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Giosafat Barbaro (or Josaphat) (1413-1494) was a Venetian diplomat, merchant and explorer.[1] His father was Jacopo Barbaro.

Giosafat traveled as a merchant to the Venetian colony Tana on the Sea of Azov in 1436.[2][3] In 1438, Barbaro was sent as an emissary to the Tatars to persuade them not to attack Tana.[4][5] He visited many cities in the Crimea, including Solcati, Soldaia, Cembalo, and Caffa.[6] Barbaro also traveled to Russia, where he visited Casan and Novogorod.[7] He lived in Tartary for the next sixteen years until the Crimean Khanate became a client sate of the Ottoman Turks.[8] Barbaro returned to Venice in 1452, traveling by way of Russia, Poland, and Germany.[9]

At some point after this, Barbaro became a member of the Venetian Senate.[10]He was sent to Albania, where he fought with Lekë Dukagjini and Skanderbeg against the Turks.[11][12][13][14][15] Proveditor Barbaro linked his forces with those of Dukagjini and Nicolo Moneta to form an auxiliary corps of 13,000 men which was sent to relieve the Second Siege of Krujë.[16]

In 1469, Barbaro was made Proveditor of Scutari, in Albania.[17][18] He was in charge of 1200 cavalry, which he used to support Lekë Dukagjini.[19] In 1472, Barbaro was back in Venice, where he was one of the 41 senators chosen to act as electors, who selected Nicolo Tron as Doge.[20]

In 1463, the Venetian Senate, seeking allies against the Turks, sent Lazzaro Querini as its first ambassador to Persia[21], but he was unable to persuade Persia to attack the Turks.[22] The ruler of Persia, Uzun Hassan ,sent his own envoys to Venice in return.[23] After Negroponte fell to the Turks, Venice, Naples, the Papal States, the Kingdom of Cyprus and the Knights of Rhodes signed an agreement to ally against the Turks.[24]

In 1471, ambassador Lazzaro Querini returned to Venice with Uzun Hassan’s ambassador Murad.[25] The Venetian Senate voted to send another ambassador to Persia, choosing Caterino Zeno after two other men declined.[26] Zeno, whose wife was the niece of Uzun Hassan’s wife, was able to persuade Hassan to attack the Turks. Hassan was successful at first, but there were no simultaneous attacks by any of the western powers and the war turned against Persia.[27]

In 1472, Giosafat Barbaro was also selected as an ambassador to Persia, due to his experience in the Crimean, Muscoy, and Tartary.[28] He also spoke Turkish and a little Persian.[29] Barbaro was provided with an escort of ten men and an annual salary of 1800 ducats.[30] His instructions included urging admiral Pietro Mocenigo to attack the Ottomans and attempting to arrange naval cooperation from the Kingdom of Cyprus and the Knights of Rhodes.[31] He was also in charge of three galleys full of artillery, ammunition, and military personnel who were to assist Uzun Hassan.[32]

In 1473, Barbaro and the Persian envoy Haci Muhammad left Venice and traveled to Zadar, where they met with representatives of the Papal court and of Naples.[33] From there, Barbaro and the others traveled by way of Corfu, Methoni, and Koroni before reaching Rhodes and then Cyprus, where he was delayed for a year.[34]

The Kingdom of Cyprus's position off the coast of Anatolia was in a key position for supplying, not just Persia, but the Venetian allies of Caramania and Ibrahim Bey and the Venetian fleet under Pietro Mocenigo was defending communication lines.[35] While Barbaro was present, King James II of Cyprus died, leaving Queen Catherine a pregnant widow. There was an attempted coup by pro-Neapolitan forces, which resulted in the deaths of the Queen's uncle and cousin. Barbaro sent dispatches to Admiral Mocenigo and the Senate of Venice, warning them of events. The uprising was suppressed, those ringleaders who did not flee were executed, and Cyprus became a Venetian client state.[36]

Afterwards, Barbaro and the Persian envoy left Cyprus in 1474 disguised as pilgrims.[37][38] The Papal and Neapolitan envoys did not accompany them.[39] Barbaro landed in Caramania, where the King warned them that the Turks held the territory they would need to travel through.[40][41] After landing in Cilicia, Barbaro's party traveled through Tarsus, Adana, Orfa, Merdin, Hasankeyf, and Tigranocerta[42][43]

