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Part of the Zliten mosaic from Libya (Leptis Magna), circa 80-100 CE. It shows (left to right) a thraex fighting a murmillo, a hoplomachus standing with another murmillo (who is signaling his defeat to the referee), and one of a matched pair.
.A gladiator (Latin: gladiator, "swordsman", from gladius, "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals.^ These views provoked suspicion among the Jewish authorities who rejected the group and fear among the Roman authorities who perceived these sentiments as a threat to the Empire."
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ It was Spartacus who told us to throw away our own gear and strip the armor off the legionaries, to arm ourselves as soldiers, not gladiators.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Proximo hauls Maximus and Juba off as Vibius and the other gladiators arm themselves -- INT. TUNNELS - NIGHT Proximo is leading Maximus and Juba quickly through a decaying cramped tunnel.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some gladiators were volunteers who risked their legal and social standing and their lives by appearing in the arena.^ LUCILLA: There are some politicians who have dedicated their lives to Rome .
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ EXT. PROVINCIAL ARENA - DUGOUT - DAY In the cramped holding area of the arena, a dugout beneath the stands, Maximus and the other gladiators are waiting.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Maximus stands in the midst of all the gladiators who triumphantly fought and beat the Legionnaires.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

Most were despised as slaves, schooled under harsh conditions, socially marginalized, and segregated even in death. .Irrespective of their origin, gladiators offered audiences an example of Rome's martial ethics and, in fighting or dying well, they could inspire admiration and popular acclaim.^ Proximo gives the gladiators a talk of encouragement (after all, they are there to make him money) before they go out for their first fight.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MAXIMUS: How soon do you think they could be ready to fight?
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hannibal, when he got tired of fighting Rome, he could pack up his army and go home to Carthage.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

They were celebrated in high and low art, and their value as entertainers was commemorated in precious and commonplace objects throughout the Roman world.
The origin of gladiatorial combat is open to debate. .There is evidence of it in funeral rites during the Punic Wars of the 3rd century BCE , and thereafter it rapidly became an essential feature of politics and social life in the Roman world.^ During this Webquest you will use the Internet to learn more about Roman life, history, religion, government, and art.
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ THE ROMANISATION OF BRITAIN NEW! http://www.smr.herefordshire.gov.uk/roman/life_index.htm Information on the Roman conquest of Britain and Roman life there.
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

.Its popularity led to its use in ever more lavish and costly spectacles or "gladiatorial games". The games reached their peak between the 1st century BCE and the 2nd century CE, and they persisted not only throughout the social and economic crises of the declining Roman state but even after Christianity became the official religion in the 4th century CE. Christian emperors continued to sponsor such entertainments until at least the late 5th century CE, when the last known gladiator games took place.^ Gladiators only fight in the games.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The rules for each game are given where they are known.
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ GLADIATORS – 50 AD http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/gladiators.htm "The Roman philosopher Seneca took a dim view of gladiatorial contests and the spectacle that accompanied them.
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

Contents

Gladiatorial games

Origins

Early literary sources seldom agree on the origins of gladiators and the gladiator games.[1][2] In the late 1st century BCE Nicolaus of Damascus believed they were Etruscan.[3] A generation later, Livy wrote that they were first held in 310 BCE by the Campanians in celebration of their victory over the Samnites.[4] .Long after the games had ceased, the 7th century CE writer Isidore of Seville derived Latin lanista (manager of gladiators) from the Etruscan for executioner, and the title of Charon (an official who accompanied the dead from the Roman gladiatorial arena) from Charun, psychopomp of the Etruscan underworld.^ GLADIATORS – 50 AD http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/gladiators.htm "The Roman philosopher Seneca took a dim view of gladiatorial contests and the spectacle that accompanied them.
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ GLADIATOR: DRESSED TO KILL GAME NEW! http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/romans/launch_gms_gladiator.shtml An online game in which students dress a gladiator to fight in the arena.
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ INT./ EXT. SLAVE WAGON - ROMAN STREETS - DAY Maximus and the other gladiators are in a slave cart on the way from the arena.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

[5] .Roman historians emphasised the gladiator games as a foreign import, most likely Etruscan.^ "Students will ● discuss the role of public entertainment in ancient Rome; ● imagine themselves as a participant at a gladiator games at the Roman Colosseum; and ● write a personal account of the games."
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ On "The Gladiator’s War" she says, "Varro was the most erudite Roman author of his day, and probably did write a history of the Spartacus war."
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

.This preference informed most standard histories of the Roman games in the early modern era.^ On "The Gladiator’s War" she says, "Varro was the most erudite Roman author of his day, and probably did write a history of the Spartacus war."
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ CALENDARS THROUGH THE AGES – EARLY ROMAN CALENDAR NEW! http://webexhibits.org/calendars/calendar-roman.html Information on the Roman calendar, its history, how you read it and more.
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

[6]
Reappraisal of the evidence supports a Campanian origin – or at least a borrowing – for the games and gladiators.[7][8] .The earliest known Roman gladiator schools (ludi) were in Campania.^ GLADIATORS: ROME’S VIOLENT PAST – LESSON PLAN NEW! http://school.discoveryeducation.com/lessonplans/programs/gladiators/ A lesson plan on Roman gladiators for grades 8-12.
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

[9][10] .Tomb frescoes from Paestum (4th century BCE) show paired fighters, with helmets, spears and shields, in a propitiatory funeral blood-rite that anticipates early Roman gladiator games.^ We'll show these Roman dogs how gladiators fight!
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Be the Gladiator Champion and fight all the challenger as a slave fighter in the Colosseum in this gladiator fighting game.
  • Play Game at Tailedfox Games - Gladiator 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.tailedfox.com [Source type: General]

^ As one team of gladiators descends on the platform lift, Proximo's gladiators are selecting helmets and receiving spears.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

[11] Compared to these images, supporting evidence from Etruscan tomb-paintings is tentative and late. The Paestum frescoes may represent the continuation of a much older tradition, acquired or inherited from Greek colonists of the 8th century BCE.[12]
.Livy dates the earliest Roman gladiator games to 264 BCE, in the early stages of Rome's First Punic War against Carthage.^ Gladiators have arrived in Rome for their first time.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ GLADIATORS: ROME’S VIOLENT PAST – LESSON PLAN NEW! http://school.discoveryeducation.com/lessonplans/programs/gladiators/ A lesson plan on Roman gladiators for grades 8-12.
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ MAP OF ROMAN TRADE ROUTES NEW! http://intranet.dalton.org/groups/rome/RMap2.html A map of trade routes in the first century AD. Good .
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

Decimus Iunius Brutus Scaeva had three gladiator pairs fight to the death in Rome's 'cattle market' Forum (Forum Boarium) to honour his dead father, Brutus Pera. This is described as munus (plural munera): a commemorative duty owed the manes of a dead ancestor by his descendants.[13][14] The gladiator type used (according to a single, later source), was Thracian.[15] but the development of the munus and its gladiator types was most strongly influenced by Samnium's support for Hannibal and subsequent punitive expeditions by Rome and her Campanian allies; the earliest and most frequently mentioned type was the Samnite.[16][17][18]
The war in Samnium, immediately afterwards, was attended with equal danger and an equally glorious conclusion. The enemy, besides their other warlike preparation, had made their battle-line to glitter with new and splendid arms. .There were two corps: the shields of the one were inlaid with gold, of the other with silver...^ ASSASSIN #1 You two take him down there where no one will find him.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The centurion was just waiting there in the center of the ring while the other one was wearing himself out circling around him, afraid to close in.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Romans had already heard of these splendid accoutrements, but their generals had taught them that a soldier should be rough to look on, not adorned with gold and silver but putting his trust in iron and in courage...^ But when Spartacus heard what Varinius was saying about crucifixion, he looked over the Roman prisoners, then said to me, "We have at least two hundred pairs here.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The soldiers rise as he approaches, looking at him with respect, addressing him with admiration as they call out his name, "General" -- He passes through the ranks with a smile as he greets the soldiers.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

The Dictator, as decreed by the senate, celebrated a triumph, in which by far the finest show was afforded by the captured armour. .So the Romans made use of the splendid armour of their enemies to do honour to their gods; while the Campanians, in consequence of their pride and in hatred of the Samnites, equipped after this fashion the gladiators who furnished them entertainment at their feasts, and bestowed on them the name Samnites.^ So it’s not true that Spartacus made Roman prisoners fight each other as gladiators?
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We taught them, we gladiators did, how to hold a sword, how to use it, how to kill Romans.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

(Livy 9.40)[19]
.Livy's account skirts the funereal, sacrificial function of early Roman gladiator combats and underlines the later theatrical ethos of the gladiator show: splendidly, exotically armed and armoured barbarians, treacherous and degenerate, are dominated by Roman iron and native courage.^ We'll show these Roman dogs how gladiators fight!
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Students will ● discuss the role of public entertainment in ancient Rome; ● imagine themselves as a participant at a gladiator games at the Roman Colosseum; and ● write a personal account of the games."
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

[20] His plain Romans virtuously dedicate the magnificent spoils of war to the Gods. .Their Campanian allies stage a dinner entertainment using gladiators who may not be Samnites, but play the Samnite role.^ "Students will ● discuss the role of public entertainment in ancient Rome; ● imagine themselves as a participant at a gladiator games at the Roman Colosseum; and ● write a personal account of the games."
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ It also becomes useful to have some old stalwarts of the silver screen to play some smallez-yet equally vital roles.
  • Gladiator [2000] Movie Reviews on MovieClock 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC movieclock.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other groups and tribes would join the cast list as Roman territories expanded. Most gladiators were armed and armoured in the manner of the enemies of Rome.[21] .The munus became a morally instructive form of historic enactment in which the only honourable option for the gladiator was to fight well, or else die well.^ Gladiators only fight in the games.
  • Gladiator Script - transcript from the screenplay and/or Russell Crowe movie 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.script-o-rama.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

[22]

Development

In 216 BCE Marcus Ameilius Lepidus, late consul and augur, was honoured by his sons with three days of gladiatora munera in the Forum Romanum, using twenty-two pairs of gladiators.[23] Ten years later, Scipio Africanus gave a commemorative munus in Iberia for his father and uncle, casualties in the Punic Wars. High status non-Romans – and possibly Romans too – volunteered as his gladiators.[24] .The context of the Punic Wars and Rome's near-disastrous defeat at Cannae (216 BCE) link these early games to munificence, the celebration of military victory and the religious expiation of military disaster; these munera appear to serve a morale-raising agenda in an era of military threat and expansion.^ TIMELINE ANCIENT ROME http://www.exovedate.com/ancient_timeline_one.html A timeline of Roman history from 2000 BCE to 300 CE. Each era discussed includes events and people of the times and extensive links.
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ Wounds are bandaged and tankards are raised in celebration of the victory.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ ANCIENT ROME HOTLINKS – A GATEWAY SITE http://members.aol.com/TeacherNet/AncientRome.html#Early A full page of links on Ancient Rome.
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

[25] The next recorded munus, held for the funeral of Publius Liciniusin 183 BCE, was more extravagant. .It involved 3 days of funeral games, 120 gladiators and public distribution of meat (visceratio data)[26] – a practice that reflected the gladiatorial fights at Campanian banquets described by Livy and later deplored by Silius Italicus.^ Gladiators only fight in the games.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

[27]
.The enthusiastic adoption of gladiatoria munera by Rome's Iberian allies shows how easily, and how early, the culture of the gladiator munus permeated places far from Rome itself.^ I shall remain in Rome and show them how they are loved.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We'll show these Roman dogs how gladiators fight!
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A Virtual Place: The center and home of VRoma's virtual community is an online "place," a virtual learning environment built upon a spatial and cultural metaphor of ancient Rome.
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

By 174 BCE 'small' Roman munera (private or public), provided by an editor of relatively low importance, may have been so commonplace and unremarkable they were not considered worth recording:[28]
Many gladiatorial games were given in that year, some unimportant, one noteworthy beyond the rest — that of Titus Flamininus which he gave to commemorate the death of his father, which lasted four days, and was accompanied by a public distribution of meats, a banquet, and scenic performances. .The climax of the show which was big for the time was that in three days seventy four gladiators fought.^ You know, when you’re a gladiator, they send you around on the circuit to the big shows: Capua, Pompeii, Rome.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

[29]
In 105 BCE, the ruling consuls offered Rome its first taste of state-sponsored "barbarian combat" demonstrated by gladiators from Capua, as part of a training program for the military. It proved immensely popular.[30] The ludi (state games), sponsored by the ruling elite and dedicated to the numen of a deity such as Jupiter, a divine or heroic ancestor (and later, during the Imperium, the emperor),[31] could now compete with privately funded munera for popular support.[32]

Peak

.By the closing years of the politically and socially unstable Late Republic, gladiator games provided their sponsors with extravagantly expensive but effective opportunities for self-promotion while offering cheap, exciting entertainment to their clients.^ "Students will ● discuss the role of public entertainment in ancient Rome; ● imagine themselves as a participant at a gladiator games at the Roman Colosseum; and ● write a personal account of the games."
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

[33][34] .Gladiators became big business for trainers and owners, for politicians on the make and those who had reached the top.^ The slave who became a gladiator.
  • Gladiator Script - transcript from the screenplay and/or Russell Crowe movie 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.script-o-rama.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Overall, the movie is essentially a triumph of the imagination and a warning to those who believe that some things are just too big to be made into a film.
  • Gladiator [2000] Movie Reviews on MovieClock 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC movieclock.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A politically ambitious privatus (private citizen) might postpone his deceased father's munus to the election season, when a generous show might drum up votes; those in power and those seeking it needed the support of the plebians and their tribunes, whose votes might be won with an exceptionally spectacular show – sometimes even the mere promise of one.^ We could have waited them out, but we were getting hungrier, and sooner or later their reinforcements might show up.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

[35][36] Sulla, during his term as praetor, showed his usual acumen in breaking his own sumptuary laws to give the most lavish munus yet seen in Rome, on occasion of his wife's funeral.[37]
Recreation of a combat between a thraex and murmillo in the Carnuntum Roman ruins. .A contemporary inscription credits Carnuntum with having the fourth largest amphitheatre in the Roman Empire.^ THE ROMAN EMPIRE AT ITS GREATEST EXTENT – MAP NEW! http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~vandersp/Courses/maps/basicmap.html A clickable map of the Roman Empire at its largest.
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

With exceptions, a gladiator fought in two to five bouts a year, with each lasting around 15 minutes
Ownership of gladiators or a gladiator school gave muscle and flair to Roman politics.[38][39][40] .In 65 BCE, newly elected curule aedile Julius Caesar topped Sulla's display with games he justified as munus to his father, who had died twenty years before.^ What I don't know is how such a great empire that started with me, Julius Caesar, fell after almost 500 years in power.
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ It was the other one who died in the games–Varinius, I think his name was.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MAXIMUS Caesar, I am honored but -- MARCUS For twenty years I have been spilling blood.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

Despite an already enormous personal debt, he used three hundred and twenty gladiator pairs in silvered armour.[41] .He had wanted more but the nervous Senate, mindful of the recent Spartacus revolt, fearful of Caesar's burgeoning private armies and even more fearful of his overwhelming popularity, imposed a limit of 320 pairs as the maximum number of gladiators a citizen could keep in Rome.^ School children all over the world want to learn more about ancient Rome, but they need your expertise in their quest for information.
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ If you don't mind a little gore, and you appreciate damn good acting & dialog, paired with an extremely interesting story, then see Gladiator -- you won't be sorry..
  • Gladiator [2000] Movie Reviews on MovieClock 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC movieclock.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sections: Background Information; Public Health in Ancient Rome; Medicine and the Roman Army; Galen’s Medical Developments; Investigations into Roman Health and more.
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

[42] Caesar's showmanship was unprecedented not only in scale and expense but in putting aside a Republican tradition of munera as funeral offerings.[43] The practical differences between ludi and munera were beginning to blur.[44]
Gladiatorial games, usually linked with beast shows, spread throughout the Republic and beyond.[45] Anti-corruption laws of 65 and 63 BCE attempted but signally failed to curb their political usefulness to sponsors.[46] Following Caesar's assassination and the civil war, Augustus assumed Imperial authority over the ludi and formalised their provision as a civic and religious duty.[47] .His revision of sumptuary law claimed to save the Roman elite from the bankruptcies they would otherwise suffer.^ We gave the same lesson to the Romans, to teach them what would happen if they didn’t give us a good show.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

Munera were restricted to the ludi of Saturnalia and Quinquatria.[48] The ceiling cost for a praetor's "economical" but official munus of a maximum 120 gladiators was to be 25,000 denarii ($500,000). .A "generous" Imperial ludus might cost no less than 180,000 denarii ($3.6 million).^ He's my finest, I couldn't let him go as part of the lot for less than 9,000 total...
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ TRAINER #3 It'll cost you -- PROXIMO I won't do it for less than 100,000 sesterces -- !
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

[49][50] Throughout the Empire, the greatest and most celebrated games would now be identified with the state-sponsored Imperial cult, which furthered public recognition, respect and approval for the Emperor, his law, and his agents.[51] Between 108 and 109 CE, Trajan celebrated his Dacian victories using a reported 10,000 gladiators (and 11,000 animals) over 123 days.[52] .The cost of gladiators and munera continued to spiral out of control.^ And Maximus takes control, we see the General of the Felix Regiment gloriously alive again as he barks out orders and leads his gladiators in battle.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

.Legislation of 177 CE by Marcus Aurelius, which did little to stop it, was completely ignored by his son, Commodus.^ Inside, Commodus and Lucilla, as they make their way to their father, Marcus Aurelius .
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although I fear in my deepest heart that if you had truly been my son my blood would have polluted you as it did Commodus.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MARCUS: Commodus, [holding his fingers to his lips, "shhhhh" ; he kneels in front of his son] your faults as a son, is my failure as a father.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

[53]

The Gladiators

The trade in gladiators was Empire-wide, and subjected to strict official control. .Rome's military success produced an influx of soldier-prisoners who were redistributed for use in State mines or amphitheatres and for sale on the open market.^ Others believe that Rome is an Empire that can only be run by a strong central figure who is willing to lead it out of this state of crisis.
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

.For example, in the aftermath of the Jewish Revolt, the gladiator schools received an influx of Jews – those rejected for training would have been sent straight to the arenas as noxii.^ The following day, gladiators are training inside the gladiator school.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The basic training was a lot like the gladiator schools, but Spartacus went further than that.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have to say while colorful, if these were real gladiators in ancient times I don't think they would have lasted long in the arena.
  • Gladiators Return to Ancient Rome in Gay Show of Force - Towleroad, More than gay news. More gay men 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.towleroad.com [Source type: General]

[54][55] The best – the most robust – were sent to Rome. .The granting of slave status to soldiers who had surrendered or allowed their own capture was regarded as an unmerited gift of life and gladiator training was an opportunity for them to regain their honour in the munus.^ The slave who became a gladiator.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was Spartacus who told us to throw away our own gear and strip the armor off the legionaries, to arm ourselves as soldiers, not gladiators.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You will also be provided with an opportunity to learn how life in ancient Greece was was vastly different for males, females, soldiers, and athletes.
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

[56]
Pollice Verso ("With a Turned Thumb"), an 1872 painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme, is a well known historical painter's researched conception of a gladiatorial combat.
.Two other sources of gladiators, found increasingly during the Principate and the Pax Romana, were slaves condemned to the arena, to gladiator schools or games (ad ludum gladiatorium)[57] as punishment for crimes, and paid volunteers (auctorati) who by the late Republic may have comprised approximately half – and possibly the most capable half – of all gladiators.^ Then we staged another set of games in the Capuan arena, the same place so many of us had fought as slaves.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The lady Lucilla bought all my gladiators two hours ago!
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We knew fighting from the gladiator school, but most of us had never heard of tactics.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

[58] The use of volunteers had a precedent in the Iberian munus of Scipio Africanus; but none of those had been paid.[24] .For Romans, "gladiator" would have meant a schooled fighter, sworn and contracted to a master.^ GLADIATORS: ROME’S VIOLENT PAST – LESSON PLAN NEW! http://school.discoveryeducation.com/lessonplans/programs/gladiators/ A lesson plan on Roman gladiators for grades 8-12.
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

