared beds with shade built from wood lathe or polypropylene.
  • Woods-Grown Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.wvu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NAL Call No.: 450-P697 Panax ginseng: relation between age of plant and content of ginsenosides.
  • Ginseng, QB 96-07 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Ginseng alternatives

.These mostly adaptogenic plants are sometimes referred to as ginsengs, but they are either from a different family or genus.^ They sometimes call Panax ginseng an “adaptogen” when it’s used in this way.
  • GINSENG PANAX (GINSENG, PANAX): Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They were referring to cultivated American ginseng.
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC pubs.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They don't skimp on the ginseng either.
  • Ginseng Green Tea 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.adagio.com [Source type: General]

.Only Jiaogulan actually contains compounds closely related to ginsenosides, although ginsenosides alone do not determine the effectiveness of ginseng.^ Ginseng low in ginsenosides may not be effective.

^ Ginseng contains many active ingredients, but the most important are the saponins called ginsenosides.

^ Even wild Ginseng contains only about 5 ppm.

.Since each of these plants have different uses, one should research their properties before using.^ Chinese tradition suggests that Panax ginseng should not be used by pregnant or nursing mothers, and one animal study hints that ginseng use by a pregnant mother could cause birth defects.

^ One of these Tartars went and found upon the neighboring mountains four plants of the ginseng, which he brought us entire in a basket....

^ Before using any plants and their derivitives you should seek the advice and training of a qualified professional and your personal physician.
  • Ginseng - Herbal Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.allnatural.net [Source type: Original source]

[32]
Other plants which are referred to as ginsengs may not be adaptogens (although notoginseng is in the genus Panax):

See also

References

  1. ^ a b McElhaney JE et al. (2004). "A placebo-controlled trial of a proprietary extract of North American ginseng (CVT-E002) to prevent acute respiratory illness in institutionalized older adults". J Am Geriatr Soc 52 (1): 13–19. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2004.52004.x. PMID 14687309. 
  2. ^ Davydov M, Krikorian AD. (October 2000). "Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) as an adaptogen: a closer look". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 72 (3): 345–393. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00181-1. PMID 6685799. 
  3. ^ Lewis WH, Zenger VE, Lynch RG. (August 1983). "No adaptogen response of mice to ginseng and Eleutherococcus infusions". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 8 (2): 209–214. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(83)90054-5. PMID 6685799. 
  4. ^ Caso Marasco A, Vargas Ruiz R, Salas Villagomez A, Begona Infante C. (1996). "Double-blind study of a multivitamin complex supplemented with ginseng extract". Drugs Exp Clin Res. 22 (6): 323–329. PMID 9034759. 
  5. ^ Shin HR, Kim JY, Yun TK, Morgan G, Vainio H (2000). "The cancer-preventive potential of Panax ginseng: a review of human and experimental evidence". Cancer Causes Control 11 (6): 565–576. doi:10.1023/A:1008980200583. PMID 10880039. 
  6. ^ , PMID 19415341 
  7. ^ [1]Template:Date=October 2008 Treasure, Jonathan. Medline & The Mainstream Manufacture of Misinformation 2006
  8. ^ Stockley, IH (2002), Stockley's Drug Interactions. 6th ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press.
  9. ^ WHO (1999), "Radix Ginseng", in,WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Geneva: World Health Organization, 168-182.
  10. ^ Hong B; Ji YH; Hong JH; Nam KY; Ahn TYA double-blind crossover study evaluating the efficacy of korean red ginseng in patients with erectile dysfunction: a preliminary report. J Urol. 2002; 168(5):2070-3 (ISSN: 0022-5347)Department of Urology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea
  11. ^ Murphy and Lee Ginseng, sex behavior, and nitric oxide Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 May;962:372-7 PMID 12076988
  12. ^ de Andrade E; de Mesquita AA; Claro Jde A; de Andrade PM; Ortiz V; Paranhos M; Srougi MStudy of the efficacy of Korean Red Ginseng in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Sector of Sexual Medicine, Division of Urological Clinic of Sao Paulo University, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
  13. ^ Lee, YJ. Ginsenoside-Rb1 acts as a weak phytoestrogen in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. PMID 12568360. 
  14. ^ Estrogen-like activity of ginsenoside Rg1 derived from Panax notoginseng. PMID 12161497. 
  15. ^ A ginsenoside-Rh1, a component of ginseng saponin, activates estrogen receptor in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells. PMID 12732291. 
  16. ^ http://www.umass.edu/cnshp/faq.html
  17. ^ "The Ginseng Book." Stephen Fulder, PhD
  18. ^ [2]
  19. ^ http://www.aafp.org/afp/20031015/1539.html
  20. ^ Fugh-Berman, Adriane. "Herb-drug interactions". The Lancet 355 (9198): 134–138. ISSN 0140-6736. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T1B-41CNTJ6-T/2/5571af69320b04517be500e5704b99c1. 
  21. ^ http://www.itmonline.org/arts/ginseng.htm
  22. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica, Third Edition by Dan Bensky, Steven Clavey, Erich Stoger, and Andrew Gamble 2004
  23. ^ Ginsenoside#Mechanism of action
  24. ^ Hong B, Ji YH, Hong JH, Nam KY, Ahn TY. (2002). "A double-blind crossover study evaluating the efficacy of Korean red ginseng in patients with erectile dysfunction: a preliminary report". Journal of Urology 168 (5): 20–21. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(05)64298-X. PMID 12394711. 
  25. ^ Suh SO, Kroh M, Kim NR, Joh YG, Cho MY. (2002). "Effects of red ginseng upon postoperative immunity and survival in patients with stage III gastric cancer". American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 30 (4): 483–94. doi:10.1142/S0192415X02000661. PMID 12568276. 
  26. ^ Yun TK, Lee YS, Lee YH, Kim SI, Yun HY (2001). "Anticarcinogenic effect of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and identification of active compounds". Journal of Korean Medical Science 16 (S): 6–18. PMID 11748383. 
  27. ^ Sung, Heungsup; Jung, You-Sun and Cho, Young-Keol (2009). "Beneficial Effects of a Combination of Korean Red Ginseng and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-1-Infected Patients". Clin. Vaccine Immunol.. http://cvi.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/CVI.00013-09v1. 
  28. ^ fatty alcohols and aldehydes
  29. ^ fatty alcohols and aldehydes
  30. ^ TDEC: DNH: Ginseng Program
  31. ^ Care and Planting of Ginseng Seed and Roots
  32. ^ Winston, David; Maimes, Steven (2007). Adaptogens: Herbs for Strength, Stamina, and Stress Relief. Healing Arts Press. 