In the Taurus Mountains of Kurdistan, Barbaro’s party was attacked by bandits.[44] He escaped on horseback, but he was wounded, his secretary and the Persian ambassador were killed and their goods were plundered.[45][46] As they neared Tabriz, Barbaro and his interpreter were assaulted by Turcomans after refusing to hand over a letter to Uzun Hassan[47] They finally reached Hassan’s court in 1473.[48][49] Although Barbaro got on well with Uzun Hassan, he was unable to persuade the ruler to attack the Ottomans again.[50] Shortly afterwards, Hassan’s son Ogurlu Mohamed, rose in rebellion, seizing the city of Schiras.[51] Barbaro visited the ruins of Persepolis, which he incorrectly thought were of Jewish origin.[52] as well as Tauris, Soldania, Isph, Cassan (Kascian), Como (Kom), Yezd, Shiraz and Bagdad.[53]

After another Venetian ambassador, Ambroglio Contrinari arrived in Persia,[54] Uzun Hassan decided that Contrinari would return to Venice with a report, while Giosafat Barbaro would stay.[55] Barbaro was the last Venetian ambassador to leave Persia, after Uzun Hassan died in 1478.[56][57] While Hassan’s sons fought each other for the throne, Barbaro hired an Armenian guide and escaped by way of Erzerum, Aleppo, and Beirut returning to Venice.[58][59][60][61] Barbaro's report included not just political and military matters, but discussed Persian agriculture, commerce, and customs.[62]

In 1487, Barbaro wrote an account of his travels[63][64][65] The work, entitled "Fiaggi falti da Fenezia alla Tana in Persi" was first published from 1543 to 1545 by the sons of Aldus Manutius.[66] It is included Giovanne Baptista Ramusio's "Collection of Travels" as "Journey to the Tanais, Persia, India, and Constantinople"[67][68] The scholar and courtier William Thomas translated this work into English for the young King Edward VI under the title ‘’Travels to Tana and Persia’’ and also includes the account of Barbaro’s fellow ambassador to Persia, Ambrogio Contrinari.[69] Barbaro’s account provided more information on Persia and its resources was considered the more valuable of the two.[70] Much of Barbaro's information about the Kipchak Khanate, Persia, and Georgia is not found in any other sources.[71] Barbaro also discussed his travels in a letter written in 1491 to the Bishop of Padua, Pietro Barocci.[72] He died in 1494 and was buried in the Church of San Francesco della Vigna.[73]