.For those who were poor or non-citizens, the gladiator schools offered a trade, regular food, housing of sorts and a fighting chance of fame and fortune.^ We knew fighting from the gladiator school, but most of us had never heard of tactics.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Gladiators customarily kept their prize money and any gifts they received.^ Proximo gives the gladiators a talk of encouragement (after all, they are there to make him money) before they go out for their first fight.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Tiberius offered some retired gladiators 100,000 sesterces for a return to the arena.^ Maximus and the other gladiators leave the arena to be returned to the underground cells.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ TRAINER #3 It'll cost you -- PROXIMO I won't do it for less than 100,000 sesterces -- !
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

[59] .Nero gave the gladiator Spiculus property and residence "equal to those of men who had celebrated triumphs".[60] Mark Antony promoted gladiators to his personal guard.^ Morituri –that’s what we called ourselves in the gladiator arena, men who are going to die.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Overall, the movie is essentially a triumph of the imagination and a warning to those who believe that some things are just too big to be made into a film.
  • Gladiator [2000] Movie Reviews on MovieClock 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC movieclock.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[61]
Female gladiators were also used.[62]

Legal and social status

"He vows to endure to be burned, to be bound, to be beaten, and to be killed by the sword." The gladiator's oath as cited by Petronius (Satyricon, 117).
.Only slaves found guilty of specific offences could be sentenced to the arena.^ MAXIMUS I have more power as a slave in the arena than I could ever have as a free man.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

Citizens were legally exempt from this sentence but could be stripped of citizenship, formally declared slaves and dealt with accordingly. Freedmen or freedwomen could be legally reverted to slavery.[63][64]
Offences against the state merited the most humiliating punishments.[65] By the 1st century BCE, offenders judged to be noxii – obnoxious to the state – were being condemned to the beasts (damnati ad bestias) in the arena, with almost no chance of survival, or were made to kill each other.[66] From the early Imperial era, some were forced to participate in humiliating and novel forms of mythological or historical enactment, culminating in their execution.[67][68]
.Offenders judged less harshly might be condemned ad ludum venatorium or ad gladiatorium – combat with animals or gladiators, in which they were armed as thought appropriate.^ Beautiful prostitutes throw their arms around the gladiators, whispering in their ears as they pass.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

These damnati at least might put on a good show and retrieve some respect. .They might even – and occasionally did – survive to fight another day.^ Not for what they did, but what they might do.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And tomorrow I’ll be going back in the arena again so Roman crowds can see the last surviving Spartacanus fight to the death, even if he is an old man.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

Some may even have become "proper" gladiators.[69]
Modern customs and institutions offer few useful parallels to the legal and social context which defined the gladiatoria munera[70] Under law, anyone condemned to the arena or the gladiator schools (ad ludum) was a servus poenae under sentence of death unless manumitted.[71] A rescript of Hadrian reminded magistrates that "those sentenced to the sword" should be despatched immediately "or at least within the year". Those sentenced to the ludi should not be discharged before five years or three years if awarded manumission.[72]
The phenomenon of the "volunteer" gladiator is more problematic. All contracted volunteers, including those of equestrian and senatorial class, were legally enslaved by their auctoratio because it involved their potentially lethal submission to a master.[73] Nor does the citizen or free volunteer's "professional" status translate into modern terms. .All arenarii (those who appeared in the arena) were "infames by reputation", a form of social dishonour which excluded them from most of the advantages and rights of citizenship.^ All this can belong to the select few who prove their worth in the arena.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

Payment for such appearances compounded their infamia.[74] .The legal and social status of even the most popular auctorati was thus marginal at best.^ He ordered the looting to stop, but the whole army ignored him, even most of the Samnites once they realized they were missing out on the best plunder.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

They could not vote, plead in court nor leave a will; unless they were manumitted, their lives and property belonged to their masters.[75] Nevertheless there is evidence of informal if not entirely lawful practices to the contrary. Some "unfree" gladiators bequeathed money and personal property to wives and children, possibly via a sympathetic owner or familia; some had slaves and gave them their freedom.[76] .One gladiator was even granted "citizenship" to several Greek cities of the Eastern Roman world.^ This one was arrogant even for a Roman.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I would rather live as the lowest class of Roman citizen than remain in exile, even as the ruler of the world.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

[77]
The most admired auctorati – those who had re-enlisted following manumission[78] – may have had little practical choice. .Under Roman law, a former gladiator could not "offer such services [as those of a gladiator] after manumission, because they cannot be performed without endangering [his] life."^ They look more like Aztecs than Roman gladiators.
  • Gladiators Return to Ancient Rome in Gay Show of Force - Towleroad, More than gay news. More gay men 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.towleroad.com [Source type: General]

^ He was holding off Spartacus’ assault, but when the Romans saw the gates open behind them and a horde of gladiators charging out, they panicked and broke.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I had thirty thousand men under my command, all Gauls and Germans, we’d beaten the Romans before, we could beat them again.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

[79]
.Caesar's munus of 46 BCE included at least one equestrian, son of a Praetor, and possibly two senatorial volunteers.^ On one side of the compound is a series of cages filled with wild animals of every description -- including Proximo's two hapless giraffes.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

[80] Under Augustus, senators and equestrians and their descendants were formally excluded from the infamia of association with the arena and its personnel (arenarii). However some magistrates – and some later Emperors – tacitly or openly condoned such transgressions and some volunteers were prepared to embrace the resulting loss of status. Some did so for payment, some for military glory and – in one recorded case – for personal honour.[81][82] In 11 CE Augustus, who enjoyed the games, bent his own rules and allowed equestrians to volunteer because "the prohibition was no use".[83] Under Tiberius, the Larinum decree[84] (19 CE) reiterated the laws which Augustus himself had waived. Thereafter Caligula flouted them and Claudius strengthened them. Nero and Commodus ignored them. Valentinian II, some hundreds of years later, protested against the same infractions and repeated similar laws: his was an officially Christian empire.[85][86][87]
One very notable, social renegade was an aristocratic descendant of the Gracchi, infamous for his marriage (as a bride) to a male horn player. He made a voluntary and "shameless" arena appearance not only as a lowly retiarius tunicatus but in woman's attire and a conical hat adorned with gold ribbon. In Juvenal's account, he seems to have relished the scandalous self-display, applause and the disgrace he inflicted on his more sturdy opponent by repeatedly skipping away from the confrontation.[88]

Emperors as "gladiators"

Caligula, Titus, Hadrian, Lucius Verus, Caracalla, Geta and Didius Julianus were all said to have performed in the arena (either in public or private) but risks to themselves were minimal.[89] Claudius – characterised by his historians as morbidly cruel and boorish – fought a whale trapped in the harbor in front of a group of spectators.[90] Commentators invariably disapproved of such performances.[91]
Commodus was a fanatical participant at the ludi, much to the shame of the senate — whom he loathed — and the probable delight of the populace at large. .He fought as a secutor, styling himself "Hercules Reborn". As a bestiarius he was said to have killed 100 lions in one day, almost certainly from a platform set up around the arena perimeter which allowed him to safely demonstrate his marksmanship.^ He’s the one Spartacus killed in the arena?
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ EXT. OLIVE GROVE - DAY Maximus is galloping up a hill, leading only one horse now.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ EXT. COLOSSEUM - ARENA - DAY Vibius defeats an opponent -- he stands over him.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

.On another occasion, he decapitated a running ostrich with a specially designed dart, carried the bloodied head and his sword over to the Senatorial seats and gesticulated as though they were next.^ Taking a step back, he moves forward again and removes the swords only to take a scissor-cut to the neck as he decapitates the opponent's head.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is my design that they will elect the next Emperor.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His sword held behind his head with both hands, as though to be resting his head, slowly turns to Gracchus.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

[92] .He was said to have restyled Nero's colossal statue in his own image as "Hercules Reborn" and re-dedicated it to himself as "Champion of secutores; only left-handed fighter to conquer twelve times one thousand men."^ No one could say we weren’t a real army, a hundred thousand men strong, all armed and equipped and trained.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By that time we had almost thirty thousand men, slaves and free men, too, joining us.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I’d thought that I’d wanted to be a commander, lead an army of my own, but I’d learned better and almost lost thirty thousand men doing it.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

For this, he drew a gigantic stipend from the public purse.[93] Perhaps to explain both his obsession and administrative incompetence, gossips suggested that his mother, Faustina the Younger, had conceived him with a gladiator.[94]

Schools and training

Model of Rome's Great Gladiatorial Training School (Ludus Magnus).
The earliest named gladiator school (s. ludus; pl. ludi) is that of Aurelius Scaurus at Capua – he was lanista of the gladiators employed by the state ca 105 BCE to instruct the legions and simultaneously entertain the public.[95] Few other lanistae are known by name: they were head of their familia gladiatoria, with legal power over life and death of every family member, including servi poenae, auctorati and ancillaries but socially they were infames, on a footing with pimps and butchers and despised as price gougers.[96][97] No such stigma attached to a gladiator owner (munerarius or editor) of good family, high status and independent means;[98] Cicero congratulated his friend Atticus on buying a splendid troop – if he rented them out, he might recover their entire cost after two performances.[99]
Following the Spartacus Revolt and the political exploitation of munera, legislation progressively restricted the ownership, siting and organisation of the schools. By Domitian's time, many had been more or less absorbed by the State, including those at Pergamum, Alexandria, Praeneste and Capua.[100] .The city of Rome itself had four; the Ludus Magnus (the largest and most important, housing up to about 2,000 gladiators), Ludus Dacicus, Ludus Gallicus, and the Ludus Matutinus, which trained bestiarii.^ WOMEN GLADIATORS? http://www.ludus.org.uk/r/essaywomen.html An essay on the evidence for women gladiators in ancient Rome.
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ The blacksmith begins slamming shackles on the gladiator's wrists -- chaining them together in teams of two by a chain about four feet long.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

[101]
Volunteers required a magistrate's permission to join a school as auctorati.[102] If this was granted, the school's physician assessed their suitability. .Their contract (auctoramentum) stipulated how often they were to perform, their fighting style and earnings.^ How soon could they be ready to fight?
  • Gladiator Script - transcript from the screenplay and/or Russell Crowe movie 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.script-o-rama.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MAXIMUS: How soon do you think they could be ready to fight?
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

A condemned bankrupt or debtor accepted as novicius could negotiate for partial or complete debt payment by his lanista or editor. Faced with runaway re-enlistment fees for skilled auctorati, Marcus Aurelius set their upper limit at 12,000 sesterces.[103]
All prospective gladiators – whether volunteer or condemned – swore the same oath (sacramentum).[104] .Novices (novicii) trained under teachers of particular fighting styles, probably retired gladiators.^ He was the richest man in Rome, so he could afford to pay for volunteers, retired legionaries to fight under his command.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

[105] They could ascend through a hierarchy of grades (s. palus) in which primus palus was the highest.[106] Lethal weapons were prohibited in the schools – weighted, blunt wooden versions were probably used. Fighting styles were probably learned through constant rehearsal as choreographed "numbers". An elegant, economical style was preferred. Training included preparation for a stoical, unflinching death. Successful training required intense commitment.[107]
Those condemned ad ludum were probably branded or marked with tattoos (stigma) on the face, legs and/or hands. Their stigma may have been text – habitually fugitive slaves were marked thus on the forehead until Constantine banned facial stigma in 325 CE. Soldiers were marked on the hand.[108]
.Gladiators were accommodated in cells typically arranged in barrack formation around a central practice arena.^ Maximus and the other gladiators leave the arena to be returned to the underground cells.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Juvenal describes the segregation of gladiators according to type and status, suggestive of rigid hierarchies within the schools: "even the lowest scum of the arena observe this rule; even in prison they're separate". Retiarii were kept away from damnati, and "fag targeteers" from "armoured heavies". As most ordinarii at games were from the same school, this kept potential opponents separate and safe from each other until the lawful munus.^ The rules for each game are given where they are known.
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ I know that most players use aion kina to get a shiny cool weapon like other players in game.

^ He ordered the looting to stop, but the whole army ignored him, even most of the Samnites once they realized they were missing out on the best plunder.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

[109] Discipline could be extreme, even lethal.[110] Remains of a Pompeian ludus site attest to developments in supply, demand and discipline; in its earliest phase, the building could accommodate 15–20 gladiators. Its replacement could have housed about 100 and included a very small cell, probably for lesser punishments and so low that standing was impossible.[111]
Despite the harsh discipline, gladiators represented a substantial investment for their lanista and were otherwise well cared for. Their high-energy, vegetarian diet combined barley, boiled beans, oatmeal, ash (believed to help fortify the body) and dried fruit. Compared to modern athletes, they were probably overweight, but this may have "protected their vital organs from the cutting blows of their opponents". The same research suggests they may have fought barefoot.[112][113]
Regular massage and high quality medical care helped mitigate an otherwise very severe training regime. .Part of Galen's medical training was at a gladiator school in Pergamum where he saw (and would later criticise) the training, diet, and long term health prospects of the gladiators.^ PROXIMO All the old gladiator schools have tunnels to the Colosseum -- most have long since collapsed -- JUBA How did they know?
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The following day, gladiators are training inside the gladiator school.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The basic training was a lot like the gladiator schools, but Spartacus went further than that.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

[114][115]

Combat

Mosaic at the National Archaeological Museum in Madrid showing a retiarius named Kalendio (shown surrendering in the upper section) fighting a secutor named Astyanax. The Ø sign by Kalendio's name implies he was killed after surrendering.
In early munera, death was considered the proper outcome of combat. Later, known gladiators often fought in matches advertised sine missione (without release [from the sentence of death]), which suggests that missio had become common by that time. The contract between editor and lanista could include compensation for unexpected deaths.[116] As the demand for gladiators began to exceed supply, matches sine missione were officially banned, a pragmatic Augustan decision that also happened to reflect popular demands for "natural justice". Refusals by Caligula and Claudius to spare popular but defeated fighters did nothing to boost their own popularity. .In most circumstances, a gladiator who fought well was likely to be spared.^ Maximus stands in the midst of all the gladiators who triumphantly fought and beat the Legionnaires.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

[117]
Spectators expected a legitimate and definite conclusion to the munus. .By common custom, it was left to the spectators to decide whether or not a losing gladiator should be spared and they also decided the winner in a "standing tie", though the latter was rare.^ The Greek military leaders split on whether they should immediately attack the invaders or wait for reinforcements" .
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ Standing in the dark gateway before they enter the arena, the frightened slave in front of Maximus loses control from fear and relieves himself down his leg.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

[118] .Even more rarely – perhaps uniquely – a stalemate ended in the killing of one gladiator by the editor himself.^ The threat of the cross offended their dignitas even more than fighting as gladiators.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As far as Lady Gladiators go, she was probably one of the more attractive ones.
  • Epic Carnival: Ranking the American Gladiators 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.epiccarnival.com [Source type: General]

[119] Most matches employed a senior referee (summa rudis) and an assistant, shown in mosaics with long staffs (rudes) to caution or separate opponents at some crucial point in the match. A gladiator's self-acknowledged defeat – signaled by a raised finger (ad digitum) – told the referee to stop the combat and refer to the editor, whose decision would usually rest on the crowd's mood. During the match, referees exercised judgement and discretion; they could pause bouts to allow combatants rest, refreshment and a "rub-down".[120]
The number of combats fought by gladiators was extremely variable. Most combats were fought in small buildings owned by public citizens. Very few fights were open to the public. Most fought at two or three munera annually but an unknown number died in their first match. Up to 150 combats are recorded for a very few individuals.[121] A single bout probably lasted between 10–15 minutes, or 20 at most.[122] .Spectators preferred well matched ordinarii with complementary fighting styles but other combinations are found, such as several gladiators fighting together or the serial replacement of a match loser by a new gladiator, who would fight the winner.^ The new Emperor has ordered a series of matches to culminate in a grand spectacle.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ EXT. PROVINCIAL ARENA - DAY Proximo sits in a box with several other GLADIATOR TRAINERS. They drink wine and eat constantly.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The gladiators, together, proclaim to Caesar, "We who are about to die, salute you" .
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

[123]
.Victors received the palm branch and an award from the editor.^ Stories from Asimov's have won 44 Hugos and 24 Nebula Awards, and our editors have received 18 Hugo Awards for Best Editor.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

.An outstanding fighter might receive a laurel crown and money from an appreciative crowd but for anyone originally condemned ad ludum the greatest reward was manumission, symbolised by the gift of a wooden training sword or staff (rudis) from the editor.^ The next fighter is Juba who picks up the wooden sword given to them for their testing and fiercely fights back as Hagen tests him.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

Martial describes a match between Priscus and Verus, who fought so evenly and bravely for so long that when both acknowledged defeat at the same instant, Titus awarded victory and a rudis to each.[124] Flamma was awarded the rudis four times, but chose to remain a gladiator. His gravestone in Sicily includes his record: "Flamma, secutor, lived 30 years, fought 34 times, won 21 times, fought to a draw 9 times, defeated 4 times, a Syrian by nationality. Delicatus made this for his deserving comrade-in-arms."[125]

Outline of the games

Surviving contemporary accounts of games and matches were written by members of Rome's elite to illustrate a point or to celebrate the exceptional.[126] They provide very little substance for accurate reconstruction or generalisation but an outline of games can be conjectured, using written histories, contemporary accounts, statuary, ephemera, memorabilia and stylised pictographic evidence. Almost all comes from the late republic and Empire, much of it from Pompeii.[127][128]
The earliest munera took place at or near the tomb of the deceased and these were organised by their munerator (who made the offering). Later games were held by an editor, either identical with the munerator or an official employed by him. As time passed these titles and meanings may have merged.[129] From the Principate onwards, private citizens could personally fund gladiatorial munera with Imperial permission and the assistance of a lanista but an editor increasingly tended to be a state official. For small-town games, from Claudius onwards, quaestors, the lowest rank of Roman magistrate, were obliged to fund two thirds of the costs from personal sources.[130] .Bigger games were put on by senior magistrates who could better afford them but the largest and most lavish were paid for by the emperor himself.^ What could be more glorious than to challenge the emperor himself in the great arena.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

[128][131]
Augustan legislation – or custom – standardised the munus as a munus legitimum. This combined venationes (animal fights or animal hunts) in the morning: the brief Ludi meridiani at midday and gladiatores in the afternoon.[132][133] Games were advertised beforehand on conspicuously displayed billboards, giving the reason for the game, its editor, venue, date and the number of paired gladiators (ordinarii) to be used. Highlighted features were included, such as venationes, executions, music and any luxuries to be provided for the spectators; these might include a decorated awning against the sun, and water sprinklers. Food, drink, sweets and occasionally "door prizes" could be offered. .A more detailed program (libellus) was prepared for the day of the munus to show the names, types and match records of gladiator pairs (of interest to gamblers) and their order of appearance.^ If you don't mind a little gore, and you appreciate damn good acting & dialog, paired with an extremely interesting story, then see Gladiator -- you won't be sorry..
  • Gladiator [2000] Movie Reviews on MovieClock 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC movieclock.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Copies of the libellus were distributed among the crowd on the day of the match.[134] .Left-handed gladiators were advertised as an interesting rarity on libelli; they were trained to fight right-handers, which gave them advantage over most opponents and produced an interestingly unorthodox combination.^ Proximo gives the gladiators a talk of encouragement (after all, they are there to make him money) before they go out for their first fight.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They charged through us, killing right and left.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

[135]
.The night before the munus, those listed to fight were given a banquet, which was also an opportunity to order their personal and private affairs; Futrell notes its similarity to a ritualistic "last meal".[136] These were probably both family and public events which included even the noxii and damnati and they may have been used to drum up more publicity for the coming match.^ Even before the walls were done, they brought up catapults.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Capua, too, and the gladiator shows are even bigger than they used to be.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He ordered the looting to stop, but the whole army ignored him, even most of the Samnites once they realized they were missing out on the best plunder.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

[137][138]
.The day of the munus began with venationes (beast hunts) and bestiarii (beast fighting) gladiators.^ EXT. COLOSSEUM - ARENA - DAY The ending of a group fight -- Proximo's gladiators triumphant.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

Sometimes beasts were unharmed and simply exhibited.[139] The content of ludi meridiani was variable, but usually involved executions of noxii (sometimes as "mythological" re-enactments) or others condemned (damnati) to the arena.[140] Gladiators may have been involved in these though the crowd – and the gladiators themselves – preferred the "dignity" of an even contest.[141] There were also comedy fights; some may have been lethal. A crude Pompeian graffito suggests a burlesque of musicians, dressed as animals named Ursus tibicen (flute-playing bear) and Pullus cornicen (horn-blowing chicken), perhaps as accompaniment to clowning by paegniarii during a "mock" contest of the ludi meridiani.[142]
Pompeian tomb evidence shows the munus as a civic and religious rite sponsored by a magistrate as editor. A procession (pompa) entered the arena led by lictors bearing fasces to signify the magistrate's power over life and death. They were followed by a small band of tubicines playing a fanfare. Images of the gods were carried in to sanctify the pompa, followed by a scribe (to record the outcome) and a man carrying the palm branch used to honour victors. .The magistrate editor entered among a retinue who carried the arms and armour to be used; more musicians followed then horses.^ Each chariot carries a female warrior in golden armour and golden helmet, armed with bows and wearing swords at their waists.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

