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Gláuber
Gláuber 2007
Personal information
Full name Gláuber Leandro Honorato Berti
Date of birth 5 August 1983 (1983-08-05) (age 26)
Place of birth    São José do Rio Preto, Brazil
Height 1.91 m (6 ft 3 in)
Playing position Centre back
Senior career1
Years Club App (Gls)*
2000–2003
2003–2005
2005–2008
2008–2009
Atlético Mineiro
Palmeiras
Nuremberg
Manchester City
39 (2)
14 (0)
51 (0)
01 (0)   
National team2
2005 Brazil 01 (0)

1 Senior club appearances and goals
counted for the domestic league only and
correct as of 17:08, 9 September 2009 (UTC).
2 National team caps and goals correct
as of 17:08, 9 September 2009 (UTC).
* Appearances (Goals)

Gláuber Leandro Honorato Berti (born 5 August 1983), more commonly known as Gláuber, is a Brazilian footballer who is currently unattached after being released by Manchester City.

Contents

Club career

Born in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Gláuber began his footballing career with Belo Horizonte-based club Atlético Mineiro before joining Palmeiras in São Paulo, where he saw top-flight football for the first time in 2003. After an eighteen month stint with the Verdão he was transferred in December 2005 to Nuremberg on a six-month loan with a buying option for the Bundesliga club.

The coaching staff at 1. FC Nuremberg were initially doubtful about the centre back's abilities. However, the Brazilian eradicated any doubts after excelling when brought off the bench to replace the injured Andreas Wolf. Gláuber quickly became a starter for the team for the remainder of the season.

Thus, Nuremberg exercised their right to acquire Gláuber in the summer of 2006. Shortly before the deal was finalized, his Italian ancestry helped him in acquiring Italian citizenship, which means he no longer counted against the team's contingent of non-UEFA-players.

On 31 August 2008, Gláuber signed a one-year deal with Premier League club Manchester City.

On 24 May 2009, on the last day of English Premier League for the 2008-09 season, he made his debut for Man City as a substitute which came on in the 84th minute at left back against Bolton Wanderers. He joined Hull City on trial in September 2009.[1]

International career

Gláuber has been capped once for the Brazilian national football team, appearing in a friendly against Guatemala on 27 April 2005.[2]

References

  1. ^ "Tigers target Brazilian". Sky Sports. 2009-09-09. http://www.skysports.com/story/0,19528,11095_5546294,00.html. Retrieved 2009-09-09.  
  2. ^ "Vom Warten auf einen wachen Augenblick" (in German). 14 January 2006. http://www.nn-online.de/artikel.asp?art=444771&kat=31. Retrieved 24 November 2006.  

External links

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Glauber is a scientific discovery method, written in the context of Computational Philosophy of Science it is related to Machine Learning in artificial intelligence.

Glauber was written by Pat Langley, Herbert Simon, G.Bradshaw and J.Zitkow with other programs in order to show how scientific discovery may be achieved by Problem Solving Methods.

Their programs simulate historical scientific discoveries based on empirical evidence known at the time of discovery.

Glauber was amed after Johann Rudolph Glauber, a 17th century alchemist whose work helped to develop acid-base theory. Glauber rediscovers the law of acid-alkali reactions producing salts, given the qualities of substances and observed facts, the result of mixing substances. From that knowledge Glauber discovers that substances that taste bitter reacts with substances tasting sour producing substances tasting salty. In few words the law:

Acid + Alkali --> Salt

Glauber was designed by Pat Langley as part of his work on discovery heuristics in an attempt to have a computer automatically review a host of values and characteristics and make independent analyses from them. In the case of Glauber, the goal was to have an autonomous application that could estimate or even perfectly describe the nature of a given chemical compound by comparing it to related substances. Langley formalized and compiled Glauber in 1983.

The software was supplied information about a variety of materials as they had been described by 18th century chemists, before most of modern chemical knowledge had been uncovered or invented. Qualitative descriptions like taste, rather than numerical data such as molecular weight, were programmed into the application. Chemical reactions that were known in that era and the distinction between reactants and products were also provided. From this knowledge, Glauber was to figure out which substances were acids, bases, and salts without any quantitative information. The system examined chemical substances and all of their most likely reactions and correlates the expected taste and related acidity or saltiness according to the rule that acids and bases produce salts.

Glauber was a very successful advance in theoretical chemistry as performed by computer, and it, along with similar systems developed by Herbert Simon including Stahl (which examines oxidation) and DALTON (which calculates atomic weight) helped form the groundwork of all current automated chemical analysis.

Bibliography

Pat Langley, Herbert A. Simon, G. Bradshaw, y J. Zytkow. Scientific Discovery, Computational Explorations of the Creative Mind. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1987. ISBN 0-262-62052-9. LCCN Q175.L2443 1987. Dewey 502.8 86-10258.


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