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Coordinates: 55°51′29″N 4°15′32″W / 55.858°N 4.259°W / 55.858; -4.259

Glasgow
Scottish Gaelic: Glaschu
Scots: Glesga/Glesca/Glesgae
Glasgow from Queens Park.jpg
Panorama of western Glasgow from Queen's Park.
Glasgow is located in Scotland
Glasgow

 Glasgow shown within Scotland
Area  67.76 sq mi (175.5 km2[1]
Population 580,690 (2006)[2]
    - Density  8,570 /sq mi (3,310 /km2)
Urban[3] 1,199,629
Metro 2.3 million
Language English, Scots (see Glasgow Patter)
OS grid reference NS590655
    - Edinburgh 42 mi (68 km)  
    - London 403 mi (649 km)  
Council area Glasgow City Council
Lieutenancy area Glasgow
Country Scotland
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town GLASGOW
Postcode district G1–G80
Dialling code 0141
Police Strathclyde
Fire Strathclyde
Ambulance Scottish
EU Parliament Scotland
UK Parliament Glasgow Central
Glasgow East
Glasgow North
Glasgow North East
Glasgow North West
Glasgow South
Glasgow South West
Scottish Parliament Glasgow
Glasgow Anniesland
Glasgow Baillieston
Glasgow Cathcart
Glasgow Govan
Glasgow Kelvin
Glasgow Maryhill
Glasgow Pollok
Glasgow Rutherglen
Glasgow Shettleston
Glasgow Springburn
Website www.glasgow.gov.uk
List of places: UK • Scotland • • Glasgow

Glasgow (pronounced /ˈɡlæzɡoʊ/ (GLAZ-goh); Scots: Glesga/Glesca/Glesgae Scottish Gaelic: Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom. The city is situated on the River Clyde in the country's west central lowlands. A person from Glasgow is known as a Glaswegian, which is also the name of the local dialect.

Glasgow grew from the medieval Bishopric of Glasgow and the later establishment of the University of Glasgow in the 15th century, which subsequently became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the 18th century. From the 18th century the city also grew as one of Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with British North America and the British West Indies. With the Industrial Revolution, the city and surrounding region shifted to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of Heavy Engineering[4], most notably in the Shipbuilding and Marine engineering industry, which produced many innovative and famous vessels. Glasgow was known as the "Second City of the British Empire" for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period.[5][6][7] Today it is one of Europe's top twenty financial centres and is home to many of Scotland's leading businesses.[8]

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries Glasgow grew to a population of over one million,[9] and was the fourth-largest city in Europe, after London, Paris and Berlin.[10] In the 1960s, large-scale relocation to new towns and peripheral suburbs, followed by successive boundary changes, have reduced the current population of the City of Glasgow unitary authority area to 580,690,[2] with 1,199,629[11] people living in the Greater Glasgow urban area. The entire region surrounding the conurbation covers approximately 2.3 million people, 41% of Scotland's population.[12]

Contents

History

The seal or signet of Jocelin, Bishop of Glasgow, founder of the burgh of Glasgow

The present site of Glasgow has been used since prehistoric times for settlement due to it being the forded point of the River Clyde furthest downstream, which also provided a natural area for salmon fishing. The origins of Glasgow as an established city derive ultimately from its medieval position as Scotland's second largest bishopric. Glasgow increased in importance during the 10th and 11th centuries as the site of this bishopric, reorganised by King David I of Scotland and John, Bishop of Glasgow. There had been an earlier religious site established by Saint Mungo in the 6th century. The bishopric became one of the largest and wealthiest in the Kingdom of Scotland, bringing wealth and status to the town. Between 1175 and 1178 this position was strengthened even further when Bishop Jocelin obtained for the episcopal settlement the status of burgh from King William I of Scotland, allowing the settlement to expand with the benefits of trading monopolies and other legal guarantees. Sometime between 1189 and 1195 this status was supplemented by an annual fair, which survives to this day as the Glasgow Fair.

Glasgow grew over the following centuries, and the founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to an archbishopric in 1492 increased the town's religious and educational status.

Daniel Defoe visited the city in the early 18th century and famously opined in his book A tour thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain, that Glasgow was "the cleanest and beautifullest, and best built city in Britain, London excepted."[13] At that time, the city's population numbered approximately 12,000, and was yet to undergo the massive changes to the city's economy and urban fabric, brought about by the influences of the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution.

After the Acts of Union in 1707, Scotland gained trading access to the vast markets of the British Empire and Glasgow became prominent in international commerce as a hub of trade to the Americas, especially in the movement of tobacco, cotton and sugar into the deep water port that had been created by city merchants at Port Glasgow on the Firth of Clyde, due to the shallowness of the River within the city itself at that time.[14] By the late 18th century more than half of the British tobacco trade was concentrated on Glasgow's River Clyde, with over 47 million lbs. weight of tobacco being imported at its peak.[15]

Shipping on the Clyde, Grimshaw 1881

In its subsequent industrial era, Glasgow produced textiles, chemicals, engineered goods and steel, which were exported. The opening of the Monkland Canal and basin at Port Dundas in 1795, facilitated access to the iron-ore and coal mines in Lanarkshire. After extensive River engineering projects to dredge and deepen the River Clyde as far as Glasgow, shipbuilding became a major industry on the upper stretches of the river, building many famous ships (although many were actually built in Clydebank). The River Clyde then became an important source of inspiration for artists, such as John Atkinson Grimshaw, willing to depict the new industrial era and the moden world. Glasgow's population had surpassed that of Edinburgh by 1821. By the end of the 19th century the city was known as the "Second City of the Empire" and by 1870 was producing more than half Britain's tonnage of shipping[16] and a quarter of all locomotives in the world.[17] During this period, the construction of many of the city's greatest architectural masterpieces and most ambitious civil engineering projects, such as the Loch Katrine aqueduct, Subway, Tramway system, City Chambers, Mitchell Library and Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum were being funded by its wealth. The city also held a series of International Exhibitions at Kelvingrove Park, in 1888, 1901 and 1911, with the Empire Exhibition subsequently held in 1938.

The regeneration of Glasgow has focused on the River Clyde and has created iconic structures such as the Armadillo.

The 20th century witnessed both decline and renewal in the city. After World War I, the city suffered from the impact of the Post-World War I recession and from the later Great Depression, this also led to a rise of radical socialism and the "Red Clydeside" movement. The city had recovered by the outbreak of World War II and grew through the post-war boom that lasted through the 1950s. However by the 1960s, a lack of investment and innovation led to growing overseas competition in countries like Japan and Germany which weakened the once pre-eminent position of many of the city's industries. As a result of this, Glasgow entered a lengthy period of relative economic decline and rapid deindustrialisation, leading to high unemployment, urban decay, population decline, welfare dependency and poor health for the city's inhabitants. There were active attempts at regeneration of the city, when the Glasgow Corporation published its controversial Bruce Report, which set out a comprehensive series of initiatives aimed at turning round the decline of the city. There are also accusations that the Scottish Office had deliberately attempted to undermine Glasgow's economic and political influence in post-war Scotland by diverting inward investment in new industries to other regions during the Silicon Glen boom and creating the new towns of Cumbernauld, Glenrothes, Irvine, Livingston and East Kilbride, dispersed across the Scottish Lowlands, in order to halve the city's population base.[18]

However, by the late 1980s, there had been a significant resurgence in Glasgow's economic fortunes. The 'Glasgow's miles better' campaign, launched in 1983, and opening of the Burrell Collection in 1983 and Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre in 1985 facilitated Glasgow's new role as a European centre for business services and finance and promoted an increase in tourism and inward investment.[19] The latter continues to be bolstered by the legacy of the city's Glasgow Garden Festival in 1988, its status as European City of Culture in 1990, and concerted attempts to diversify the city's economy.[20] This economic revival has persisted and the ongoing regeneration of inner-city areas, including the largescale Clyde Waterfront Regeneration, has led to more affluent people moving back to live in the centre of Glasgow, fuelling allegations of gentrification.[21] The city now resides in the Mercer index of top 50 safest cities in the world[22] and is considered by Lonely Planet to be one of the world's top 10 tourist cities.[23] Despite Glasgow's economic renaissance, the East End of the city remains the focus of severe social deprivation.[24] A Glasgow Economic Audit report published in 2007 stated that the gap between prosperous and deprived areas of the city is widening.[25] In 2006, 47% of Glasgow's population lived in the most deprived 15% of areas in Scotland,[25] while the Centre for Social Justice reported 29.4% of the city's working-age residents to be "economically inactive".[24] Although marginally behind the UK average, Glasgow still has a higher employment rate than Birmingham, Liverpool and Manchester.[25]

A panoramic view of Glasgow City Centre from the top of The Lighthouse

Toponymy

It is common to derive the name Glasgow from the older Cumbric glas cau or a Middle Gaelic cognate, which would have meant green hollow. The settlement probably had an earlier Cumbric name, Cathures; the modern name appears for the first time in the Gaelic period (1116), as Glasgu. However, it is also recorded that the King of Strathclyde, Rhydderch Hael, welcomed Saint Kentigern (also known as Saint Mungo), and procured his consecration as bishop about 540. For some thirteen years Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the Molendinar Burn, and making many converts. A large community developed around him and became known as Glasgu (often glossed as "the dear Green" or "dear green place").

Heraldry

The coat of arms of the City of Glasgow as granted in 1866.

The coat of arms of the City of Glasgow was granted to the royal burgh by the Lord Lyon on 25 October 1866.[26] It incorporates a number of symbols and emblems associated with the life of Glasgow's patron saint, Mungo, which had been used on official seals prior to that date. The emblems represent miracles supposed to have been performed by Mungo and are listed in the traditional rhyme:

Here's the bird that never flew
Here's the tree that never grew
Here's the bell that never rang
Here's the fish that never swam
St Mungo's Bell

St Mungo is also said to have preached a sermon containing the words Lord, Let Glasgow flourish by the preaching of the word and the praising of thy name. This was abbreviated to "Let Glasgow Flourish" and adopted as the city's motto. The motto was more recently commemorated in a song called "Mother Glasgow", which was written by Dundonian singer/songwriter Michael Marra, but popularised by Hue and Cry.

In 1450, John Stewart, the first Lord Provost of Glasgow, left an endowment so that a "St Mungo's Bell" could be made and tolled throughout the city so that the citizens would pray for his soul. A new bell was purchased by the magistrates in 1641 and that bell is still on display in the People's Palace Museum, near Glasgow Green.

The supporters are two salmon bearing rings, and the crest is a half length figure of Saint Mungo. He wears a bishop's mitre and liturgical vestments and has his hand raised in "the act of benediction". The original 1866 grant placed the crest atop a helm, but this was removed in subsequent grants. The current version (1996) has a gold mural crown between the shield and the crest. This form of coronet, resembling an embattled city wall, was allowed to the four area councils with city status.

The arms were rematriculated by the City of Glasgow District Council on 6 February 1975, and by the present area council on 25 March 1996. The only change made on each occasion was in the type of coronet over the arms.[27][28]

Governance

Glasgow City Chambers is the headquarters of Glasgow City Council and the seat of Local Government in the city

Since the Representation of the People Act 1918, Glasgow has increasingly supported Left-wing ideas and politics. The city council has been controlled by the Labour Party for 30 years, since the decline of the Progressives. The left-wing support emanates from the city's legacy as an industrial powerhouse, and the relative poverty of many Glaswegian constituencies and wards. In the aftermath of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and German Revolution, the city's frequent strikes and Militant organisations caused serious alarm at Westminster, with one uprising in January 1919 prompting the Prime Minister, David Lloyd George to deploy 10,000 troops and tanks onto the city's streets. A huge demonstration in the city's George Square on 31 January ended in violence after the Riot Act was read.

Industrial action at the shipyards gave rise to the "Red Clydeside" epithet. During the 1930s, Glasgow was the main base of the Independent Labour Party. Towards the end of the 20th century it became a centre of the struggle against the poll tax, and then the main base of the Scottish Socialist Party, a left unity party in Scotland. The city has not had a Conservative MP since the 1982 Hillhead by-election, when the SDP took the seat, in Glasgow's wealthiest area: admittedly, the constituency boundaries make it difficult to elect one as the West End is split between two constituencies where its votes are cancelled out by large council estates.

Scottish Parliament region

The Glasgow electoral region of the Scottish Parliament covers the Glasgow City council area, the Rutherglen area of the South Lanarkshire and a small eastern portion of Renfrewshire. It elects ten of the parliament's 73 first past the post constituency members and seven of the 56 additional members. Both kinds of member are known as Members of the Scottish Parliament (MSPs). The system of election is designed to produce a form of proportional representation.

The first past the post seats were created in 1999 with the names and boundaries of then existing Westminster (House of Commons) constituencies. In 2005, however, the number of Westminster Members of Parliament (MPs) representing Scotland was cut to 59, with new constituencies being formed, while the existing number of MSPs was retained at Holyrood.

The ten Scottish Parliament constituencies in the Glasgow electoral region are:-

United Kingdom Parliament constituencies

Following reform of constituencies of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (Westminster) in 2005, which reduced the number of Scottish Members of Parliament (MPs), the current Westminster constituencies representing Glasgow are:-

Geography

Glasgow is located on the banks of the River Clyde, in West Central Scotland. Its second most important river is the Kelvin whose name was used for creating the title of Baron Kelvin and thereby ended up as the scientific unit of temperature. It is often believed that Glasgow is in Lanarkshire. This is not the case. As already indicated, Glasgow is a unitary authority, and therefore cannot be held to be within any other authority's area. Postal addresses for Glasgow, in common with the rest of Scotland, do not require a "county".

Climate

In spite of its northerly latitude, close to the same line as Moscow, Glasgow's climate is classified as Oceanic (Köppen climate classification Cfb). Owing to its westerly position and proximity to the sea, Glasgow is one of Scotland's milder areas. Temperatures are usually higher than most places of equal latitude away from the UK, due to the warming influence of the Gulf Stream Drift.

The spring months (March to May) are generally mild. Many of Glasgow's trees and plants begin to flower at this time of the year and parks and gardens are filled with spring colours. The summer months (May to September) can vary considerably between mild and wet weather or warm and sunny. The winds are generally westerly, due to the warm Gulf Stream. The warmest month is usually July, the daily high averaging 20 °C (68 °F). (Highest recorded temperature 31.2 °C (88 °F) 4 August 1975.) Despite some infrequent clear or dry days, winters in Glasgow are normally damp and cold. Snow is common but rarely lies in the city centre. (Lowest recorded temperature −19 °C (−2 °F)).

Climate data for Glasgow, United Kingdom
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13
(56)
12
(55)
15
(59)
23
(75)
27
(81)
29
(85)
30
(86)
31
(88)
25
(78)
21
(70)
15
(59)
13
(57)
31
(88)
Average high °C (°F) 6
(43)
6
(44)
8
(47)
11
(52)
15
(59)
17
(63)
18
(66)
18
(65)
15
(60)
12
(54)
8
(48)
6
(44)
12
(54)
Average low °C (°F) 1
(34)
1
(34)
2
(36)
3
(38)
6
(43)
8
(48)
11
(52)
10
(51)
8
(47)
5
(42)
2
(37)
1
(35)
5
(41)
Record low °C (°F) -17
(1)
-12
(9)
-8
(16)
-4
(24)
-3
(25)
0
(33)
3
(38)
1
(35)
-2
(27)
-7
(19)
-10
(14)
-17
(1)
-17
(1)
Precipitation mm (inches) 86.9
(3.42)
79
(3.11)
74.4
(2.93)
46.5
(1.83)
33.5
(1.32)
38.6
(1.52)
49.5
(1.95)
52.6
(2.07)
56.6
(2.23)
84.8
(3.34)
84.8
(2.62)
74.9
(2.95)
762.1
(30)
Source: Weatherbase[29] September 2009

Demography

The population of the Glasgow City Council area peaked in the 1950s at 1,200,000 people and before that for 80 years was over 1 million. During this period, Glasgow was one of the most densely populated cities in the world. After the 1960s, clearings of poverty-stricken inner city areas like the Gorbals and relocation to 'new towns' such as East Kilbride and Cumbernauld led to population decline. In addition, the boundaries of the city were changed twice during the late 20th century, making direct comparisons difficult. The city continues to expand beyond the official city council boundaries into surrounding suburban areas, encompassing around 400 square miles (1,000 km2) of all adjoining suburbs, if commuter towns and villages are included.

There are two distinct definitions for the population of Glasgow: the Glasgow City Council Area (which lost the districts of Rutherglen and Cambuslang to South Lanarkshire in 1996) and the Greater Glasgow Urban Area (which includes the conurbation around the city).

Since the 1840s to present day, massive numbers of Irish immigrants have settled and contributed immensely in the city. At one point only New York City had a bigger Irish population than Glasgow.[30] Numerous Scottish Highlanders also migrated to the city as a result of the Highland Clearances. The Irish, and to a lesser extent Highlanders, contributed to the explosive growth of Roman Catholicism in the city.[31][32]

In the early 20th century, many Lithuanian refugees began to settle in Glasgow and at its height in the 1950s there were around 10,000 in the Glasgow area.[33] Many Italian Scots also settled in Glasgow, originating from provinces like Frosinone between Rome and Naples and Lucca in north-west Tuscany at this time, many originally working as "Hokey Pokey" men.[34] In the 1960s and '70s, many Asian-Scots also settled in Glasgow, mainly in the Pollokshields area. These number 30,000 Pakistanis, 15,000 Indians and 3,000 Bangladeshis as well as Chinese immigrants, many of whom settled in the Garnethill area of the city.[citation needed] Since 2000, the UK government has pursued a policy of dispersal of asylum seekers to ease pressure on social housing in the London area.

Location Population Area Density
Glasgow City Council[35] 620,000 67.76 sq mi (175 km2) 8,541.8/sq mi (3,298 /km2)
Greater Glasgow Urban Area[36] 1,750,270 142.27 sq mi (368 km2) 8,212.9/sq mi (3,171 /km2)
Source: Scotland's Census Results Online[37]

Since the 2001 census the population decline has stabilised. The 2004 population of the city council area was 685,090 and the population of both the City of Glasgow Council area and Greater Glasgow are forecast to grow in the near future. Around 2,300,000 people live in the Glasgow travel-to-work area.[12] This area is defined as having 10% and over of residents travelling into Glasgow to work, and has no fixed boundaries.[38]

Compared to Inner London, which has 23,441 inhabitants per square mile (9,051 /km2).,[39] Scotland's largest city has less than half the current population density of the English capital—8,603 inhabitants per square mile (3,322 /km2) However, in 1931 the population density was 16,166 inhabitants per square mile (6,242 /km2), highlighting the subsequent 'clearances' to the suburbs and new towns that were built to empty one of Europe's most densely populated cities.[40]

Glasgow has the lowest life expectancy of any UK city at 72.9 years.[41] Much was made of this during the 2008 Glasgow East by-election.[42] In 2008, a World Health Organization report about health inequalities, revealing that male life expectancy varied from 54 in Calton to 82 in nearby Lenzie, East Dunbartonshire.[43][44]

Districts and suburbs

Glasgow was historically based around Glasgow Cathedral, the old High Street and down to the River Clyde via Glasgow Cross. The boundaries of Glasgow have changed on several occasions for political purposes, with many places that view themselves as part of Glasgow falling outwith the Glasgow City local authority created in 1996. For further information on what places are within the city council area and those that lie outwith but are included in other definitions of Glasgow, see the List of places in Glasgow page.