The gladiators presumably came in last.[143]
"Warm-up" matches were probably fought before the main events, using blunted weapons – some munera may have used blunted weapons throughout.[144] The editor (or his honoured representative) would check the weapons (probatio armorum) for the "real" matches.[145] These were the highlight of the day — as inventive, varied and novel as the editor could afford. Armatures could be very costly – some were flamboyantly decorated with exotic feathers, jewels and precious metals. Increasingly the munus was the editor's gift to spectators who had come to expect the best as their due.[146][147] .In late Republican munera, between 10 and 13 pairs could have fought on one day; this assumes one match at a time in the course of an afternoon.^ Once the first few rounds were over and we brought on the surviving pairs one at a time, the betting got serious.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ten pairs at a time were matched up for the first round, then we paired the survivors.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman had to know that Spartacus could have killed him at any time, with any one of those cuts, if he’d wanted it that way.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

[137]
The Zilten mosaic in Libya (ca 80–100 CE) shows musicians in context of a provincial ludus (gladiators, bestiarii, or venatores and prisoners attacked by beasts). Their instruments are a long straight trumpet (tubicen), a large curved horn (Cornu) and a water organ (hydraulis).[148] Similar representations (musicians, gladiators and bestiari) are found on a tomb relief in Pompeii.[149]

Factions and rivals

The Amphitheatre at Pompeii, depicting the riot between the Nucerians and the Pompeians
Popular factions of the munera (and ludi) are described throughout the Imperial era.[150] .Under Augustan legislation, the Samnite type was renamed secutor (equipped with an oblong or "large" shield), whose supporters were secutarii.^ Proximo follows behind, shielded under his large umbrella.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

[151] As the games evolved, any lightly armed, defensive fighter could be included in this group. The heavily armoured and armed Thracian types (Thraex) and Murmillo, who fought with smaller shields, were parmularii (small shield), as were their supporters. Trajan preferred the parmularii and Domitian the secutarii; Marcus Aurelius took neither side. Nero seems to have enjoyed the brawls between rowdy, enthusiastic and sometimes violent factions, but called in the troops if they went too far.[152][153]
.Once a band of five retiarii in tunics, matched against the same number of secutores, yielded without a struggle; but when their death was ordered, one of them caught up his trident and slew all the victors.^ Beware of this Gaius, he'll pour a honeyed potion in your ear and you'll wake up one day and all you'll say is "Republic, Republic, Republic..."
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Beware of Gaius, he will pour honeyed potion in your ear and you will wake up one day and all you'll say is Republic!
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

Caligula bewailed this in a public proclamation as a most cruel murder.[154]
There were also local rivalries. At a Pompeian ludus, trading of insults between Pompeians and Nucerians led to stone throwing and riot. Many were killed or wounded. Nero banned gladiator munera (though not the games) at Pompeii for ten years as punishment. The story is told in graffiti and high quality wall painting, with much boasting of Pompeii's "victory" over Nuceria.[155]

Amphitheatres

.Most spectators would have witnessed gladiator fights in the arenas or amphitheatres built throughout the Republic and later, the Empire.^ EXT. COLOSSEUM - ARENA - DAY The ending of a group fight -- Proximo's gladiators triumphant.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

[156]
The Colosseum in Rome, Italy. A photograph of the best known Roman era amphitheatre taken in the early evening. Gladiatorial combats were the main event and usually held around this time of day.
Early munera were probably private affairs, and offered limited visibility for non-privileged spectators. As these events became larger, open spaces such as the Forum Romanum were adapted (as the Forum Boarium had been) as venues in Rome and elsewhere, with temporary, elevated seating for the patron and high status spectators. These were not truly public events:
A show of gladiators was to be exhibited before the people in the market-place, and most of the magistrates erected scaffolds round about, with an intention of letting them for advantage. Caius commanded them to take down their scaffolds, that the poor people might see the sport without paying anything. .But nobody obeying these orders of his, he gathered together a body of labourers, who worked for him, and overthrew all the scaffolds the very night before the contest was to take place.^ His body slaves work over him closely.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Proximo gives the gladiators a talk of encouragement (after all, they are there to make him money) before they go out for their first fight.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Maximus takes the sword from one opponent before killing him with his shield.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

So that by the next morning the market-place was cleared, and the common people had an opportunity of seeing the pastime. .In this, the populace thought he had acted the part of a man; but he much disobliged the tribunes his colleagues, who regarded it as a piece of violent and presumptuous interference.^ He was a man who thought Marcus should be tending to Rome and not conquering the world.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

[157]
.Towards the end of the Republic, Cicero (Murena 72–3) still describes these shows as ticketed — their usefulness was served by inviting the rural tribunes of the plebs, not the people of Rome en masse - but in Imperial times, poor citizens in receipt of the corn dole were allocated free seating, possibly by lottery.^ I will empower you, to one end alone, to give power back to the people of Rome and end the corruption that has crippled it.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The conspiracy scenes are enclosed in a montage of scenes in and around the arena showing Maximus' growing popularity with the People of Rome...
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

[158] Others had to pay. Ticket scalpers (Locarii) sometimes sold or let out seats at inflated prices. Martial wrote that "Hermes [a gladiator who always drew the crowds] means riches for the ticket scalpers".[159]
The amphitheatre was the one place in which the execution of justice was uniquely visible to all classes, and in which all classes were mutually visible. Its architecture elevated, separated and distanced them from the "pollution" of the arena where the judgment of the community was meted out. In the encircling stands, crowd and editor could assess each others character and temperament, and freely express their mutual pleasure or displeasure – for most spectators, a unique opportunity (theatralis licentia). Petitions could be submitted to the editor (as magistrate) in full view of the community. Factiones and claques could vent their spleen on each other, and occasionally on Emperors. The emperor Titus' dignified yet confident ease in his management of an amphitheatre crowd and its factions were a measure of his enormous popularity and the rightness of his imperium. The amphitheatre munus thus served the Roman community as a court in miniature, in which judgement was also served on the judges.[160][161][162]
Yet permanent amphitheatres appeared long after the munera had become an established part of Roman life. The blocking of earlier provision for permanent venues — and particularly of permanent seating — reflected genuine unease, not simply at political graft but at the erosion of public morals that must arise from frequent and excessively "luxurious" munera.[163] Pompeii's first amphitheatre was built by Sullan colonists around 70 BCE.[164] The first in the city of Rome was the extraordinary wooden Amphitheatre of Gaius Scribonius Curio (built 53 BCE).[165] The first part-stone amphitheatre in Rome was inaugurated in 29–30 BCE, in time for the triple triumph of Octavian (later Augustus).[166] Shortly after it burned down in 64 CE, Vespasian began its replacement, later known as the Amphitheatrum Flavium (Colosseum), which seated 50,000 spectators and would remain the largest in the Empire. .It was inaugurated by Titus in 80 CE, the personal gift of the Emperor to the people of Rome, paid for by the Imperial share of booty after the Jewish Revolt.^ Emperor has deigned to this day favor the people of Rome with an historical final match.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And in his majestic charity, the Emperor has deigned this day to favour the people of Rome with an historical final match.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

[167]
Roman arena at Arles, inside view
Amphitheatres also provided a potential model for social control. Seating was "disorderly and indiscriminate" until Augustus prescribed its arrangement in his Social Reforms. To persuade the Senate, he expressed his distress on behalf of a Senator who could not find seating at a crowded games in Puteoli:
In consequence of this the senate decreed that, whenever any public show was given anywhere, the first row of seats should be reserved for senators; and at Rome he would not allow the envoys of the free and allied nations to sit in the orchestra, since he was informed that even freedmen were sometimes appointed. He separated the soldiery from the people. .He assigned special seats to the married men of the commons, to boys under age their own section and the adjoining one to their preceptors; and he decreed that no one wearing a dark cloak should sit in the middle of the house.^ Maximus recognizes the legionary as one of his own men, and gives him a fierce smile.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Maximus has no idea who the boy is -- just another young fan -- but Maximus is immediately struck by Lucius' resemblance to his own son.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

He would not allow women to view even the gladiators except from the upper seats, though it had been the custom for men and women to sit together at such shows. Only the Vestal virgins were assigned a place to themselves, opposite the praetor's tribunal.[168]
These arrangements do not seem to have been strongly enforced.[152]

Death, disposal, and remembrance

A flask depicting the final phase of the fight between a murmillo (winning) and a thraex.
The proximity of death defined the munus for all concerned. To die well, a gladiator should never ask for mercy, nor cry out.[169] A "good death" redeemed a defeated gladiator from the dishonourable weakness and passivity of defeat, and provided a noble example to those who watched:[170]
For death, when it stands near us, gives even to inexperienced men the courage not to seek to avoid the inevitable. .So the gladiator, no matter how faint-hearted he has been throughout the fight, offers his throat to his opponent and directs the wavering blade to the vital spot.^ We'll show these Roman dogs how gladiators fight!
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

(Seneca, Epistles, 30.8)
Some Mosaics show defeated gladiators kneeling in preparation for the moment of death. Seneca's "vital spot" seems to have meant the neck.[171] Gladiator remains from Ephesus confirm this.[172]
In the fully developed public munus, the death of a gladiator was followed by the ritualised removal of his body: the rites involved remain uncertain in origin, development and form. The Christian author Tertullian, commenting on practice in Roman Carthage, describes the removal of corpses by one who impersonates the "brother of Jove", Dis Pater. .This arenarius strikes the corpse with a mallet and another, dressed as Mercury, tests for life-signs with a heated "wand". Tertullian's commentary is on what appear to him as hollow impieties: in the eyes of their insincere worshippers, Rome's false deities are acceptably impersonated by low and murderous persons for the purposes of human sacrifice and evil entertainment.^ Another soldier strikes him from the other side, but he still does not fall.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

The victims might be noxii or gladiators; Kyle considers the latter unlikely as Tertullian's context here is the ludi meridiani at which most noxii – therefore also Christian martyrs of the arena – met their deaths in demeaning theatrical farces. While the identification of Mercury with Hermes psychopompos seems to have been well established by the peak era of the munera, and a Mercury (or Hermes) arenarius figure seems to have been introduced around that time, this may have been a theatrical innovation of the ludi meridiani rather than a tradition of the gladiator munera. Isidore's later identification of the Etruscan demon (and possible psychopomp) Charun as an original for a presumed amphitheatre "Charon" (certainly a psychopomp but not reliably attested in this context) may simply offer fanciful support to his speculated Etruscan origins for the games as a whole. .Some details of these exit rites are more certain: gladiators who had died well might be removed with dignity on a couch of Libitina through the Libitinarian Gate: those who had dishonoured themselves would not only be denied the relative mercies of a quick death but having broken their vow would be treated as noxii, dragged away as carrion, with hooks, by a Mercury figure or other attendants.^ Maximus walks through the camp, making his way to a gate where the crowds watch the gladiators on display.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This movie mad me think a lot about actual gladiators who faced the real life and death situation.
  • Gladiator [2000] Movie Reviews on MovieClock 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC movieclock.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Overall, the movie is essentially a triumph of the imagination and a warning to those who believe that some things are just too big to be made into a film.
  • Gladiator [2000] Movie Reviews on MovieClock 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC movieclock.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Whether the corpse of such a gladiator could be redeemed from further ignominy by friends or familia is not known: Tertullian makes no distinctions in this regard, extending his sacrificial theme with the literal offer of a fallen gladiator's blood to Jupiter Latiaris by an officiating priest – a travesty of the offering of the blood of martyrs – but places this within a munus (or a festival) dedicated to Jupiter Latiaris.^ Only one gladiator refuses to make such a salute -- Maximus.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ [Maximus asks loudly, laughing as he speaks, doubting that Proximo could have known such a man.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

As no such practise is otherwise recorded, Tertullian may have mistaken or reinterpreted what he saw. .Modern pathological examination confirms the probably fatal use of the mallet on some (not all) gladiator skulls: other than this, the body would have been removed to the arena morgue by attendants, in whatever guise and by whatever means, stripped of its armour and in some accounts, had its throat cut to make sure that dead was dead.^ Maximus and the other gladiators leave the arena to be returned to the underground cells.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Proximo gives the gladiators a talk of encouragement (after all, they are there to make him money) before they go out for their first fight.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Maximus and Juba, working as one, run at the opponent, using the chain that joins them to cut him at the throat, knocking him to the ground.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

Meanwhile, the arena sand would be raked for the next bout, or fresh sand strewn.[173]
.The overall death rate among gladiators is unknown, but few survived more than 10 matches or lived past the age of 30. One (Felix) is known to have lived to 45 and one retired gladiator lived on to 90. George Ville calculated an average age at death at 27 for gladiators (based on headstone evidence), with mortality "among all who entered the arena" around the 1st century CE at 19/100. A rise in the risk of death for losers, from 1/5 to 1/4 between the early and later Imperial periods, seems to suggest missio was granted less often.^ All this can belong to the select few who prove their worth in the arena.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is more comfortable than their cell in Morocco, befitting Maximus' new status as one of the "stars."
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I know that one grove of your vineyard is worth more to you than all the treasures of Rome.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

[174] .Marcus Junkelmann disputes Ville's calculation for average age at death; the majority would have received no headstone, and would have died early in their careers, at 18–25 years of age.^ Receiving no response, Marcus continues.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ [Receiving no response, Maximus slightly turns and leans toward the weak and old Marcus.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ WOW :) 10 /10 4.6.2006 - aida_nz@ - age: 18-25 .
  • Gladiator [2000] Movie Reviews on MovieClock 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC movieclock.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
Death and disposal perpetuated the divisions and judgements of society. In the pre-Christian era, the highest status funerals involved expensive, prolonged cremation ceremonies, sometimes complete with a munus offering. At the opposite extreme, the noxii (and possibly other damnati) could be thrown into rivers or dumped unburied.[175] This extended their damnatio beyond death into perpetual oblivion and their shade (manes) to restless wandering upon the earth as dreadful larvae or lemures.[176] All others – citizens, slaves or free – were usually buried beyond the town or city limits to avoid the ritual and physical pollution of their community. Gladiators were segregated in separate cemeteries. Even for those whose death had brought honourable release, the taint of infamia was perpetual.[177]
Memorials were a major expense, and testify only to those who prospered. Gladiators could subscribe to a union (collegia) which ensured proper burial, with compensation for wives and children. The gladiator's familia or one of its members (including lanistae, comrades, wives and children) sometimes paid.[178]
Tomb inscriptions from the Eastern Empire include these brief examples:
"The familia set this up in memory of Saturnilos."
"For Nikepharos, son of Synetos, Lakedaimonian, and for Narcissus the secutor. Titus Flavius Satyrus set up this monument in his memory from his own money."
"For Hermes. Paitraeites with his cell-mates set this up in memory".[179]
The hand of Nemesis absolved a gladiator from the ignominy of defeat, and his memorial maintained his virtus in perpetuity as a skilled fighter, worth avenging:
"I, Victor, left-handed, lie here, but my homeland was in Thessalonica. Doom killed me, not the liar Pinnas. No longer let him boast. I had a fellow gladiator, Polyneikes, who killed Pinnas and avenged me. Claudius Thallus set up this memorial from what I left behind as a legacy."[180]

Gladiators in Roman life

Gladiators and the military

.A man who knows how to conquer in war is a man who knows how to arrange a banquet and put on a show.^ You're a man who knows what it is to command.
  • Gladiator Script - transcript from the screenplay and/or Russell Crowe movie 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.script-o-rama.com [Source type: Original source]

^ COMMODUS: You are a man who knows what it is to command.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was a man who thought Marcus should be tending to Rome and not conquering the world.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

[181]
Rome was essentially a landowning military aristocracy. From the early days of the Republic, ten years of military service were a citizen's duty and a prerequisite for election to public office. .Devotio (willingness to sacrifice one’s life to the greater good) was central to the Roman military ideal, and was the core of the Roman military oath.^ LUCILLA: Is Rome worth one good man's life?
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This film is as much a geographical journey as a spiritual one for the central character of the story, Roman General Maximus, played by Russell Crowe.
  • Gladiator [2000] Movie Reviews on MovieClock 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC movieclock.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is Rome worth one good man's life?
  • Gladiator Script - transcript from the screenplay and/or Russell Crowe movie 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.script-o-rama.com [Source type: Original source]

It applied from highest to lowest alike in the chain of command.[182] As a soldier committed his life (voluntarily, at least in theory) to the greater cause of Rome's victory, he was not expected to survive defeat.[183][184]
The Punic wars of the late 3rd century BCE – in particular the near-catastrophic defeat of Roman arms at Cannae – had long lasting effects on the Republic, its citizen armies, and the development of the gladiatorial munera. In the aftermath of Cannae, Scipio Africanus crucified Roman deserters and had non-Roman deserters thrown to the beasts.[185] The Senate refused to ransom Hannibal's Roman captives: instead, they made drastic preparations:
In obedience to the Books of Destiny, some strange and unusual sacrifices were made, human sacrifices amongst them. A Gaulish man and a Gaulish woman and a Greek man and a Greek woman were buried alive under the Forum Boarium... They were lowered into a stone vault, which had on a previous occasion also been polluted by human victims, a practice most repulsive to Roman feelings. When the gods were believed to be duly propitiated... Armour, weapons, and other things of the kind were ordered to be in readiness, and the ancient spoils gathered from the enemy were taken down from the temples and colonnades. .The dearth of freemen necessitated a new kind of enlistment; 8,000 sturdy youths from amongst the slaves were armed at the public cost, after they had each been asked whether they were willing to serve or no.^ Slaves now toss thick handfuls of powdered lime on the new slaves -- they cough and clench their eyes shut, the lime coats and stings their wet bodies.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The gladiators stop working out as they see the new slaves enter.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

These soldiers were preferred, as there would be an opportunity of ransoming them when taken prisoners at a lower price.[186]
By the devotio of a voluntary oath, a slave might achieve the quality of a Roman (Romanitas), become the embodiment of true virtus (manliness, or manly virtue), and paradoxically, be granted missio while remaining a slave.[162] The account notes – uncomfortably – the proximity of recent human sacrifice. While the Senate mustered their willing slaves, Hannibal offered his dishonoured Roman captives a chance for honourable death, in what Livy describes as something very like the Roman munus. The munus was thus an essentially military, self-sacrificial ideal, taken to extreme fulfillment in the gladiator's oath.[104] .The gladiator as a specialist fighter, and the ethos and organization of the gladiator schools, would inform the development of the Roman military as the most effective force of its time.^ PROXIMO All the old gladiator schools have tunnels to the Colosseum -- most have long since collapsed -- JUBA How did they know?
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

[187][188] In 107 BCE the Marian Reform established the Roman army as a professional body. Two years later, following its defeat at Arausio:
...weapons training was given to soldiers by P. Rutilius, consul with C. Mallis. .For he, following the example of no previous general, with teachers summoned from the gladiatorial training school of C. Aurelus Scaurus, implanted in the legions a more sophisticated method of avoiding and dealing a blow and mixed bravery with skill and skill back again with virtue so that skill became stronger by bravery's passion and passion became more wary with the knowledge of this art.^ The following day, gladiators are training inside the gladiator school.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

[30]
The military were great aficionados of the games, and supervised the schools. Many schools and amphitheatres were sited at or near military barracks, and some provincial army units owned gladiator troupes.[189] As the Republic wore on, the term of military service increased from ten to the sixteen years formalised by Augustus in the Principate. It would rise to twenty, and later, to twenty five years. Roman military discipline was ferocious; severe enough to provoke mutiny, despite the consequences. A career as a volunteer gladiator may have seemed an attractive option for some.[190]
In the Year of the Four Emperors, Otho's troops at Bedriacum included 2000 gladiators. Opposite him on the field, Vitellius's army was swollen by levies of slaves, plebs and gladiators.[191] In 167 CE, troop depletions by plague and desertion may have prompted Marcus Aurelius to draft gladiators at his own expense. .Gladiators do not seem to have made good field soldiers – their enrollment should be seen as an act of desperation.^ If you don't mind a little gore, and you appreciate damn good acting & dialog, paired with an extremely interesting story, then see Gladiator -- you won't be sorry..
  • Gladiator [2000] Movie Reviews on MovieClock 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC movieclock.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[192] During the Civil Wars that led to the Principate, Octavian (later Augustus) acquired the personal gladiator troop of his erstwhile opponent, Mark Antony. They had served their late master with exemplary loyalty but were quietly disposed of. They were, after all, infames.[61]