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

Medical warning!
This article is from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica. Medical science has made many leaps forward since it has been written. .This is not a site for medical advice, when you need information on a medical condition, consult a professional instead.^ You need to discuss growing conditions.
  • North Carolina Ginseng & Goldenseal Co. - FAQ 16 September 2009 11:31 UTC www.ncgoldenseal.com [Source type: General]

^ This site is presented for information only and is not intended to substitute for professional medical advice.
  • American ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.allina.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This information is not meant to be substituted for medical advice.
  • Korean Ginseng - Panax 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.nutriherb.net [Source type: General]

.GINSENG, the root of a species of Panax (P. Ginseng), native of Manchuria and Korea, belonging to the natural order Araliaceae, used in China as a medicine.^ Most of the Panax ginseng sold today is cultivated in China and Korea.

^ Korean ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, belong to the family Araliaceae and genus Panax to which six species belong.
  • Panax ginseng presented in Medicine section 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.newsfinder.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ginseng has been used in China for over 7,000 years.
  • Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.innvista.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other roots are substituted for it, notably that of Panax quinquefolium, distinguished as American ginseng, and imported from the United States.^ Panax ginseng is related to, but not identical with American ginseng.
  • Ginseng-Panax,American,Korean,Siberian Benefits-Side effects,uses, anticoagulant... 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cellhealthmakeover.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Panax Ginseng, the root of Araliaceae is a precious...
  • Red Panax Ginseng Extractum - Shop Smarter.com 16 September 2009 11:31 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]
  • Red Panax Ginseng Extract - Shop Smarter.com 16 September 2009 11:31 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) was discovered.
  • Ginseng, Asian ginseng, Panax ginseng, American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, ginseng photos, American ginseng photos, ginseng root photos, article, by Steven Foster 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.stevenfoster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At one time the ginseng obtained from Manchuria was considered to be the finest quality, and in consequence became so scarce that an imperial edict was issued prohibiting its collection.^ Imperial Ginseng Farms - One of the World's largest North American growers of Ginseng for the South East Asia and China Market - Canada TSX listed .

