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Gladstone, Oregon
—  City  —
Fire and police station in downtown
Nickname(s): Home of the Pow Wow Tree
Location in Oregon
Coordinates: 45°22′52″N 122°35′35″W / 45.38111°N 122.59306°W / 45.38111; -122.59306Coordinates: 45°22′52″N 122°35′35″W / 45.38111°N 122.59306°W / 45.38111; -122.59306
Country United States
State Oregon
County Clackamas
Incorporated 1911
Government
 - Mayor Wade Byers
Area
 - Total 2.5 sq mi (6.5 km2)
 - Land 2.5 sq mi (6.4 km2)
 - Water 0.1 sq mi (0.1 km2)
Elevation 57 ft (17.37 m)
Population (2007)
 - Total 12,200
 - Density 4,619/sq mi (1,780.7/km2)
Time zone Pacific (UTC-8)
 - Summer (DST) Pacific (UTC-7)
ZIP code 97027
Area code(s) 503
FIPS code 41-29000[1]
GNIS feature ID 1136316[2]
Website http://www.ci.gladstone.or.us

Gladstone is a city located in Clackamas County, Oregon, United States. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 11,438. The 2007 estimate is 12,200 residents.[3] Gladstone is a four-square-mile (10 km²) suburban community twelve miles (19 km) south of Portland at the confluence of the Clackamas and Willamette rivers. To the south, across the Clackamas River, is Oregon City, across the Willamette is West Linn, to the north is Milwaukie.

Contents

History

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Clackamas Indians

There were several Indian groups living in the area that was to become Gladstone. Lewis and Clark did not visit the Gladstone-Oregon City region, but did have it described to them by the native people. Later explorers and traders brought diseases and epidemics that took a very heavy toll on the native population and the tribes dwindled to near extinction.

When Oregon City was founded and people began moving to the area, they petitioned their governments to remove the local aboriginals from the land, so that European settlers could have land to farm and live on. The government responded by rounding up the Indians and forcing them to leave their lands for a reservation. With the natives removed from the scene, the Gladstone area was ripe for settling. Today the only visible remains of the native presence is a large maple tree called "The Pow Wow Tree," which is listed as an Oregon Heritage Tree.[4]

Early homesteaders

The earliest homesteads in the area were donation land claims. The Casons and the Rinearsons were the first settlers to receive their donation land claims in Gladstone. Peter M. Rinearson and his family owned the land between Jennings Lodge and the Clackamas River, and between the Willamette River and Portland Avenue.[5] Fendal Cason, who came to Oregon in 1843, owned an area equal in size east of Portland Avenue. Cason went on to serve in the Oregon Territorial Legislature.[6]

The Pow-Wow Tree marked the place where the different Indian tribes, mainly Clackamas and Multnomahs, met to make trading agreements, settle community affairs, and conduct wedding ceremonies.[5] The tree still stands on Clackamas Boulevard. Adjacent to the Pow-Wow Tree was an Indian racetrack that Peter Rinearson later used as an exercise and training ground for the racehorses he bred.[5] In 1861, it was used as a parade ring for the first State Fair held on the Rinearson property, with the Pow-Wow Tree marking the entrance.[5]

Failed starts

City Hall and municipal court

Several small towns were established in this period, but only a few remained to become the cities of today, because of floods and fires.

Linn City was settled in the 1840s by Robert Moore who built four flour and lumber mills along the banks of the Willamette. Warehouses, homes, and mills were added until 1857, when a fire destroyed several of the buildings. Efforts at rebuilding the small town ceased when a flood came later that year and wiped out the rest of the buildings.[7]

Founding of the city

Cross Park, named for Gladstone founder Harvey Cross

Gladstone was founded by Judge Harvey Cross in the late 1800s, and formally incorporated on January 10, 1911. He laid out the city's first streets. Cross' home was built in the late 1840s by Fendal Cason, and Cross purchased it in 1862.[8] The Cason-Cross House later became Cochran Mortuary, and as of 2008, Mr. Rooter, a plumbing service, occupies the space.[8]

There is also a small park named after Cross, located at the same place one of the Indian tribes made its camp.[5]

Cross chose the name "Gladstone" because he admired Prime Minister William E. Gladstone of England.

The first church

The Gladstone Church of Christ was established and organized in 1908 by Aaron Hayes Mulkey, with 55 members. Initially, it was of rough lumber construction with no floor or windows, with backless benches. The following year saw the erection of a new church on land donated by Harvey Cross.