City centre

The city centre is bounded by the High Street to the east, the River Clyde to the south and the M8 motorway to the west and north which was built through the Townhead, Charing Cross, Cowcaddens and Anderston areas in the 1960s.

Retail and theatre district

The city centre is based on a grid system of streets, similar to that of Barcelona or American cities, on the north bank of the River Clyde. The heart of the city is George Square, site of many of Glasgow's public statues and the elaborate Victorian Glasgow City Chambers, headquarters of Glasgow City Council. To the south and west are the shopping precincts of Argyle Street, Sauchiehall Street and Buchanan Street, the latter featuring more upmarket retailers and winner of the Academy of Urbanism 'Great Street Award' 2008.[45] The main shopping centres are Buchanan Galleries and the St. Enoch Centre, with the up-market Princes Square and the Italian Centre specialising in designer labels. The London-based department store Selfridges has purchased a potential development site in the city and another upmarket retail chain Harvey Nichols is also thought to be planning a store in the city, further strengthening Glasgow's retail portfolio, which forms the UK's second largest and most economically important retail sector after Central London.[46][47]

The city centre is home to most of Glasgow's main cultural venues: The Theatre Royal (home of Scottish Opera and formerly Scottish Ballet (which now resides in the Tramway theatre), The Pavilion, The King's Theatre, Glasgow Royal Concert Hall, Glasgow Film Theatre, Gallery of Modern Art (GoMA), Mitchell Library, the Centre for Contemporary Arts, McLellan Galleries and The Lighthouse Museum of Architecture, Design and the City. The world's tallest cinema, the eighteen-screen Cineworld is situated on Renfrew Street. The city centre is also home to four of Glasgow's higher education institutions: The University of Strathclyde, The Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama, Glasgow School of Art and Glasgow Caledonian University.

Merchant City

The Tolbooth Steeple dominates Glasgow Cross and marks the east side of the Merchant City.

To the east is the commercial and residential district of Merchant City. The Merchant City was formerly the residential district of the wealthy city merchants in the 18th and early 19th centuries, particularly the Tobacco Lords from whom many of the streets take their name. As the Industrial Revolution and the wealth it brought to the city resulted in the expansion of Glasgow's central area westward, the original medieval centre was left behind. Glasgow Cross, situated at the junction of High Street, Gallowgate, Trongate and Saltmarket was the original centre of the city, symbolised by its Mercat cross. Glasgow Cross encompasses the Tolbooth Clock Tower; all that remains of the original City Chambers, which was destroyed by fire in 1926. Moving northward up High Street towards Rottenrow and Townhead lies the 15th century Glasgow Cathedral and the Provand's Lordship. Due to growing industrial pollution levels in the mid to late 19th century, the area fell out of favour with residents.[48]

From the late 1980s onwards, the Merchant City has been rejuvenated with luxury city centre apartments and warehouse conversions. This regeneration has supported an increasing number of cafés and restaurants.[49] The area is also home to a number of high end boutique style shops and some of Glasgow's most upmarket stores.[50]

The Merchant City is the centre of Glasgow's growing 'cultural quarter', based around King Street, the Saltmarket and Trongate, and at the heart of the annual Merchant City Festival. The area has supported a huge growth in art galleries, the origins of which can be found in the late 80s when it attracted artist-led organisations that could afford the cheap rents required to operate in vacant manufacturing or retail spaces.[51] The artistic and cultural potential of the Merchant City as a 'cultural quarter' was harnessed by independent arts organisations and Glasgow City Council,[51] and the recent development of Trongate 103, which houses galleries, workshops, artist studios and production spaces, is considered a major outcome of the continued partnership between both.[52] The area also contains a number of theatres and concert venues, including the Tron Theatre, the Old Fruitmarket, the Trades Hall, St. Andrews in the Square, Merchant Square, and the City Halls.[53]

A large part of Glasgow's LGBT scene is located within the Merchant City. This includes many clubs, and the UK gay chain store Clone Zone, along with a couple of saunas. Recently the city council defined (and perhaps expanded) the area known as Merchant City as far west as Buchanan Street, marking these boundaries with new, highly stylised metal signage.[54]

Financial district

Clyde Arc, also known as "Squinty Bridge".

To the western edge of the city centre, occupying the areas of Blythswood Hill and Anderston, lies Glasgow's financial district, known officially as the International Financial Services District (IFSD), although often irreverently nicknamed by the contemporary press as the "square kilometre" or "Wall Street on Clyde".[55] Since the late 1980s the construction of many modern office blocks, a trend which continues into the 21st century with a new wave of high rise developments currently on the drawing board, has enabled the IFSD to become the third largest financial quarter[citation needed] in the UK after the City of London and Edinburgh. With a reputation as an established financial services centre, coupled with comprehensive support services, Glasgow continues to attract and grow new business. Of the 10 largest general insurance companies in the UK, 8 have a base or head office in Glasgow - including Direct Line, Esure, AXA and Norwich Union. Key banking sector companies have also relocated some of their services to commercial property in Glasgow - Resolution, JPMorgan Chase, Abbey, HBOS, Barclays Wealth, Tesco Personal Finance , Morgan Stanley, Lloyds TSB, Clydesdale Bank, BNP Paribas, HSBC and the Royal Bank of Scotland. The Ministry of Defence have several departments and Clydeport, the Glasgow Stock Exchange, Student Loans Company, Scottish Executive Enterprise, Transport and Lifelong Learning Department, BT Group, Scottish Qualifications Authority and Scottish Enterprise also have their headquarters based in the district.

West End

Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum is Glasgow's premier museum and art gallery, housing one of Europe's best civic art collections.

Glasgow's West End refers to the bohemian district of cafés, tea rooms, bars, boutiques, upmarket hotels, clubs and restaurants in the hinterland of Kelvingrove Park, the University of Glasgow, Glasgow Botanic Gardens and the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre, especially on the area's main thoroughfare, Byres Road, and on Ashton Lane. The area is popular with tourists, and contains many hotels, including the prestigious One Devonshire Gardens, which has accommodated a number of celebrity guests on visits to the city.

The West End includes residential areas of Hillhead, Dowanhill, Kelvingrove, Kelvinside, Hyndland, and, to an increasing extent, Partick. However, the name is increasingly being used to refer to any area to the west of Charing Cross. This includes areas such as Scotstoun, Jordanhill, Kelvindale and Anniesland.

The West End is bisected by the River Kelvin which flows from the Kilsyth Hills in the North and empties into the River Clyde at Yorkhill Basin.

The spire of Sir George Gilbert Scott's Glasgow University main building (the second largest Gothic Revival building in Britain) is a major local landmark, and can be seen from miles around, sitting atop Gilmorehill. The university itself is the fourth oldest in the English-speaking world. Much of the city's student population is based in the West End, adding to its cultural vibrancy.

The area is also home to the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery, Kelvin Hall International Sports Arena, Henry Wood Hall (home of the Royal Scottish National Orchestra) and the Museum of Transport, which is to be rebuilt on a former dockland site at Glasgow Harbour to a design by Zaha Hadid. The West End Festival, one of Glasgow's largest festivals, is held annually in June.

Glasgow is the home of the SECC, the United Kingdom's largest exhibition and conference centre.[56][57] A major expansion of the SECC facilities at the former Queen's Dock by Foster and Partners is currently planned, including a 12,000 seat arena, and a 5 star hotel and entertainments complex.

East End

The East End extends from Glasgow Cross in the City Centre to the boundary with North and South Lanarkshire. It is home to the famous Glasgow Barrowland Market, popularly known as 'The Barras',[58] Barrowland Ballroom, Glasgow Green, and Celtic Park, home of Celtic F.C.. Many of the original sandstone tenements remain in this district. The East End in contrast to the West End, includes some of the most deprived areas in the UK, although it was once a major industrial centre, home to Sir William Arrol & Co. and William Beardmore and Company. A notable local employer continues to be the Wellpark Brewery, home of Tennent's Lager.

The Glasgow Necropolis Cemetery was created on a hill above the Cathedral of Saint Mungo in 1831. Routes curve through the landscape uphill to the 62-metre (203 ft) high statue of John Knox at the summit. There are two late 18th century tenements in Gallowgate. Dating from 1771 and 1780, both have been well restored. The construction of Charlotte Street was financed by David Dale, whose former pretensions can be gauged by the one remaining house, now run by the National Trust for Scotland. Further along Charlotte Street there stands a modern Gillespie, Kidd & Coia building of some note. Once a school, it has been converted into offices. Surrounding these buildings are a series of innovative housing developments conceived as 'Homes for the Future', part of a project during the city's year as UK City of Architecture and Design in 1999.[59]

East of Glasgow Cross is the Saint Andrew's Church, the oldest post-Reformation church in Scotland, built in 1739-1757 and displaying a Presbyterian grandeur befitting the church of the city's wealthy tobacco merchants. Also close by is the more modest Episcopalian St. Andrew's-by-the-Green, the oldest Episcopal church in Scotland. The Episcopalian St Andrew's was also known as the "Whistlin' Kirk" due to it being the first church after the reformation to own an organ.

The Doulton Fountain in Glasgow Green.

Overlooking Glasgow Green is the façade of Templeton On The Green, featuring vibrant polychromatic brickwork intended to evoke the Doge's Palace in Venice.[60]

The extensive Tollcross Park was originally developed from the estate of James Dunlop, the owner of a local steelworks. His large baronial mansion was built in 1848 by David Bryce, which later housed the city's Children's Museum until the 1980s. Today, the mansion is a sheltered housing complex.

The new Scottish National Indoor Sports Arena, a modern replacement for the Kelvin Hall, is planned for Dalmarnock. The area will also be the site of the Athletes' Village for the 2014 Commonwealth Games, located adjacent to the new indoor sports arena.

To the north of the East End lie the two massive gasometers of Provan Gas Works, which stand overlooking Alexandra Park and a major interchange between the M8 and M80 motorways. Often used for displaying large city advertising slogans, the towers have become an unofficial portal into the city for road users arriving from the north and east.

The East End Healthy Living Centre (EEHLC) was established in mid-2005 at Crownpoint Road with Lottery Funding and City grants to serve community needs in the area. The centre provides service such as sports facilities, health advice, stress management, leisure and vocational classes.[61]

South Side

House for an Art Lover is situated in Bellahouston Park, Glasgow.

Glasgow's South Side sprawls out south of the Clyde, covering areas including Gorbals, Govan, Ibrox, Shawlands, Simshill, Strathbungo, Cardonald, Mount Florida, Pollokshaws, Nitshill, Pollokshields, Battlefield, Langside, Govanhill, Crosshill, Cessnock, Mosspark, Kinning Park, Mansewood, Arden, Darnley, Newlands, Deaconsbank, Pollok, Croftfoot, Castlemilk, King's Park, Cathcart, Muirend and Barrhead, Busby, Clarkston, Giffnock, Thornliebank, Netherlee, and Newton Mearns in the East Renfrewshire council area, as well as Cambuslang, East Kilbride, and Rutherglen in the South Lanarkshire council area.

Although predominantly residential, the area does have several notable public buildings including, Charles Rennie Mackintosh's Scotland Street School Museum and House for an Art Lover; the world famous Burrell Collection in Pollok Country Park; Alexander 'Greek' Thomson's Holmwood House villa; the National Football Stadium Hampden Park in Mount Florida, (home of Queen's Park F.C.) and Ibrox Stadium, (home of Rangers F.C.).

The former docklands site at Pacific Quay on the south bank of the River Clyde, opposite the SECC, is the site of the Glasgow Science Centre and the new headquarters for BBC Scotland and STV Group plc (owner of STV) which have relocated there to a new purpose built digital media campus.

Looking towards Queen's Park Baptist Church in winter.

In addition, several new bridges spanning the River Clyde have been built or are currently planned, including the Clyde Arc known by locals as the Squinty Bridge at Pacific Quay and others at Tradeston and Springfield Quay.

The South Side also includes many great parks, including Linn Park, Queen's Park, Bellahouston Park and Rouken Glen Park, and several golf clubs, including the championship course at Haggs Castle. The South Side is also home to Pollok Country Park, which was awarded the accolade of Europe's Best Park 2008.[62] Pollok Park is Glasgow’s largest park and the only country park within the city boundaries. It is also home to Poloc Cricket Club. The name was taken from one of the early spellings of the area, to differentiate it from Pollok Juniors Football Club.

Govan is a district and former burgh in the south-western part of the city. It is situated on the south bank of the River Clyde, opposite Partick. It was an administratively independent Police Burgh from 1864 until it was incorporated into the expanding city of Glasgow in 1912. Govan has a legacy as an engineering and shipbuilding centre of international repute and is home to one of two BVT Surface Fleet shipyards on the River Clyde and the precision engineering firm, Thales Optronics. It is also home to the Southern General Hospital, one of the largest teaching hospitals in the country, and the maintenance depot for the Glasgow Subway system.

North Glasgow

North Glasgow extends out from the north of the city centre towards the affluent suburbs of Bearsden, Milngavie and Bishopbriggs in East Dunbartonshire and Clydebank in West Dunbartonshire. However, the area also contains some of the city's poorest residential areas. Possilpark is one such area, where levels of unemployment and drug abuse continue to be above the national average. Much of the housing in areas such as Possilpark and Hamiltonhill had fallen into a state of disrepair in recent years. This has led to large scale redevelopment of much of the poorer housing stock in north Glasgow, and the wider regeneration of many areas, such as Ruchill, which have been transformed; many run-down tenements have now been refurbished or replaced by modern housing estates. Much of the housing stock in north Glasgow is rented social housing, with a high proportion of high-rise tower blocks, managed by the Glasgow Housing Association.

Not all areas of north Glasgow are of this nature however. Maryhill for example, consists of well maintained traditional sandstone tenements. Although historically a working class area, its borders with the upmarket West End of the city mean that it is relatively wealthy compared to the rest of the north of the city, containing affluent areas such as Maryhill Park and North Kelvinside. Maryhill is also home to Firhill Stadium, home of Partick Thistle F.C. since 1909, and briefly the professional Rugby Union team, Glasgow Warriors. The junior team, Maryhill F.C. are also located in this part of north Glasgow.

The Forth and Clyde Canal passes through this part of the city, and at one stage formed a vital part of the local economy. It was for many years polluted and largely unused after the decline of heavy industry, but recent efforts to regenerate and re-open the canal to navigation have seen it rejuvenated.

Sighthill is home to Scotland’s largest asylum seeker community.

A huge part of the economic life of Glasgow was once located in Springburn, where the Saracen Foundry, engineering works of firms like Charles Tennant and locomotive workshops employed many Glaswegians. Indeed, Glasgow dominated this type of manufacturing, with 25% of all the world’s locomotives being built in the area at one stage. It was home to the headquarters of the North British Locomotive Company. Today part of the St. Rollox railway works continues in use as a railway maintenance facility, all that is left of the industry in Springburn.

Culture

Established by wealthy tobacco merchant Stephen Mitchell, the Mitchell Library is now one of the largest public reference libraries in Europe

The city has many amenities for a wide range of cultural activities, from curling to opera, ballet and from football to art appreciation; it also has a large selection of museums that include those devoted to transport, religion, and modern art. Many of the city's cultural sites were celebrated in 1990 when Glasgow was designated European City of Culture.[63]

The city's principal library, the Mitchell Library, has grown into one of the largest public reference libraries in Europe, currently housing some 1.3 million books, a extensive collection of newspapers and thousands of photographs and maps.[64]

Most of Scotland's national arts organisations are based in Glasgow, including Scottish Opera, Scottish Ballet, The National Theatre of Scotland, Royal Scottish National Orchestra, BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra and Scottish Youth Theatre.

Glasgow has its own "Poet Laureate", a post created in 1999 for Edwin Morgan[65] and as of 2007 occupied by Liz Lochhead.

Recreation

Glasgow is home to a variety of theatres including The King's Theatre, Theatre Royal and the Citizens Theatre and is home to many municipal museums and art galleries, the most famous being the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, the Gallery of Modern Art (GoMA) and the Burrell Collection. Most of the museums in Glasgow are publicly owned and free to enter.

The city has hosted many exhibitions over the years, including being the UK City of Architecture 1999, European Capital of Culture 1990, National City of Sport 1995–1999 and European Capital of Sport 2003.

In addition, unlike the older and larger Edinburgh Festival (where all Edinburgh's main festivals occur in the last three weeks of August), Glasgow's festivals fill the calendar. Festivals include the Glasgow International Comedy Festival, Glasgow International Jazz Festival, Celtic Connections, Glasgow Film Festival, West End Festival, Merchant City Festival, Glasgay, and the World Pipe Band Championships.

Music scene

Glasgow has many live music pubs, clubs and venues. Some of the city's main venues include the Glasgow Royal Concert Hall, the SECC, King Tut's Wah Wah Hut (where Oasis were spotted and signed by Glaswegian record mogul Alan McGee), the Queen Margaret Union (who have Kurt Cobain's footprint locked in a safe) and the Barrowland, a ballroom converted into a live music venue. More recent mid-sized venues include ABC and the O2 Academy, which play host to a similar range of acts. There are also a large number of smaller venues and bars which host many local and touring musicians, including Cosmopol, Pivo Pivo and Stereo.

In recent years, the success of bands such as Belle & Sebastian, Camera Obscura, Biffy Clyro, Franz Ferdinand, Mogwai, Snow Patrol and Travis or mythical indie bands such as Primal Scream has significantly boosted the profile of the Glasgow music scene, prompting Time Magazine to liken Glasgow to Detroit during its 1960s Motown heyday.[66] More recent successes include The Fratellis and Glasvegas. The city of Glasgow was appointed a UNESCO City of Music on 20 August 2008 as part of the Creative Cities Network.

Glasgow also has a thriving dance music scene spearheaded by Slam, and their record label Soma Quality Recordings.[67] They're also the people behind the very successful Pressure club nights at The Arches which have attracted DJ's and clubbers from around the world.

The prestigious MOBO Awards were held at the SECC, on 30 September 2009, making Glasgow the first out-of-London city to host the event since its launch in 1995.

Media

Glasgow is home to the Scottish national media. It is home to BBC Scotland and STV.

The Scottish press publishes various newspapers in the city such as the Evening Times, The Herald, The Sunday Herald, the Sunday Mail and the Daily Record. Scottish editions of Trinity Mirror and News International titles are printed in the city. STV Group plc is a Glasgow-based media conglomerate with interests in television, and publishing advertising. STV Group owns and operates both Scottish ITV franchises (Central Scotland and Grampian), both branded STV, and cinema advertiser Pearl & Dean.

Various radio stations are also located in Glasgow. EMAP (formerly Scottish Radio Holdings) owns the principal commercial radio stations in Glasgow; Clyde 1 and Clyde 2, which can reach over 2.3 million listeners.[68] In 2004, STV Group plc (then known as SMG plc) sold its 27.8% stake in Scottish Radio Holdings to the broadcasting group EMAP for £90.5 m. Other stations broadcasting from Glasgow include 105.2 Smooth Radio, Real Radio and 96.3 Rock Radio, which are all owned by GMG Radio. Central Scotland radio station Galaxy Scotland also broadcast from studios in Glasgow. The city has a strong community radio sector, including Celtic Music Radio, Sunny Govan Radio, AWAZ FM and Insight Radio.