References

  1. ^ “A new general biographical dictionary, Volume 3”, Hugh James Rose, Henry John Rose, 1857, pg. 137 [1] ISBN0333760948
  2. ^ “Biographie universelle, ancienne et moderne”, J Fr Michaud; Louis Gabriel Michaud, Paris, Michaud, 1811-28., pg. 327 [2]
  3. ^ “Studi biografici e bibliografici sulla storia della geografia in Italia”, Roma, Societa` geografica italiana; 1882, pg. 140 [3]
  4. ^ “Studi biografici e bibliografici sulla storia della geografia in Italia”, Roma, Societa` geografica italiana; 1882, pg. 140 [4]
  5. ^ Mehmed the Conqueror & His Time, Franz Babinger, Trans. Ralph Manheim, Princeton University Press; 1992, p.319 [5] ISBN 0691010781
  6. ^ “Studi biografici e bibliografici sulla storia della geografia in Italia”, Roma, Societa` geografica italiana; 1882, pg. 140 [6]
  7. ^ “Studi biografici e bibliografici sulla storia della geografia in Italia”, Roma, Societa` geografica italiana; 1882, pg. 110 [7]
  8. ^ “Biographie universelle, ancienne et moderne”, J Fr Michaud; Louis Gabriel Michaud, Paris, Michaud, 1811-28., pg. 327 [8]
  9. ^ “Studi biografici e bibliografici sulla storia della geografia in Italia”, Roma, Societa` geografica italiana; 1882, pg. 141 [9]
  10. ^ “Studi biografici e bibliografici sulla storia della geografia in Italia”, Roma, Societa` geografica italiana; 1882, pg. 140 [10]
  11. ^ “Turcica, Volume 31”, Université de Strasbourg, 1999, pg. 268 [11]
  12. ^ “Studi biografici e bibliografici sulla storia della geografia in Italia”, Roma, Societa` geografica italiana; 1882, pg.144[12]
  13. ^ “Enciclopedia storico-nobiliare italiana, Volume 7”, Vittorio Spreti, Arnaldo Forni, 1981, pg. 276 [13]
  14. ^ “A new general biographical dictionary, Volume 3”, Hugh James Rose, Henry John Rose, 1857, pg. 137 [14] ISBN0333760948
  15. ^ Mehmed the Conqueror & His Time, Franz Babinger, Trans. Ralph Manheim, Princeton University Press; 1992, p.319[15] ISBN 0691010781
  16. ^ ”Le istorie albanesi, Volume 1”, Francesco Tajani, Salerno, Fratelli Jovane, 1886., pg. 120 [16]
  17. ^ “Studi biografici e bibliografici sulla storia della geografia in Italia”, Roma, Societa` geografica italiana; 1882, pg. 140 [17]
  18. ^ Mehmed the Conqueror & His Time, Franz Babinger, Trans. Ralph Manheim, Princeton University Press; 1992, p.261 [18] ISBN 0691010781
  19. ^ “Studi biografici e bibliografici sulla storia della geografia in Italia”, Roma, Societa` geografica italiana; 1882, pg. 141 [19]
  20. ^ “Studi biografici e bibliografici sulla storia della geografia in Italia”, Roma, Societa` geografica italiana; 1882, pg. 110 [20]
  21. ^ Mehmed the Conqueror & His Time, Franz Babinger, Trans. Ralph Manheim, Princeton University Press; 1992, p.305 [21] ISBN 0691010781
  22. ^ The Cambridge history of Iran, William Bayne Fisher, Peter Jackson, Laurence Lockhart, New York : Cambridge University Press, 1986, p.377 [22] ISBN 0521200946
  23. ^ Mehmed the Conqueror & His Time, Franz Babinger, Trans. Ralph Manheim, Princeton University Press; 1992, p.305 [23] ISBN 0691010781
  24. ^ “Studi biografici e bibliografici sulla storia della geografia in Italia”, Roma, Societa` geografica italiana; 1882, pg. 141 [24]
  25. ^ Mehmed the Conqueror & His Time, Franz Babinger, Trans. Ralph Manheim, Princeton University Press; 1992, p.305 [25] ISBN 0691010781
  26. ^ Mehmed the Conqueror & His Time, Franz Babinger, Trans. Ralph Manheim, Princeton University Press; 1992, p.306 [26] ISBN 0691010781
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  28. ^ Historical account of discoveries and travels in Asia, Hugh Murray, Edinburgh, A. Constable and Co; 1820., p.10 [28]
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  30. ^ Mehmed the Conqueror & His Time, Franz Babinger, Trans. Ralph Manheim, Princeton University Press; 1992, p.319 [30] ISBN 0691010781
  31. ^ Mehmed the Conqueror & His Time, Franz Babinger, Trans. Ralph Manheim, Princeton University Press; 1992, p.319 [31] ISBN 0691010781
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  33. ^ Mehmed the Conqueror & His Time, Franz Babinger, Trans. Ralph Manheim, Princeton University Press; 1992, p.319 [33] ISBN 0691010781
  34. ^ Mehmed the Conqueror & His Time, Franz Babinger, Trans. Ralph Manheim, Princeton University Press; 1992, p.319 [34] ISBN 0691010781
  35. ^ “He Kypros kai hoi Staurophories:”, Nikos Kureas; International Conference Cyprus and the Crusades (1994, Leukosia), pg. 161 [35]