^ Only the finest ginseng root goes into Imperial Elixir Ginseng: We hand-select and pure-grind it, in the time-honored tradition.
  • Imperial Elixir/Ginseng Company 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.getnutri.com [Source type: General]

^ The timing of ginseng supplementation does not appear to be an issue.
  • Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.exrx.net [Source type: Academic]

.That prepared in Korea is now the most esteemed variety.^ Korea's "King of Ginsengs" is considered to be the most yang stimulating variety, reputedly increasing energy and stamina.
  • Buy Ginseng Base - Cheap Discount Ginseng Base Order Online 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.77canadapharmacy.com [Source type: General]

.The root of the wild plant is preferred to that of cultivated ginseng, and the older the plant the better is the quality of the root considered to be.^ In addition, ginseng may be wild or cultivated.

^ Ginseng questions Q. Is wild ginseng plant better than ginseng growing on a farm?
  • Ginseng plant dosage herb 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.yohimbebark.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Shade grown and wild grown ginseng root.
  • Growing American Ginseng in Ohio: An Introduction 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC ohioline.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Great care is taken in the preparation of the drug.^ Great care should be taken while washing ginseng roots.
  • Growing American Ginseng in Ohio: An Introduction 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC ohioline.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wild-simulated ginseng is harvested much like wild ginseng in that great care is taken to not damage the roots while digging.
  • Growing American Ginseng in Ohio: An Introduction 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC ohioline.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The account given by Koempfer of the preparation of nindsin, the root of Sium ninsi, in Korea, will give a good idea of the preparation of ginseng, ninsi being a similar drug of supposed weaker virtue, obtained from a different plant, and often confounded with ginseng.^ Ginseng is a plant with many different components.

^ Typical root of young ginseng plant.
  • American Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.mdc.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ginseng roots are often graded by size.

."In the beginning of winter nearly all the population of Sjansai turn out to collect the root, and make preparations for sleeping in the fields.^ The root is dried and used to make extracts, teas, capsules or tablets, as well as creams and other preparations for use externally.
  • Ginseng: “Man-Root” 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.healthnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The root is dried and used to make tablets or capsules, extracts, and teas, as well as creams or other preparations for external use.
  • Ginseng (Asian) [NCCAM Herbs at a Glance] 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC nccam.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Ginseng -- Supplements and Herbal Remedies 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC edinformatics.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Just check to make sure the root came out of a painted can and not a can wrapped in a paper label.

The root, when collected, is macerated for three days in fresh water, or water in which rice has been boiled twice; it is then suspended in a closed vessel over the fire, and afterwards dried, until from the base to the middle it assumes a hard, resinous and translucent appearance, which is considered a proof of its good quality." Ginseng of good quality generally occurs in hard, rather brittle, translucent pieces, about the size of the little finger, and varying in length from 2 to 4 in. .The taste is mucilaginous, sweetish and slightly bitter and aromatic.^ It has a faint smell, and its taste is sweetish, somewhat bitter, mucilaginous, and feebly aromatic.
  • Panax.—Ginseng. | Henriette's Herbal Homepage 16 September 2009 11:31 UTC www.henriettesherbal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has a mucilaginous sweetness, approaching that of liquorice, accompanied with some degree of bitterness and a slight aromatic warmth, with little or no smell.
  • botanical.com - A Modern Herbal | Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.botanical.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The taste is sweetish at first, with a somewhat bitter aftertaste (4).
  • Ethnobotanical Leaflets 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ethnoleaflets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The root is frequently forked, and it is probably owing to this circumstance that medicinal properties were in the first place attributed to it, its resemblance to the body of a man being supposed to indicate that it could restore virile power to the aged and impotent.^ Some of them resemble the body of a man.
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems - Virginia Cooperative Extension 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC pubs.ext.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Called "the root of man" because its root resembles a human figure, Ginseng is the world's oldest and best...
  • Red Panax Ginseng Extract - Shop Smarter.com 16 September 2009 11:31 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ If you’re just starting out and taking ginseng for the first time, probably the best place to start out is with the tea, as ginseng is far more powerful as a relaxing drink than it is as a medicine – see if you can find ginseng teabags containing dried leaves in your local herb-selling shop.
  • Ginseng HQ 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC ginsenghq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In price it varies from 6 or 12 dollars to the enormous sum of 300 or 400 dollars an ounce.
Lockhart gives a graphic description of a visit to a ginseng merchant. .Opening the outer box, the merchant removed several paper parcels which appeared to fill the box, but under them was a second box, or perhaps two small boxes, which, when taken out, showed the bottom of the large box and all the intervening space filled with more paper parcels.^ The more mature the forest (with large hardwood trees and a full canopy that shades out most shrubs, briars, etc.
  • How to Grow Ginseng - wikiHow 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.wikihow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wild roots have more small, thin, hair-like whiskers growing out from the main roots for seeking water and nutrients in the wild.
  • ren shen, Panax ginseng, Complementary and Alternative Healing University 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC alternativehealing.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For large quantities of seed, construct an 8-to 12-inch deep wooden box with a screen top and bottom.
  • Care and Planting of Ginseng Seed and Roots 16 September 2009 11:31 UTC www.ces.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These parcels, he said, "contained quicklime, for the purpose of absorbing any moisture and keeping the boxes quite dry, the lime being packed in paper for the sake of cleanliness.^ The dried roots are packed immediately for export in 100 pound or larger cylindrical, cardboard containers or drums to protect them from breaking and to avoid absorption of moisture (10).
  • Ethnobotanical Leaflets 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.ethnoleaflets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These conditions are more likely, however, when caffeine -containing foods and beverages are also being consumed.
  • American Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]
  • American Ginseng - [Alternative Medicine] 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.peacehealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • H-E-B HealthNotes 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.heb.com [Source type: Academic]