Ethics, morals, and sentiment

Roman writing as a whole demonstrates a deep ambivalence towards the gladiatoria munera, which even in their most complex and sophisticated forms evoked the ancient, ancestral dii manes of the underworld and were framed by the protective, lawful rites of sacrificium. Their co-option by the state was seen as inevitable; Cicero acknowledged their sponsorship as a political imperative.[193] .Despite the popular adulation of gladiators, they were set apart: and despite Cicero's contempt for the mob, he shared their admiration: "Even when [gladiators] have been felled, let alone when they are standing and fighting, they never disgrace themselves.^ Proximo gives the gladiators a talk of encouragement (after all, they are there to make him money) before they go out for their first fight.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ [The Praetorian take a ready-stand, and the gladiators, without weapons, move forward ready to fight with Maximus.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Setting it down, he stands and moves to sit on a chair as he calls to, Cicero .
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

.And suppose a gladiator has been brought to the ground, when do you ever see one twist his neck away after he has been ordered to extend it for the death blow?"^ If you want to give away the best gladiators in the whole of the empire...
  • Gladiator Script - transcript from the screenplay and/or Russell Crowe movie 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.script-o-rama.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If you don't mind a little gore, and you appreciate damn good acting & dialog, paired with an extremely interesting story, then see Gladiator -- you won't be sorry..
  • Gladiator [2000] Movie Reviews on MovieClock 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC movieclock.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gladiator, are you the one they call the Spaniard?
  • Gladiator Script - transcript from the screenplay and/or Russell Crowe movie 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.script-o-rama.com [Source type: Original source]

His own death would later emulate this example.[194][195] Yet Cicero could also refer to his popularist opponent Clodius, publicly and scathingly, as a bustuarius – literally, a "funeral-man", implying that Clodius has shown the low temperament worthy of a gladiator: crude, disruptive and potentially lethal; "gladiator" could be (and was) used as an insult throughout the Roman period,[196] Death might be rightly meted out as punishment, or met with equanimity in peace or war as a gift of fate, but death inflicted without moral purpose was ignoble, and might pollute and demean those who witnessed it.[197] So for Silius Italicus, who wrote as the games approached their peak, the degenerate Campanians had devised the very worst of precedents, which now threatened the moral fabric of Rome: "It was their custom to enliven their banquets with bloodshed and to combine with their feasting the horrid sight of armed men fighting; often the combatants fell dead above the very cups of the revelers, and the tables were stained with streams of blood. Thus demoralised was Capua."[198]
While the munus itself could be interpreted as pious necessity, the increasing luxuria of munera corroded Roman virtue by encouraging profligacy and the corruptions of self-indulgence: such foreign debaucheries whetted un-Roman appetites.[199] .Caesar's 46 BCE ludi were hardly justifed as munus after a 20 year interval since his father's death, in which case they were mere entertainment for political gain.^ Since I became Caesar I have known 4 years without war - 4 years of peace in 20.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since I became caesar, I've known four years without war.
  • Gladiator Script - transcript from the screenplay and/or Russell Crowe movie 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.script-o-rama.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since I became Caesar I have only had four years without war.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

Dio claimed to represent the voices of the Roman street; Caesar's munus was a waste of lives – and of money, better doled out to needy army veterans.[200] Yet for Seneca, and for Marcus Aurelius – both professed Stoics – the degradation of gladiators in the munus highlighted their Stoic virtues – their unconditional obedience to their master and to fate, and equanimity in the face of death. .Having "neither hope nor illusions", the gladiator could transcend his own debased nature, and disempower death itself by meeting it face to face.^ This movie mad me think a lot about actual gladiators who faced the real life and death situation.
  • Gladiator [2000] Movie Reviews on MovieClock 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC movieclock.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Courage, dignity, altruism and loyalty were morally redemptive; Lucian idealised this principle in his story of Sisinnes, who voluntarily fought as a gladiator, earned 10,000 drachmas and used it to buy freedom for his friend, Toxaris.[201][202] Seneca had a lower opinion of the mob's un-Stoical appetite for ludi meridiani: "Man [is]... now slaughtered for jest and sport; and those whom it used to be unholy to train for the purpose of inflicting and enduring wounds are thrust forth exposed and defenceless."[162]
These accounts seek a higher moral meaning from the munus, but Ovid's very detailed (though satirical) instructions for seduction in the amphitheatre suggest that the spectacles could generate a potent and dangerously sexual atmosphere.[152] Augustan seating prescriptions placed women – excepting the Vestals, who were legally inviolate – as far as possible from the action of the arena floor; or tried to. There remained the thrilling possibility of clandestine sexual transgression by high-caste spectators and their heroes of the arena. Such assignations were a source for gossip and satire but some became unforgivably public:[203]
What was the youthful charm that so fired Eppia? What hooked her? .What did she see in him to make her put up with being called "the gladiator's moll"? Her poppet, her Sergius, was no chicken, with a dud arm that prompted hope of early retirement.^ But while the people follow him, no one would dare stand up to him until you.
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^ The head gladiator calls out instructions before they enter the arena, "When the Emperor enters, raise your weapons, salute him and then speak together.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Proximo gives the gladiators a talk of encouragement (after all, they are there to make him money) before they go out for their first fight.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

Besides his face looked a proper mess, helmet-scarred, a great wart on his nose, an unpleasant discharge always trickling from one eye. But he was a gladiator. That word makes the whole breed seem handsome, and made her prefer him to her children and country, her sister, her husband. Steel is what they fall in love with.[204]
Eppia – a senator's wife – and her Sergius eloped to Egypt, where he deserted her. Most gladiators would have aimed lower. Two wall graffiti in Pompeii describe Celadus the Thraex as "the sigh of the girls" and "the glory of the girls" – which may or may not have been Celadus' own wishful thinking.[205]
In the later Imperial era, Servius Maurus Honoratus uses the same disparaging term as Cicero – bustuarius – for gladiators.[206] Tertullian used it somewhat differently – all victims of the arena were sacrificial in his eyes – and expressed the paradox of the arenarii as a class, from a Christian viewpoint:
On the one and the same account they glorify them and they degrade and diminish them; yes, further, they openly condemn them to disgrace and civil degradation; they keep them religiously excluded from council chamber, rostrum, senate, knighthood, and every other kind of office and a good many distinctions. The perversity of it! They love whom they lower; they despise whom they approve; the art they glorify, the artist they disgrace.[207]

Gladiators in Roman art and culture

In this new Play, I attempted to follow the old custom of mine, of making a fresh trial; I brought it on again. .In the first Act I pleased; when in the mean time a rumor spread that gladiators were about to be exhibited; the populace flock together, make a tumult, clamor aloud, and fight for their places: meantime, I was unable to maintain my place.^ Gladiators have arrived in Rome for their first time.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The blacksmith begins slamming shackles on the gladiator's wrists -- chaining them together in teams of two by a chain about four feet long.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His strategies are quick and smart, he makes the gladiators work together.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

[208]
Part of the Gladiator Mosaic, displayed at the Galleria Borghese. It dates from approximately 320 CE. The Ø symbol (possibly Greek theta, for thanatos) marks a gladiator killed in combat.
Images of gladiators could be found throughout the Republic and Empire, among all classes. Walls in the 2nd century BCE "Italian Agora" at Delos were decorated with paintings of gladiators. Mosaics dating from the 2nd through 4th centuries CE have been invaluable in the reconstruction of combat and its rules, gladiator types and the development of the munus. Throughout the Roman world, ceramics, lamps, gems and jewellery, mosaics, reliefs, wall paintings and statuary offer evidence – sometimes the best evidence – of the clothing, props, equipment, names, events, prevalence and rules of gladiatorial combat. Earlier periods provide only occasional, perhaps exceptional examples.[127][209] .The Gladiator Mosaic in the Galleria Borghese displays several gladiator types, and the Bignor Roman Villa mosaic from Provincial Britain shows Cupids as gladiators.^ We'll show these Roman dogs how gladiators fight!
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ EXT. PROVINCIAL ARENA - DAY Proximo sits in a box with several other GLADIATOR TRAINERS. They drink wine and eat constantly.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

Souvenir ceramics were produced depicting named gladiators in combat; similar images of higher quality, were available on more expensive articles in high quality ceramic, glass or silver.
Pliny the Elder gives vivid examples of the popularity of gladiator portraiture in Antium and an artistic treat laid on by an adoptive aristocrat for the solidly plebian citizens of the Roman Aventine:
.When a freedman of Nero was giving a gladiatorial show at Antium, the public porticoes were covered with paintings, so we are told, containing life-like portraits of all the gladiators and assistants.^ Proximo gives the gladiators a talk of encouragement (after all, they are there to make him money) before they go out for their first fight.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

.This portraiture of gladiators has been the highest interest in art for many centuries now, but it was Gaius Terentius who began the practice of having pictures made of gladiatorial shows and exhibited in public; in honour of his grandfather who had adopted him he provided thirty pairs of Gladiators in the Forum for three consecutive days, and exhibited a picture of the matches in the Grove of Diana.^ If you don't mind a little gore, and you appreciate damn good acting & dialog, paired with an extremely interesting story, then see Gladiator -- you won't be sorry..
  • Gladiator [2000] Movie Reviews on MovieClock 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC movieclock.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[210]

Decline

Rampant inflation, border incursions and manpower shortages during the third century CE led to increasing military demands on the Imperial purse, from which the Empire never quite recovered. For lesser magistrates, the obligatory munera became an increasingly unrewarding tax on the doubtful privileges of office but the decline of the munus was not a straightforward process.[211] Emperors continued to subsidize their performance as a matter of undiminished public interest.[212] .In the early 3rd century CE, Tertullian had acknowledged their power over the Christian flock, and was compelled to be blunt: the combats were murder, their witnessing spiritually and morally harmful and the gladiator an instrument of pagan human sacrifice.^ Gladiator truly executes its themes of corruption, moral will power, greed and honour with powerful and dramatic scenes- A true epic!
  • Gladiator [2000] Movie Reviews on MovieClock 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC movieclock.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[213] In the next century, Augustine deplored the youthful fascination of his friend (and later fellow-convert and Bishop) Alypius, with the munera spectacle as inimical to a Christian life and salvation.[214] Amphitheatres continued to host the spectacular administration of Imperial justice: in 315 CE Constantine I condemned child-snatchers ad bestias in the arena. Ten years later, he banned the gladiator munera:
In times in which peace and peace relating to domestic affairs prevail bloody demonstrations displease us. .Therefore, we order that there may be no more gladiator combats.^ It is not our intention to republish or to duplicate any copyrighted movie or any dialogue of the movie Gladiator and in fact, there is no guarantee that our recollection and representation of any dialogue is accurate.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

Those who were condemned to become gladiators for their crimes are to work from now on in the mines. Thus they pay for their crimes without having to pour their blood.[215]
A 5th century CE mosaic in the Great Palace of Constantinople depicts two venatores fighting a tiger.
An Imperially sanctioned munus at some time in the 330s CE suggests that yet again, Imperial legislation was ineffective, not least when Constantine defied his own law.[216] In 365 CE Valentinian I threatened to fine a judge who sentenced Christians to the arena and in 384, attempted to limit the expenses of munera.[217][218][219] In 393 CE Theodosius adopted Christianity as the Roman state religion and banned pagan festivals.[220] The ludi continued, very gradually shorn of their stubbornly pagan munera. Honorius legally ended munera in 399 CE, and again in 404 CE, at least in the Western half of the Empire – according to Theodoret because of the martyrdom of Saint Telemachus by spectators at a munus.[221] Valentinian III repeated the ban in 438CE, perhaps effectively, though venationes continued beyond 536 CE.[222]
.It is not known how many gladiatoria munera were given throughout the Roman period.^ It's moving and makes you really feel like you live in the Roman period, although many historical details may not be right.
  • Gladiator [2000] Movie Reviews on MovieClock 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC movieclock.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many – if not most – involved venationes, and in the later Empire some may have been only that. One primary source, the Calendar of Furius Dionysius Philocalus for 354 CE, survives to suggest how the gladiator featured among a multitude of festivals in the Late Empire period. In that year, 176 days were reserved for spectacles of various kinds. Of these, 102 days were for theatrical shows, 64 for chariot races and just 10 in December for gladiator games and venationes.[223] Thomas Wiedemann interprets this in the much earlier context of the Historia Augusta, in which Alexander Severus (reigned 222–235 CE) was said to intend the redistribution of munera throughout the year. This would have broken with the traditional positioning of the major gladiator games at the year's end: as Wiedemann points out, December was the month for Saturnalia, the festival in which the lowest became the highest, and in which death was linked to renewal.