  36. ^ “He Kypros kai hoi Staurophories:”, Nikos Kureas; International Conference Cyprus and the Crusades (1994, Leukosia), pg. 161 [36]
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  38. ^ “Studi biografici e bibliografici sulla storia della geografia in Italia”, Roma, Societa` geografica italiana; 1882, pg.142[38]
  39. ^ Mehmed the Conqueror & His Time, Franz Babinger, Trans. Ralph Manheim, Princeton University Press; 1992, p.326 [39] ISBN 0691010781
  40. ^ “Studi biografici e bibliografici sulla storia della geografia in Italia”, Roma, Societa` geografica italiana; 1882, pg. 120 [40]
  41. ^ Historical account of discoveries and travels in Asia, Hugh Murray, Edinburgh, A. Constable and Co; 1820., p.10 [41]
  42. ^ Historical account of discoveries and travels in Asia, Hugh Murray, Edinburgh, A. Constable and Co; 1820., p.10 [42]
  43. ^ Mehmed the Conqueror & His Time, Franz Babinger, Trans. Ralph Manheim, Princeton University Press; 1992, p.326 [43] ISBN 0691010781
  44. ^ Mehmed the Conqueror & His Time, Franz Babinger, Trans. Ralph Manheim, Princeton University Press; 1992, p.326 [44] ISBN 0691010781
  45. ^ Historical account of discoveries and travels in Asia, Hugh Murray, Edinburgh, A. Constable and Co; 1820., p.12 [45]
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  50. ^ The Cambridge history of Iran, William Bayne Fisher, Peter Jackson, Laurence Lockhart, New York : Cambridge University Press, 1986, p.377 [50] ISBN 0521200946
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  52. ^ Historical account of discoveries and travels in Asia, Hugh Murray, Edinburgh, A. Constable and Co; 1820., p.15 [52]
  53. ^ “Studi biografici e bibliografici sulla storia della geografia in Italia”, Roma, Societa` geografica italiana; 1882, pg.142[53]
  54. ^ The Cambridge history of Iran, William Bayne Fisher, Peter Jackson, Laurence Lockhart, New York : Cambridge University Press, 1986, p.377 [54] ISBN 0521200946
  55. ^ Historical account of discoveries and travels in Asia, Hugh Murray, Edinburgh, A. Constable and Co; 1820., p.19 [55]
  56. ^ “Biographie universelle, ancienne et moderne”, J Fr Michaud; Louis Gabriel Michaud, Paris, Michaud, 1811-28., pg. 327 [56]
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  58. ^ Historical account of discoveries and travels in Asia, Hugh Murray, Edinburgh, A. Constable and Co; 1820., p.16 [58]
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  60. ^ “Biographie universelle, ancienne et moderne”, J Fr Michaud; Louis Gabriel Michaud, Paris, Michaud, 1811-28., pg. 327 [60]
  61. ^ Mehmed the Conqueror & His Time, Franz Babinger, Trans. Ralph Manheim, Princeton University Press; 1992, p.322[61] ISBN 0691010781
  62. ^ “Studi biografici e bibliografici sulla storia della geografia in Italia”, Roma, Societa` geografica italiana; 1882, pg.143[62]
  63. ^ “Studi biografici e bibliografici sulla storia della geografia in Italia”, Roma, Societa` geografica italiana; 1882, pg.144[63]
  64. ^ “Enciclopedia storico-nobiliare italiana, Volume 7”, Vittorio Spreti, Arnaldo Forni, 1981, pg. 276 [64]
  65. ^ “A new general biographical dictionary, Volume 3”, Hugh James Rose, Henry John Rose, 1857, pg. 137 [65] ISBN0333760948
  66. ^ “Biographie universelle, ancienne et moderne”, J Fr Michaud; Louis Gabriel Michaud, Paris, Michaud, 1811-28., pg. 327 [66]
  67. ^ Universal Pronouncing Dictionary of Biography and Mythology. Vol. I., pg.262, Thomas Joseph, Philadelphia, PA, USA: J. B. Lippincott and Co., 1870
  68. ^ “A new general biographical dictionary, Volume 3”, Hugh James Rose, Henry John Rose, 1857, pg. 137 [67] ISBN0333760948
  69. ^ Mehmed the Conqueror & His Time, Franz Babinger, Trans. Ralph Manheim, Princeton University Press; 1992, p.305 [68] ISBN 0691010781
  70. ^ The Cambridge history of Iran, William Bayne Fisher, Peter Jackson, Laurence Lockhart, New York : Cambridge University Press, 1986, p.378 [69] ISBN 0521200946
  71. ^ “Biographie universelle, ancienne et moderne”, J Fr Michaud; Louis Gabriel Michaud, Paris, Michaud, 1811-28., pg. 327 [70]
  72. ^ “Studi biografici e bibliografici sulla storia della geografia in Italia”, Roma, Societa` geografica italiana; 1882, pg.142[71]
  73. ^ “Studi biografici e bibliografici sulla storia della geografia in Italia”, Roma, Societa` geografica italiana; 1882, pg.144[72]

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