The smaller box, which held the ginseng, was lined with sheet-lead; the ginseng further enclosed in silk wrappers was kept in little silkencovered boxes. .Taking up a piece, he would request his visitor not to breathe upon it, nor handle it; he would dilate upon the many merits of the drug and the cures it had effected.^ Although the list of health benefits associated with ginseng could take up pages, some of these supposed benefits have more scientific merit than others.
  • The Benefits of Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.nutralegacy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many health forums which discuss side effects of particular drugs specifically.
  • Buy Ginseng Base - Cheap Discount Ginseng Base Order Online 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.77canadapharmacy.com [Source type: General]

^ Nobody can imagine that the Chinese and Tartars would set so high a value upon this root if it did not constantly produce a good effect.

The cover of the root, according to its quality, was silk, either embroidered or plain, cotton cloth or paper." In China the ginseng is often sent to friends as a valuable present; in such cases, "accompanying the medicine is usually given a small, beautifully-finished double kettle, in which the ginseng is prepared as follows. .The inner kettle is made of silver, and between this and the outside vessel, which is a copper jacket, is a small space for holding water.^ Cut the once boiled root in to small pieces so as to expose the core of the inner root and then subject these to boiling water to make a second boiling herbal tea.
  • Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.herbs2000.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plant in small gardens and increase the space between plants.
  • Woods-Grown Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.wvu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The silver kettle, which fits on a ring near the top of the outer covering, has a cup-like cover in which rice is placed with a little water; the ginseng is put in the inner vessel with water, a cover is placed over the whole, and the apparatus is put on the fire.^ Put 1/2 teaspoon of the powdered root in a cup of water, bring to a boil and simmer gently for 10 hours.
  • Ginseng - Encyclopedia - Azarius 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.azarius.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Or make a tea by simmering 2 ounces of ginseng in four cups of water for 2 hours in a non-metal container.

^ A ginseng cooker which is made out of a small porcelain container is used in place of the top portion of a double boiler by the Chinese to prepare the ginseng.
  • Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.herbs2000.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

When the rice in the cover is sufficiently cooked, the medicine is ready, and is then eaten by the patient, who drinks the ginseng tea at the same time." The dose of the root is from 60 to 90 grains. .During the use of the drug teadrinking is forbidden for at least a month, but no other change is made in the diet.^ Antiplatelet agents include Plavix and Ticlid Anticoagulants include heparin and warfarin Some drugs used for asthma, heart problems, or other reasons can affect heart rhythm.
  • Ginseng-Panax,American,Korean,Siberian Benefits-Side effects,uses, anticoagulant... 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cellhealthmakeover.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Ginseng Side effects -Panax,American,Korean,Siberian ,uses and review... 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.cellhealthmakeover.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While this fungicide is approved for use on certain food crops (e.g., cottonseed for oil, collards, kale, mustard greens), no effort has been made to get it approved in the U.S. for ginseng, so it is not listed as approved for that application.
  • Safety Issues Affecting Chinese Herbs: The Case of Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.itmonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ginseng, on the other hand, acts without any of these negative effects, and it has been used safely for at least 2,000 years.