Religion

Glasgow Cathedral marks the site where Saint Mungo built his church and established Glasgow

Glasgow is a city of significant religious diversity. The Church of Scotland and the Roman Catholic Church are the two largest Christian denominations in the city. There are 147 congregations in the Church of Scotland's Presbytery of Glasgow [1] (of which 104 are within the city boundaries, the other 43 being in adjacent areas such as Giffnock).[69] The city boasts four Christian cathedrals: Glasgow Cathedral, of the Church of Scotland; St Andrew's Cathedral, of the Catholic Church; St Mary's Cathedral, of the Scottish Episcopal Church, and St Luke's Cathedral, of the Greek Orthodox Church.

The presence of large Protestant and Catholic communities has at times caused the city to experience sectarian tensions. In the past this was, perhaps, mostly visible in the rivalry between the supporters of the city's two major professional football clubs, Celtic F.C. and Rangers F.C.. In the past, Rangers drew its support from the city's Protestant community, while the Roman Catholic population historically supported Celtic.[70]

Glasgow Central Mosque in the Gorbals district is the largest mosque in Scotland and, along with twelve other mosques in the city, caters for the city's estimated 33,000 Muslim population.[71] Glasgow also has a Hindu Mandir, and a planning permission for a new Sikh Temple was submitted in June 2007. This new Temple will complement the existing four Sikh Temples (Gurdwaras) in Glasgow with two in the West End (Central Gurdwara Singh Sabha in Finnieston and Guru Nanak Sikh Temple in Kelvinbridge) and two in the Southside area of Pollokshields (Guru Granth Sahib Gurdwara and Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Gurdwara). There are approximately 6,500 Sikhs in Scotland with the highest proportion, 36%, in Glasgow.[72]

Glasgow has seven synagogues with the seventh largest Jewish population in the United Kingdom after London, Manchester, Leeds, Gateshead, Brighton and Bournemouth, but once had a Jewish population second only to London, estimated at 20,000 in the Gorbals alone.[73]

In 1993, the St Mungo Museum of Religious Life and Art opened in Glasgow. It is believed to be the only public museum to examine all the world's major religious faiths.[74][75]

Dialect

Glaswegian, otherwise known as the Glasgow patter, is a local variety of Scots.

Glaswegian is a dialect, more than an alternative pronunciation; words also change their meaning as all over in Scotland, e.g. "away" can mean "leaving" as in A'm away, an instruction to stop being a nuisance as in away wi ye, or "drunk" or "demented" as in he's away wi it. Ginger is a term for any carbonated soft drink (A bottle o ginger IPA: [ə ˈboʔl ə ˈdʒɪndʒər]). Then there are words whose meaning has no obvious relationship to that in standard English: coupon means "face", via "to punch a ticket coupon". A headbutt is known in many parts of the British Isles as a "Glasgow kiss", although this term is rarely used by Glaswegians, who say "Malkie" e.g. "ah'll Malkie ye" or "stick the heid/nut on ye".

A speaker of Glaswegian might refer to those originating from the Scottish Highlands and the Western Isles as teuchters, while they would reciprocate by referring to Glaswegians as keelies and those from the East of Scotland refer to Glaswegians as Weegies (or Weedgies).

The long-running TV drama Taggart and the comedies Empty, Chewin' the Fat, Rab C. Nesbitt, Still Game and Dear Green Place depict the Glaswegian patois, while Craig Ferguson and Billy Connolly have made Glaswegian humour known to the rest of the world.

Architecture

The rear of Provand's Lordship

Very little of medieval Glasgow remains, the two main landmarks from this period being the 15th century Provand's Lordship and 13th century St. Mungo's Cathedral. The vast majority of the city as seen today dates from the 19th century. As a result, Glasgow has an impressive heritage of Victorian architecture: the Glasgow City Chambers; the main building of the University of Glasgow, designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott; and the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, designed by Sir John W. Simpson are notable examples.

The city is notable for architecture designed by the Glasgow School, the most notable exponent of that style being Charles Rennie Mackintosh. Mackintosh was an architect and designer in the Arts and Crafts Movement and the main exponent of Art Nouveau in the United Kingdom, designing numerous noted Glasgow buildings such as the Glasgow School of Art, Willow Tearooms and the Scotland Street School Museum. A hidden gem of Glasgow, also designed by Mackintosh, is the Queen's Cross Church, the only church by the renowned artist to be built.[76]

Sir Norman Foster's Clyde Auditorium, colloquially known as the "Armadillo".

Another architect who had an enduring impact on the city's appearance was Alexander Thomson with notable examples including the Holmwood House villa.

The buildings reflect the wealth and self confidence of the residents of the "Second City of the Empire". Glasgow generated immense wealth from trade and the industries that developed from the Industrial Revolution. The shipyards, marine engineering, steel making, and heavy industry all contributed to the growth of the city.

Many of the city's most impressive buildings were built with red or blond sandstone, but during the industrial era those colours disappeared under a pervasive black layer of soot and pollutants from the furnaces, until the Clean Air Act was introduced in 1956. In recent years many of these buildings have been cleaned and restored to their original appearance.[citation needed]

Modern buildings in Glasgow include the Glasgow Royal Concert Hall, and along the banks of the Clyde are the Glasgow Science Centre and the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre, whose Clyde Auditorium was designed by Sir Norman Foster, and is affectionately known as the "Armadillo". Zaha Hadid won a competition to design the new Museum of Transport, which will move to the waterfront.[77]

Glasgow's impressive historical and modern architectural traditions were celebrated in 1999 when the city was designated UK City of Architecture and Design,[78] winning the accolade over Liverpool and Edinburgh.[79]

Housing

Glasgow is known for its tenements.[80] These were the most popular form of housing in 19th and 20th century Glasgow and remain the most common form of dwelling in Glasgow today. Tenements are commonly bought by a wide range of social types and are favoured for their large rooms, high ceilings and original period features.[81] The Hyndland area of Glasgow is the only tenement conservation area in the UK[82] and includes some tenement houses with as many as six bedrooms.

Typical red sandstone Glasgow south side tenement (Shawlands)

Like many cities in the UK, Glasgow witnessed the construction of high-rise housing in tower blocks in the 1960s.[83] These were built to replace the decaying tenement buildings originally built for workers who migrated from the surrounding countryside, the Highlands, and the rest of the United Kingdom, particularly Ireland, in order to feed the local demand for labour.[84] The massive demand outstripped new building and many, originally fine, tenements often became overcrowded and unsanitary.[85] Many degenerated into the infamous Glasgow slums, such as the Gorbals.

Efforts to improve this housing situation, most successfully with the City Improvement Trust in the late 19th century, cleared the slums of the old town areas such as the Trongate, High Street and Glasgow Cross.[81] Subsequent urban renewal initiatives, such as those motivated by the Bruce Report, entailed the comprehensive demolition of slum tenement areas, the development of new towns on the periphery of the city, and the construction of tower blocks.

The policy of tenement demolition is now considered to have been short-sighted, wasteful and largely unsuccessful.[86] Many of Glasgow's worst tenements were refurbished into desirable accommodation in the 1970s and 1980s[86] and the policy of demolition is considered to have destroyed many fine examples of a "universally admired architectural" style.[81] The Glasgow Housing Association took ownership of the housing stock from the city council on 7 March 2003, and has begun a £96 million clearance and demolition programme to clear and demolish many of the high-rise flats.[87]

Healthcare

Medical care is mainly provided by NHS Scotland and is directly administered by NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde. Major hospitals, including those with Accident & Emergency provision, are: the Western Infirmary, Gartnavel General Hospital and the Royal Hospital for Sick Children in the West End, Glasgow Royal Infirmary and the Dental Hospital in the City Centre, Stobhill Hospital in the North and the Victoria Infirmary and Southern General Hospital in the South Side. There is also an emergency telephone service provided by NHS 24 and 24 hour access to General Practitioners through Out of hours centres. A strong Teaching tradition is maintained between the city's main hospitals and the University of Glasgow Medical School.

All Pharmacies provide a wide range of services including minor ailment advice, emergency hormonal contraception, public health aradvice, some provide oxygen and needle exchange.

There are private clinics and hospitals at the Nuffield in the West end and Ross Hall in the South Side of the city.

Academia

The University of Glasgow is one of the oldest and largest academic institutions in the UK.

Glasgow is also a major centre of education and academic research, with four universities within 10 miles (16 km) of the city centre:

There are also a number of further education colleges in the city, including Anniesland College, Glasgow Metropolitan College, Cardonald College, Central College, Stow College and the Glasgow College of Nautical Studies as well as a number of teacher training colleges, and teaching hospitals such as the Glasgow Royal Infirmary. The Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama, Scotland's national conservatoire, and the Glasgow School of Art are based in the city.

Glasgow is home to a student population in excess of 168,000, the largest in Scotland and second largest in the United Kingdom. The majority of those who live away from home are found in Shawlands, Dennistoun and the West End of the city.[88]

The City Council runs twenty-nine secondary schools, a number of primary schools and three specialist schools - the Dance School of Scotland, Glasgow School of Sport and Sgoil Ghàidhlig Ghlaschu (Glasgow Gaelic School, the only secondary school in Scotland to teach exclusively in Gaelic). Shawlands Academy in the South Side of the city is described as the city's International School, and facilities for Outdoor Education are available at the Blairvadach Centre, near Helensburgh.

Sport

Football

The world's first international football match was held in 1872 at the West of Scotland Cricket Club's Hamilton Crescent ground in the Partick area of the city. The match, between Scotland and England finished 0–0.

Glasgow is one of only three cities (along with Liverpool in 1985 and Madrid in 1986) to have had two football teams in European finals in the same season: in 1967 Celtic F.C. competed in the European Cup final defeating F.C. Internazionale Milano to become the first Scottish, British and Northern European football club to win the trophy, with Rangers F.C. competing unsuccessfully in the now defunct Cup Winners' Cup final.

The city is home to Scotland's only two UEFA 5 star rated stadia which allows them to host UEFA Champions League or UEFA Cup finals Ibrox Stadium (51,082 seats) and Hampden Park (52,670 seats), meaning that they are eligible to host the final of the UEFA Champions League. Hampden Park has hosted the final on three occasions, most recently in 2002 and hosted the UEFA Cup Final in 2007.

Hampden Park, which is Scotland's national football stadium, holds the European record for attendance at a football match: 149,547[89] saw Scotland beat England 3-1 in 1937, in the days before British stadia became all-seated. Celtic Park (60,832 seats) is also located in the east end of Glasgow.

Glasgow has three professional football clubs: Celtic F.C. and Rangers F.C., together known as the Old Firm, and Partick Thistle F.C. A fourth club, Queen's Park F.C., is an amateur club that plays in the Scottish professional league system. Prior to this, Glasgow had five other professional clubs: Clyde F.C., which moved to Cumbernauld, plus Third Lanark A.C., Cambuslang F.C., Cowlairs F.C. and Clydesdale F.C., who all went bankrupt. There are a number of Scottish Junior Football Association clubs within the city as well, such as Pollok F.C., Maryhill F.C., Ashfield F.C. and Petershill F.C., as well as countless numbers of amateur teams.

The history of football in the city, as well as the status of the Old Firm, attracts many visitors to football matches in the city throughout the season. The Scottish Football Association, the national governing body, and the Scottish Football Museum are based in Glasgow, as are the Scottish Football League, Scottish Premier League, Scottish Junior Football Association and Scottish Amateur Football Association. The Glasgow Cup was a once popular tournament, which was competed for by Celtic, Rangers, Clyde, Partick Thistle and Queen's Park. The competition is now played for by the youth sides of the five teams.

Club League Venue Capacity
Celtic F.C. Scottish Premier League Celtic Park 60,832
Partick Thistle F.C. Scottish Football League Firhill Stadium 10,887
Queen's Park F.C. Scottish Football League Hampden Park 52,670
Rangers F.C. Scottish Premier League Ibrox Stadium 51,082
Hampden Park. Home of the Scotland National Football Team

Rugby Union

Glasgow has a professional rugby union club, the Glasgow Warriors, which plays in the Magners League alongside teams from Scotland, Ireland and Wales.

In the Scottish League, Glasgow Hawks was formed in 1997 by the merger of two of Glasgow's oldest clubs: Glasgow Academicals and Glasgow High Kelvinside (GHK). Despite the merger, the second division teams of Glasgow Academicals and Glasgow High Kelvinside re-entered the Scottish rugby league in 1998.

Another one of Glasgow's old clubs is Cartha Queens Park RFC formed in 1906 as an athletics club rugby has emerged as its principle and now only sport. The club hosts 5 mens playing teams as well as a women's team. They are currently in the BT Premiership third Division.

In the South Glasgow suburb of Giffnock is based another of Glasgow's most prominent clubs Glasgow Hutchesons Aloysians RFC (GHA). GHA was formed in 2002 with the merger of two of Glasgow's leading clubs at the time, Glasgow Southern RFC and Hutchesons' Aloysians RFC.

Rugby League

Glasgow has hosted many Scotland Rugby League Internationals in recent years including last year's World Cup Qualifier Versus Wales in which Scotland qualified for the 2008 Rugby League World Cup on aggregate despite going down by 2 points. Glasgow also regularly hosts Scotland A home games in the Home Nations Cup.

In 2009, a Glasgow based Rugby League team will enter into National League 2. This club will be the first ever semi-pro Scottish Rugby League team. The name and playing venue of the team is yet to be announced. The team will look to follow in the footsteps of Celtic Crusaders and be chosen for a Super League License.

Other sports

Major international sporting arenas include the Kelvin Hall and Scotstoun Sports Centre. In 2003 the National Academy for Badminton was completed in Scotstoun. In 2003, Glasgow was also given the title of European Capital of Sport.[90]

Glasgow is also host to many cricket clubs including Clydesdale Cricket Club who have been title winners for the Scottish Cup many times. This club also acted as a neutral venue for a One Day International match between India and Pakistan in 2007, but due to bad weather it was called off.

Smaller sporting facilities include an abundance of outdoor playing fields, as well as golf clubs such as Hagg's Castle and artificial ski slopes. Between 1998 and 2004, the Scottish Claymores American football team played some or all of their home games each season at Hampden Park and the venue also hosted World Bowl XI.

Glasgow Green and the Gorbals are home to a number of rowing clubs, some with open membership the rest belonging to universities or schools. Historically, rowing races on the River Clyde here attracted huge crowds of spectators to watch regattas in the late 1800s and early 1900s[91]; before football caught the public imagination. Two of Glasgow's rowing clubs separately claim that it was their members who were among the founders of Rangers Football Club.[92]

Motorcycle speedway racing was first introduced to Glasgow in 1928 and is currently staged at Saracen Park in the North of the city.

The venues were the Olympic Stadium, also known as Glasgow Nelson (1928 & 1932), Carntyne Stadium (1928 & 1930), White City Stadium (1928–1931, 1939–1940, 1945–1954, 1956, 1964–1968), Celtic Park (1928), Hampden Park (1969–1972), Sacarcen Park (1949–1953 , 1999 to date), Shawfield Stadium (1988–1998). Details in Speedway in Scotland - Tempus Publishing.

Befitting its strong Highland connections as the City of the Gael Baile Mòr nan Gàidheal, Glasgow is also one of five places in Scotland which hosts the final of the Scottish Cup of Shinty, better known as the Camanachd Cup. This is usually held at Old Anniesland. Once home to numerous Shinty clubs, there is now only one senior club in Glasgow, Glasgow Mid-Argyll, as well as two university sides from University of Strathclyde and University of Glasgow.

2014 Commonwealth Games

On 9 November 2007, Glasgow was selected to be the host city of the 2014 Commonwealth Games. The games will be based around a number of existing and newly constructed sporting venues across the city, including a refurbished Hampden Park, Kelvingrove Park, the Kelvin Hall, and the planned Scottish National Arena at the SECC. Plans have already been drawn up for a Commonwealth Games campus in the east end of the city, which will include a new indoor arena, velodrome and accommodation facilities in Dalmarnock and Parkhead, with an upgraded Aquatics Centre at nearby Tollcross Park. 2014 will be the third time the Games have been held in Scotland.[93]

Economy

HMS Daring was built in Glasgow and launched in 2006. Although diminished from its early 20th century heights, Glasgow remains the hub of the UK's Shipbuilding industry.

Glasgow has the largest economy in Scotland and is at the hub of the metropolitan area of West Central Scotland. The city also has the third largest GDP Per Capita in the UK, after London and Edinburgh.[94] The city itself sustains more than 410,000 jobs in over 12,000 companies. Over 153,000 jobs have been created in the city since 2000 - a growth rate of 32%.[95] Glasgow's annual economic growth rate of 4.4% is now second only to that of London. In 2005, over 17,000 new jobs were created, and 2006 saw private-sector investment in the city reaching £4.2 billion pounds, an increase of 22% in a single year.[96] 55% of the residents in the Greater Glasgow area commute to the city every day. Once dominant export orientated manufacturing industries such as shipbuilding and other heavy engineering have been gradually replaced in importance by more diversified forms of economic activity.[97]

Glasgow Tower, Scotland's tallest tower, and the IMAX Cinema at the Glasgow Science Centre symbolise the increase in the importance of tourism to the city's economy.

Whilst manufacturing has declined, Glasgow's economy has seen significant relative growth of tertiary sector industries such as financial and business services, communications, biosciences, creative industries, healthcare, higher education, retail and tourism.[citation needed] Glasgow is now the second most popular foreign tourist destination in Scotland (fourth in the UK)[25] and its largest retail centre.

Between 1998 and 2001, the city's financial services sector grew at a rate of 30%, making considerable gains on Edinburgh, which has historically been the centre of the Scottish financial sector.[98][99] Glasgow is now one of Europe's sixteen largest financial centres[100], with a growing number of Blue chip financial sector companies establishing significant operations or headquarters in the city.[101]

The 1990s and first decade of the 21st century saw substantial growth in the number of call centres based in Glasgow. In 2007 roughly 20,000 people, a third of all call centre employees in Scotland, were employed by Glasgow call centres.[102] This growth and its high use of recruitment agencies to hire graduates as temporary workers has led to accusations of exploitative practices such as long hours, poor pay and lack of job security by the TUC and other union bodies.[103] In recent years some call centres have taken steps to rectify this criticism.

The city's main manufacturing industries include companies involved in; shipbuilding, engineering, construction, brewing and distilling, printing and publishing, chemicals and textiles as well as newer growth sectors such as optoelectronics, software development and biotechnology.[citation needed] Glasgow forms the western part of the Silicon Glen high tech sector of Scotland.

Transport

Public transport

Glasgow Central station is the northern terminus of the West Coast Main Line

Glasgow has a large urban transport system, mostly managed by the Strathclyde Partnership for Transport (SPT).

The city has many bus services; since bus deregulation almost all are provided by private operators though SPT part-funds some services.

Glasgow has the most extensive urban rail network in the UK outside of London with rail services travelling to a large part of the West of Scotland. All trains running within Scotland, including the local Glasgow trains, are operated by First ScotRail, who own the franchise as determined by the Scottish Government. Central Station and Queen Street Station are the two main railway terminals. Glasgow Central is the terminus of the 641.6-kilometre (398.7 mi) long West Coast Main Line [104] from London Euston. All services to and from England use this station. Glasgow Central is also the terminus for suburban services on the south side of Glasgow, Ayrshire and Inverclyde, as well as being served by the cross city link from Dalmuir to Motherwell. Most other services within Scotland - the main line to Edinburgh, plus services to Aberdeen, Dundee, Inverness and the Western Highlands - operate from Queen Street station.