Notes

  1. ^ Katherine E. Welch, The Roman Amphitheatre: From Its Origins to the Colosseum. (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2007) 17.
  2. ^ Donald G. Kyle, Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome (London: Routledge, 1998), 82. Surviving sources for early Roman history are attempts to reconstruct the past.
  3. ^ Welch, 16-17: Nicolaus cites Posidonius's support for a Celtic origin and Hermippus' for a Mantinean (therefore Greek) origin.
  4. ^ Alison Futrell, A Sourcebook on the Roman Games (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), 4-7: citing Livy, 9.40.17.
  5. ^ Futrell, 14, 15.
  6. ^ Welch, 11.
  7. ^ Welch, 18.
  8. ^ Futrell, 3-5.
  9. ^ Futrell, 4.
  10. ^ David Stone Potter and D.J. Mattingly, eds., Life, Death, and Entertainment in the Roman Empire (Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press, 1999), 226.
  11. ^ Potter and Mattingly, 226; Paestum was colonized by Rome in 273 BCE.
  12. ^ Welch 15, 18.
  13. ^ See munus entry at wiktionary [1].
  14. ^ Welch, 18-19; Livy's account (summary 16) places beast-hunts and gladiatorial munera within this single munus.
  15. ^ Welch, 19: citing Ausanius: Seneca simply says they were "war captives".
  16. ^ Thomas Wiedemann, Emperors and Gladiators (London: Routledge, 1992), 33.
  17. ^ Kyle, Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome, 2.
  18. ^ Donald G. Kyle, Sport and Spectacle in the Ancient World, (Oxford: Blackwell, 2007) 273; Evidence of "Samnite" as an insult in earlier writings fades as Samnium is absorbed into the Republic.
  19. ^ Quoted in Futrell, 4-5.
  20. ^ Kyle, Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome, 67 84n; Livy's published works are often embellished with illustrative rhetorical detail.
  21. ^ The velutes and later, the provocatores were exceptions, but as "historicised" rather than contemporary Roman types. See Gladiator types.
  22. ^ Kyle, Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome, 80-81.
  23. ^ Welch, 21: citing Livy, 23.30.15. The Aemilii Lepidii were one of the most important families in Rome at the time, and probably owned a gladiator school (ludus).
  24. ^ a b Futrell, 8-9.
  25. ^ Futrell, 30.
  26. ^ Livy 39.46.2
  27. ^ Silius Italicus quoted in Futrell, 4-5.
  28. ^ Welch, 21.
  29. ^ Livy, Annal for the Year 174 BC, as cited in Welch, 21.
  30. ^ a b Weidemann,6-7: citing Valerius Maximus 2.3.2.
  31. ^ Andrew Lintott, The Constitution of the Roman Republic (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999), 183.
  32. ^ The "games" and "schools" were both ludi (s.ludus).
  33. ^ Henrik Mouritsen, Plebs and Politics in the Late Roman Republic (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 97.
  34. ^ K.M. Coleman, "Fatal Charades: Roman Executions Staged as Mythological Enactments," The Journal of Roman Studies 80 (1990), 50.
  35. ^ Mouritsen, 109-111, 32: approximately 12% of Rome's adult male population could actually vote.
  36. ^ Kyle, Sport and Spectacle in the Ancient World, 287.
  37. ^ Kyle, Sport and Spectacle in the Ancient World, 285.
  38. ^ Kyle, Sport and Spectacle in the Ancient World, 287; Caesar brought his Capua-based gladiators to Rome.
  39. ^ Futrell, 24; Gladiator gangs were used by Caesar and others to overawe and "persuade".
  40. ^ Mouritsen, 61; Gladiators could be enrolled into noble households; some household slaves may have been raised and trained for this.
  41. ^ Mouritsen, 97; for more detail see Plutarch's Julius Caesar 5.4.
  42. ^ Kyle, Sport and Spectacle in the Ancient World, 285-287; see also Pliny's Historia Naturalis 33.16.53.
  43. ^ Kyle, Sport and Spectacle in the Ancient World, 280, 287.
  44. ^ Wiedemann, 8-10.
  45. ^ Welch, 21: Antiochus IV Epiphanes of Greece was keen to upstage his Roman allies, but to save costs, all his gladiators were local volunteers.
  46. ^ Kyle, Sport and Spectacle in the Ancient World, 280: citing Cicero, Lex Tullia Ambitu.
  47. ^ Shelby Brown, "Death as Decoration: Scenes of the Arena on Roman Domestic Mosaics," Pornography and Representation in Greece and Rome, Amy Richlin, ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 184.
  48. ^ Wiedemann, 45: citing Cassius Dio 54.2.3-4).
  49. ^ Prices in denarii cited in "Venationes," Encyclopaedia Romana
  50. ^ US $ equivalents are very approximate, linked to US$ value in 2000CE. Roman prices of wheat, wine and meat imply the as (211 BCE-301 CE) and nummus (301 CE - 475 CE) as equivalent to the US dollar in purchasing power, and by conversion, the denarius at around $10 in 200 BCE, $20 at the height of the munera, and $25 in 300 CE.[2]
  51. ^ Roland Auguet, Cruelty and civilization: the Roman games, 1994, 30: Augustus' games each involved an average 625 gladiator pairs.
  52. ^ Brown, "Death as Decoration," 181: citing Dio Cassius 68.15.
  53. ^ Futrell,48.
  54. ^ Josephus: The Jewish War, 6.418, 7.37-40.
  55. ^ Kyle, Spectacles of death in Ancient Rome, 93: noxii were the most obnoxious of criminal categories in Roman law. See "legal and social status" in this article.
  56. ^ Futrell, 120-125.
  57. ^ Ludus meant both a game and a school — see entries 1 to 2.C, at Lewis and Short (perseus) [3].
  58. ^ Futrell, 124: see also Cassius Dio's accusation of entrapment by informers to provide "arena slaves" under Claudius. 103: "the best gladiators", citing Petronius, Satyricon, 45.
  59. ^ "Suetonius, ''Lives,'' Tiberius, 7: Ancient History Sourcebook, Fordham". Fordham.edu. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/suet-tiberius-rolfe.html. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  60. ^ Suetonius, Lives, Nero, 30: given as an example of Nero's profligacy. Ancient History Sourcebook, Fordham. [4]
  61. ^ a b Futrell, 129: citing Dio.
  62. ^ Futrell, 153-6.
  63. ^ Brown, 185; offences included arson and theft but above all, treason, such as rebellion, census evasion to avoid paying taxes, and refusal to swear lawful oaths.
  64. ^ Andrew Borkowski and Paul du Plessis, Textbook on Roman Law (Oxford: Blackstone Press, 1998), Preface, 81.
  65. ^ Coleman, 46.
  66. ^ Weidemann, 40-6.
  67. ^ Coleman, 71.
  68. ^ Brown, 185; Apuleius, Metamorphoses, 4.13.
  69. ^ Kyle, Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome, 94: survival and "promotion" would have been extremely rare for damnati – and unheard of for noxii – notwithstanding Aulus Gellius' tale of Androcles.
  70. ^ Borkowski and Plessis, 80.
  71. ^ Borkowski and Plessis; manumission was seldom absolute. Terms of release were negotiated between master and slave; Digests 28.3.6.5-6 & 48.19.8.11-12.
  72. ^ Futrell, 123: citing Ulpian, 8th book of Proconsular Functions, CMRL 11.7.
  73. ^ Futrell, 157.
  74. ^ Bill Thayer, Trans. Smith: Roman Law – Infamia."
  75. ^ Futrell, 131: citing Tertullian, De Speculates, 22
  76. ^ Futrell, 86-7: citing Plutarch, Moral Essays, 1099B.
  77. ^ Carter, 52-6.
  78. ^ Brown, 186.
  79. ^ D.38.1.38 pr in Borkowski and Plessis, 95.
  80. ^ Barton, 25: citing Dio, 43.23.4-5. Suetonius, Caesar, 39.1 adds the two Senators.
  81. ^ Futrell, 153, 156. Under Caligula, participation by men and women of senatorial rank may have been encouraged, and sometimes enforced; Cassius Dio, 59.10, 13-14 & Tacitus Caligula, 15.32.
  82. ^ Kyle, Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome, 115-6 (note 102)
  83. ^ Barton, 25: citing Dio, 56.25.7.
  84. ^ David Potter, trans., "The Senatus Consultum from Larinium."
  85. ^ Futrell, 153: citing Cassius Dio, 62.17.3.
  86. ^ For Caligula's extraordinary behaviour as editor, see Cassius Dio, 59.10, 13-14 & Tacitus Caligula, 15.32.
  87. ^ Valentinian/Theodosius 15.9.1: Symacchus, Relatio, 8.3.
  88. ^ Barton, 26: citing Juvenal 8.199ff.
  89. ^ Barton, 66.
  90. ^ Robin Fox, The Classical World: An Epic History from Homer to Hadrian (New York: Basic Books, 2006), 576: citing Pliny.
  91. ^ Futrell, 158.
  92. ^ Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume I (New York: Penguin, 1995), 118.
  93. ^ Cassius Dio, Commodus, 73 (epitome) at Thayer: [5]. He was posthumously declared a public enemy but later deified.
  94. ^ Futrell, 147: citing the Historia Augusta, Marcus Antoninus, in which Faustina's sexual preference for "rough types" is described as "reasonably well known". The HA's reliability on this point is unknown.
  95. ^ Kyle, Sport and Spectacle in the ancient world, 238.
  96. ^ Futrell, 85, 149.
  97. ^ Auget, 31.
  98. ^ Futrell, 137-8: citing Digest 3.1.1.6: Ulpian, Edict, Book 6.
  99. ^ Cicero, Letters, 10.
  100. ^ Kyle, Sport and Spectacle in the ancient world, 285-7, 312: this had probably began under Augustus.
  101. ^ Kyle, Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome, 1998, 80.
  102. ^ Futrell, 103: citing Petronius Satyricon, 45. 133.
  103. ^ Futrell, 133. See also Tiberius' inducement to re-enlist.
  104. ^ a b Petronius, Satyricon, 117: "He vows to endure to be burned, to be bound, to be beaten, and to be killed by the sword."
  105. ^ Futrell, 138.
  106. ^ palus: named after the training poles, 6 Roman feet high, erected in the training arena.
  107. ^ Futrell, 137, citing Quintilian, Oratorical Institute, 5.13.54: 140, citing Cicero, Tuscullan Disputations 2.17: 139, citing Epictetus, Discourse 3.15.
  108. ^ Jones, C.P. "Stigma": tattooing and branding in Graeco-Roman Antiquity, Journal of Roman Studies, 1987, 77, 139-55: facial stigma represented extreme social degredation.
  109. ^ Futrell, 142: citing Juvenal, Satire 6 [Oxford Fragment 7.13].
  110. ^ Welch, 17: the burning alive of a soldier who refused to become an auctoratus at a Spanish school in 43BCE is exceptional only because he was a citizen, technically exempt from such compulsion and penalty.
  111. ^ Futrell, 148-9.
  112. ^ Andrew Curry, Archaeology (abstract),6, 6, Nov-Dec 2008, (accessed 21 March 2009)[6] Gladiators were sometimes called hordearii ("eaters of barley)". Romans considered barley inferior to wheat — a punishment for legionaries replaced their wheat ration with it — but it was thought to strengthen the body and lay on subcutaneous fat.
  113. ^ John Follain, Times Online, 15th Dec 2002, (accessed 24 March 2009).The dying game: How did the gladiators really live?
  114. ^ Futrell, 141-2.
  115. ^ Michael Carter, "Archiereis and Asiarchs: A Gladiatorial Perspective," Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, 42, (2004).
  116. ^ Futrell, 141.
  117. ^ Futrell, 144-5: citing Suetonius, Lives; Augustus 45, Caligula, 30, Claudius, 34.
  118. ^ Futrell, 101.
  119. ^ Futrell, 102: based on stylised mosaic evidence from Symmachius: this editor is praised by spectators for "doing the right thing".
  120. ^ Futrell, 101: based on mosaics and a Pompeian tomb relief.
  121. ^ Futrell, 145.
  122. ^ Potter and Matingly, 313: a lightly armed and armoured fighter would tire less rapidly than their heavily armed opponent.
  123. ^ Kyle, Sport and spectacle in the Ancient World, 313-4.
  124. ^ Martial, Liber de Spectaculis, 29
  125. ^ Kyle, Sport and spectacle in the Ancient World, 112: citing Robert.
  126. ^ Susan Mattern, Rome and the Enemy: imperial strategy in the Principate, 1999, 2.
  127. ^ a b Brown, 181.
  128. ^ a b Futrell, 43.
  129. ^ Kyle, Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome, 1998 80
  130. ^ In effect, a part-purchase of office.
  131. ^ Weidemann, 440-6.
  132. ^ Welch, 23.
  133. ^ Futrell, 84.
  134. ^ Futrell, 85, 101, 110: based on fragmentary Pompeian remains and citing Pliny, Historia Naturalis, 19.23-25.
  135. ^ Gladiators: Heroes of the Roman Amphitheatre (fighting styles) BBC
  136. ^ “Even among the gladiators, I see those who... find greater pleasure in freeing their slaves, and commending their wives to their friends, than in satisfying their appetites.” Plutarch, Moral Essays 1099B: fully cited in Futrell, 86-7:
  137. ^ a b Potter and Mattingly, 313.
  138. ^ Futrell, 86: gladiatorial banquet on mosaic, El Djem.
  139. ^ Futrell, 88.
  140. ^ Futrell, 91.
  141. ^ Futrell, 94-5, citing Seneca: On Providence, 3.4.
  142. ^ Stephen Wisdom and Angus McBride, Gladiators: 100 BC-AD 200, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2001. 18: author's drawing).
  143. ^ Futrell, 85.
  144. ^ Carter, 43, 46-9. In the Eastern provinces of the later Imperium, the state archiereis combined the roles of editor, Imperial cult priest and lanista, giving gladiatoria munera in which the use of sharp weapons seems an exceptional honour.
  145. ^ Marcus Aurelius encouraged the use of blunted weapons: in Cassius Dio, Roman History, Bill Thayer, (Loeb), 71.29.4.
  146. ^ Futrell, 99-100.
  147. ^ Weidemann, 14.
  148. ^ Wiedemann, 15-16.
  149. ^ Wiedemann, 15; citing Kraus and von Matt, Pompei and Herculaneum, New York, 1975, Fig. 53.
  150. ^ Examples include Martial, Epigrams 14, 213; Suetonius, Caligula.
  151. ^ Also scutarii or secutoriani.
  152. ^ a b c Futrell, 105.
  153. ^ Kyle, Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome, 111.
  154. ^ Suetonius, Lives, Caligula, 30.3.
  155. ^ Futrell, 107-8: see also Tacitus, Annals, 14.17
  156. ^ The English arena derives from Latin harena (sand, sand-strewn place of combat).
  157. ^ Plutarch, Caius Gracchus, 12.3-4 (Translation from The Internet Classics Archive).
  158. ^ Mouritsen, Henrik. Plebs and Politics in the Late Roman Republic. (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2001) 82
  159. ^ Futrell, 136: citing Martial, Epigrams, 5.24)
  160. ^ Brown, 184-185: Even emperors who disliked munera were thus obliged to attend them.
  161. ^ Futrell, 37-42, 105.
  162. ^ a b c Kyle, Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome, 3.
  163. ^ Appian, BC 128: Livy Per. 48.
  164. ^ Welch, 197: citing CIL X.852.
  165. ^ (Potter and Mattingly, 226; citing Pliny the Elder 36.117.
  166. ^ Potter and Mattingly, 226; see also Pliny, Natural History, 36. 113-5. It was commissioned by T. Statilius Taurus. According to Pliny, its three storeys were marble-clad, housed 3,000 bronze statues and seated 80,000 spectators. It was probably wooden-framed in part.
  167. ^ Mattern, 151-2.
  168. ^ Suetonius, Lives, Augustus 44)
  169. ^ Futrell, 140: citing Cicero, Tuscullan Disputations, 2.17.
  170. ^ Weidemann, 38-9.
  171. ^ Edwards, 66-7.
  172. ^ Archaeology (abstract): Andrew Curry. (accessed 21 March 2009)[7]: marks on the bones of several suggest a sword thrust into the base of the throat and down towards the heart: :
  173. ^ Kyle, Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome, 155-168: Dis Pater and Jupiter Latiaris rituals in Tertullian, Ad Nationes, 1.10.47.
  174. ^ Futrell, 144: citing Ville
  175. ^ Kyle, Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome, 14, and note 74 contextualises Juvenal's panem et circenses – bread and games as a sop to the politically apathetic plebs (Satires, 4.10) – within an account of the death and damnatio of Sejanus, whose body was torn to pieces by the crowd and left unburied.
  176. ^ Suetonius has the populace wish Tiberius' body to be thrown in the Tiber, or left unburied, or "dragged with the hook", as a form of posthumous damnatio. Suetonius, Lives, Tiberius, 75.
  177. ^ Kyle, Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome, 128-159.
  178. ^ Futrell, 149-53, 133: The single name form on a gladiator memorial probably indicates a slave, two a freedman or discharged auctoratus and the very rare "tria nomina" a freedman or a full Roman citizen. See also vroma.org [8]
  179. ^ Futrell, 149: citing Robert, #'s 24, 12, & 109.
  180. ^ Futrell, 149: citing Robert #34.
  181. ^ Livy, 45, 32-3
  182. ^ It was notably fulfilled and celebrated in the battlefield devotio of two consular Decii: Publius Decius Mus (340 BC) & Publius Decius Mus (312 BC). See Kyle, Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome, 81.
  183. ^ Catherine Edwards, Death in Ancient Rome (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2007), 19-45
  184. ^ Livy, 22.51.5-8, has wounded Romans at Cannae stretch out their necks for the death blow by comrades: cf Cicero's death in Seneca, Suasoriae, 6.17.
  185. ^ Welch, 17.
  186. ^ Livy 22.55-57.
  187. ^ Carlin A. Barton, The Sorrows of the Ancient Romans: The Gladiator and the Monster (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1993), 15
  188. ^ Kyle, Sport and Spectacle in the ancient world, 274.
  189. ^ Weidemann, 45.
  190. ^ Mattern, 126-8: citing Tacitus, Annals 1.17.
  191. ^ Mattern, 87: citing Cassius Dio, 72, 73.2.3.
  192. ^ Mattern, 87.
  193. ^ Futrell, 16: citing Cicero, Letters to friends: 2.3.
  194. ^ Cicero's admiration: Tusculan Disputations, 2.41.
  195. ^ Barton, 39: citing Seneca, Suasoriae, 6.17. for Cicero's death.
  196. ^ Kyle, Sport and Spectacle in the Ancient World, 273: for bustuarius, with reference to Clodius' alleged impious disturbance at the funeral of Marius, see Cicero's In Pisonem (Against Piso). See also Cicero's unflattering references to Marcus Antonius as gladiator in his 2nd Phillipic.
  197. ^ Brown, 185: Tacitus, Annals, 15.44 describes the adverse public reactions to Nero's punishment of Christians through personal appetite for cruelty, rather than for the public good.
  198. ^ Silius Italicus, 11.51: cited in Welch, 3.
  199. ^ Futrell, 4: Roman commentators associated munera with Capua's proverbial luxury and excess.
  200. ^ Cassius Dio, 43.24.
  201. ^ Futrell, 154: citing Lucian, Toxaris: 58-59.
  202. ^ Barton, 16.
  203. ^ Kyle, Spectacles of death in Ancient Rome, 85: this should be considered scandalous and noteworthy, rather than common.
  204. ^ Juvenal, Satires, P. Green, trans., 6.102 ff.
  205. ^ Futrell, 146: citing Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum.4.4342.& CIL.4.4345.
  206. ^ Servius (fl late 4th cent) Commentary on the Aeneid of Vergil: 10.519.
  207. ^ Kyle, Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome, 80. Bustuarius is found in Tertullian, De Spectaculis, 11: the quotation is from Tertullian, De Spectaculis 22.
  208. ^ Terence, Hecyra, Prologue II.
  209. ^ Welch, 2.
  210. ^ Pliny, Natural History, 30.32; as cited in Welch, 21
  211. ^ Mattern, 130-1.
  212. ^ Auget, 30, 32.
  213. ^ Tertullian, de Spectaculis, 22.
  214. ^ St Augustine, Confessions, 6.8.
  215. ^ Edwards, 215: see also Constantine, 9.18.1 & 15.12.1.
  216. ^ Carter, 43.
  217. ^ See Tertullian, Apologetics, 49.4, for Tertullian's condemnation of officials who sought their own "glory" by sponsoring the martyrdom of Christians.
  218. ^ Kyle, Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome, 78; compared to "pagan" noxii, Christian deaths in the arena would have been few.
  219. ^ Codex Theodosianus 9.40.8 & 15.9.1: Symacchus, Relatio, 8.3: Latin text at ancientrome.ru: [9].
  220. ^ C.Th. 2.8.19.& 2.8.22.
  221. ^ Telemachus had personally stepped in to prevent the munus. See Theoderet, Hist. Eccles. 5.26.
  222. ^ Codex Justinianus, 3.12.9.
  223. ^ Wiedemann, 11-12

References and further reading

  • Auguet, Roland. Cruelty and civilization: the Roman games. Paris, 1970. English reprint, Routledge, 1994. ISBN 0415104521.
  • Barton, Carlin A. The Sorrows of the Ancient Romans: The Gladiator and the Monster. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1993. ISBN 069105696x
  • Borkowski, Andrew and Paul du Plessis. Textbook on Roman Law. Oxford: Blackstone Press, 1994. ISBN 1854313134
  • Brown, Shelby. "Death As Decoration: Scenes of the Arena on Roman Domestic Mosaics." Pornography and Representation in Greece and Rome, 180-211. Amy Richlin, ed. New York: Oxford University Press. 1992.
  • Carter, Michael. "Archiereis and Asiarchs: A Gladiatorial Perspective." Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 44 (2004), 41-68. (PDF)
  • Coleman, K.M. "Fatal Charades: Roman Executions Staged as Mythological Enactments." The Journal of Roman Studies 80 (1990), 44-73.
  • Edwards, Catherine. Death in Ancient Rome. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2007. ISBN 0300112084
  • Everitt, Anthony. Cicero: The Life and Times of Rome's Greatest Politician. New York: Random House, 2001. ISBN 0375507469
  • Fox, Robin. The Classical World: An Epic History from Homer to Hadrian. New York: Basic Books, 2006.
  • Futrell, Alison. A Sourcebook on the Roman Games. Oxford: Blackwell, 2006. ISBN 1405115688
  • Gibbon, Edward. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Volume I. New York: Penguin, 1995.
  • Grant, M., Gladiators, Penguin Books, London 1967, reprinted 2000, ISBN 0140299343
  • Grossschmidt, K. and F. Kanz. "Head Injuries of Roman Gladiators." Forensic Science International 160.2–3, 207–216.
  • Jones, C.P. "Stigma": tattooing and branding in Graeco-Roman Antiquity, Journal of Roman Studies, 77 (1987) 139-55.
  • Köhne, E., and Ewigleben, C., (eds); Gladiators and Caesars; British Museum Press, London, 2000. ISBN 0520227980
  • Kyle, Donald G. Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome. London: Routledge, 1998. ISBN 0415096782
  • Kyle, Donald G. Sport and Spectacle in the Ancient World. Oxford: Blackwell, 2007. ISBN 0631229701
  • Lintott, Andrew. The Constitution of the Roman Republic. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999 (reprinted 2004). ISBN 0199261083.
  • Mattern, Susan P. Rome and the Enemy: Imperial Strategy in the Principate. Berkeley, Ca.: University of California Press, 2002. ISBN 0520236831
  • Millar, F., The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press, 1998. ISBN 0472108921
  • Mouritsen, Henrik. Plebs and Politics in the Late Roman Republic. .Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2001. ISBN 0521791006
  • Potter, David Stone and D.J. Mattingly, eds.^ Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone [2001] .
    • Gladiator [2000] Movie Reviews on MovieClock 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC movieclock.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Life, Death, and Entertainment in the Roman Empire. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press, 1999. Hardcover. ISBN 0472109243
  • Welch, Katherine E. The Roman Amphitheatre: From Its Origins to the Colosseum. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2007. ISBN 0521809444
  • Wiedemann, Thomas. Emperors and Gladiators. London: Routledge, 1992. ISBN 0415121647.
  • Wisdom, Stephen and Angus McBride. Gladiators: 100 BC-AD 200 Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2001. ISBN 1841762997

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Gladiator (2000 film) article)

From Wikiquote

I will win the crowd. I will give them something they have never seen before.
.Gladiator is a 2000 film about a Roman general who became a slave and then rose to challenge an emperor.^ The general who became a slave.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The slave who became a gladiator.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This film is as much a geographical journey as a spiritual one for the central character of the story, Roman General Maximus, played by Russell Crowe.
  • Gladiator [2000] Movie Reviews on MovieClock 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC movieclock.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Directed by Ridley Scott. Written by David Franzoni, John Logan and William Nicholson.
What We Do In Life Echoes In Eternity. taglines

Contents

Maximus

  • Fratres! .Three weeks from now I will be harvesting my crops.^ MAXIMUS: Fratres..., three weeks from now I will be harvesting my crops, imagine where you will be and it will be so.
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    Imagine where you will be, and it will be so. Hold the line. .Stay with me. If you find yourself alone, riding in green fields with the sun on your face, do not be troubled; for you are in Elysium, and you're already dead!^ Do you find it hard to do your duty?
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    ^ If you find yourself alone riding in green fields with the sun on your face, do not be troubled, for you are in Elysium and you're already dead!!!.
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    ^ One kind word, one full hug while you pressed me to your chest and held me tight, would have been like the sun on my heart for a thousand years....
    • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

    .[The soldiers laugh] Brothers, what we do in life, echoes in eternity.
  • My name is Maximus Decimus Meridius.^ MAXIMUS: My name is gladiator.
    • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Brothers, what we do in life echoes in eternity.
    • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ MAXIMUS: My name is Maximus Decimus Meridius.
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    Commander of the Armies of the North. General of the Felix Legions. .Loyal servant to the true Emperor, Marcus Aurelius.^ MARCUS AURELIUS, the Emperor of Rome, is on a horse.
    • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

    Father to a murdered son, husband to a murdered wife – and I will have my vengeance, in this life or the next.

Proximo

  • I am Proximo! .I will be closer to you in these next few days, which will be the last days of your miserable lives, than that bitch of a mother who first brought you screaming into this world!^ I shall be closer to you for the next few days, which will be the last of your miserable lives, than that bitch of a mother that brought you screaming into this world.
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    ^ Beware of this Gaius, he'll pour a honeyed potion in your ear and you'll wake up one day and all you'll say is "Republic, Republic, Republic..."
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    ^ I know that one grove of your vineyard is worth more to you than all the treasures of Rome.
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    .I did not pay good money for your company, I paid it so I could profit from your deaths!^ I did not pay good money for you for your company, I paid it so that I could profit from your death and as your mother was there at your beginning, so I shall be there at your end.
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    ^ Did your friend smile at his own death?
    • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

    .And just as your mother was there at your beginning, so I shall be there at your end.^ I did not pay good money for you for your company, I paid it so that I could profit from your death and as your mother was there at your beginning, so I shall be there at your end.
    • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I shall be closer to you for the next few days, which will be the last of your miserable lives, than that bitch of a mother that brought you screaming into this world.
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    .And when you die – and die you shall – your transition will be to the sound of … [claps his hands] Gladiators, I salute you.
  • Some of you are thinking you won't fight.^ PROXIMO: "Some of you are thinking you won't fight, some that you can't fight.
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    ^ And when you die, and die you shall, your transition shall be to the sound of [he claps his hands in applause] ...Gladiators, I salute you.
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    ^ MAXIMUS: You won your freedom?
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    Others, that you can't fight. .They all say that until they're out there.^ They all say that until they are out there.
    • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Proximo gives the gladiators a talk of encouragement (after all, they are there to make him money) before they go out for their first fight.
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    ^ QUINTUS: Soldier, I ordered you to move those catapults forward, they're out of range.
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    .[Picks up a sword] Thrust this into another man's chest, and the crowd will applaud and love you for it.^ Thrust this into another man's flesh" demonstrating with a sword "and they will applaud and love you for that.
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    ^ Then the opponent thrusts his sword into the frightened slave, who falls down dead.
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    ^ The next fighter is Juba who picks up the wooden sword given to them for their testing and fiercely fights back as Hagen tests him.
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    .In time, you may even begin to love them for that.^ You...you may begin to love them for that."
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    .Ultimately, we're all dead men.^ "Ultimately, we're all dead men, sadly we cannot choose how, BUT we can decide how we meet that end in order that we are remembered as men.
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    Sadly, we cannot choose how, but … we can decide how we meet that end in order that we are remembered … as men.