.It is taken in the morning before breakfast, from three to eight days together, and sometimes it is taken in the evening before going to bed.^ I've taken things before that probably did me more harm than good, even though they claimed to be herbal.
  • Ginseng | LIVESTRONG.COM 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Ginseng beds in Wisconsin are usually cultivated for three years before harvest, unless disease problems mandate earlier harvest.

^ The dose should be divided and taken two or three times per day between meals.
  • Ginseng - dose, children, effects, adults, drug, people, used, medication, women, Definition, Purpose, Description, Recommended dosages, Precautions, Side effects, Interactions 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.minddisorders.com [Source type: Academic]

The action of the drug appears to be entirely psychic, and comparable to that of the mandrake of the Hebrews. .There is no evidence that it possesses any pharmacological or therapeutic properties.^ January 2009 23:06 There is no strong evidence either way for several herbal remedies commonly taken to relieve troublesome menopausal symptoms, concludes the January issue of the Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin ( DTB ).

^ There is limited laboratory evidence that ginseng may contain estrogen-like chemicals and may affect medications with estrogen-like or estrogen-blocking properties.
  • Ginseng: MedlinePlus Supplements 16 September 2009 11:31 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ There is no doubt that other active constituents exist in Ginseng which have not yet been identified or studied, but which undoubtedly contribute to its pharmacological make-up.

.See Porter Smith, Chinese Materia Medica, p.^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica.
  • Flora Delaterre, plant detective: American Ginseng 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www.floradelaterre.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bensky D. Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica , Seattle, WA: Eastland Press 1986.

^ The Yellow Emperor extolled the virtue of Ginseng over 2000 years ago in the classic Chinese Materia Medica , the encyclopedia of medicine.
  • Ginseng Extract - The Answers Are Here 11 January 2010 6:06 UTC www-ginseng.com [Source type: Original source]

103; Reports on Trade at the Treaty Ports of China (1868), p. 63; Lockhart, Med. Missionary in China (2nd ed.), p. 107; Bull. de la Societe Imperiale de Nat. de Moscou (1865), No. I, pp. 70-76; Pharmaceutical Journal (2), vol. iii. pp. 1 97, 333, (2), vol. ix. p. 77; Lewis, Materia Medica, p. 324; Geoffroy, Tract. de matiere medicale, t. ii. p. 112; Kaempfer, Amoenitates exoticae, p. 824. _


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Panax L. article)

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Name

Panax L., Sp. Pl. 1058. 1 Mai 1753.

Synonyms

  • Aureliana Boehm. in C. G. Ludwig, Def. Gen. ed. 3. 283. 1760.
  • Ginsen Adans., Fam. 2: 102, 561. Jul-Aug 1763.
  • Panacea Mitch., Diss. Gen. Pl. 43. 1769.
  • Ginseng Alph.Wood, Amer. Bot. Fl.: 142. 1871.
  • Panaxus St.-Lag., Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon 7: 109. 1880.

References

  • Farr, E. R. & Zijlstra, G. eds. (1996-) Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). 2009 Dec 23 [1].

Vernacular names

Deutsch: Ginseng
English: Ginseng
Français: Ginseng
Nederlands: Ginseng
Русский: Женьшень (Zhen'shen')
Svenska: Ginsengsläktet
Türkçe: Ginseng

Simple English

Ginseng
File:Panax
Panax quinquefolius
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Apiales
Family: Araliaceae
Subfamily: Aralioideae
Genus: Panax
L.

Ginseng refers to species within Panax, a genus of 11 species of slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, in the family Araliaceae. They grow in the Northern Hemisphere in eastern Asia (mostly northern China, Korea, and eastern Siberia), typically in cooler climates; Panax vietnamensis, discovered in Vietnam, is the southernmost ginseng found.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 18, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Ginseng, which are similar to those in the above article.








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