The city's suburban network is currently divided by the River Clyde, and an initiative has been proposed to link them; it is currently awaiting funding from the Scottish Government. The city is linked to Edinburgh by three direct railway links; a further one, the Airdrie-Bathgate Rail Link, is proposed for completion in 2010. In addition to the suburban rail network, SPT operates the Glasgow Subway. The Subway is the United Kingdom's only completely underground metro system, and is generally recognised as the world's third underground railway after London and Budapest.[105] Both rail and subway stations have a number of park and ride facilities.

As part of the wider regeneration along the banks of the River Clyde, a Pre-Tram System, using dedicated bus lanes, called Clyde Fastlink is currently under construction.

View of Glasgow Central station (with the distinctive facade of Heilanman's Umbrella to the left) from the 5th floor of Radisson SAS hotel May 2009

Shipping

Ferries used to link opposite sides of the Clyde in Glasgow but they have been rendered near-obsolete, by bridges and tunnels including the Erskine Bridge, Kingston Bridge, and the Clyde Tunnel. The only remaining crossings are the Renfrew Ferry between Renfrew and Yoker, and the Kilcreggan Ferry in Inverclyde, both run by SPT but outwith the city boundary. The PS Waverley, the world's last operational seagoing paddle-steamer,[106] provides services from Glasgow City Centre, mainly catering to the pleasure cruise market. A regular waterbus service links the City Centre with Braehead in Renfrewshire, some 30 minutes downstream. A service by Loch Lomond Seaplanes, connecting the city with destinations in Argyll and Bute started in 2007.[107] The only operational dock left in Glasgow operated by Clydeport is the King George V Dock, near Braehead. Most other facilities, such as Hunterston Terminal are located in the deep waters of the Firth of Clyde, which together handle some 7.5 million tonnes of cargo each year.

Roads

M8 Motorway, the busiest motorway in Scotland

The city is the focus of Scotland's trunk road network and has many road connections to other cities. The main M8 motorway passes through the city centre, and connects to the M77, M73, and M80 motorways. The A82 connects the city to Argyll and the western Highlands. The M74 runs directly south towards Carlisle; the highly controversial M74 completion scheme will extend the motorway from Tollcross into the Tradeston area to join the M8. A legal challenge to stop the extension was withdrawn in 2006, and the road is now scheduled for completion by 2010.

Other road proposals include the East End Regeneration Route, which aims to complete the Glasgow Inner Ring Road around the city and provide easier access to deprived areas of the East End.

Airports

The city is served by two international airports and a seaplane terminal: Glasgow International Airport (GLA) in Paisley, Renfrewshire (13 km/8 mi west of the city), Glasgow Prestwick Airport (PIK) (46 km/29 mi to the south-west), and Glasgow Seaplane Terminal, by the Glasgow Science Centre on the River Clyde. There is also a small airfield at Cumbernauld (29 km/18 mi to the north-east) and Glasgow City Heliport located at Stobcross Quay on the banks of the Clyde. Prestwick has a direct rail link to Glasgow Central; a plan to also provide a direct rail link to Glasgow International was dropped with the cancelling of the Glasgow Airport Rail Link in 2009. In June 2007, Glasgow International Airport had been subject to an attempted terrorist attack.

Twin towns and sister cities

Glasgow is twinned with various cities.[108]

Country Place State / Province / Region / Governorate Date
Germany Germany Wappen von Nürnberg.svg Nuremberg Flag of Bavaria (lozengy).svg Bavaria 1985
Russia Russia Coat of Arms of Rostov-na-Donu.png Rostov-on-Don Flag of the Rostov Oblast.png Rostov Oblast 1986
People's Republic of China People's Republic of China Dalian Liaoning 1997
Cuba Cuba Escudo de la Habana.svg Havana Havana 2002
Italy Italy Torino-Stemma.png Turin Piemonte.svg Piedmont 2003[109]
Pakistan Pakistan Lahore Emblem.jpg Lahore Flag of Punjab (Pak).gif Punjab 2006[110]
France France Blason Marseille.jpg Marseille Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur flag.svg Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur 2006[111]
Palestinian territories Palestinian Authority Bethlehem Logo.gif Bethlehem Bethlehem Governorate 2007[112][113]

Gallery

Cineworld on Renfrew Street is the world's tallest cinema.  
Glasgow City Heliport, the operating base for the Strathclyde Police air support unit.  
The Lighthouse, Scotland's Centre for Architecture & Design.  
GoMA is the 2nd most visited contemporary art gallery in the UK outside London.[114]  

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External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

For other places with the same name, see Glasgow (disambiguation).
Clyde Auditorium
Clyde Auditorium

Glasgow [1] is the largest city in Scotland with a population of about 1 million in the city itself, or over 2 million if the surrounding towns of the Clydeside conurbation are taken into account. Located at the west end of Scotland's Central Belt on the banks of the River Clyde, Glasgow's historical importance as Scotland's main industrial centre has challenged by decades of change and various regeneration efforts. The third largest city in the entire United Kingdom (by population), it remains one of the nation's key economic centres outside London.

In recent years, however, Glasgow has been awarded the European titles of City of Culture (1990), City of Architecture and Design (1999) and Capital of Sport (2003). In 2008, Glasgow became the 2nd Scottish city to join the UNESCO Creative Cities initiative when it was named as a UNESCO City of Music (joining Bologna and Seville). In preparing its bid, Glasgow counted an average of 130 music events a week ranging from pop and rock to Celtic music and opera. The city has transformed itself from being the once mighty powerhouse of industrial Britain to a centre for commerce, tourism, and culture. Glasgow will be the host city for the Commonwealth Games in 2014.

Glasgow has become one of the most visited cities in the British Isles, and visitors will find a revitalised city centre, the best shopping outside London without a doubt, excellent parks and museums (most of which are free), and easy access to the Highlands and Islands.

Understand

The speed of the conversation tends to be quite quick in Glasgow. If necessary, ask people to repeat (even slowly!) what they are saying, Glaswegians are generally very friendly and able to communicate in far more formal English than that which is commonly used if it is required. Standing on a city centre street corner with a map in the daytime is usually a cue for passing Glaswegians to offer help in finding your way.

Dialect

As with all areas of Scotland, regional dialects are present in Glasgow. Glasgow Patter (the Glaswegian dialect of Scots) or "banter", as it's known, has evolved over the history of the city. As each wave of migration takes place, new words and phrases are added to the dialect. There is a strong Celtic language connection due to the Lowland Scots, Highland Gaelic and Irish Gaelic influences.

Some phrases

  • "Wean" (pronounced "wayne") - child (Derived from wee-one, meaning small one)
  • "Wee" - small
  • "Aye" - yes
  • "Bam" or "bampot" or "bamstick" - an impolite term for a silly or annoying person
  • "Eejit" - an impolite term for a person who has done an incredibly stupid thing
  • "Tumshie" - a silly person
  • "Pure (brilliant)" - Very
  • "Minging" - bad smelling or bad tasting; similarly a "minger" refers to an ugly person. Can also be used to denote drunkenness; "Ah wis well mingin' on Friday."
  • "Midden" - an old Scots word for a waste dump, but commonly used to described anything that is untidy or unkempt.
  • "Haw" - roughly equivalent to "Hey" and used to attract someone's attention
  • "(to give) pelters" - to humiliate someone
  • "Ned" - Allegedly, this stands for "Non-Educated Delinquent", which sums it up nicely. Typically teenage youths who can be spotted sporting tracksuits, drinking cheap alcohol and wearing "bling" jewellery, as well as bright white trainers (sneakers), soccer socks (kneesocks) scrunched down, and a baseball cap, usually from the brand Burberry. Many neds are aggressive.
  • "Buckie" - Real name is Buckfast, a "tonic wine" (this indicates its fortified alcohol content and not any medicinal value.) It is relatively cheap and purple in colour.
  • "Glaikit" - If someone is glaikit, they look (or are) oblivious, stupid and out of it.
  • "Gallus" - notably brave, or even cocky
  • "Bolt" - go away, as in "leave me alone" (tends to be used in a slightly aggressive context)
  • "Besom" - a cheeky or 'bold' woman.
  • "Manky" - unclean, filthy
  • "Baltic" - Really cold weather
  • "Mental" - Tough and crazy, as in "Watch out, he's pure mental, by the way". "Mental" can also be used to describe something which is overcrowded or busy as in "the traffic was mental on the motorway today".
  • "Pished" - drunk or intoxicated.

Glasgow slang is also peppered with various more or less meaningless phrases such as 'by the way', 'man' or 'dead' (very, as an adjective) that can give the answers to simple questions an almost baroque complexity. So "Did you enjoy the concert last night?" might be answered "Aye it was pure dead brilliant man" which means, essentially, "Yes, it was good".

Get in

By plane

Glasgow is served by two main airports close to the city:

Glasgow International Airport [2] (GLA)

Located 14km west of the centre of Glasgow near the towns of Paisley and Renfrew, this is the city's principal airport. There are regular scheduled UK and European destinations, holiday charters, and the airport is the hub for the Scottish island network operated by Loganair. Continental Airlines [3] operate a daily service from New York (Newark), while Emirates [4] operate a daily flight to Dubai. Both British Airways [5] and British Midland BMI [6] operate frequent shuttle flights to Glasgow Airport throughout the day to and from London Heathrow. If you are flying into the UK via Heathrow, you will usually connect into Glasgow via one of these airlines. British Airways also operates shuttles from both Gatwick and London City airports. Alternatively, KLM [7] flies regularly to Glasgow from Amsterdam-Schiphol which connects with a wide range of international destinations. EasyJet flies from Luton, Stansted and Gatwick.

There's a frequent shuttle bus Arriva 500 [8] from outside the terminal building to the city centre, dropping off near both main railway stations (£4.20 single, £6.50 return; the journey takes about 20 minutes). Slower, less frequent, but cheaper is the First 747 [9] (£4 single, £5 return). A particular benefit of this service is that First run most of the bus services in the City and many in the surroundings, and the £5 return acts as an all-day ticket that will give you unlimited travel anywhere in Glasgow on the day you arrive. Do check which bus route into Glasgow passes closest to where you are staying: the 500, 600 or 747 could leave you very close to or very far from your final destination.

Probably only a good choice if you need to travel onwards by train from Central Station, a "railbus" service operates via Paisley Gilmour Street railway station to the airport; simply get on a Paisley bound train at Glasgow Central Station, alight at Paisley Gilmour Street Station (20 min journey), and a connecting bus will take you the 30 minute journey to the terminal. One ticket (available at the railway station for about £2.50 single, £5 return) will be valid for both legs of the journey.

Car parks serving Glasgow Airport
Address On/Off Airport Distance / Transfer Time Security Park Mark®
[10] Award
Additional Information
Airparks Glasgow
Burnbrae Drive, Linwood, Paisley, PA3 3BJ.
Off
-
High-fencing, floodlights, 24-hour CCTV and security patrols
Yes
Trailers are permitted within this car park at Glasgow but an extra space will be charged
Glasgow Long Stay
Glasgow Long Stay Supersaver, Arran Avenue, Glasgow Airport, Paisley, PA3 2AY.
On
10 minutes
24 hours a day, has 24-hour CCTV, and is fully fenced and floodlit
Yes
There are parking bays for Blue Badge holders near the bus stops. The courtesy coaches are wheelchair accessible and DDA compliant

Sources:

Glasgow Prestwick International Airport [11] (PIK)

This is about 50 km south west of Glasgow on the Ayrshire coast, is the city's secondary airport and is the Scottish base for Ryanair (see Discount airlines in Europe) and several other low cost carriers. Ryanair fly into Prestwick predominantly from Ireland (Dublin and Shannon), London (Stansted), Paris (Beauvais) and with some useful routes from various destinations in Eastern Europe. Note also, that some holiday charter flights fly into Prestwick rather than Glasgow's main airport.

The airport has its own railway station, with two trains per hour to Glasgow Central (show your flight paperwork to get a £3.20 half price ticket; the journey takes around 45 minutes). All trains to Ayr and Stranraer call at the airport. The A77/M77 roads run directly from Prestwick into the centre of Glasgow if you intend to drive.

The X77 bus also runs from Buchanan Bus Station to the airport throughout the day, and crucially covers the times (early morning and late evening) when the trains are not running.

By train

Glasgow has two main line railway stations. Trains from the south of Scotland, the city's southern suburbs and all long distance trains from England arrive at Central Station (officially known as Glasgow Central), while shuttle trains from Edinburgh and anywhere north of Glasgow arrive at Queen Street Station. Both Central and Queen Street stations have left luggage lockers. The stations are an easy ten minute walk apart and the route is well signposted, or there's a frequent shuttle bus between them, which is free if you are holding a through railway ticket otherwise a fare of 50p is charged if you don't.

Most trains within Scotland and the sleeper services from London are run by First ScotRail [12].

From Edinburgh

Confusingly for the visitor, there are three rail routes between Scotland's capital and Glasgow (with a fourth currently due to open in 2010). Most visitors however will use the Shuttle which runs into Queen Street station via Falkirk. Trains run every 15 minutes during the daytime Monday-Friday, dropping to a half hourly frequency after 1830 and on weekends. A cheap day return is around £9.50, but note that these off-peak tickets cannot be used around the morning and evening peak. Other services from Edinburgh run into Central station via south Lanarkshire, but these make many stops at rural towns and villages and are a lot slower than using the Shuttle and don't cost any less. Certain East Coast main line trains originating from London or Newcastle also continue to Central - these are only slightly slower than the Shuttle but can be less crowded.

From London & The South

Daytime direct services to Glasgow from London (and other major cities in England) are run by Virgin Trains [13] and East Coast [14]. Travelling by train from London and the South can be more cost effective than flying - if tickets are booked in advance - and not all that longer in time terms once the time spent travelling to airports is taken into account.

Virgin operate thirteen direct services on the West Coast route from London's Euston station; the average journey time is 4 hours 32 minutes, with one crack express which can complete the 400 mile journey in just 4 hours 10 minutes. East Coast Main Line Company Limited operate 6 direct services a day on the East Coast route from London King's Cross via Edinburgh (also taking in York and Newcastle), but at a much slower time of 5 hours 45 minutes. Rail fares from London to Glasgow vary enormously - the best prices are obtained by booking an advance purchase ticket online at the train operator's website, and can run as low as £14 one way, rising to £107 for an off-peak return. Full fare tickets bought on the day of travel are very expensive, and can run to over £200 return if travelling at the peak periods.

The overnight train sleeper service from London - the Caledonian Sleeper - runs every night from Euston station except Saturdays, and the journey takes approximately 8 hours. Bear in mind that if you are travelling alone you may have to share the sleeping compartment with a stranger of the same sex. Tickets can be booked in the usual manner at any main line railway station in Britain, and the cost of a return journey to Glasgow from London varies from around £100 for two one-way "Advance" tickets rising to the full open return fare of £165. You can also travel for around £23 one-way in a seated carriage or £95 return (full fare). Certain BritRail passes can be used to buy tickets on the Sleeper trains - check before leaving your home country.

However, heavily discounted all inclusive (berth + travel) one-way tickets on the Caledonian Sleeper known as "Bargain Berths" are available for £19, £29, £39 or £49 depending on how early you book, but confusingly these cannot be bought from a railway station in the normal way - they can only be purchased from the First ScotRail website and you will be emailed an e-ticket (similar to an airline) which you must print out and show to the conductor at the platform before getting on the train.

Other Rail Services

First Transpennine Express [15] operate a direct service to Glasgow from Manchester Airport.

CrossCountry [16] run trains from the South West of England to Glasgow which runs via Birmingham New Street which connects with many more services into key towns throughout the U.K. Virgin Trains also operate direct services from Manchester and Birmingham.

By car

The main approaches to Glasgow are:

  • from England on the M74 motorway; Glasgow is about 150 km north of the border
  • from Edinburgh (east) or Glasgow Airport (west) on the M8 motorway
  • from Stirling and all points north and east on the M80 motorway
  • from the West Highlands on the A82 dual carriageway

All routes converge on the M8, which carves through the city centre. Glasgow has no credible park-and-ride system, but some of the subway and suburban railway stations do have small car parks. There are several expensive multi-storey car parks near the motorway in the city centre. The NCP ones are the most expensive, while those run by the city council are a lot cheaper. Those run by the city council are Concert Square (near the Royal Concert Hall), Cambridge Street (just off the pedestrianised area of Sauchiehall Street) and Charing Cross.

There is also the Shields Road Park and Ride site [17], which services the city centre.

In general, driving in Glasgow's central area should be avoided if you are not a confident driver, as there are one way systems, bus lanes and pedestrian precincts. Glaswegians are not the most patient drivers in the world, and they particularly dislike hesitancy (taxi drivers being the worst culprits). Parking restrictions are strictly enforced, and vehicles parked illegally or in an obstructive manner will be towed away and the owner of the vehicle will be liable for a £150 release charge to recover it. If however you are confident enough to hire a car or require it to save money on your travel, all the major rental companies and some lesser ones are at the airport. You should book your car rental in advance to avoid disappointment and can do so from price comparison companies such as Glasgow Airport Car Hire [18]. Visitors from the United States and Canada should note that car rental companies will allocate you a manual transmission car by default, unless you specifically ask for an automatic.

By bus

Long-distance bus services [19] arrive at Buchanan Bus Station (in the city centre, close to Buchanan Street Underground /Queen Street train stations). The main operator is Scottish Citylink [20], but Stagecoach also runs a budget inter-city bus service called Megabus [21]. Somewhat confusingly, however, the two operators often combine and merge services, so don't be surprised if you are put on a Citylink bus when you hold a Megabus reservation and vice versa. There are even buses to Poland, setting off from Glasgow around midnight every Monday, Friday and Sunday.

Sunset over Kingston Bridge
Sunset over Kingston Bridge

For travellers arriving from outside Scotland, the nearest ferry ports are Troon (near Prestwick Airport) for ferries from Larne in Northern Ireland, and Rosyth (near Edinburgh) for ferries from Zeebrugge in Belgium. Each is about an hour's drive from Glasgow. Aberdeen and Newcastle, each around two hours' drive away, are served by ferries from Norway.

  • P&O Irish Sea Ferries runs two sailings a day each way between Larne and Troon [22]
River Clyde looking West towards SECC
River Clyde looking West towards SECC

Although Greater Glasgow sprawls out for nearly 80 square miles, the central area of the city is compact and can be easily negotiated by foot. For the visitor, Central Glasgow can be divided into two main areas - the City Centre, which makes up the majority and contains much of the city’s shopping and entertainment district, as well as its commercial heart, and the West End – the bohemian area of cafés, restaurants and bars surrounding the University of Glasgow and Kelvingrove Museum. The best way to get good vistas of the city is to climb the many “drumlins” (hills) upon which the central area is built upon.

City Centre

The City Centre (known as "The Toon" to locals) is laid out on an American style grid plan and is bounded by the M8 motorway to the north and west, High Street to the east, and the River Clyde to the south. This is the area where most visitors will start.