Juba

.
  • You have a great name.^ JUBA : You have a great name.
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    He must kill your name before he kills you.

Gracchus

.
  • I think he [Commodus] knows what Rome is.^ GRACCHUS: I think he knows what Rome is.
    • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You know if I didn't have my duty to Rome I think I should be an artist.
    • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

    Rome is the mob. .Conjure magic for them, and they'll be distracted.^ He will conjure magic for them and they will be distracted.
    • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Take away their freedom, and still they'll roar.^ And still they will roar.
    • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He will take away their freedom, and still they will roar.
    • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We stay with Maximus as he cuts through the four Celts like a scythe through wheat and then we dramatically pull up and away -- Taking in the roaring arena and the hero.
    • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The beating heart of Rome is not the marble of the Senate.^ The beating heart of Rome isn't the marble of the Senate.
    • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The beating heart of Rome is not the marble of the Senate, it is the sand of the Colosseum.
    • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

    It's the sand of the Colosseum. .He'll bring them death … and they will love him for it.
  • [To Falco] I don't pretend to be a man of the people, senator.^ And they love him for it.
    • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And they will love him for it.
    • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Currently two Senators, FALCO and GAIUS, are bowing before him.
    • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

    But I do try to be a man for the people.

Dialogue

Commodus: You wrote to me once, listing the four chief virtues: wisdom, justice, fortitude and temperance. As I read the list, I knew I had none of them. But I have other virtues, father. Ambition. .That can be a virtue when it drives us to excel.^ But I have other virtues, Father -- ambition, that can be a virtue when it drives us to excel; resourcefulness; courage, perhaps not on the battlefield but there are many forms of courage; devotion, to my family, to you.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

Resourcefulness. Courage. .Perhaps not on the battlefield, but … there are many forms of courage.^ But I have other virtues, Father -- ambition, that can be a virtue when it drives us to excel; resourcefulness; courage, perhaps not on the battlefield but there are many forms of courage; devotion, to my family, to you.
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.Devotion, to my family and to you.^ Promise me that you will look after my family.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But I have other virtues, Father -- ambition, that can be a virtue when it drives us to excel; resourcefulness; courage, perhaps not on the battlefield but there are many forms of courage; devotion, to my family, to you.
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.But none of my virtues were on your list.^ But none of my virtues were on your list.
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.Even then it was as if you didn't want me for your son.^ LUCILLA Will you swear it on the memory of your son?
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^ MAXIMUS Caesar, you do me honor -- but your son has pride of place for succession.
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.Marcus Aurelius: Oh, Commodus.^ Inside, Commodus and Lucilla, as they make their way to their father, Marcus Aurelius .
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^ MARCUS: [Surprised at Commodus' reaction, Marcus sits] : Oh, Commodus, you go too far.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

.You go too far.^ Swear that you will go far away and never return.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

.Commodus: I search the faces of the gods … for ways to please you, to make you proud.^ COMMODUS (quietly) I search the faces of the Gods for ways to please you...
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^ COMMODUS And as a righteous God, I shall ever protect you.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

.One kind word, one full hug … where you pressed me to your chest and held me tight … would have been like the sun on my heart for a thousand years.^ One kind word -- one full hug where you pressed me to your chest and held me tight -- would have been like the sun on my heart for a thousand years...
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Beware of this Gaius, he'll pour a honeyed potion in your ear and you'll wake up one day and all you'll say is "Republic, Republic, Republic..."
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And I will let my gladiators do anything you like!
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.What is it in me that you hate so much?^ What is it in me you hate so much?
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

.Marcus Aurelius: Shh, Commodus.^ Inside, Commodus and Lucilla, as they make their way to their father, Marcus Aurelius .
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Commodus: All I've ever wanted was to live up to you, Caesar, father.^ COMMODUS All I want is to be a good father to my people.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All I ever wanted was to live up to you, Caesar, Father.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All I have ever wanted was to live up to you.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

.Marcus Aurelius: [gets down on his knees] Commodus, your faults as a son is my failure as a father.^ MARCUS My son is not a moral man.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MARCUS: Commodus, [holding his fingers to his lips, "shhhhh" ; he kneels in front of his son] your faults as a son, is my failure as a father.
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^ Inside, Commodus and Lucilla, as they make their way to their father, Marcus Aurelius .
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

Come.
[They hug]
Commodus: Father. .I would have butchered the whole world … if you would only love me!^ I would butcher the whole world -- if you would only love me...
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^ COMMODUS: Father, I would butcher the whole world if you would only love me!!!
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

[Commodus presses Marcus against his breast and asphyxiates him]

.Gracchus: But the Senate is the people, sire.^ GRACCHUS: The Senate is the people, Sire, chosen from the people, to speak for the people.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ GAIUS Senator Gracchus is hale, sire.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ COMMODUS I doubt many of the people eat so well as you do, Senator Gracchus...
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

.Chosen from among the people, to speak for the people.^ GRACCHUS: The Senate is the people, Sire, chosen from the people, to speak for the people.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Commodus: I doubt if any of the people eat so well as you do, Gracchus.^ COMMODUS I doubt many of the people eat so well as you do, Senator Gracchus...
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ COMMODUS: I doubt if many people eat so well as you do, Gracchus, or have such splendid mistresses, Gaius.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ COMMODUS I doubt many of the people have such splendid armor, Captain Marcellus.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

.Or have such splendid mistresses, Gaius.^ Or such fine mistresses, Senator Gaius.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ COMMODUS: I doubt if many people eat so well as you do, Gracchus, or have such splendid mistresses, Gaius.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

.I think I understand my own people.^ I think I understand my own people.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Gracchus: Then perhaps Caesar will be so good as to teach us … out of his own, extensive experience.^ GRACCHUS: Perhaps Caesar would be so kind as to teach us, out of his own extensive experience.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

[The Senate laughs]
.Commodus: I call it love.^ COMMODUS: I call it love.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

.I am their father, the people are my children.^ The people are my children and I their father.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I shall be a good father to my children.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ COMMODUS All I want is to be a good father to my people.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

I shall hold them to my bosom and embrace them tightly –
.Gracchus: Have you ever embraced someone dying of plague, sire?^ I shall hold them to my bosom and embrace them tightly -- GRACCHUS Have you ever embraced someone dying of plague, sire?
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ GRACCHUS [as he interrupts] : Have you ever embraced someone dying of plague, Sire?
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

Commodus: No. .But if you interrupt me again, I assure you that you shall.^ But if you interrupt me again, I assure you that you shall.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]


Maximus: You ask me what I want. .I, too, want to stand before the Emperor as you did.^ I, too, want to stand in front of the Emperor, as you did.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ JUBA : Did you ever see anything like that before?
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ LUCILLA: What did my father want with you?
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

Proximo: Then listen to me. Learn from me. .I wasn't the best because I killed quickly.^ I wasn't the best because I killed quickly.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

.I was the best because the crowd loved me.^ I was the best because the crowd loved me.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Win the crowd, and you will win your freedom.^ It seems you have won your freedom .
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Win the crowd and you win your freedom.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MAXIMUS: You won your freedom?
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Maximus: I will win the crowd.^ MAXIMUS: I will win the crowd.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ PROXIMO [He walks towards the gladiators, looking at Maximus ] : Win the crowd.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

.I will give them something they have never seen before.^ I will give them something they have never seen before.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Proximo gives the gladiators a talk of encouragement (after all, they are there to make him money) before they go out for their first fight.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Never in the long, long history of the Colosseum have they ever seen such a thing.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]


.Juba: It's somewhere out there.^ JUBA : It is somewhere out there, my country, my home.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

My country. My home. .My wife is preparing food.^ My wife is preparing food.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

.My daughers carry water from the river.^ My daughters carry water from the river.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

Will I ever see them again? I think not.
.Maximus: Do you believe you'll see them again when you die?^ You see that map, Maximus?
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MAXIMUS: Do you believe you will see them again when you die?
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MAXIMUS If you miss the spot there'll be blood everywhere.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

Juba: I think so. But then, I will die soon. .They will not die for many years.^ They will not die for many years.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

I'll have to wait.
.Maximus: But you would … wait?^ MAXIMUS: Would you, Quintus?
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MAXIMUS: You would fight me?
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ HAGEN : We will wait here for you, Maximus.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

Juba: Of course.
.Maximus: You see, my wife and my son are already waiting for me.^ MAXIMUS: My son was innocent.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MAXIMUS: You see , my wife and my son are already waiting for me.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MAXIMUS: My son is also nearly 8.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Juba: You'll meet them again.^ JUBA : You will meet them again.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Juba) You throw in this one and we'll make it 7,000 sesterces for the whole lot.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The soft voice of a Numidian slave (later to be known as Juba ), is heard, "You will meet them again, but not yet."
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

But not yet. Not yet.
[They shake hands]
Maximus: Not yet. … Not yet.

.Juba: Can they hear you?^ JUBA : Can they hear you?
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Look, look, look -- I have two lions and a panther -- hear how they roar for you!
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Juba carefully places his poultice over the wound -- Maximus hisses in pain -- Juba massages the poultice into the wound gently as: JUBA If you die in the wagons they feed you to the lions...
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

Maximus: Who?
Juba: Your family, in the afterlife.
.Maximus: Oh yes.^ MAXIMUS: Oh, yes.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

Juba: What do you say to them?
.Maximus: To my son, I tell him I will see him again soon.^ MAXIMUS: My son was innocent.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MAXIMUS: To my boy, I tell him I will see him again soon, and to keep his heels down when he's riding his horse.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MAXIMUS My son was innocent.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

To keep his heels down while riding his horse. .To my wife – that is not your business.^ [Maximus continues with a smile as he grasps the figurines tighter,] To my wife...that is not your business.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

[They laugh]

.Commodus: The general who became a slave.^ The general who became a slave.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The slave who became a gladiator.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ COMMODUS SLAVE! WHO ARE YOU? Maximus keeps walking, his fists clenched now.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

The slave who became a gladiator. The gladiator who defied an emperor. Striking story! .But now, the people want to know how the story ends.^ Now the people want to know how the story ends.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When a man sees his end he wants to know that there has been some purpose to his life.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "When a man sees his end he wants to know that there has been some purpose to his life.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Only a famous death will do.^ Only a famous death will do.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

.And what could be more glorious than to challenge the Emperor himself in the great arena?^ MAXIMUS I have more power as a slave in the arena than I could ever have as a free man.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ COMMODUS But who can be more merciful than the Emperor of Rome?
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

.Maximus: You would fight me?^ MAXIMUS: You would fight me?
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MAXIMUS: Would you, Quintus?
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MAXIMUS: How soon do you think they could be ready to fight?
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

Commodus: Why not? .Do you think I am afraid?^ Do you think I am afraid?
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MAXIMUS: I think you have been afraid all your life.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Maximus: I think you've been afraid all your life.^ MAXIMUS: You won your freedom?
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MAXIMUS: As you wept for your father?
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MAXIMUS: I think you have a talent for survival.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Commodus: Unlike Maximus the invincible, who knows no fear?^ COMMODUS: Unlike Maximus the invincible, who knows no fear?
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Commodus strikes back but is no match for Maximus.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Commodus displays a hint of a false smile as though to prevent the crowd from truly knowing the hate he feels for Maximus and to guard himself from the knowledge of his failure.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Maximus: I knew a man who once said, "Death smiles at us all.^ All that man can do is smile back.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MAXIMUS You said something to me once.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ LUCILLA : : I knew a man once.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

All a man can do is smile back."
Commodus: I wonder, did your friend smile at his own death?
.Maximus: You must know.^ MAXIMUS: You must know.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MARCUS: [Tenderly holding Maximus' head with both hands] : Maximus, that is why it must be you.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Assassin #3 stands over him as: MAXIMUS One good stroke -- you do know where, don't you?
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

He was your father.
.Commodus: You loved my father, I know.^ COMMODUS: You loved my father, I know.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ LUCILLA: No, because my father loved you ...
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Will you serve my brother as you have served my father?
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

.But so did I. That makes us brothers, doesn't it?^ That makes us brothers, doesn't it?
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

.[stabs Maximus in the side] Smile for me now, brother!^ Smile for me now, brother!
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ [Commodus embraces Maximus and with one cowardly, fierce thrust with his dagger that has been hidden in his sleeve, stabs Maximus in the left side and then kisses him on the neck.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

Taglines

.
  • What We Do In Life Echoes In Eternity.
  • A Hero Will Rise.
  • The Gladiator Who Defied An Empire.
  • The general who became a slave.^ The general who became a slave.
    • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The gladiator who defied an emperor.
    • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The slave who became a gladiator.
    • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

    The slave who became a gladiator. The gladiator who defied an emperor.
  • Strength and Honor.

Cast

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Gladiators article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

GLADIATORS (from Lat. .gladius, sword), professional combatants who fought to the death in Roman public shows.^ Roman Gladius Swords are 30 1/8" overall.
  • Gladiator Movie Swords 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.swordsdirect.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Gladiator Sword from the movie "Gladiator" 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.thewebcollection.com [Source type: General]

^ Roman Gladius Sword is 30 1/8" overall.

^ Gladiators , who were often slaves or prisoners of war and sometimes even volunteer Romans, were highly trained athletes with skills in weaponry and hand-to-hand combat.
  • Gladiatorial Training and Combat: The Roman Familia That Travels Together, Stays Together | Suite101.com 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC ancienthistory.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That this form of spectacle, which is almost peculiar to Rome and the Roman provinces, was originally borrowed from Etruria is shown by various indications.^ The spectacle of gladiators fighting to the death in the arena was hugely popular in Roman times and in fact it lasted the entirety of the Empire of Rome.
  • Gladiators 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.vincelewis.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WHAT HAVE THE ROMANS EVER DONE FOR US? NEW! http://www.schoolhistory.co.uk/year7links/doneforuse.shtml Information on various things we have that originated in Rome such as glass, coins, pavement, public libraries, etc.
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ (Roman spectacle) ) development of sports ( in sports: Rome ) training in sword combat ( in fencing (sport): Early history ) People .
  • gladiator (Roman sports) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On an Etruscan tomb discovered at Tarquinii there is a representation of gladiatorial games; the slaves employed to carry off the dead bodies from the arena wore masks representing the Etruscan Charon; and we learn from Isidore of Seville (Origines, x.^ This association is important because in Roman times slaves dressed as Mercury removed the dead bodies from the arena.
  • The Roman Gladiator: Female Gladiators 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC ablemedia.com [Source type: General]

^ Some scholars believe there was also a ritual for removing the bodies of dead gladiators, with a man dressed as Charon (ferryman of Hades) testing the body to make sure he was really dead and then a slave dragging the body with a hook through a gate called the Porta Libitinensis (Libitina was a death goddess), as depicted in this modern drawing .
  • Gladiatorial Games 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.vroma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A dopted from the earlier Etruscans, perhaps by way of Campania, gladiatorial games ( munera ) originated in the rites of sacrifice due the spirits of the dead and the need to propitiate them with offerings of blood.

) that the name for a trainer of gladiators (lanista) is an Etruscan word meaning butcher or executioner. .These gladiatorial games are evidently a survival of the practice of immolating slaves and prisoners on the tombs of illustrious chieftains, a practice recorded in Greek, Roman and Scandinavian legends, and traceable even as late as the 19th century as the Indian suttee. Even at Rome they were for a long time confined to funerals, and hence the older name for gladiators was bustuarii; but in the later days of the republic their original significance was forgotten, and they formed as indispensable a part of the public amusements as the theatre and the circus.^ While they were not really gladiators they were part of the games.
  • Gladiators – Their Armor and Weapons 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.realarmorofgod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gladiators were paid each time they fought.
  • The Roman Gladiator Training & Combat 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC ablemedia.com [Source type: General]

^ But Maximus survives to become a slave and gladiator.
  • Laramie Movie Scope: Gladiator 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.lariat.org [Source type: General]

.The first gladiators are said, on the authority of Valerius Maximus (ii.^ Ad Gladiator is the foremost authority on learning how to create a first class solo ad campaign.

^ Proximo said to Maximus regarding being a gladiator: "Greatness is an idea, it is a vision."
  • Gladiator 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC blogs.salon.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From Seven Samurai we get the calm Maximus catching a nap before his first gladiator match.
  • im_gladiator 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.truby.com [Source type: General]

.4.7), to have been exhibited at Rome in the Forum Boarium in 264 B.C. by Marcus and Decimus Brutus at the funeral of their father.^ The first Roman gladiatorial games were held in the city of Rome in 264 B.C. Held in the Forum Boarium (the cattle market), these games were in honor of Junius Brutus, a prominent citizen.
  • The Roman Gladiator: The Rock Star of the Roman Empire | Suite101.com 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC ancienthistory.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first Roman gladiatorial games were held in 246 BCE by Marcus and Decimus Brutus in honor of their father, Junius Brutus, as a munus or funeral gift for the dead.
  • The Roman Gladiator History & Origins 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC ablemedia.com [Source type: General]

^ At shows in Rome these exhibitions became wildly popular and increased in size from three pairs at the first known exhibition in 264 bc (at the funeral of a Brutus) to 300 pairs in the time of Julius Caesar (d.
  • gladiator (Roman sports) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On this occasion only three pairs fought, but the taste for these games spread rapidly, and the number of combatants grew apace.^ During the empire the numbers of these gladiatorial shows grew rapidly.
  • Rome Exposed - Amphitheatres and Gladiators 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.classicsunveiled.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His sons Marcus and Decimus put on the modest games that consisted of contests between three pairs of slaves.
  • The Roman Gladiator: The Rock Star of the Roman Empire | Suite101.com 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC ancienthistory.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To limit this power, Augustus assigned the games to the praetors and restricted the number of shows to two per year and sixty pairs (Dio, LIV.2.4).

.In 174 Titus Flamininus celebrated his father's obsequies by a three-days' fight, in which 74 gladiators took part.^ Titus, Emperor of Rome has just declared today an official holiday, which will be celebrated with glamorous gladiator games here in Rome.
  • Gladiators 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.thenagain.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gladiator fights were originally held as part of a funeral to honor a dead person' s memory.
  • Ancient Rome and its gladiators: Romans love gladiators 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.romanguide.com [Source type: General]

^ Hence the shows extended from one day to as many as a hundred, under the emperor Titus; while the emperor Trajan in his triumph ( ad 107) had 5,000 pairs of gladiators.
  • gladiator (Roman sports) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Julius Caesar engaged such extravagant numbers for his aedileship that his political opponents took fright and carried a decree of the senate imposing a certain limit of numbers, but notwithstanding this restriction he was able to exhibit no less than 300 pairs.^ There is no limit to the number of stuns that can be carried forward.

^ The Roman Senate limited the number of contestants after Julius Caesar held an event with 300 pairs of gladiators.
  • Gladiators 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, writes Tacitus, the year AD 63 of Nero's reign "witnessed gladiatorial displays on a no less magnificent scale than before, but exceeding all precedent in the number of distinguished women and senators disgracing themselves in the arena."

.During the later days of the republic the gladiators were a constant element of danger to the public peace.^ This gladiator is thought to have been derived from the dress and weapons of prisoners of war from conquered Gaul (corresponds roughly to present-day France, Switzerland, Belgium) who were made to fight as gladiators during the Roman Republic.
  • Warrior Challenge. Gladiators. Warrior Profile | PBS 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: General]

^ In the Republic, the Editores were politicians who, wishing to curry public favor, would put on fights between gladiators and animal shows.
  • Gladiator Movie - Roman Gladiators vs the Gladiator Movie 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC ancienthistory.about.com [Source type: General]

^ While gladiators will never come back exactly as they were during Roman antiquity, the power and drama of their performances can return day after day in art, in literature, and in Jordan.
  • The Roman Gladiator: Return of the Gladiators 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC ablemedia.com [Source type: General]

.The more turbulent spirits among the nobility had each his band of gladiators to act as a bodyguard, and the armed troops of Clodius, Milo and Catiline played the same part in Roman history as the armed retainers of the feudal barons or the condottieri of the Italian republics.^ What was the biggest gladiator fight in Roman history?