Chautauqua

In 1894, Oregon City author Eva Emory Dye persuaded Judge Cross that bringing the Chautauqua movement to the area would be of great benefit to the community and surrounding area.[9] So Judge Cross granted a fifty-year lease of his land, named Gladstone Park, to the newly formed Willamette Valley Chautauqua Association for an annual summer assembly that offered lectures, concerts and theatrical performances.[9] Gladstone's first outdoor Chautauqua was held on July 24-26, 1894.[9] Gladstone's Chautauqua Park grew to be the third-largest permanent Chautauqua assembly park in the United States.[9]

As time passed, however, better transportation, traveling vaudeville acts appearing in Portland, and the advent of radio meant that the Chautauqua's attendance began to dwindle.[9] In 1927, the Willamette Valley Chautauqua Association was bankrupt.[9] Judge Cross died on August 7, 1927, and shortly thereafter, Gladstone Park, including its buildings and Chautauqua Lake, were sold to the Western Oregon Conference of Seventh-Day Adventists.[9] Since that time, the Seventh-day Adventists have held an annual camp-meeting on the site in July, with up to 20,000 attending on weekends. The Oregon Conference of Seventh-day Adventists headquarters was moved to the site in 2008.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.5 square miles (6.5 km²), of which, 2.5 square miles (6.4 km²) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.1 km²) of it (1.98%) is water.[10]

Being bordered by rivers on two sides, there are only two primary thoroughfares to and from the city. Interstate 205 runs north-south along the eastern edge of the city. McLoughlin Boulevard runs north-south through the western side of the city.[11]

Old Gladstone

Older section of city on Portland Street

The old section of Gladstone is laid out on a grid of streets running north/south and east/west. North-south streets are named for colleges, while east-west streets are arranged in alphabetical order and have the same names as the north-south streets in Boston's Back Bay: Arlington, Berkeley, Clarendon, Dartmouth, Exeter, Fairfield, Gloucester, and Hereford. The alphabetical progression continues with Ipswich, Jersey and Kenmore, continuing the allusion to Boston's street names from its Fenway-Kenmore neighborhood adjacent to Back Bay. (See Kenmore Square.)

Demographics

As of the census[1] of 2000, there were 11,438 people, 4,246 households, and 3,014 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,619.0 people per square mile (1,780.7/km²). There were 4,419 housing units at an average density of 1,784.5/sq mi (688.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 90.42% White, 0.72% Black or African American, 0.61% Native American, 2.11% Asian, 0.29% Pacific Islander, 3.04% from other races, and 2.82% from two or more races. 6.12% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 4,246 households out of which 36.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.6% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.0% were non-families. 21.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.11.

In the city the population was spread out with 26.6% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, and 11.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.9 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $46,368, and the median income for a family was $52,500. Males had a median income of $38,619 versus $28,300 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,388. About 6.6% of families and 9.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.4% of those under age 18 and 5.9% of those age 65 or over.

Arts and culture

Gladstone Public Library

The annual Chautauqua Festival in August commemorates Gladstone's former status as a popular Chautauqua destination. The festival is held in Max Patterson Memorial City Park.[12]

Education

Gladstone is served by the Gladstone School District, which includes John Wetten Elementary School, Kraxberger Middle School, and Gladstone High School. In 2006, a bond was passed to allow approximately $40,000,000 worth of construction on the three schools.[13] The majority (aprox. 26 million) of the money will be going towards the high school.[13]

References

  1. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31.  
  2. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. http://geonames.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31.  
  3. ^ PSU:Population Research Center
  4. ^ "Pow-Wow Tree". Oregon Travel Information Council. http://www.oregontic.com/heritage/tree-detail.php?id=31. Retrieved December 16, 2008.  
  5. ^ a b c d e "Gladstone History". http://www.ci.gladstone.or.us/history.html. Retrieved December 19, 2008.  
  6. ^ Flora, Stephanie (2004). "Captains of 1843". Emigrants to Oregon in 1843. http://www.oregonpioneers.com/1843.htm. Retrieved December 16, 2008.  
  7. ^ "Linn City: A Victim of Nature's Wrath". http://www.blm.gov/wo/st/en/prog/more/CRM/heritage_education/history_mystery/hm3/linn_city.html. Retrieved December 19, 2008.  
  8. ^ a b "Historical society plans to feed minds, bellies". The Oregonian. August 20, 2008. http://blog.oregonlive.com/clackamascounty/2008/08/historical_society_plans_to_fe.html. Retrieved December 16, 2008,.  
  9. ^ a b c d e f g "History of Gladstone". Gladstone Historical Society. http://www.gladstonehistoricalsociety.org/history.html. Retrieved December 16, 2008.  
  10. ^ "Gladstone, Oregon". City-Data.com. http://www.city-data.com/city/Gladstone-Oregon.html. Retrieved January 17, 2009.  
  11. ^ "Gladstone, OR". Google Maps. http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&q=Gladstone,+Oregon+portland+ave.&um=1&ie=UTF-8&split=0&gl=us&sa=X&oi=geocode_result&resnum=1&ct=title. Retrieved January 25, 2009.  
  12. ^ "2009 Gladstone Chautauqua Festival". http://docs.google.com/gview?a=v&q=cache:f-3u2O3_ZpwJ:www.ci.gladstone.or.us/Files/Chautauqua.pdf+Gladstone+Chautauqua+Festival&hl=en&gl=us. Retrieved July 22, 2009.  
  13. ^ a b "Questions and Answers about the Gladstone School Bond". http://www.gladstone.k12.or.us/Bond/Bond%20Brochure%20Final.pdf. Retrieved January 24, 2009.  

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