The main arteries of the City Centre are Argyle Street and Sauchiehall Street which both run on an east-west axis. They are linked by Buchanan Street which runs north-south. Together, these three streets form the main shopping thoroughfare. Argyle Street is effectively divided in two by the glass walled bridge (known as Hielanman's Umbrella) of Central Station – the city’s principal railway terminus. Exiting the station, and heading eastwards along Gordon Street and arriving onto Buchanan Street, turn left towards the north, you encounter St Vincent Street which intersects the south side of George Square. Heading in the other direction will lead you back to Argyle Street and St Enoch Square – now dominated by the huge St Enoch Centre shopping mall, although its most famous landmark is the quaint St Enoch Subway Station – now used as a coffee shop. If you continue east along Argyle Street, and walk beyond the pedestrianised area you will have arrived on Trongate, and the beginning of the Merchant City.

Merchant City

The Merchant City is a sub-district of the City Centre which contains Glasgow’s original medieval core, and charts its beginnings as an industrial city. The Victorian tobacco lairds and merchants of the 19th Century used their wealth from international trade to build the network of streets which formed the basis of the modern city as we see it today. Most of their ornate churches, houses and office buildings have survived to the present day. Trongate is the site of the Tron Theatre (itself a former church), just before the junction of the Trongate, A8 Saltmarket (north/south), Gallowgate and London Road (east/west). This junction is known as Glasgow Cross and marks the original medieval centre of the city. It is dominated by the clock tower of the original City Chambers (destroyed by fire in 1926), and the small hexagonal building known as the Tolbooth. High Street runs directly north from Glasgow Cross and is the main artery of Old Glasgow, leading up to the Cathedral of Saint Mungo (or Glasgow Cathedral), and the Necropolis cemetery – dominated by the statue of John Knox and described by Victorians as a literal “City of The Dead”.

Heading northward along Queen Street you will enter George Square – the city’s notional centre, which is dominated by the city's spectacular City Chambers, the headquarters of Glasgow City Council – the city’s local government. On the north side of the square is Queen Street Railway Station, on the east side is the start of the Strathclyde University Campus. The Square itself is populated by several statues of civic leaders and famous figures from history, and is often used for outdoor events. Continuing south from George Square, you will find yourself on Ingram Street, which in recent years has become a haven for upmarket designer shops. Heading west along Ingram Street is the magnificent Royal Exchange Square – dominated by the Doric-style Gallery of Modern Art, and the square itself is lined with cafes, restaurants and bars. Beyond the gallery, you will pass Borders bookstore to arrive back on Buchanan Street.

Blythswood Hill & Anderston

Just after Buchanan Street Subway station you will cross Bath Street. Running parallel to Sauchiehall Street, this is the main route to the western area of the city centre, containing the city’s core commercial and business district. As you walk westward up Bath Street, past its rich mix of quirky independent shops and ‘style bars’ you will gradually notice the distinctive Georgian town house style architecture – most of the buildings have now been converted to offices. Blythswood Square, as you reach the top of the drumlin you have just climbed is the area’s centrepiece, and is dominated on its eastern side by the old Royal Scottish Automobile Club – now an upmarket hotel. From the Square and heading south down Blythswood Street (a very steep hill!), the new meets the old as state of the art modern glass and steel office buildings stand alongside their classical counterparts. This is the heart of Glasgow’s financial district, known irreverently as “Wall Street on Clyde”. At the foot of the hill, you will be back on Argyle Street. Continue south onto the Broomielaw, which sits on the north bank of the River Clyde. You will now be in the district of Anderston, formerly a dockland area, but now being redeveloped as a residential and commercial area. The Tradeston Pedestrian Bridge crosses the river and is nicknamed the “Squiggly Bridge” by locals owing to its distinctive S-shape. Staying on the north bank the remaining curiosity of the area is the Renfrew Ferry – a decommissioned pedestrian ferry which is now permanently moored on the riverbank and is used as a nightclub.

West End

To the west of the city centre is the ever popular and dynamic Glasgow West End. No official definition of where the West End boundary lies exists, but it can roughly be defined as being bounded by the M8 motorway to the east, Great Western Road to the north, Argyle Street/Dumbarton Road to the South and Crow Road to the west. The nucleus of the area is undoubtedly the neo-Gothic University of Glasgow, which acts as the anchor for this bohemian district with its amazing architecture, tree lined streets and quaint shopping areas this part of Glasgow thrives all year round. The University itself is the fourth oldest in the entire United Kingdom, and one of the most prestigious academic institutions in the country.

The University's presence of course means the area has a high population of students in the area, which does much to give it its unique character.

Byres Road / Ashton Lane

Most visitors will start here - Byres Road is the West End's main artery, and is reachable via the Subway (get off the train at Hillhead station, which lies midway along Byres Road). The road itself is a treasure trove of independent shops, bars and restuarants. Upon leaving Hillhead station turn left then an immediate left and you will be in Ashton Lane, a cobbled and quaint backstreet. One of the West End's definate 'must sees' its distinctive whitewashed buildings and ecclectic mix of bars and eateries - including the almost world famous Ubiquitous Chip restaurant - are a tourist hotspot. Be careful - the Lane can be a bit of a tourist trap during the summer months when the students of the university aren't there to keep the bar prices reasonable! Ashton Lane leads into University Gardens a semi-circular street lined with Georgian terraced houses which now house academic departments of the university.

University of Glasgow

University Gardens will eventually lead into University Avenue - the main thoroughfare which bisects the university campus. In front of you will be the University's spectacular Main Building, designed in Gothic Revival style by Sir George Gilbert Scott (the man who also designed London's St Pancras railway station). The building has an interesting visitor's centre (open all year round) which is free. The main building sits atop a drumlin from which it is possible to get a fantastic vista of the city - worth making the effort.

In Search of Raintown...

Fans of the Glasgow band Deacon Blue have often made the pilgrimage to the top of the Granite Staircase to recreate the cover photograph of their famous 1987 album Raintown. Sadly, neither of the two cover photos from the album are now possible to reconstruct. Two decades have saw Kelvingrove Park's trees grow to obscure the view of the Clyde and the Finnieston Crane from the top of the Granite Staircase. Equally, the rear cover shot of the M8 motorway approach onto the Kingston Bridge (adjacent to the Mitchell Library) was taken from a disused bridge upon which an office building has now been constructed.

Walking down from the university main building you will arrive into Kelvingrove Park, and the magnificent Kelvin Way - a tree lined avenue, almost Parisian in its gaiety which marks the western boundary of the park. Walking down Kelvin Way, and looking up to your left you will see the buildings of Park Circus atop a steep hill. The pavements (sidewalks) on Kelvin way are very uneven due to the tree roots underneath, so difficult for anyone with mobility problems.

This area of Georgian townhouses (laid out in a radial pattern similar to the English city of Bath) has made the transition from originally being an upmarket residential area to a prestigious office district for mainly legal and consultancy firms. In recent years there have been moves to encourage the companies back into the city centre and return the buildings to residential use. If you make the effort to walk through Kelvingrove Park go up to this area it's worth descending down the grand Granite Staircase which will bring you down on to the western reaches of Sauchiehall Street.

Kelvingrove Museum

At the southern end of Kelvin Way you will have arrived back onto Sauchiehall Street. On your left will be the massive Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum - the city's grandest public museum. The museum has one of the finest public collections in the United Kingdom outside London including Salvador Dali's celebrated "Crucifixion of St. John of the Cross" painting. Opposite the museum is the Kelvin Hall - an athletics venue, but currently the home of the Glasgow Museum of Transport (prior to its move to a new riverside location in 2010). Continuing along Dumbarton Road you will arrive on the southern end of Byres Road to complete the circle.

This West End is also the gateway to the amazing West of Scotland, since Great Western Road continues as the A82 to the Clyde estuary town of Dumbarton, then turning north toward the West Highlands to Loch Lomond, Rannoch Moor, Glencoe, Fort William, Loch Ness and finally Inverness.

East End

Further east from the Cross along the Gallowgate and London Road is the famous Barras market area and Barrowland Ballroom, leading to the areas of Calton, Bridgeton, Dalmarnock and Parkhead (home of Celtic Football team). Turning south onto the A8 Saltmarket leads to the City Mortuary, High Court and the eastern entrance of Glasgow Green park before crossing the Crown Street bridge into the Gorbals.

Public Transport

Strathclyde Partnership for Transport [23] (SPT) is the agency responsible for the local public transport network, which it describes as one of the most integrated and developed in the UK - however they mean by British standards, not European standards. Nevertheless, Glasgow's public transport system is one of the most extensive in the UK outside of London.

By subway

Image:Glasgow-Subway-Map.png

  • Glasgow's underground metro system (offically known as the Subway) [24] runs in a double circle around the Glasgow city centre and some inner suburbs. Contrary to what tourist guidebooks would have you believe, locals don't call it the "Clockwork Orange" - that is a fantasy of the London media - and most will refer to it simply as "the Subway". The system serves the city centre, the West End (around Glasgow University) and Ibrox Stadium. There are interchanges with surface trains at Buchanan Street/Queen Street and Partick stations. 6:30AM-11:30PM (Sunday 10:00AM-6:00PM). The cost is £1.20 flat fare, or £3.50 for unlimited daily use after 9:30AM. No bikes.

By train

Suburban trains [25] radiate from Central and Queen Street stations to the suburbs and surrounding towns. The network is the largest in the UK outside of London, although there are only two trains per hour on some routes; others are much more frequent. Central serves the dense suburban network which sprawls throughout the southern suburbs of the city, as well as outer suburban services to the Inverclyde and Ayrshire coasts. The underground lower level platforms of both Central and Queen Street stations are hubs for the east-west electric network north of the river which provide useful links to the West End (thus complimenting the Subway) and further west to the northern Clyde coast towns of Dumbarton, Helensburgh and Balloch - the gateway to Loch Lomond and the Southern Highlands.

Bikes go free, although many trains have no bike spaces. The SPT Day Tripper ticket (explained below) gives you complete freedom of the network, whilst the Roundabout ticket (also explained below) gives off-peak freedom of the suburban train network within the city boundary only as well as the Subway.

By bus

Buses go everywhere. First Glasgow [26] is the main operator within the city boundary. There's a bus at least every ten minutes on main routes during the day, making it easy to get into the centre of town, though getting out to a specific destination isn't so easy. However, services on many routes are much less frequent in the evening. In the city centre, buses won't necessarily stop at every stop on their route, so check the sign at the stop. Stops are clearly marked with the services that stop there.

First buses do not give change, as for safety reasons the driver has no access to cash - you put your money in a slot which checks the amount and deposits it in a storage box. An all day ticket that can be used on any First bus cost £3.50, a weekly ticket costs £14.50 (£12.50 if you're a student). Some other bus operators do however give change.

Other bus operators within the city are Arriva [27] and Stagecoach West Scotland [28] which operate services out to the outlying towns in Renfrewshire and Ayrshire respectively - note that the day/weekly passes bought on the First buses will not be vaild on these, with the exception of SPT Day Tripper and ZoneCards (explained below).

One of current scourges of Glasgow however (in the opinion of locals, at least), is the myriad of private bus operators which supposedly "compliment" the core services operated by First, Arriva and Stagecoach. In reality however, many merely duplicate the routes that already exist - the net result has been the city centre being clogged up with empty (and often badly maintained) buses, and for the visitor the key thing to remember is that some of these operators do not accept any of the SPT day passes. The situation is currently a political hot potato among locals, and a resolution has yet to be sought.

By taxi

Like most major British cities, you have two options - firstly the traditional London-style black cabs which can be hailed from the side of the road - look out for the yellow "Taxi" sign being illuminated. The fleet is operated by Glasgow Taxis [29], and can also be ordered by telephone (+44 141 429 7070). There are taxi ranks outside Central and Queen Street railway stations, adjacent to George Square and along the southern end of Queen Street itself. For a journey from say the centre of town to the West End expect to pay around £5-£6, from the city centre out to the suburbs around £10-£12. Be aware that some drivers will refuse to take you outside the city boundary - although some will on negotiation.

Your second option is by private hire or minicab. Unlike the black cabs these cannot be hailed - you must book by telephone. There is a myriad of private hire operators which are cheaper than black cabs - their phone numbers are clearly displayed on the back of the vehicles. Never be tempted to use unlicenced private taxis - who can sometimes be seen touting for business outside nightclubs near closing time and near legitimate taxi ranks. Always look for the yellow Glasgow City Council licencing plate attached to the rear bumper of the vehicle if unsure. Glasgow Private Hire is one of the biggest taxi fleets in Europe and has thousands of cars, which service all areas of the city. They can be reached on a variety of different numbers (including +44 141 774 3000). Another popular alternative is Hampden Cabs, which services most of the city and surrounding area. Hampden Cabs can be contacted on +44 141 649 5050.

By foot

The centre of Glasgow is very pedestrian friendly with major shopping streets given over to foot traffic. As you move out of the city centre all areas have proper pavements, and most major junctions have pedestrian crossings. The River Clyde also has several foot bridge crossings. The main difficulty with walking out of the centre of town is finding where the crossings over / under the M8 are. Heading west, some roads appear to go over Charing X only for the pavement to disappear. Heading North, the underpasses at Cowcaddens can sometimes feel unwelcoming.

Glasgow walking directions [30] can be planned online with the walkit.com [31] walking route planner.

Ticketing and Fares

Strathclyde Partnership for Transport (SPT) [32] is the local agency which operates the Subway and co-ordinates public transport in the Greater Glasgow area. SPT offers a number of different daily combined bus/rail travel tickets aimed at the visitor, both usable after 9AM on weekdays, and all day on weekends. Tickets are available from all manned railway stations, Subway stations, and certain newsagent shops in the city centre (they will display a prominent SPT logo on their window somewhere). There is also a dedicated SPT Travel Desk in the domestic arrivals hall in Glasgow Airport.

  • The Discovery ticket allows unlimited travel on the Subway only at off-peak times during the week or all day on weekends, and costs £3.50 (adult). If you have a car, a park-and-ride version (around £7) is available which also includes a whole day's parking at any of the Subway car parks.
  • The Roundabout ticket gives complete freedom of the Subway and the suburban rail network within the Greater Glasgow area which includes the city boundary and most of the surrounding towns.
  • Alternatively the Day Tripper ticket covers the entire Strathclyde rail network, which extends as far south as Girvan in Ayrshire, some 55 miles south of Glasgow, and Ardlui at the northern tip of Loch Lomond some 40 miles north. It has the added advantage of also being accepted by most bus operators in the Strathclyde region and on the Kilcreggan and Renfrew ferries. Two versions are available for 1 adult and up to 2 children (£8) or 2 adults and up to 4 children (£14.50).
  • If you are in town for a week or more then SPT's ZoneCard might be useful. It can be used on suburban trains, buses, and the underground and has no off-peak restrictions. Prices vary depending on how long you want it for (1 week to 1 year) and how many "zones" you want it to cover.

"PlanaJourney" [33] is a free integrated public transport journey planner that includes Glasgow and covers much of the Scottish, Northern Ireland and UK public transport network. It includes bus, rail, Glasgow underground, Scottish ferries and flights. It can assist with planning journeys into and out of Glasgow from anywhere in the Glasgow area or more widely from anywhere in the UK. Outside of Scotland and Northern Ireland the bus information is limited.

See

Architecture

As befits a city that was at its richest through the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th, the centre of Glasgow has a fine legacy of Victorian and Edwardian buildings with their lavish interiors and spectacular carved stonework. Outside of the central area the main streets are lined with the legendary tenements - the city's trademark 2 or 3 story residential buildings built from red or blonde sandstone which positively glow during the summer. The decline of Glasgow's economy during the mid to late 20th Century led to the mass construction of high-rise tower blocks and concrete housing estates during the 1960's and 1970s. The dramatic and striking Red Road Flats form the tallest residential property in Europe. Many 1970s office buildings in the centre have been cleared away by state-of-the-art glass structures as Glasgow's burgeoning financial services industry continues to grow.

Glasgow was also the home of Charles Rennie Mackintosh, one of the "Glasgow Four," a group of leading proponents of art nouveau architecture. Indeed, during his lifetime, Mackintosh was probably better regarded abroad than he was in his native Glasgow, even apparently inspiring Frank Lloyd Wright. However, he was recently resurrected as one of the cities most beloved sons. You will notice, along with quite a few of his buildings to see in the city, including his magnum opus, the Glasgow School of Art, many other knock-offs and impersonations exist. However, despite the 'cult' of Mackintosh, Glasgow produced many other fine architects, the best known of whom is probably Alexander 'Greek' Thomson.

The following list is a selection of significant buildings in Glasgow.

Clyde Auditorium
Clyde Auditorium
  • The Clyde Auditorium, (train: Exhibition Centre), [34]. Affectionately known by Glaswegians as the Armadillo, it is a concert hall which forms part of the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre complex. Designed by Sir Norman Foster, and contrary to popular belief, not inspired by the Sydney Opera House it is in fact supposed to represent ship's hulls. Has now garnered some world fame for being the place where the Susan Boyle audition - the most downloaded YouTube video clip in history - was filmed.
  • The imposing City Chambers [35] (train: Glasgow Queen Street) in George Square was built in 1888 in Italian Renaissance style and is the headqurters of Glasgow City Council. Tours of the building are available daily, and visitors can see the magnificent marble staircases, lobbies, see the debating chamber and the lavish banqueting hall.
  • Glasgow Cathedral is a fine example of Gothic architecture dating from medieval times and built on a site first consecrated in 397 AD.
  • The Mitchell Library, North Street, Charing Cross (rail: Charing Cross) [36] One of Glasgow's best public buildings, it is the largest municipal public reference library in Europe, the imposing structure houses a spectactular reading room, although it has to be said much of the Mitchell's extensive collection is housed in the rather ugly 1970s extension attached to the rear. You can easily lose a day in here!
  • Glasgow School of Art, Renfrew Street (subway: Cowcaddens) [37]. Seen as one of Charles Rennie Mackintosh's finest buildings and is one of Britain's pre-eminent schools of art, design and architecture. Guided tours of the building are available (you must book in advance), or if you want to create your own art in the building, you can enroll for evening classes or the summer school.
  • Glasgow University, University Avenue (subway: Hillhead), [38]. Contains the Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery, including a reconstruction of Mackintosh's house. The exterior is fine in its own right; the current main University building is of the neo-gothic and dates from 1870, although the University as an institution was founded in 1451. The front of the building commands views over Kelvingrove Park and the western fringes of the city.
  • The House for an Art Lover, Bellahouston Park (train: Dumbreck or subway: Ibrox), [39]. Built in the 1990s to Mackintosh's original 1901 entry for a design competition. Opening times vary; cost is £3.50.
  • Scotland Street School, 225 Scotland St (subway: Shields Road), [40]. Charles Rennie Mackintosh's last major building - thoughtfully designed, with an excellent museum covering both Mackintosh and the changing faces of schools. Open daily. Free.
  • Holmwood House, [41]. Now run by the National Trust, and currently in the process of being renovated, Holmwood House is one of the best examples of the work of Glasgow's other great architect: Alexander 'Greek' Thomson. It is in Cathcart, in the South Side of the City, and is open throughout the Summer.
  • The Willow Tea Room

If this just whets your appetite for information on Glasgow's architecture, try and get hold of a copy of Central Glasgow: An Illustrated Architectural Guide, by Charles McKean and others. There are various editions (ISBN:1873190220, ISBN:1851582002, ISBN:1851582010).