^ "Roman Gladiators; Roman history, roman civilization."
  • Michael Shanks - site 2006: Versions for "Andrew's Project: Entertainment in Cities" 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC traumwerk.stanford.edu [Source type: General]

^ Russell Crowe, plays a Roman General who is betrayed his family is murdered and he ends up in the arenas as a Gladiator.
  • Gladiator Movie Review 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.hdfest.com [Source type: General]

Under the empire, notwithstanding sumptuary enactments, the passion for the arena steadily increased. .Augustus, indeed, limited the shows to two a year, and forbade a praetor to exhibit more than 120 gladiators, yet allusions in Horace (Sat. ii.^ Also, a gladiator usually did not fight on more than two or three matches each year.
  • Gladiatorial Training and Combat: The Roman Familia That Travels Together, Stays Together | Suite101.com 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC ancienthistory.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gladiator has the narrative drive of those two movies, though in some ways, it's more uncluttered and ferociously entertaining than either of them.

^ Some gladiators did not fight more than two or three times a year, and the best of them became popular heroes (appearing often on graffiti, for example: “Thrax is the heart-throb of all the girls”).
  • Gladiators of Ancient Rome 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC legvi.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

3.85) and Persius (vi. .48) show that ioo pairs was the fashionable number for private entertainments; and in the Marmor Ancyranum the emperor states that more than io,000 men had fought during his reign.^ We fought them off, more than once.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gladiator has the narrative drive of those two movies, though in some ways, it's more uncluttered and ferociously entertaining than either of them.

^ DVD Review: American Gangster A clash of the titans on paper, three men who have had more hits than Mike Tyson combine to bring us "American Gangster".

.The imbecile Claudius was devoted to this pastime, and would sit from morning till night in his chair of state, descending now and then to the arena to coax or force the reluctant gladiators to resume their bloody work.^ Gladiator A.D. is a brutal arena fighting game that takes players back to ancient Rome to do bloody battle.
  • Gladiator A.D. - Wii - GameSpy 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC wii.gamespy.com [Source type: General]

^ Brothersoft Editor: Fight for Survival and revenge as a Gladiator , or ruthlessly control your Gladiators Reality TV Arena as the Imperial Director!Now With CPU controlled Director support!
  • Legendary Gladiators free Download 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.brothersoft.com [Source type: General]

^ Review This Episode More Reviews   8.5 Great Hercules finds himself in prison and forced to fight for his life as a Gladiator in a cruel arena.
  • Hercules: The Legendary Journeys: Gladiator episode on TV.com 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.tv.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under Nero senators and even well-born women appeared as combatants; and Juvenal (viii.^ Women gladiators came into vogue under the emperors Nero and Domitian in thee late first century A.D. Evidence shows that Domitian sometimes pitted female fighters against male dwarves as well as against one another.
  • The Gladiators 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.murphsplace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later, in entertaining the king of Armenia, Nero gave a gladiatorial exhibition in which Ethiopians appeared, both men, women, and children (Dio, LXIII.3.1).
  • Female gladiators: Women as warriors 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Nero was known to have liked watching women fight in the arena and even forced the wives of Senators into the arena.
  • Gladiators – Their Armor and Weapons 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.realarmorofgod.com [Source type: Original source]

.199) has handed down to eternal infamy the descendant of the Gracchi who appeared without disguise as a retiarius, and begged his life from the secutor, who blushed to conquer one so noble and so vile.'^ For example, the retiarius (net man), who wore a short tunic, attempted to capture his fully armed opponent, the secutor (pursuer), with a net and then to kill him with a dagger.
  • Gladiators 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An opponent who felt he was defeated would raise his left hand with one finger extended as a request for mercy.
  • The Roman Gladiator Training & Combat 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC ablemedia.com [Source type: General]

^ To gain his freedom, the noble Maximus becomes a gladiator, a one-man killing machine who thrills bloodthirsty crowds by viciously vanquishing any foe.

.Titus, whom his countrymen surnamed the Clement, ordered a show which lasted loo days; and Trajan, in celebration of his triumph over Decebalus, exhibited 5000 pairs of gladiators.^ Emperor Trajan exhibited 5,000 pairs.

^ Hence the shows extended from one day to as many as a hundred, under the emperor Titus; while the emperor Trajan in his triumph ( ad 107) had 5,000 pairs of gladiators.
  • gladiator (Roman sports) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Focusing on fighting methods used by pairs of gladiators in one-to-one combat, Tuck examined 158 images of Roman art from the period, showing gladiatorial active combat.
  • Discovery Channel :: News :: Roman Gladiators: Highly Paid, Trained 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC dsc.aol.discovery.com [Source type: News]

.Domitian at the Saturnalia of A.D. 90 arranged a battle between dwarfs and women.^ One of the peculiarities of the emperor Domitian was to have unusual gladiators (dwarfs and women), and the half-mad Commodus appeared in person in the arena, of course winning his bouts.
  • gladiator (Roman sports) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Emperor Domitian staged games in which women battled pygmies.
  • Gladiator: The Real Story 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.exovedate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Emperor Commodus liked to stage fights between dwarfs and women.
  • Gladiator 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.unrv.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even women of high birth fought in the arena, and it was not till A.D. 200 that the practice was forbidden by edict.^ Emperor Septimius Severus issued an edict prohibiting women combatants in the arena in 200 AD. Caesar's large-scale exhibitions prompted the Roman Senate to limit the number of contestants.
  • Gladiator 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.unrv.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Roman citizens sometimes assumed the career of a gladiator, and women ( Amazones ) occasionally fought in the arena, to such enthusiasm that, in AD 200, Septimius Severus forbade female combatants.

^ In 200 AD, so many women were joining up that Septimius Serverus decreed that all women were excluded from joining the gladiators and disbanded those that were already fighting in the arena.
  • Gladiators – Their Armor and Weapons 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.realarmorofgod.com [Source type: Original source]

.How widely the taste for these sanguinary spectacles extended throughout the Roman provinces is attested by monuments, inscriptions and the remains of vast amphitheatres.^ Just look at how you changed from an overweight, middle-aged scientist to a buff Roman supersoldier during the gap between these two movies.

^ LOVE THESE! All buckles are functional so no matter how narrow or wide, you can fit in these comfortably!
  • Women's Mossimo® Pauline Gladiator Sandals - Bronze Snake : Target 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.target.com [Source type: General]

.From Britain to Syria there was not a town of any size that could not boast its arena and annual games.^ Chester's amphitheatre is the only one of its kind in Britain with this special feature and it could probably hold between 8-10,000 people - the population of a small town.
  • New Finds Show How Roman Gladiators Fought In Chester 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.show.me.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Could each of your classes do four examples of Ancient Greek Vessels for us to exhibit at our Olympic Center when we have our annual games?
  • WEBSITES ON THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

.After Italy, Gaul, North Africa and Spain were most famous for their amphitheatres; and Greece was the only Roman province where the institution never thoroughly took root.^ Maximus is unique in that he is from Spain, one of the outer provinces of the Roman Empire, and has never even set foot in Rome.
  • DVD Verdict Review - Gladiator 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.dvdverdict.com [Source type: General]

^ Returning to the Colosseum today after five years in retirement, Caesar, is pleased to bring you the only undefeated champion in Roman history, the legendary...Tigris of Gaul!
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He, to his pocketbook's regret, must work the provinces (in North Africa) since Marcus Aurelius banned his gladiator show in Rome five years ago.
  • gladiator 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.sover.net [Source type: General]

.Gladiators were commonly drawn either from prisoners of war, or slaves or criminals condemned to death.^ Gladiators were typically recruited from criminals, slaves, and prisoners of war.
  • Gladiator 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.unrv.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gladiators were usually prisoners of war, slaves, or convicted criminals.

^ At the start of their history, they were mainly slaves, criminals and prisoners of war.
  • Gladiators – Their Armor and Weapons 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.realarmorofgod.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus in the first class we read of tattooed Britons in their war chariots, Thracians with their peculiar bucklers and scimitars, Moors from the villages round Atlas and negroes from central Africa, exhibited in the Colosseum.^ Upper class Romans did not partake in tattooing, which they associated with either marginal groups, or foreigners, such as Thracians, who were known to tattoo extensively.
  • Gladiator: The Real Story 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.exovedate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 787, Pope Hadrian the First prohibited tattooing altogether, due to its association with superstition, paganism, and the marginal classes.
  • Gladiator: The Real Story 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.exovedate.com [Source type: Original source]

.Down to the time of the empire only greater malefactors, such as brigands and incendiaries, were condemned to the arena; but by Caligula, Claudius and Nero this punishment was extended to minor offences, such as fraud and peculation, in order to supply the growing demand for victims.^ The games evolved through the centuries into a huge public affair, fought in huge arenas, like the Roman Colosseum , all over the empire, to thousands of spectators at a time.
  • The Roman Gladiator: The Rock Star of the Roman Empire | Suite101.com 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC ancienthistory.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the time of the Empire, Gauls living in Italy had been fully integrated into Roman society, so portraying them as enemies barbarians in the arena was unacceptible.
  • About Roman Gladiator Costumes | eHow.com 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ Later, Caligula and Nero would order both groups to participate in the games.
  • The Roman Gladiator: Who Were the Gladiators? 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC ablemedia.com [Source type: General]

.For the first century of the empire it was lawful for masters to sell their slaves as gladiators, but this was forbidden by Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius.^ First slave, then Gladiator in Africa .
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First slave, then Gladiator in Africa ..
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Fall of the Roman Empire a group of conspirators independent of Commodus, hoping to profit from Commodus's accession, arrange for Marcus Aurelius to be poisoned; in Gladiator Commodus himself murders his father by smothering him.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: General]

.Besides these three regular classes, the ranks were recruited by a considerable number of freedmen and Roman citizens who had squandered their estates and voluntarily took the auctoramentum gladiatorium, by which for a stated time they bound themselves to the lanista. Even men of birth and fortune not seldom entered the lists, either for the pure love of fighting or to gratify the whim of some dissolute emperor; and one emperor, Commodus, actually appeared in person in the arena.^ Some people actually complained they were too wooden and mechanical in their fighting.
  • Gladiators – Their Armor and Weapons 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.realarmorofgod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who was who in Roman times :  The emperors.
  • romanemperors 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.fidnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Roman Emperors   Some Roman Emperors : States cause of death.
  • romanemperors 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.fidnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gladiators were trained in schools (ludi) owned either by the state or by private citizens, and though the trade of a lanista was considered disgraceful, to own gladiators and let them out for hire was reckoned a legitimate branch of commerce.^ To own gladiators and hire them out was, however, a regular and legitimate branch of commerce.
  • gladiator (Roman sports) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gladiators were owned by a person called a lanista and were trained in the lanista s school ( ludus ).

^ Training: The manager of a gladiatorial troupe was called a lanista ; he provided lengthy and demanding training in schools ( ludi ) especially designed for this purpose and usually located near the great amphitheaters.
  • Gladiators of Ancient Rome 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC legvi.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Gladiatorial Games 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.vroma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus Cicero, in his letters to Atticus, congratulates his friend on the good bargain he had made in purchasing a band, and urges that he might easily recoup himself by consenting to let them out twice.^ I hate to think that the failures of Gladiator might boil down to the fact that it is simply too dignified for its own good, but a case could be made for that point.
  • AboutFilm.Com - Gladiator (2000) 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.aboutfilm.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With those legions he’d bought, I’m afraid he might have made himself another Marius, another Sulla.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caius, as it is reported, was very forward to go and clear himself before the senate; but none of his friends consenting to it, Fulvius sent his son a second time to intercede for them, as before.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Caius Gracchus by Plutarch 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Men recruited mainly from slaves and criminals, whose lives hung on a thread, must have been more dangerous characters than modern galley slaves or convicts; and, though highly fed and carefully tended, they were of necessity subject to an iron discipline.^ They are worth more than we.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are worth more than we."
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are worth more than we are!"

.In the school of gladiators discovered at Pompeii, of the sixty-three skeletons buried in the cells many were in irons.^ The schools that trained gladiators soon had tighter control over them after Spartacus's revolt and many new Imperial schools opened and were run with better management.
  • Gladiators 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.vincelewis.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For instance no Gladiator will be able to enter the Arena carrying more than 8 heals and 4 sancs, regardless of how many they succeeded to collect in Gladiator School.
  • The Gladiator Arena | 4Dimensions 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC 4dimensions.org [Source type: General]

^ In the movie we see that the gladiators lived in little cells and traveled with their school.
  • Journal of Historical Studies 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC cssaame.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But hard as was the gladiators' lot, - so hard that special precautions had to be taken to prevent suicide, - it had its consolations.^ As mentioned earlier, gladiators were trained at special schools originally owned by private citizens, but later taken over by the imperial state to prevent the build up of a private army.
  • The Roman Gladiator Training & Combat 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC ablemedia.com [Source type: General]

^ July 2009 Before I went to see Gladiator, I expected a trash popcorn movie with lots of special effects - but the film gave me a complete SHOCK !!
  • Gladiator Movie Download in HD 720p/DVD/DivX/PDA Quality 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.moviepro.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A successful gladiator enjoyed far greater fame than any modern prize-fighter or athlete.^ Gladiators were expensive to maintain, train and replace in the event of death, and keeping the most popular of crowd pleasers alive was far more practical than the alternative.
  • Gladiator 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.unrv.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Braveheart signaled the successful return this type of film making but now there is a contender for the title of best modern epic, Gladiator.

^ This matches both contemprary visual accounts of gladiators as more like Sumo wrestlers than modern-day boxers, and contemporary epithets of gladiators as "barley crunchers."
  • Roman gladiators were "barly-crunchers" - VeggieBoards - Vegetarian Forum 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.veggieboards.com [Source type: General]

He was 1 See A. E. Housman on the passage in Classical Review (November 1904).
presented with broad pieces, chains and jewelled helmets, such as may be seen in the museum at Naples; poets like Martial sang his prowess; his portrait was multiplied on vases, lamps and gems; and high-born ladies contended for his fa lours. Mixed, too, with the lowest dregs of the city, there must have been many noble barbarians condemned to the vile trade by the hard fate of war. .There are few finer characters in Roman history than the Thracian Spartacus, who, escaping with seventy of his comrades from the school of Lentulus at Capua, for three years defied the legions of Rome; and after Antony's defeat at Actium, the only part of his army that remained faithful to his cause were the gladiators whom he had enrolled at Cyzicus to grace his anticipated victory.^ In 73 BC, he and seventy gladiators escaped from their barracks in Capua.

^ Some gladiators did not fight more than two or three times a year, and the best of them became popular heroes (appearing often on graffiti, for example: “Thrax is the heart-throb of all the girls”).
  • Gladiators of Ancient Rome 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC legvi.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Roman gladiators; roman history, roman civilization   The Roman Gladiator   : Because of the movie "Gladiators," CTCWeb's editors thought people might want to learn more about gladiators and gladiatorial combat.
  • romanemperors 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.fidnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There were various classes of gladiators, distinguished by their arms or modes of fighting.^ There were various classes of gladiators, distinguished by their arms or modes of fighting.
  • gladiator (Roman sports) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the gladiator, the measure of his valor was a measure of the desperation of the circumstances in which it was acquired, and, paradoxically, if he could fight in contempt of life and glory, there was the possibility that he could regain them both.

^ These different types of Gladiators could usually be distinguished by the way they dressed during battles as well as their entrance into the Colosseum before a fight.
  • Ancient Roman Gladiators, Roman Colosseum – EncycloMedia.com 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.encyclomedia.com [Source type: General]

.The Samnites fought with the national weapons - a large oblong shield, a vizor, a plumed helmet and a short sword.^ They fought with short swords and a large round shield.
  • Gladiators 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Samnites fought with the national weapons—a large oblong shield, a visor, a plumed helmet, and a short sword.
  • gladiator (Roman sports) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thracian: Wide-brimmed crested helmet with visor , high greaves on both legs, arm protector, very small shield, and short, curved sword (similar to Spartacus); the victorious gladiator in this mosaic is a Thracian.
  • Gladiatorial Games 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.vroma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Thraces had a small round buckler and a dagger curved like a scythe; they were generally pitted against the Mirmillones, who were armed in Gallic fashion with helmet, sword and shield, and were so called from the fish (µoppbXos or ,uopybpos) which served as the crest of their helmet.^ They were armed with sword, rectangular tower shield and helmet.
  • About Roman Gladiator Costumes | eHow.com 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ The Thraces (“Thracians”) had a small round buckler and a dagger curved like a scythe; they were generally pitted against the mirmillones , who were armed in Gallic fashion with helmet, sword, and shield and were so called from the name of the fish that served as the crest of their helmet.
  • gladiator (Roman sports) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They carried a small shield called a parma and a sword called a sica.
  • Gladiators 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In like manner the Retiarius was matched with the Secutor: the former had nothing on but a short tunic or apron, and sought to entangle his pursuer, who was fully armed, with the cast-net (jaculum) that he carried in his right hand; and if successful, he despatched him with the trident (tridens, fuscina) that he carried in his left.^ As a retiarius, he carried no helmet, and his weapons were a trident and a net.
  • How Gladiators really lived 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.murphsplace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is held by a retiarius, who also carries a trident, his dog at his feet.
  • How Gladiators really lived 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.murphsplace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In like manner the retiarius (“net man”) was matched with the secutor (“pursuer”); the former wore nothing but a short tunic or apron and sought to entangle his pursuer, who was fully armed, with the cast net he carried in his right hand; if successful, he dispatched him with the trident he carried in his left.
  • gladiator (Roman sports) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.We may also mention the Andabatae who are generally believed to have fought on horseback and wore helmets with closed vizors; the Dimachaeri of the later empire, who carried a short sword in each hand; the Essedarii, who fought from chariots like the ancient Britons; the Hoplomachi, who wore a complete suit of armour; and the Laquearii, who tried to lasso their antagonists.^ There were also the andabatae , who are believed to have fought on horseback and to have worn helmets with closed visors—that is, to have fought blindfolded; the dimachaeri (“two-knife men”) of the later empire, who carried a short sword in each hand; the essedarii (“chariot men”), who fought from chariots like the ancient Britons; the hoplomachi (“fighters in armour”), who wore a complete suit of armour; and the laquearii (“lasso men”), who tried to lasso their antagonists.
  • gladiator (Roman sports) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Equites were gladiators who fought on horseback.
  • Gladiators – Their Armor and Weapons 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.realarmorofgod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Essedarii fought from war chariots.
  • Gladiators – Their Armor and Weapons 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.realarmorofgod.com [Source type: Original source]

.Gladiators also received special names according to the time or circumstances in which they exercised their calling.^ They were trained in special gladiator schools.
  • Roman Gladiator Helmet 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.a2armory.com [Source type: General]

^ They were trained in special gladiator schools called ludi .

^ However, despite the great carnage provided for the mob, most of the fights involving big-name gladiators were no doubt fixed, much as they are today.

.The Bustuarii have already been mentioned; the Catervarii fought, not in pairs, but in bands; the Meridiani came forward in the middle of the day for the entertainment of those spectators who had not left their seats; the Ordinarii fought only in pairs, in the regular way; the Fiscales were trained and supported at the expense of the imperial treasury; the Paegniarii used harmless weapons, and their exhibition was a sham one; the Postulaticii were those whose appearance was asked as a favour from the giver of the show, in addition to those already exhibited.^ Use well your weapons, only one will survive!
  • Free Arcade Games - Arcade Reign - Gladiator 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.arcadereign.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meridiani.  Always fought in the middle of the day, after the wild beast fights.
  • Gladiators 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.vincelewis.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Which brings us to the action blockbuster Gladiator - a film perhaps destined to chop its opponents to bits in the coming awards-show combat, but whose one profundity, it seems, we have already heard.
  • Gladiator: Review of Ridley Scott's Oscar Best Picture nominated movie of 2001 starring Russell Crowe 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.culturekiosque.com [Source type: General]

.The shows were announced some days before they took place by bills affixed to the walls of houses and public buildings, copies of which were also sold in the streets.^ The shows were announced several days before they took place by bills affixed to the walls of houses and public buildings; copies were also sold in the streets.
  • gladiator (Roman sports) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Goal: To have the students produce creative work in the form of a flyer, which will show what kinds of events might take place in the Coliseum on any given day.