Museums and art galleries

The Victorians also left Glasgow with a wonderful legacy of museums and art galleries, which the city has dutifully built upon. The following list is only a selection. The city council alone runs 13 museums and galleries. Visitors should be aware that most of the galleries appear to be closed on Sundays, and that - to the understandable annoyance of many visitors to Glasgow - most of the museums shut their doors at 5:00 PM.

  • Burrell Collection, Pollok Country Park (train: Pollokshaws West, then walk through Pollok Park), tel 287-2550.[42] This is a collection of over 9,000 artworks gifted to the city of Glasgow by Sir William Burrell and housed in a purpose-built museum in the Pollok Estate in the south of the city. Open M-Th,Sa 10:00AM-5:00PM; F,Su 11:00AM-5:00PM. Free.
  • Gallery of Modern Art[43] On Queen Street in the City Centre, this gallery houses a terrific collection of recent paintings and sculptures, with space for new exhibitions. In the basement is one of Glasgow's many public libraries, with free internet access and cafe. Free.
Glasgow Science Center
Glasgow Science Center
  • Glasgow Science Centre, Pacific Quay (train: Exhibition Centre or subway: Cessnock)[44]. Has hundreds of interactive science exhibits for children, an IMAX cinema, and the 125-meter Glasgow Tower (re-opened summer 2004), the only tower in the world which can rotate through 360 degrees from its base. Every day, 10:00AM-6:00PM. £10 adults, £8 children for any two of the main attractions.
  • Transmission Gallery[45], a gallery set up in 1983 by ex-students of the Glasgow School of Art as a hub for the local art community and to provide exhibition space.
  • Street level photoworks[46], an alternative art gallery/installation space
  • Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, Argyle Street (subway: Kelvinhall), tel 287-2699.[47] One of the finest civic collections in Europe is housed within this Glasgow Victorian landmark museum. The collections include everything from fine and decorative arts to archaeology and the natural world. Open M-Th,Sa 10:00AM-5:00PM; F,Su 11:00AM-5:00PM. Free.
  • McLellan Galleries, Sauchiehall Street, tel 565-4137.[48] Normally used as a temporary space for visiting exhibitions, this is a grade II listed building in the center of Glasgow. Open M-Th,Sa 10:00AM-5:00PM; F,Su 11:00AM-5:00PM. Currently used by the Glasgow School of Art during work on the Mackintosh building.
  • Museum of Transport, Kelvin Hall, Bunhouse Road (subway: Kelvinhall), tel 287-2720.[49] The museum uses its collections of vehicles and models to tell the story of transport by land and sea, with a unique Glasgow flavour. Besides the usual rail locomotives, buses, trams, cars and planes, the museum also includes a recreated subway station, and a street scene of old Glasgow. Open M-Th,Sa 10:00AM-5:00PM; F,Su 11:00AM-5:00PM. Free.
  • Provand's Lordship, Castle Street (opposite Glasgow Cathedral), tel 552-8819.[50] Glasgow's oldest remaining house, built in 1471, has been renovated to give visitors and idea what the inside of a Glasgow house was like circa 1700. Open M-Th,Sa 10:00AM-5:00PM; F,Su 11:00AM-5:00PM. Free.
  • Sharmanka, 14 King Street.[51] Sharmanka is a Kinetic Gallery / Theatre. It consists of a number of strange machines created by the Russian artists Eduard Bersudsky. The machines perform stories and the light and sound during the performance adds to a really unique and amazing experience. Performances Thu, Sun 7:00PM or by individual appointment. £4, children under 16 free.
  • People's Palace and Winter Gardens on Glasgow Green.[52] The People's Palace is a great folk museum, telling the history of Glasgow and its people, from various perspectives. Free. The Winter Garden, adjacent, has a reasonable cafe.
  • Tenement House, 145 Buccleuch Street, Garnethill. [53] A National Trust for Scotland site, a middle class Glasgow tenement house preserved in pretty much the way it was in the early 20th Century.
  • St. Mungo's Museum of Religious Life and Art, 2 Castle Street.[54] Next to Glasgow Cathedral, the museum features exhibits relating not only to Glasgow's patron saint and the growth of Christianity in the city, but numerous exhibits pertaining to many faiths practised locally and worldwide. Free entry.

Do

There are many nightclubs, concerts and festivals in Glasgow.

Music

Glasgow's been famous for its music scene(s) for at least 20 years, with venues such as the legendary Barrowland Ballroom and King Tut's Wah Wah Hut now garnering world acclaim. There's plenty of venues where you're likely to see a good band (and lots of bad bands too); on any day of the week there should be at least several shows to choose from throughout the city, with the number increasing to a even greater variety on Thursday, Friday & Saturday. In no particular order, here follows some pop/indie/rock-orientated venues:

  • Nice 'n' Sleazy on Sauchiehall St. Open til 3AM every night of the week, with bands on practically every night also. Gigs are downstairs and bar upstairs plays a variety of alternative/rock/punk. Over 18's only (both bar and gigs), [55].
  • King Tut's Wah Wah Hut on St Vincent St, [56] where both Oasis and, local favourites, Glasvegas were discovered.
  • ABC on Sauchiehall St, [57].
  • 13th Note on King St (just off Argyle Street/Trongate), [58].
  • The Cathouse on Union St (around the corner from Central railway station).
  • The Riverside Club (33 Fox Street - behind St Enoch Square) Glasgow's top ceilidh (Scottish country dancing) venue on Friday and Saturday nights.
  • Mono [59] restaurant and record shop.
  • Stereo City centre venue with regular indie gigs downstairs, bar and cafe upstairs [60].
  • The Barrowland Ballroom in the East End, [61] is one of the most famous live music venues, the world over.
  • Carling Academy Glasgow (now called the O2 Academy) on Eglinton St (south of the Clyde near Bridge Street Subway), [62].
  • The Arches on Argyle St (beneath Central Station), [63]. Running one of the UK's best techno nights; Pressure. Recently celebrated 10 year anniversary.
  • Sub Club on Jamaica St (Near to Central Station) [64]. Recently celebrated 20 years, rated one of the best clubs in the world from house to techno to whatever takes your fancy.
  • The Tunnel on Mitchell Street: with the Sub Club and the Arches one of Glasgow's premier dance clubs: frequently hosts top DJ's from round the world, although doesn't quite have The Arches' or the Sub Club's 'underground' reputation.
  • The Vale on Dundas St (next to Buchanan Street Subway station).
  • QMU at University Gardens (in the West End of the city), [65].
  • The Classic Grand on Union Street/Jamaica Street (next to the Sub Club), a former adult cinema now re-purposed as an alternative music venue. Serves the rock/metal/punk/alternative scene 4 nights a week with drinks as low as £1.

The Scottish Exhibition & Conference Centre [66] is the city's premier music venue for major headline acts, even if the acoustics of the halls have always been questionable. More intimate gigs are held in the neighbouring Clyde Auditorium (or Armadillo). SECC Tickets [67] sells tickets for these.

The Glasgow Royal Concert Hall, Sauchiehall Street (nearest Subway: Buchanan Street)[68]. This is the home of The Royal Scottish National Orchestra [69], one of Europe's leading symphony orchestras. It also produces the world famous Celtic Connections Festival [70] every January.

The Glasgow International Jazz Festival [71] is held every year in June.

Other music festivals or music orientated fesivals of note include The West End Festival, the Merchant City Festival and numerous others. As always, consult the listings magazine The List for further details.

Comedy

There are two main venues for stand-up comedy in Glasgow.

  • The Stand on Woodlands Road (West End)
  • Jongleurs in the City Centre

Although other pubs and clubs frequently hold comedy events: see the listings magazine The List for details.

CF also the Magners Glasgow International Comedy Festival held yearly thoroughout March/April.

Cinema

The most interesting films in Glasgow are shown at:

  • Glasgow Film Theatre (GFT), 12 Rose St, 332 8128, [72]. Excellent choice of classics, also art and foreign-language movies.
  • The Grosvenor, Ashton Lane (just off Byres Road in the West End), [73].
  • CCA, on Sauchiehall St, [74]. Shows films, though it's primarily an art gallery.

Mainstream films can be seen at the Cineworld on Renfrew St, which is the tallest cinema in the world [75]

Supporters of Celtic and Rangers display their banners at half time in a derby match
Supporters of Celtic and Rangers display their banners at half time in a derby match

Glasgow also has the 3 biggest football stadia in Scotland. The major events in the football season are the clashes between the two Premier League clubs; Celtic and Rangers. Known as the "Old Firm", with their sectarian undertones, these 90 minute matches produce a profound effect on the city, occasionally, but less frequently in recent times; resulting in violent clashes during or after the game. Cup (non-league) ties between these two giants are quite frequent, raising the tensions further. Be aware that getting tickets for "Old Firm" games can be difficult and cup ties near impossible. If you do go to one of these matches it is advised that you do not wear team colours (blue/red for Rangers, green/white for Celtic) after the match.

  • Hampden Park (Home of Football) (Nearest Rail: Mount Florida - depart from Glasgow Central) Scotland's national stadium [76], capacity 52,063. Hampden hosts many large sporting events and concerts and also houses the Scottish Football Museum. The Scottish national football team plays its home games here. Is also home to Queen's Park Football Club.
  • Celtic Park (Kerrydale Street, Parkhead - First Bus 40/61/62/240/262 go past the stadium) Home of Celtic Football Club[77], which has a capacity of 60,832 - making it the biggest "club" stadium in Scotland and the second largest in the UK, behind only Manchester United's Old Trafford ground.
  • Ibrox Stadium, (Subway: Ibrox) This is the home of Rangers Football Club [78], capacity 51,082.
  • Firhill, [79] - Home of Partick Thistle Football Club, also known as "the Jags". It has a capacity of 14,538.

Parks

For a large city, Glasgow has a surprising number of parks and green spaces; there is more parkland here than in any other British city. The most famous of these is Glasgow Green. [80] Founded by Royal grant in 1450, Glasgow Green has slowly been enclosed by the city and evolved from grazing land into a modern public park. The highlights are:

If you should fall in

Glasgow Green is the home of the Glasgow Humane Society. The Society was founded in 1790 and is the world's oldest practical life-saving body. Until June 2005 the society volunteers were responsible for rescuing those unfortunate to fall into the River Clyde. Unfortunately modern heath and safety regulations require two life boat men on duty and a lack of volunteers has forced the sole lifeboat man, George Parsonage, to stand down the service after 215 years. The rescue service is now performed by the Strathclyde Fire Brigade.

  • Nelson's memorial - an obelisk or needle: built to commemorate Nelson's victory at the battle of Trafalgar
  • The Peoples Palace Museum - displaying details of Glasgow life (including one of Billy Connolly's banana boots)
  • The Templeton carpet factory - with its ornate brick work; now a business center
  • The Doulton fountain - recently renovated, it's the largest terracotta fountain in the world

"The Green" as its known to the locals is also one of the major venues for concerts and open air events in Glasgow. The best way to get there is on foot from either Bridgeton or Argyle Street railway stations or from the bus routes along London Road. There is limited official parking in or around the green and the area is notorious for car crime. Be aware the council will tow away illegally parked vehicles and charge you up to £250 pounds to get them back!

Kelvingrove Park [81] in the city's West End is also a very popular park, particularly with the students from the nearby University. The most prominent landmark here is the Art Gallery and Museum [82] on the banks of the River Kelvin which runs through the park. It also contains a recently constructed skate park.

Gay & Lesbian

Glasgow has a lively scene which centres around the Merchant City area (the so called "Pink Triangle" formed by Revolver, Bennets and the Polo Lounge). Bias is more marked in Glasgow, and the city's gay venues are consequently not as publicly visible as in Scotland's capital, or deliberately flaunted as a tourist attraction as is the case in London and Manchester. Nevertheless, the city is still gay-friendly, which is shown in the annual "Glasgay" celebrations in October.

  • Bennetts, 80-90 Glassford Street, Glasgow G1 1UR, +44 (0)141 552 5761, [83]. 6W-Su 11:30PM-3:30AM. This venue is situated over two levels with all you could want from a gay club. £3-W,Th,Su £5-F&Sa.  edit
  • The Polo Lounge, 84 Wilson St, Glasgow G1 1UZ, +44 (0)141 553 1221, [84]. M-Th 5PM-1AM, F-Su 5PM-3A. The upstairs bar is tastefully decorated in a Victorian style and is a great place to relax with friends. Downstairs boasts two dance areas, one playing all your pop favourites, the other chart and dance tunes. The crowd here is very mixed. Entry Fee on Fri & Sat Night.  edit
  • MODA, 58 Virginia Street, Glasgow G1 1TX, +44 (0)141 553 2553, [85]. M-Su 5PM-LATE!. Speciality - Cocktails & Funky DJs!  edit
  • Revolver, 6a John Street, Glasgow G1 1JQ (Opposite the Italian Centre and downstairs next door to the 'Gay Chippie'), +44 (0)141 5532456, [86]. M-Su 11AM-1AM. Mixed and relaxed crowd. Small and friendly bar with a great Pub Quiz on a Sunday afternoon.  edit
  • Radio, Ashton Lane, Glasgow (What self respecting homosexual needs directions to Ashton Lane nowadays), +44 (0)141 3346688, [87]. M-Sat 12PM-12AM. Mixed and relaxed crowd. Small and friendly bar with a great theme nights!.  edit

Health & Support

Strathclyde Gay & Lesbian Switchboard, '''Gay & Lesbian Line''' - Tel. +44 (0)141 847 0447, M-Su 7PM-10PM. '''Lesbian Line''' - Tel. +44 (0)141 847 0647, Wed 7.30PM-10PM (''Staffed only by women''). '''Homophobic Crime Reporting Line''' - Tel. +44 (0)141 847 0647, [88]. M-Su 7PM-10PM. Free and Confidential Telephone Counselling in the West of Scotland.  edit

The Glasgow LGBT Centre, 84 Bell Street, Glasgow, +44 (0)141 221 7203, [89]. M-Su 11AM-MIDNIGHT. Support, Advocacy, Welfare and Learning. The centre is fully wheelchair accessible with a chairlift.  edit

Glasgow Women's Library, 81 Parnie Street (2nd Floor), Glasgow G1 5RH, +44 (0)141 552 8345, [90]. Reading, Writing, Groups and Events. The library is fully wheelchair accessible (contact the Library in advance).  edit

The Sandyford Centre (The Steve Retson Project), 6 Sandyford Place, Sauchiehall Street, Glasgow, +44 (0)141 211 8628, [91]. Tu&W 5.30PM-8.30PM. A sexual health service for gay men in Glasgow.  edit

The Glasgow LGBT Centre (The Steve Retson Project), 11 Dixon St Glasgow, G1 4AL, +44 (0)141 211 8628, [92]. Th 5.30PM-8.30PM. A sexual health service for gay men in Glasgow.  edit

PHACE Scotland, Top Floor, Rothesay House, 134 Douglas Street, Glasgow G2 4HF, +44 (0)141 332 3838, [93]. Promoting Health and Challenging Exclusion.  edit

The University of Glasgow
The University of Glasgow

Glasgow has three universities:

  • University of Glasgow [94]. Located in the west end of the city, this university has served Glasgow since 1451 and is the fourth oldest in the United Kingdom, and also one of the country's most prestigious.
  • University of Strathclyde [95] is situated in the north-east of the city centre and was originally founded in 1796 as Anderson's University, and later became the Royal College of Science and Technology (affectionately nicknamed "The Tech" by Glaswegians) before finally gaining full University status in 1964. In 1993 it absorbed the former Jordanhill College of Education, and gained that institution's campus in the West End.
  • Glasgow Caledonian University [96], to the north of the city centre, is Glasgow's newest university. It was formed from the merger of Glasgow College of Technology and Queens' College in 1992.

Work

Jobs in Glasgow can be found through the government-run JobCentres. Be aware that you will need a National Insurance number and, if you are not a citizen of the European Economic Area or Switzerland, the correct type of work visa to work legally in the UK. Your employer should require this to ensure you pay the correct rates of income tax. However if you ask around you'll find a lot of bars and nightclubs offer work cash-in-hand. Some of the many temp agencies in the city centre aren't too fussy about immigration niceties either. With the city's growing financial services industry, there are quite a lot of opportunities for office temps.

Buy

Glasgow has positioned itself as an upmarket retail destination, the shopping is the some of the best in Scotland, and generally accepted as the No.2 shopping experience in Britain after London. Buchanan Street is the 7th most expensive place for retail space in the world, which means that there's an increasing number of designer clothes shops in areas like the Merchant City. Alongside this, the Council is putting pressure on more traditional shopping centres like the Barras where you can get remarkably similar-looking clothes for a more sensible price.

The nucleus of Glasgow shopping is the so-called "Golden Z", made up of the continuous pedestrianised thoroughfares of Argyle Street, Buchanan Street and Sauchiehall Street. Here, virtually all of the major British big name retailers are represented. Buchanan Street is the most upmarket of the three, with prestigious names such as Borders, House of Fraser, Apple Store and Zara and other specialised designer stores. Ingram Street in the Merchant City has seen a boom in recent years for attracting more exclusive, premium brands like Bose, Bang and Olufsen, Ralph Lauren and so on.

Bath Street and Hope Street run parallel to the main pedestrianised streets, and if you want to get away from "chain store hell" on the Golden Z, they have a fine selection of more quirky, local independent retailers selling everything from fine art, Scottish clothing, antiques and specialist hi-fi.

There are larger shopping malls on the city outskirts at Braehead, Silverburn and Glasgow Fort.

  • The Barras [97] in the East End is the essential Glasgow shopping experience. Hundreds of market stalls selling everything you could possibly want and a load of other stuff too. Free entertainment available from time to time when the Police raid the place for counterfeit goods. Open 10AM - 5PM every weekend; weekday opening in the weeks immediately before Christmas.
  • The Buchanan Galleries, Buchanan Street, is a large shopping mall in the heart of the city centre which has all the usual British high street stores, its flagship tenant is John Lewis.
  • The St Enoch Centre. Europe's largest glass roofed building - this huge mall is on St Enoch Square between Argyle Street and Buchanan Street. Currently undergoing a major refurbishment as of 2009 with the St Enoch side of the building being demolished and extended.
  • Princes Square is an upmarket mall just off Buchanan Street in the city centre. Specialises in designer clothes shops, jewellery and audio equipment. Note, Grande Dame of British Fashion Vivienne Westwood has a store as well as a separate jewelry concession in Princes Square.
  • The Argyle Arcade is a covered street housing Scotland's largest collection of jewellery shops. The L-shaped arcade connects Argyle Street and Buchanan Street.
  • De Courcy's Arcade is an unusual little shopping arcade with lots of second hand music and book shops and independent gift shops. Located just off Byres Road in the west end (subway: Hillhead)
  • Byres Road. Check out the chichi shops and vintage stored in the West End  edit

Eat

The city has won the title "Curry Capital of Britain" two years running and has a huge and dynamic range of restaurants, Indian or otherwise. Despite Glasgow being the home town of culinary hero Gordon Ramsay, there are no Michelin-starred fine dining establishments in the city (Glasgow's sole Michelin starred restuarant, Amaryllis - owned by Ramsay himself - embarrassingly folded in 2004), nevertheless there are scores of highly regarded eateries in the city. There are clusters of good restaurants in the West End and the Merchant City many offering traditional Scottish dishes:

  • The Ubiquitous Chip [98] (12 Ashton Lane, West End; Subway - Hillhead). Of all Ashton Lane's establishments, "The Chip" as it is popularly known by locals is certainly its most celebrated and most famous. Established by the inimitable Ronnie Clydesdale, this local restaurant has been serving up top quality food using Scottish produce since the early 1970s and is frequently lauded as one of Scotland's finest restauraunts. On the expensive side, but well worth it. Booking absolutely essential.
  • Arisaig, [99] (1 Merchant Square, Candleriggs - Merchant City, nearest railway: Queen Street). Another celebrated Glasgow eatery, bar and brasserie notable for its extensive list of wines and Scottish malt whiskies. Also has music nights.
  • The Red Onion, [100] (247 West Campbell Street, nearest railway - Central/Charing Cross). Perched high up on Blythswood Hill, this locally owned restaurant uses local produce within international dishes produced by recognised chef John Quigley.
  • The Chardon D'Or, [101] (176 West Regent Street, Glasgow, G2 4RL) Owner and head chef Brian Maule is a former business partner of local hero Gordon Ramsay. When Ramsay began his TV career as a celebrity chef, Maule took the chance to branch out on his own and is now a very highly regarded local institution. The result is Chardon D'Or, opened in 2001 and widely recognised as one of the very best quality restaurants in Glasgow. Owner Brian Maule is also well known for strong links with musicians and entertainers, and his restaurant often offers deals combining concerts or shows with fine dining for one fixed price. A popular choice with local businessmen.

Takeaway/Fish & Chips

Glasgow has taken many different cultural foods and combined them into a unique dining experience. Most takeaways offer Indian dishes (pakora), pizzas and kebabs as well as the more traditional fish and chips or burgers. This has resulted in some takeaways offering a blend of dishes like chips with curry sauce, the donner kebab pizza, the battered and deep fried pizza to name but a few.

Fish & Chips (aka "Fish Supper") is a perennial favourite, and there are a healthy number of fish and chip shops around the city. As mentioned above, many will also offer Asian or Italian dishes alongside the traditional chip shop fayre. Given the Glaswegian's famous fondness for anything deep fried - "bad" establishments don't usually last long. In the centre of town, four of the best "chippies" are:

  • Jack McPhees, (City Centre - Hope Street, near Theatre Royal, West End - Byres Road). Chain of sit down restauarant with table service. Slightly more expensive than a takeaway, but excellent quality.
  • The Coronation, (Gallowgate, just beyond Glasgow Cross under the City Union railway bridge). A Glasgow institution sitting at the gateway into the Barrowlands area - the usual friendly Glaswegian reception and competitively priced.
  • Da Vinci's, (City Centre - Queen Street). 24 hour dining in this handily positioned sit-down takeaway near many of the city's nightclubs.
  • Santini's, John Street (Merchant City, 200yds from the City Chambers). Affectionately known as the "gay chippie" owing to its position next to gay pub Revolver, is a popular fixture in the Merchant City.

On a side note, the now infamous deep fried Mars Bar - served up in many Glasgow chip shops - did not originate in the city, contrary to popular belief. It was in fact invented in Stonehaven in Aberdeenshire.

  • Yumla, 80 Miller Street, (Merchant City). Located in the heart of Glasgow, close to George Square. This delightful restaurant will captivate your taste buds with Peking and Cantonese cuisine. Freshly prepared with unrivalled skill, dishes are served by friendly, attentive staff.
  • The Ho Wong, 82 York Street, [102]. Close to Central Station. Excellent Chinese Restaurant.
  • Dragon's I, 311-313 Hope Street, [103]. In the Theatre District. 'Hitlisted' in The List (2008).
  • Amber Regent, 50 West Regent Street, [104]. Equidistant between Queen Street and Central Station.
  • Brel, Ashton Lane, Glasgow G12 8SJ (In the West End off Byres Road - nearest Subway: Hillhead), Tel. +44 (0)141 342 4966, [105]. M-Su 12PM-Late. Located in the dynamic Ashton Lane in the West End of Glasgow, this restaurant is well known for its Belgian fare particularly their Moules (Mussel) Pots in a variety of flavours. This Bar/Restaurant is set over 3 levels and sells a range of Belgian beers, including Banana and Raspberry, along with a few of the local Scottish favourites. During the warmer weather there is a large Beer Garden at the rear. There is often free live entertainment. Prices: à la carte menu, starters: £2.95-£4.95 and mains: £8.95-£15.50. Also great deals at Food Happy Hour M-Su 5PM-7PM!
  • Stravaigin , (28 Gibson Street, West End - nearest Subway: Kelvinbridge), Tel. +44 (0)141 334 2665, [106] Established by Ronnie Clydesdale (of Ubiquitous Chip fame), and located adjacent to Glasgow University and Kelvingrove Park, this award winning gastro-pub offers a wide selection of both European and World cuisine made from Scottish ingedients. Also renowned for its creative cocktails.

Indian

Glasgow has, arguably, the finest Indian food in the United Kingdom, and indeed many Glaswegians now joke that the Indian Curry is their "national dish". Most of the good Indian restaurants are clustered together between Charing Cross & Berkeley Street. Take your pick from Panjea, The Wee Curry Shop, Mother India's Cafe and more. Check out the Ashoka West End (1284 Argyle Street, near Kelvingrove), the Ashoka at Ashton Lane or Kama Sutra (Sauchiehall Street) - all of which are owned by the local Ashoka [107] chain. Glasgow's top Indian restaurants include:

  • Mister Singh's India [108] (149 Elderslie Street, Charing Cross - nearest railway: Charing Cross) The flagship branch of the Ashoka/Harlequin chain and is notable for its waiting staff who wear kilts. Booking is advisable Thursday-Sunday evenings.
  • The Shish Mahal [109] (66-68 Park Road, West End; nearest Subway: Kelvinbridge) Affectionately known simply as "The Shish" by its regulars, this family run establishment has been here for over 50 years.

Chicken Tikka Masala - A Glaswegian Invention?

The Shish Mahal is widely believed to have invented Chicken Tikka Masala, recently voted the UK's favourite Indian dish. According to one Glasgow MP [110],the Shish responded in the 1960's to complaints from Glaswegians that traditional Indian curries were too dry by soaking the chicken and spices in tomato soup, resulting in the first incarnation of the 'wet' style of curry commonly enjoyed today. This MP is now known to be seeking formal EU recognition that Chicken Tikka Masala is a unique Glaswegian creation, and that the Shish Mahal is the origin.

  • The Dhabba [111] (44 Candleriggs, Merchant City) Expensive, but authentic North Indian restaurant located in the Merchant City and has won numerous awards.
  • Cafe India [112] (29 Albion Street, Merchant City) The original Cafe India in Charing Cross was a Glasgow institution before it was burned down in 2006. Now reborn in the Merchant City area, it's re-established itself as one of the city's top curry spots.
  • Killermont Polo Club [113] (2022 Maryhill Road; nearest railway: Maryhill). Upmarket Indian restaurant on the main route out to the affluent north western suburbs of the city. Set in a clubhouse setting, it has won numerous awards and accolades.

There are also literally hundreds of takeaway Indian restaurants around the city on nearly every main street, although the quality of these can be very variable. Some are excellent - comparable with anything you'd find in the city centre, whilst others can be rather poor. To be on the safe side, only go on local recommendation.

  • Esca near the Tron Theatre is good and inexpensive but often busy.
  • Antipasti (Byres Road & Sauchiehall Street) Excellent quality restaurant; the Byres Road Antipasti is the better of the two. Antipasti does not offer table bookings -- just show up and ask for a table. You won't be waiting too long.
  • Di Maggio's [114] (Royal Exchange Square, Merchant City; West Nile Street, City Centre) Locally owned chain of family-friendly Italian restaurants with several outlets in the city and outlying towns. Good value and usually no need to book.
  • Dino's (35-41 Sauchiehall Street, immediately opposite Cineworld and Royal Concert Hall) One of Glasgow's oldest and best known Italian restaurants. Good quality and friendly service.
  • L'Ariosto [115], 92-94 Mitchell Street, Glasgow G1 3NQ (3 minute walk from Central railway station). One of Glasgow's top Italian restaurants - expensive but award winning and offers its own courtyard and live music.
  • La Parmigiana [116] (447 Great Western Road). One of the best of the West End's Italian restaurants, but more upmarket than most.
  • Pancho Villas, 26 Bell Street, Glasgow G1 1LG (in the Merchant City area opposite Merchant Square), Tel. +44 (0)141 552 7737, [117]. M-Sa 12PM to Late, Su 5PM - Late. It is often very busy of an evening especially towards the end of the week, so it is best to make a reservation. Prices: Set Meals are available Mo-Th between 12PM-5PM for 2Courses - £6.95 and 3Courses - £8.50. A-la-carte Menu, Starters: £2.50-£7.95 and Mains: £8.50-£12.95.
  • Cafe Cossachok [118] on King Street.

Fish

As befits a port town, Glasgow excels at Seafood and fish.

  • Gamba [119] (225a West George Street), Winner of The List's (local listing magazine) 'Best Restaurant in Glasgow' award, 2003 and 2004. Two AA rosettes.
  • Mussel Inn [120] (157 Hope Street), Good quality fish restaurant: has a sister restaurant in Edinburgh.
  • Rogano (11 Exchange Place), Sumptuous 1930s style architecture for a total dining experience. Rogano is a Glasgow institution, but beware, especially if you get sucked into their vintage wine list, this place can be extremely expensive.

Veggie

For fab veggie food try:

  • Grassroots, on St George's Road, near Woodlands Road (subway: St George's Cross). Great veggie breakfasts from 10AM, and other meals from midday till late. Lots of vegan options, too. Grassroots also has one of the two best wholefood/organic shops in Glasgow, around the corner in Woodlands Road; the other is Roots and Fruits in Great Western Road (subway: Kelvinbridge). Unfortunately Grassroots has been closed since April 2009
  • The Fast Food Shop, pakora place on Woodlands Road is ideal for guilt-free snacking on the way home from the pub.
  • 13th Note, on King Street, [121]. Looks like an anarchist squat when you walk in, and has a full bar, and serves very good veggie (mainly vegan) food. Try the vegan haggis, neeps and tatties, served with a pink-peppercorn cream sauce.
  • Mono, over the road in King's Court, is run by the people who established the Note. It has a lighter, airier feel but with an exclusively vegan menu, beers prepared on-site and two shops (food and records).
  • The 78, organic/vegan pub & restaurant in Kelvinhaugh Street (off the west end of Argyle St).
  • Tchai Ovna tea houses with veggie food, located in West End (off Bank St) and Shawlands. [122]

International

Glasgow is a city of immigrants and has a thriving international food scene. Try Mzouda (Moroccan), Cafe Argan (Moroccan), Shallal (Lebanese), Kokuryo (Korean), Koshkemeer (Kurdish), Café Serghei ,Konaki(Greek) Alla Turca (Turkish) La Tasca (Spanish), Ichiban (Japanese), Kublai Khan's (Mongolian) and the numerous Thai, and Malaysian and Chinese restaurants, including the Yumla, the Thai Siam Thai Fountain Rumours and others.

Drink

Pubs are arguably the meeting rooms of Scotland’s largest city, and many a lively discussion can be heard in a Glasgow bar. There is nothing Glaswegians love more than “putting the world right” over a pint (or three), whether it’s the Old Firm, religion, weather, politics or how this year’s holidays went. You are guaranteed a warm welcome from the locals, who will soon strike up a conversation.

There are three (or, arguably, four) basic drinking areas: these are also good for restaurants. First, there is the West End (the area around Byres Road and Ashton Lane), second there is the stretch of Sauchiehall Street between the end of the pedestrianised area (near Queen Street Station) and Charing Cross (and the various streets off this area). Thirdly there is the Merchant City, which is near Strathclyde University's campus. This is the most 'upmarket' area to drink and eat in, although it still has numerous student dives: start at the University of Strathclyde and wander down towards the Trongate (the West part of this part of town is the gay area). Finally, and up and coming, is the South Side (i.e. South of the Clyde). This used to be very much 'behind the times' sociallly speaking, but the relocation of the BBC to the South Side and the whole area generally moving 'upmarket' has improved things greatly. Try the area round Shawlands Cross for restaurants, bars, and The Shed nightclub.

Be warned though about dress codes, particularly in some of the more upmarket establishments in the city centre and West End - sportswear and trainers (sneakers) are often banned, and some door staff are notoriously "selective" about who they do and don't allow in with arcane "regulars only" door polices which they never seem to want to explain. If confronted with this, don't waste your time arguing and take your custom elsewhere. The general "boozer" type pubs don't have dress codes, but football shirts are almost universally banned in all - particularly on weekends. One rule to be aware of is that some clubs and upmarket pubs enforce an unwritten policy of not allowing all-male groups of more than about four people. For this reason, it may be advisable to split into groups of 2 or 3. Some pubs in Glasgow are also exclusively the haunt of Old Firm football fans - again these will be very crowded on football days and can get very rowdy, and should be avoided. Fortunately they are easy to spot - for example a large cluster of Celtic-oriented pubs exist in the Barrowlands area, while one or two bars on or near Paisley Road West are favourite haunts of Rangers fans.

The following is merely a selection of the many bars, pubs,wine bars and clubs throughout the city.

Chain/Theme

Like any major British city, the central area of Glasgow has its fair share of chain and theme pubs, with establishments from the likes of Whitbread, Yates and of course the ubiquitous JD Wetherspoon. Top picks are:

  • The Counting House (George Square – near Queen Street station) formerly a flagship branch of the Bank of Scotland, you can drink here in the splendour of this old Victorian banking hall. Converted into an open plan bar by the Wetherspoon chain, it’s popular with tourists and locals alike, with quirky features such as the bank vault now being used as a wine cellar.
  • The Crystal Palace(Jamaica Street – near Central Station and the Jamaica Bridge) Another Wetherspoons establishment – good for evening football; and good place to meet up if you are heading across to the O2 Academy or the Citizen’s Theatre on the other side of the river.
  • Frankenstein [123] (92 West George Street - halfway between Central and Queen Street stations) A Scottish chain pub - aficionados may say Glasgow's version lost something in the translation from the original branch in Aberdeen, but a horror themed bar popular with students and locals.
  • Waxy O'Connors (West George Street, next to George Square/Queen Street station); vaguely Irish themed bar with its curious 'Lord of the Rings'-like setting. Spread over six bars, nine rooms and three floors. The premises is a fun place, with steps and stairs running up and down through the maze of rooms and bars, and a rather ecclectic mix of "tree trunk" and church gothic interior décor.

Whisky

For single malt whiskies, try The Pot Still on Hope Street, a few blocks north of Central Station. It stocks over 300 single malt whiskeys (as well as other drinks, of course), and the staff really know their stuff. It's also an excellent example of a traditional British pub, with a great atmosphere.

Other bars with a good selection of whisky are Uisge Beatha (pronounced "ooshke beh-hah" - Gaelic for "whisky"; literal translation is "water of life") on Woodlands Road and there's one called Ben Nevis on Argyle St towards the West End.

  • Republic Bier Halle [124](9 Gordon Street; off Buchanan Street – 2 mins from Central Station) Quirky beer pub (as the name suggests), where beers from all over the world are served to you after ordering from a menu. Now has a sister branches in the West End and on Sauchiehall Street. This chain is quickly becoming famous for it's 2-for-1 stonebaked pizza deals, and its recently introduced £5 all-you-can-eat buffet midweek (the main branch on Gordon St will service weekends, but not the sister branches!) While the beers can be quite expensive, you'll be hard pushed to find better quality food for the price in the city centre. A must-visit.
  • Beer Cafe (Candleriggs – Merchant City; inside the Merchant Square complex) Wide range of local and imported beers both in bottles and draught form.
  • The Three Judges (Partick Cross, West End – on the intersection of Byres and Dumbarton Roads – nearest Subway: Kelvinhall). Lovely West End establishment with a continually changing board of ales from all over the UK on tap as well as a cider. They also have a fantastic selection of imported bottled beers in the fridge and Frambozen on tap.
  • West Brewry Bar (Glasgow Green, East End in the Templeton Building). A Restaurant and micro brewery serving traditional food and German style larger beers.

Other Real Ale bars can be found at the Bon Accord on Charing X, Clockwork BeerCo near Hampden Park, and also The Three Judges on the Dumbarton Road, at the bottom of Byres Road, which has won the CAMRA award (Campaign For Real Ale) most years for the past 2 decades. Also check out The State off Sauchiehall Street is a similarly good ale venue and a cosy proper pub if you're sick of trendy bars.

Student

The city’s large student population means there are no shortage of student bars, with large concentrations around the Merchant City area (for nearby Strathclyde and Glasgow Caledonian universities), and of course Byres Road and Ashton Lane in the West End for Glasgow University. Another cluster (near Glasgow School of Art) exists along the western reaches of Sauchiehall Street, just beyond the pedestrianised section. Some of the most popular student bars are:

  • Curlers (Byres Road – nearest Subway: Hillhead); The Ark (North Frederick Street – close to George Square) and The Hall (457 Sauchiehall Street - rail: Charing Cross, Subway: St. George's Cross), catering for Glasgow University, Strathclyde/Caledonian Universities and Glasgow School of Art respectively are all part of the Scream [125] chain of student pubs with their famous "Yellow Card" promotions. Note that entry may be restricted to NUS cardholders only during peak times.
  • Strathclyde University Union [126] (90 John Street, Merchant City – short walk from George Square) Notable for once being officially Scotland’s largest pub with 6 bars spread over 10 levels. Entry: £2 for non-members (NUS cardholders - entry fees for event nights may vary, and may be restricted to Strathclyde students)
  • Glasgow University Union / Queen Margaret Union (GUU – at the bottom of University Avenue nr the junction with Kelvin Way, QM – University Gardens at the top of Ashton Lane) The University of Glasgow’s two official student unions are very different, from the “establishment” GUU to the more quirky and laid back QM. Open to matriculating students from any one of the city’s three universities.
  • Nice N Sleazy [127]. (421 Sauchiehall Street – nearest railway: Charing Cross) A great student institution known locally as "Sleazy's" it's a favourite among Glasgow School of Art students, it’s a cross between a bar and a nightclub, and even a coffee shop by day - one of Glasgow’s best established student venues. Live music in the evenings, and just across the road from the seminal Garage nightclub.

Style

Bath Street has a constantly shifting array of "style bars", which become more numerous as you walk up towards the financial district on Blythswood Hill. The quality varies wildly depending on your taste and tolerance. Some of the best are:

  • Bar Buddha (St Vincent Street & Sauchiehall Street) – Go to the original branch on St Vincent Street for the unique interior décor, and the subdued atmosphere in this basement bar – great for a late night wind-down in this busy corner of the financial district.
  • Corinthian (Ingram Street – Merchant City – nearest railway: Queen Street) – Wickedly pretentious bar/restaurant converted from and old bank in the centre of Glasgow’s designer shop district with beautifully restored interior fittings. Food served is of a high standard, although drinks can be expensive. Note that a dress code (smart/casual - no sports footwear) is strictly enforced after 6PM.
  • Hummingbird [128] (186 Bath Street) Newly opened bar/club/restaurant with extremely stylish, avant-garde decor and 4 floors.
  • Bunker [129] (on the corner of Hope Street and Bath Street) Popular bar with office workers from the nearby financial area, and a good base to start a night out from.
  • Kushion (158-166 Bath Street; nearest rail - Charing Cross) Meditterrenean basement theme bar, restaurant and nightclub. Close to King Tut's Wah Wah Hut. Student friendly.