^ Most orders placed before 4PM (EST) Monday-Friday will usually ship out the same day.

.These bills gave the names of the chief pairs of competitors, the date of the show, the name of the giver and the different kinds of combats.^ These bills gave the names of the chief pairs of competitors, the date of the show, the name of the giver, and the different kinds of combats.
  • gladiator (Roman sports) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gladiators : Learn about when Rome began to hold gladiator games, when they were banned, and the different kinds of combat for which the gladiators trained.
  • romanemperors 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.fidnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I would either get a pair like these or wear the ones you already have with pants or long skirts so your ankles don’t show.
  • Spring Fashion Trend: Gladiator Heels – College Fashion 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.collegefashion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The spectacle began with a procession of the gladiators through the arena, after which their swords were examined by the giver of the show.^ The spectacle began with a procession of the gladiators through the arena, and the proceedings opened with a sham fight ( praelusio, prolusio ) with wooden swords and javelins.
  • gladiator (Roman sports) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then the real games began with a fanfare and the gladiators entered the arena to fight, if any of the gladiatorial criminal fraternity had second thoughts then they were apparently forced out at sword point or by a hot branding iron by a Roman soldier.
  • Gladiators 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.vincelewis.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once the gladiators were in the amphitheater they began with a preliminary fight ( prolusio ) using sword s and darts, until the trumpet blew and the main fight began (accompanied by music).
  • Gladiator@Everything2.com 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

.The proceedings opened with a sham fight (praelusio, prolusio) with wooden swords and javelins.^ The spectacle began with a procession of the gladiators through the arena, and the proceedings opened with a sham fight ( praelusio, prolusio ) with wooden swords and javelins.
  • gladiator (Roman sports) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once the gladiators were in the amphitheater they began with a preliminary fight ( prolusio ) using sword s and darts, until the trumpet blew and the main fight began (accompanied by music).
  • Gladiator@Everything2.com 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

^ The next fighter is Juba who picks up the wooden sword given to them for their testing and fiercely fights back as Hagen tests him.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

.The signal for real fighting was given by the sound of the trumpet, those who showed fear being driven on to the arena with whips and red-hot irons.^ The signal for real fighting was given by the sound of the trumpet, and those who showed fear were driven into the arena with whips and red-hot irons.
  • gladiator (Roman sports) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those who had lost courage in the last minute were driven into the arena with whips or hot iron bars.
  • Rome Exposed - Amphitheatres and Gladiators 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.classicsunveiled.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then the real games began with a fanfare and the gladiators entered the arena to fight, if any of the gladiatorial criminal fraternity had second thoughts then they were apparently forced out at sword point or by a hot branding iron by a Roman soldier.
  • Gladiators 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.vincelewis.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When a gladiator was wounded, the spectators shouted Habet (he is wounded); if he was at the mercy of his adversary, he lifted up his forefinger to implore the clemency of the people, with whom (in the later times of the republic) the giver left the decision as to his life or death.^ When a gladiator was wounded, the spectators shouted “ Habet ” (“He is wounded”); if he was at the mercy of his adversary, he lifted up his forefinger to implore the clemency of the people, to whom (in the later times of the Republic) the giver left the decision as to his life or death.
  • gladiator (Roman sports) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The defeated gladiator would possibly raise his left hand (also sometimes referred to as raising a finger which may have indicated a request for mercy) asking for his life to be spared.
  • Gladiator 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.unrv.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the wounded man was able he would implore the crowd for mercy this was answered in one of two ways the first was thumbs up which indicated that he should live whilst the other was a jabbing of the thumb up and then towards the heart.
  • Gladiators 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.vincelewis.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the spectators were in favour of mercy, they waved their handkerchiefs; if they desired the death of the conquered gladiator, they turned their thumbs downwards.^ If the spectators were in favour of mercy they waved their handkerchiefs; if they desired the death of the conquered gladiator they turned their thumbs downward.
  • gladiator (Roman sports) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the spectators desired a fighter spared, they either waved their handkerchiefs or pointed their thumbs downward, the signal for the victor to drop his or her sword.
  • The Gladiators 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.murphsplace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, if the choice was death, they Pressed their thumbs toward their own chests (symbolizing a sword through the heart) and yelled "lugula!"
  • The Gladiators 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.murphsplace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.2 The reward of victory consisted of branches of palm, sometimes of money.^ Victors received palms and sometimes money .
  • Gladiator@Everything2.com 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

^ Victors were awarded crowns or a palm branch and the prize money stipulated in their contracts, as well as any money awarded by the crowd, which was collected on a silver tray.

.Gladiators who had exercised their calling for a long time, or such as displayed special skill and bravery, were presented with a wooden sword (rudis), and discharged from further service.^ The wooden sword, prized by all gladiators above all else.
  • Gladiator Script at IMSDb. 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When a gladiator was set free he was given a wooden sword, named rudis.
  • Rome Exposed - Amphitheatres and Gladiators 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.classicsunveiled.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term Gladiator was derived from the Latin word gladiatores, which meant one who uses a sword or gladius.
  • Roman Gladiator Armour Roman Armor Arm Guards Gladiator Heltmet Roamn Shield Greek Sword for Medieval Renaissance from By The Sword Inc 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.by-the-sword.com [Source type: General]

2 A different account is given by Mayor on Juvenal iii. .36, who says: "Those who wished the death of the conquered gladiator turned their thumbs towards their breasts, as a signal to his opponents to stab him; those who wished him to be spared, turned their thumbs downwards, as a signal for dropping the sword."^ (This is the popular view; another view is that those who wanted the death of the defeated gladiator turned their thumbs toward their breasts as a signal to stab him, and those who wished him to be spared turned their thumbs downward as a signal to drop the sword.
  • gladiator (Roman sports) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The guards stab him to his death.
  • Gladiator - English 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.krescendo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Maximus, who barely escapes death, must flee and hide his identity by becoming slave and a gladiator if he want to avenge the death of his beloved wife and his son.
  • Gladiator Info, Trailers, and Reviews at MovieTome 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.movietome.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both the estimation in which gladiatorial games were held by Roman moralists, and the influence that they exercised upon the morals and genius of the nation, deserve notice.^ Then the real games began with a fanfare and the gladiators entered the arena to fight, if any of the gladiatorial criminal fraternity had second thoughts then they were apparently forced out at sword point or by a hot branding iron by a Roman soldier.
  • Gladiators 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.vincelewis.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The gladiators were tools of Roman rulers who believed, as the ancient formula said, that they could keep the plebs under control with 'bread and games'.
  • How Gladiators really lived 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.murphsplace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gladiators : Arenas of Blood   Gladiatorial Games   Roman Culture: Gladiators   Roman Gladiators : A student site, but good.
  • romanemperors 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.fidnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Roman was essentially cruel, not so much from spite or vindictiveness as from callousness and defective sympathies. .This element of inhumanity and brutality must have been deeply ingrained in the national character to have allowed the games to become popular, but there can be no doubt that it was fed and fostered by the savage form which their amusements took.^ Julius Caesar took full advantage of how popular the games were becoming in Rome.
  • Gladiators 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was no mistaking the purpose of these fights: they were designed to impress people with the might of Rome, and they allowed the cities of the entire empire to show that they belonged to it.
  • How Gladiators really lived 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.murphsplace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To do this, GameStates assembles articles from around the web, allows gamers to weigh in with their opinions, and lets you access daily popularity statistics for thousands of games.
  • GameStats: Gladiator Cheats, Reviews, News 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.gamestats.com [Source type: General]

That the sight of bloodshed provokes a love of bloodshed and cruelty is a commonplace of morals. .To the horrors of the arena we may attribute in part, not only the brutal treatment of their slaves and prisoners, but the frequency of suicide among the Romans.^ Gallery Disclaimer: Images are for informative purposes only; displayed parts and accessories may not be included in the actual product package.

^ He escapes, only to be captured by slave traders and sold to one Proximo (Oliver Reed), whose specialty is training gladiators for the Roman games of death.
  • Dr. Daniel's Movie Emergency - Gladiator 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC www.stairwell.com [Source type: General]

^ Spartacus was taken prisoner, and as often happens to prisoners of war, he was sold back to the Romans as a slave.

On the other hand, we should be careful not to exaggerate the effects or draw too sweeping inferences from the prevalence of this degrading amusement. .Human nature is happily illogical; and we know that many of the Roman statesmen who gave these games, and themselves enjoyed these sights of blood, were in every other department of life irreproachable - indulgent fathers, humane generals and mild rulers of provinces.^ These have more of a promotional quality but still succeed in covering a lot of ground, ranging from the generic The Making of Gladiator to a documentary about the Roman games.
  • DVD Times - Gladiator 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.dvdtimes.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Jun 04, 2000 tenisgrl - imdb.com The movie is the story of Maximus (Crowe), a general who leads the Roman army to victory over Germania in the beginning of the movie.
  • Gladiator: Gladiator Movie Reviews, Gladiator Reviews, Gladiator Story, Plot, Cast, Photos, Wallpapers and Videos - PerfSpot Movies 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC movies.perfspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two are not related, but they love each other like brothers and Aurelius truly believes that this general will do the best job as ruler of the vast empire.
  • Film Blather: Gladiator 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.filmblather.com [Source type: Original source]

In the present state of society it is difficult to conceive how a man of taste can have endured to gaze upon a scene of human butchery. .Yet we should remember that it is not so long since bear-baiting was prohibited in England, and we are only now attaining that stage of morality in respect of cruelty to animals that was reached in the 5th century, by the help of Christianity, in respect of cruelty to men.^ Death metal will always hold its ground in FL and right now the only important thing for us is to help everyone realize why!
  • GLADIATOR on MySpace Music - Free Streaming MP3s, Pictures & Music Downloads 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I remember hearing a long time ago that someone fights a rhino in this movie, but now all I hear about are the tigers.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So you're not only helping your style when you buy your now discount shoes , you're also living green and helping our environment.
  • Womens Designer Discount Shoes | Ladies High Heels Sandal Wedge Boots 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.nowdiscountshoes.com [Source type: General]

.We shall not then be greatly surprised if hardly one of the Roman moralists is found to raise his voice against this amusement, except on the score of extravagance.^ This is particularly surprising when one considers how frequently Scott has butchered various film scores over the years.
  • DVD Verdict Review - Gladiator (Blu-Ray) 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.dvdverdict.com [Source type: General]

.Cicero in a well-known passage commends the gladiatorial games as the best discipline against the fear of death and suffering that can be presented to the eye.^ The Early Christians condemned the gladiatorial games and military service and would not have been above disciplining those who involved themselves in these activities out of spiritual weakness.
  • Gladiator …review and/or viewer comments | Christian Spotlight™ on the Movies | ChristianAnswers.Net 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC christiananswers.net [Source type: General]
  • Gladiator …review and/or viewer comments | Christian Spotlight™ on the Movies | ChristianAnswers.Net 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.christiananswers.net [Source type: General]

^ There is so much going on but Scott presents it so well that not only do we understand what's going on but our eyes are glued to the screen.
  • Film Blather: Gladiator 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.filmblather.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I suppose that the filmmakers could’ve presented Christians that were forced to fight against their will in the games, but that would’ve been all the story would’ve merited.
  • Gladiator …review and/or viewer comments | Christian Spotlight™ on the Movies | ChristianAnswers.Net 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC christiananswers.net [Source type: General]
  • Gladiator …review and/or viewer comments | Christian Spotlight™ on the Movies | ChristianAnswers.Net 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.christiananswers.net [Source type: General]

.The younger Pliny, who perhaps of all Romans approaches nearest to our ideal of a cultured gentleman, speaks approvingly of them.^ A thrilling tale of a Roman general who must battle against all thinkable odds to avenge the death of his family and restore justice to the empire.
  • Gladiator: Gladiator Movie Reviews, Gladiator Reviews, Gladiator Story, Plot, Cast, Photos, Wallpapers and Videos - PerfSpot Movies 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC movies.perfspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He's got a British accent that seemed on most of the time, though I'll bet someone who actually speaks the tongue would say he was all over the dialectal map.
  • Impossible Big Kahuna Gladiator Hamlet (with Cheese) 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.reviewsontheside.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was that Roman praetor, Clodius Glaber, who followed us all the way to Vesuvius.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Marcus Aurelius, though he did much to mitigate their horrors, yet in his writings condemns the monotony rather than the cruelty.^ The aging Aurelius decides to bestow his position as ruler to Maximus, rather than his creepy son Commodus (Joachin Phoenix, who should have known better).
  • Gladiator (2000): Russell Crowe, Joachin Phoenix, Connie Nielsen, Derek Jacobi - PopMatters Film Review 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.popmatters.com [Source type: General]

^ The intertitle that announces the Roman empire (under philosopher-emperor Marcus Aurelius) is on the verge of conquering the last of the Germanic tribes feels like a disappointing coda rather than a supreme achievement.
  • Gladiator - a Movie Review by The Phantom Tollbooth 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.tollbooth.org [Source type: General]

^ Commodus ( Joaquin Phoenix ), son of Marcus Aurelius, condemns Meridius to probable death by sending him into the gladiatorial arena.
  • Gladiator Movie - Roman Gladiators vs the Gladiator Movie 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC ancienthistory.about.com [Source type: General]

Seneca is indeed a splendid exception, and his letter to Lentulus is an eloquent protest against this inhuman sport. But it is without a parallel till we come to the writings of the Christian fathers, Tertullian, Lactantius, Cyprian and Augustine. .In the Confessions of the last there occurs a narrative which is worth quoting as a proof of the strange fascination which the games exercised even on a religious man and a Christian.^ And tomorrow I’ll be going back in the arena again so Roman crowds can see the last surviving Spartacanus fight to the death, even if he is an old man.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even though it is set in 179 A.D. Christianity specifically is not mentioned, there are scenes of prayer and of an afterlife.
  • Gladiator …review and/or viewer comments | Christian Spotlight™ on the Movies | ChristianAnswers.Net 18 September 2009 6:36 UTC christiananswers.net [Source type: General]
  • Gladiator …review and/or viewer comments | Christian Spotlight™ on the Movies | ChristianAnswers.Net 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.christiananswers.net [Source type: General]

^ There’s even a new version of The Famous Five , which started last week on the Disney channel.

.He tells us how his friend Alipius was dragged against his will to the amphitheatre, how he strove to quiet his conscience by closing his eyes, how at some exciting crisis the shouts of the whole assembly aroused his curiosity, how he looked and was lost, grew drunk with the sight of blood, and returned again and again, knowing his guilt yet unable to abstain.^ It was what Spartacus had been telling us all along, one day we were going to come up against veteran legions.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ How can you know what questions you need to ask when you don't know what questions have been answered and what questions have yet to be answered?
  • Financial Gladiator Protecting Your Investment Dollar 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.financialgladiator.com [Source type: General]

^ How about these reviewers telling us something about his role?
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first Christian emperor was persuaded to issue an edict abolishing gladiatorial games (325), yet in 404 we read of an exhibition of gladiators to celebrate the triumph of Honorius over the Goths, and it is said that they were not totally extinct in the West till the time of Theodoric.^ The gladiators were tools of Roman rulers who believed, as the ancient formula said, that they could keep the plebs under control with 'bread and games'.
  • How Gladiators really lived 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.murphsplace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hence the shows extended from one day to as many as a hundred, under the emperor Titus; while the emperor Trajan in his triumph ( ad 107) had 5,000 pairs of gladiators.
  • gladiator (Roman sports) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Emperor Septimius Severus issued an edict prohibiting women combatants in the arena in 200 AD. Caesar's large-scale exhibitions prompted the Roman Senate to limit the number of contestants.
  • Gladiator 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.unrv.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gladiators formed admirable models for the sculptor. .One of the finest pieces of ancient sculpture that has come down to us is the "Wounded Gladiator" of the National Museum at Naples.^ A more common outcome was when one gladiator went down wounded.
  • The Gladiators 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.murphsplace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was what Spartacus had been telling us all along, one day we were going to come up against veteran legions.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was always warning us not to get overconfident, that one day we’d come up against a real veteran legion and learn the difference.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

.The so-called "Fighting Gladiator" of the Borghese collection, now in the Museum of the Louvre, and the "Dying Gladiator" of the Capitoline Museum, which inspired the famous stanza of Childe Harold, have been pronounced by modern antiquaries to represent, not gladiators, but warriors.^ T warrior apache A LAZY group of nomadic hunters that might have had a fight every 6 months to a year vs a gladiator that fought every other day.
  • Apache vs. Gladiator 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Gladiator Maximus calls in the builders Gladiator Now We Are Free Gladiator movie trailer Upload a Video .
  • Gladiator - Movie Reviews, Photos & Videos, Layouts & Wallpapers, Fan Club 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.flixster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gladiator Warrior Child Costume * .
  • Gladiator Costumes & Accessories | Costumzee.com 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.costumzee.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this connexion we may mention the admirable picture of Gerome which bears the title, "Ave, Caesar, morituri to salutant."^ Ave Caesar, morituri te salutant!
  • Gladiator@Everything2.com 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

^ "'Ave Caesar, morituri te salutant' Which when translated means "Hail, Caesar , those who are about to die salute you."
  • Gladiator@Everything2.com 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

The attention of archaeologists has been recently directed to the tesserae of gladiators. .These tesserae, of which about sixty exist in various museums, are small oblong tablets of ivory or bone, with an inscription on each of the four sides.^ During the civil war, when Marius was hard-pressed by Sulla, he freed about four thousand slaves to fight on his side.
  • " The Gladiator's War: A Dialogue" by Lois Tilton 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.asimovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ 'There wasn't much about these bones that suggested death,' he says, 'so I wasn't shaken by them at all.
  • How Gladiators really lived 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.murphsplace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But newly discovered bones are finally revealing the truth about how these ancient heroes lived and died.
  • How Gladiators really lived 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.murphsplace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first line contains a name in the nominative case, presumably that of the gladiator; the second line a name in the genitive, that of the patronus or dominus; the third line begins with the letters SP (for spectatus =approved), which shows that the gladiator had passed his preliminary trials; this is followed by a day of a Roman month; and in the fourth line are the names of the consuls of a particular year.^ The gladiators were not interested in putting on a show for the Romans.
  • Gladiators 15 September 2009 22:10 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Samnites (a tribe from Campania which the Romans had fought in the fourth and third centuries BC) were the prototype for Rome's professional gladiators, and it was their equipment that first was used and later adopted for the arena.

^ Hence the shows extended from one day to as many as a hundred, under the emperor Titus; while the emperor Trajan in his triumph ( ad 107) had 5,000 pairs of gladiators.
  • gladiator (Roman sports) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 17:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Authorities

- .All needful information on the subject will be found in L. Friedlander's Darstellungen aus der Sittengeschichte Roms, (part ii., 6th ed., 1889), and in the section by him on "The Games" in Marquardt's Rämische Staatsverwaltung, iii. (1885) p.^ Each chapter is further internally divided into sections to make for easier reading and all but the last three chapters provide a chronology of events relating to its subject.
  • romanemperors 25 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.fidnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

554; see also article by G. Lafaye in Daremberg and Saglio, Dictionnaire des antiquites. See also F. W. Ritschl, Tesserae gladiatoriae (1864) and P. T. Meier, De gladiatura Romana quaestiones selectae (1881). The articles by Lipsius on the Saturnalia and amphitheatrum in Graevius, Thesaurus antiquitatum Romanarum, ix., may still be consulted with advantage.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also gladiator, and gladiátor

German

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Gladiator
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Noun

Gladiator m. (genitive Gladiators, plural Gladiatoren)
  1. gladiator

Simple English

File:Jean-Leon Gerome Pollice
"With a Turned Thumb", painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1872).

Gladiators (Latin: gladiatōrēs, "swordsmen" or "one who uses a sword," from gladius, "sword") were professional fighters in ancient Rome, who fought against each other, wild animals, and sentenced criminals, sometimes to the death, for the entertainment of the public. These fights took place in arenas in many cities from the Roman Republic period through the Roman Empire.

The word comes from gladius, the Latin word for a short sword used by legionaries and some gladiators.

There were different types gladiators in the world, such as Thracians, Mirmillones, Retiarii, and the Secutores.

Other websites



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 20, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Gladiator, which are similar to those in the above article.








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