Gastropubs

Apart from Stravaigin and Brel in the West End (see the Restaurant section above), there are a few gems in and around the city centre.

  • Strata [130] (At the southern end of Queen Street, near Argyle Street) Award winning gastropub split over two levels. Well known for its cocktail bar.
  • Babbity Bowsters (16-18 Blackfriars Street – Merchant City; nearest railway - High Street) – Notable for its fine range of imported lagers, the bar meals are excellent. And you can even sit outside in the quaint little beer garden (when it isn’t raining, of course!)

Culture & Music

If you like your rock & metal music you should try Twisted Wheel on Queen street (about 2 mins walk south of the station), the The Solid Rock Cafe at the bottom of Hope street and Rufus T.Firefly's near the top of Hope street.

Traditional/Local

As the city centre and West End’s bars become ever more sanitized, off-the-peg and tourist oriented – finding a traditional “boozer” in Glasgow is getting harder. For the tourist that wants to make the effort, they can be great places to discover what many would call the “real” Glasgow – the Glasgow where Glaswegians hang out. The other advantage is that the cost of a drink is often a lot cheaper. Common sense should tell you which ones to try out, and which to avoid!

  • The Horseshoe Bar [131](17-19 Drury Street – short walk from Central Station) – Possessing Glasgow’s longest bar, the rock band Travis used to rehearse upstairs before hitting the big time; as a token of thanks, one of their Brit Awards is displayed behind the bar. Billy Joel has been another famous customer of this establishment when playing in the city.
  • The Saracen Head (209 Gallowgate – near Glasgow Cross) – nicknamed the “Sarry Heid” by locals, this old school pub (began in 1755, although in a different building) lies at the gateway to the Barrowlands area and the East End. Refreshingly free of television screens, and makes a point of being closed on Celtic home match days to keep the football fraternity away.
  • Failte (St Vincent Street; nearest railway: Glasgow Central) - independent Irish themed pub and a good place to have a banter with the locals. Central enough not to be confused with any of the more football-oriented establishments in the Barrowlands area, but still attracts huge crowds on Celtic match days, when it can be impossible to get into.
  • The Scotia Bar [132] (Stockwell Street) One of Glasgow's oldest bars (established 1792). Famous for its folk music and 'traditional' ambiance.
  • The Clutha Vaults(167 Stockwell Street). Pub specialising in traditional folk and blues: live music five nights a week.
  • Craigendmuir Caravan Park, 0141 779 4159, [133]. Stepps, to the east of the city, is probably the nearest camp site and charges about £12.50/night for a two people in a tent. A train journey from Stepps to Glasgow Queen Street takes about 20 minutes. about £12.50/night.  edit
  • Glasgow Youth Hostel (SYHA), 8 Park Terrace (Catch the number 44A bus from Hope St. Get off at the first stop on Woodlands Road. Go up the hill at Lynedoch St and follow the road to the left. The hostel is on the right hand side on Park Terrace.), (0)141 332 3004, [134]. checkin: 2PM onward. 150 beds split into dorms and family/private rooms (all en-suite); 4 star hostel rating (through www.visitscotland.com) (from) £18.50 per person per night.  edit
  • Euro Hostel, 318 Clyde St, +44 (0)141 222 2828, [135]. Right in the centre of town. Has dorm beds, private rooms, doubles and twins. Starting at £12.95 with free breakfast. Private rooms from £30.95.  edit
  • Blue Sky, 65 Berkeley St, 44 141 221 1710, [136]. Hostel with dorm accommodation. Dorm beds and double rooms available. £10 to £15.  edit
  • Bunkum Backpackers Hostel, 26 Hillhead St, (0) 141 581 4481, [137]. Hostel with dorm accommodation from £12. No curfew or lockout, free linen is provided. Moderately equipped kitchen. Small independent hostel on a quiet street near the vibrant "West End" of Glasgow. £12 and up.  edit
  • 1883 Guest House, 58 Glenapp St, Glasgow (100mtrs Pollokshields East Rail), 07775 832 461, [138]. Small friendly guest house 3km from city centre, easy public transport and on-street parking £25-40.  edit
  • Beersbridge Lodge Guesthouse, 50 Bentinck Street, +44 (0)141 338 6666, [139]. Overlooks the beautiful grounds of Kelvin Grove Park in Central Glasgow, just 50 yards from Sauchiehall Street. Close to local bars, cafes, restaurants and the nightlife of Glasgow as well as being perfectly situated for shopping. The Scottish Exhibition Centre, The Arches Theatre, Art Galleries, The Royal Concert Hall are all within easy reach. Full central heating and a friendly atmosphere. All rooms are double with en-suite facilities, tea/coffee making facilities and colour TVs with Sky Satellite.  edit
  • The Victorian House, 212 Renfrew St. Small Hotel Beds between £25-40.  edit
  • McClays Guest House, 264-276 Renfrew St. Guest House Beds between £14-30.  edit
  • Premier Inn (Various Locations; George Street (Nearest railway - Queen Street); Argyle Street (Nearest Railway - Anderston); Charing Cross (Nearest Railway - Charing Cross)), [140]. Ubiquitous chain of budget hotels. There are three in the city centre, and also several dotted around the periphery of the city, usually near intersections of main roads. £45-£60 per room per night (depending on location).  edit
  • Ibis Glasgow, 220 West Regent Street, G2 (Near Blythswood Square - nearest railway station: Charing Cross), +44 (0)141 225 6000, [141]. Glasgow branch of this popular French 3-star chain. £55-60 per night for a double room.  edit
  • Jurys Inn, 80 Jamaica Street, G1 4QG (Nearest Railway - Glasgow Central, Nearest Subway - St Enoch), +44 (0)141 314 4800. Popular chain hotel centrally located near Central Station and Argyle Street £70-80 per night for a double room.  edit
  • The Devoncove Hotel, 931 Sauchiehall St. A non-too-modern hotel located at the further end of the street from the city centre. Double rooms, including Scottish breakfast from £25. Clean and comfortable, as one would expect for that price, but don't expect 5 star treatment! Buses to the city centre for £1.10. double rooms starting at £25.  edit
  • Glasgow City Flats, Flat 3/1, 54 Hughenden Lane, 0141 5792360 (), [142]. A great alternative to hotels, Glasgow City Flats provides luxury accommodation in beautifully appointed, well equipped self-catering flats, all conveniently located in the heart of Glasgow's vibrant city centre. Perfect for honeymoons, romantic weekends, theatre breaks, shopping trips or business. Rates starting as low as £65 per night with discounts offered depending on the length of your stay. £65 per night.  edit
  • Swallow Glasgow, 517 Paisley Road West, Glasgow, G51 1RW, 0141 427 3146 (), [143]. Situated near the SECC and Glasgow Airport on the outskirts of Glasgow offering restaurant and leisure facilities.  edit
  • Hot-el-Apartments, 15/3 Oswald Street, Glasgow, G1 4PD, 0131 554 2721 (), [144]. located in the city centre. brand new building. serviced apartments. perfect for romantic break, business trip or family holidays. very good.  edit
  • City Inn Glasgow, Finnieston Quay, ☎ +44 141 240 1002, [145]. A central boutique hotel in Glasgow. Offers a restaurant, bar, meeting venue and event offers.
  • Dreamhouse Apartments (West End), 13-15 Lynedoch Crescent, Glasgow (Just off Woodlands Road near Park Circus), 44 (0)845 226 0232 (, fax: 44(0)141 582 1420), [146]. checkin: 3PM; checkout: 11AM. Luxury serviced apartments for short and long stays. From £85/night.  edit
  • Crowne Plaza, Congress Road, Finnieston (Next to SECC/Clyde Auditorium - Nearest railway: Exhibition Centre), + 44 (0) 780 4431691, [147]. checkin: 2.00PM; checkout: 12.00PM. 4-star hotel on the riverbank and next door to the SECC complex Double rooms from £80-£90/night.  edit
  • Marriott Glasgow, 500 Argyle Street, G3 8RR (Next to Kingston Bridge - Nearest railway: Glasgow Central/Anderston), + 44 (0)141 226 5577, [148]. 4-star hotel in the financial district, with good access to the city centre and West End Double rooms from £70-£90/night.  edit
  • Radisson SAS, 301 Argyle St (On the corner of Argyle Street and Hope Street/Oswald Street - Nearest Railway - Glasgow Central), + 44 (0) 141 204 3333, [149]. 5-star hotel located on the edge of the financial district and literally next door to Central railway station - noted for its distinctive copper facade. Double rooms from £140/night.  edit
  • Carlton George Hotel, 44 West George Street, Glasgow (Next to Queen Street railway station), + 44 (0)141 353 6373, [150]. 4-Star Boutique hotel located in the heart of the city - on George Square and near Buchanan Street and the City Chambers Double rooms from £125/night.  edit
  • Hilton Glasgow, 1 William Street, Glasgow (Nearest railway stations - Charing Cross/Anderston), +44 (0)141 204 5555, [151]. 5-Star luxury hotel in the centre of the financial district, with easy access to the M8 motorway and Glasgow Airport Double rooms from £130/night.  edit
  • Hilton Grosvenor (Glasgow West End), 1-9 Grosvenor Terrace, Glasgow (On the corner of Byres Road and Great Western Road - nearest Subway: Hillhead), 44 (0)141 339 8811, [152]. Hilton's other Glasgow branch in the heart of the West End with easy access to City Centre and local attractions. Double rooms from £140/night.  edit
  • Hotel du Vin at One Devonshire Gardens, 1 Devonshire Gardens (Great Western Road) (About 1/2 mile from the intersection of Byres Road and Great Western Road), 44 (0)141 339 2001, [153]. One of Scotlands most exclusive hotels - popular with celebrities. Suites from £250+ /night.  edit
  • Malmaison Glasgow, 278 West George Street, Glasgow, G2 4LL (City Centre, short walk from either Central or Queen Street stations), +44 (0)141 572 1000, [154]. Modern boutique hotel located in a former Episcopal Church. Suites from £195 /night.  edit
  • Blythswood Square, 11 Blythswood Square, City Centre (nearest railway Charing Cross/Central), +44 (0)141 208 2458 (), [155]. Brand new 5-star boutique hotel and spa converted from the old Royal Scottish Automobile Club headquarters in Blythswood Square. Rooms from £125 /night, Suites from £315 /night.  edit

Glasgow safety - top tips

Glasgow's most dangerous suburbs are well away from the central area and therefore it would be near impossible to accidentally venture into one of the city's troublespots unless you were making a conscious effort to do so. Nevertheless, for the tourist - the following advice should be heeded -

  • Avoid football colours, Although you'll see it being worn everywhere by the locals, don't be tempted to wear any piece of Old Firm (i.e. Rangers or Celtic) related clothing when walking around the city as it can lead to violence if you meet the wrong people in the wrong place - particularly in the evenings. The underlying sectarian politics that for some people at least, underpin this infamous football fixture is ingrained into the city's culture, but for a visitor it is something to steer well clear of. In fact a sensible tip is to make sure your visit to Glasgow does not clash with the actual Celtic v Rangers fixture, as the city can have an unpleasant and divided atmosphere about it on this particular day, not making it the best place to be for a casual visitor. Most bars and clubs in the centre of the city universally ban all football colours - regardless of team.
  • 12th July, A large proportion of Glaswegians are from Northern Irish ancestry - and thousands of Protestants still carry on the marching traditions witnessed in Ulster during the 12th July period, and Orange Marches do take place in the city centre. Although they usually pass without incident (unlike in Northern Ireland), the city can have a divided air about it whenever such marches are taking place and the rules are the same for for Old Firm football days described above.
  • Shipbank Lane. This area around the southern end of Saltmarket has become a hot spot for muggings and other violent crime in the evenings in recent years - although the recent closure of Paddy's Market means there is no real reason for a visitor to go near the area anyway. Another area to watch out for in the evenings are the backstreets around Central Station - in particular the southern end of Hope Street, whose line of pubs and nightclubs have become known for violence and fights in the early hours at weekends.
  • Street gangs are prevalent in the problem areas of Glasgow. Avoid venturing out of the central area of the city at night on your own if you are not absolutely sure where you are going. Groups of youngsters can often be seen congregating around street corners, outside take-aways and pretty much anywhere that sells alcohol and can behave aggressively. You may be approached and asked to buy alcohol for them - note that this is illegal and you could end up being prosecuted.
  • Public Transport. Be aware that the Subway and the overground suburban railways cease operating after 11:30PM (the Subway closes at 18:00PM on Sundays), meaning that you will have to resort to a bus or a taxi to get back to the centre of town if you leave it too late. Buses can get very rowdy on Friday and Saturday nights, and for this reason it is best to sit near the front of the bus within easy sight of the driver. If in doubt at all - flag down a black taxi - these will be shuttling back and forth on all the main thoroughfares in and out of the city centre into the the early hours of the morning.

Despite the city's reputation for being a violent place, things have improved a lot over the years, and generally Glasgow is no more dangerous than most other British or Western European cities, but problems with crime still persist in some areas (Possilpark, Drumchapel, Govan, Easterhouse, Pollok - none of which figure on most visitors' 'to do' lists). The title "Murder Capital of Europe" owes more to tabloids and true-crime books than hard statistics, and there are areas of Britain with far higher murder rates. If you are exploring the city by foot, you will almost certainly become very aware you are leaving a tourist-friendly area long before you would be in an area which is actually dangerous. The centre of Glasgow is in the main, very safe and you should not encounter any problems. All of the city centre and tourist areas are well policed. During the day, the City Centre also has many 'information officers' in red hats and jackets who should be able to assist you if needed. However - the basic commonsense rules apply:-

  • Do not flash large sums of money or jewellery around. Pickpocketing is not as rife in Glasgow as in say London but it still happens. Keep all wallets and mobile phones in an inside pocket.
  • Avoid using ATMs at night on darkly lit or quiet streets. There are plenty on the main thoroughfares in the centre of town, and inside both Queen Street and Central railway stations which are well policed.
  • The two main parks in the centre of town (Glasgow Green and Kelvingrove) are generally safe during the day, but Glasgow Green in particular can be frequented by delinquent youths and drunks and is best avoided in the evenings. The area is also notorious for car crime. Kelvingrove, despite its West End location, can be a haunt of drug dealers and gay (male) sexworkers after dark, so is generally worth avoiding at night.
  • It is not uncommon (particularly if male, approximately under 35, and alone or in a couple or small group) to be approached by beggars or drug addicts for money or cigarettes when walking through the city centre - and are often seen loitering around ATMs and car park payment machines. These are almost always harmless and (at least superficially) friendly and will rarely harass you to any great degree. Saying that (in the case of money) you don't have any cash on you at the moment or (in the case of cigarettes) that you don't smoke will usually get rid of them, and even the most determined will rarely be looking for anything more than £1 anyway (though if you do plan to give them money, use common sense and do not take out and put on full display a wallet full of cash or a pocketful of change, which will almost certainly have them demanding more than whatever you give them).

Prostitution is a fact of life in all major cities, Glasgow being no exception. The "Red Light" areas are as follows:

The Calton area of the east end (East of the "Barras") especially around the Tennents brewery, the eastern end of Glasgow Green from the Peoples Palace to Bridgeton Cross area. These areas function as red light areas more or less 24/7: however it should be noted that they are well worth avoiding at night as they are quite far from the city centre and are poorly lit. There is also a red light district in the financial area of the city(Anderston: West of Central Station) although this only becomes a red light district from about 9PM onwards (or after dark during winter). This area in particular is very heavily policed.

It should be noted that whereas prostitution is legal in Scotland, 'soliciting' (i.e. prostitutes soliciting for business), and 'running a brothel' are illegal: brothels and 'massage parlours' can be (and are) frequently busted by the police and their 'customers' taken into police custody at least temporarily. It should also be noted that since the Prostitution (Public Places) (Scotland) Act came into effect in 2008, the police are increasingly cracking down on 'Kerb Crawling'. Therefore lone males should drive or walk around the red light districts at their own risk, and should be aware that if the police suspect them of attempting to solicit a prostitute they can be arrested and charged. In these areas, especially during summer, prostitutes from these areas occasionally provide sexual services in 'private' (but open air) parts of the city. Yet again, this is illegal, and, again, 'customers' caught having any form of sexual activity in what the law sees as a public place (i.e. not a private residence or a hotel) will be charged.

Strathclyde Police, the local police force, has a Stay Safe while Travelling guide [156].

Contact

Phone

Glasgow's area code (for landline numbers) is 0141. When calling from outside the UK, drop the leading 0 and use the UK international dial code +44.

Internet

If you are travelling with a laptop then you will find broadband internet access in the rooms of most, but not all, medium to high end hotels. If this is important to you, check before booking. Alternatively, there are many Wi-Fi hot spots in and around Glasgow and WiFinder [157] provides a register.

There are also several places that offer web and other internet access if you are travelling without a laptop. These include:

  • Yeeha Internet, 48 West Geogre Street (30 seconds from Queen Street Station), (0)141 332 6543.
  • EasyInternetCafé [158] - St Vincent Street (just west of Buchanan Street, five minutes' walk from Central or Queen Street stations). Every day, 8AM-9PM.
  • i-Cafe, 15 Gibson Street (2mins from Woodlands Rd, West End), (0)141 339 3333.
  • Mortons Coffee Co., Byres Road (subway: Hillhead). Offers free Wi-Fi internet access and two PCs.
  • Glasgow Coffeeshop (SYHA) [159] -- 8 Park Terrace, 2 internet terminals available in the basement cafe of Glasgow Youth Hostel, non-residents welcome (0)141 332 8299.
  • The Goat is a nicely appointed bar which also offers free & unlimited wi-fi access & has a laptop available for loan. Excellent bar food also available. Argyll St. Near Kelvingrove Gallery & the Museum of Transport.
  • Offshore Coffee Shop, Gibson Street, beside the River Kelvin in the west end. Offers free wireless access and has good coffee. There is also an art gallery in the basement.
  • Visit Loch Lomond and climb the nearby Ben Lomond (the most southerly Munro) for great views.
  • Edinburgh, Scotland's capital city, is 46 miles to the east of Glasgow and is easily reachable by train or by bus. Although many Glaswegians would question why you would ever want to go to Edinburgh.
  • Ride the West Highland Railway, perhaps the most scenic rail journey in the world.
  • Walk the West Highland Way from Milngavie (an upmarket suburb of Glasgow) all the way to Fort William. The scenery on the latter half of the walk is absolutely breathtaking and takes you through the heart of Glen Coe, generally regarded as one of the most beautiful areas of Scotland. Reachable via train from the low level platforms of Queen Street station.
  • The Ayrshire coast towns of Largs, Saltcoats, Troon, Prestwick and Ayr are typically old fashioned holiday seaside resorts. Whilst most Glaswegians themselves have long abandoned them in favour of package holidays to the Mediterranean, they all have an individual charm of their own. South Ayrshire is the spiritual home to Scotland's literary hero and national "bard", Robert Burns. All are easily reachable via regular train services from Central Station.
  • Take a day-trip to the Isle of Arran. It is possible to obtain train/ferry combo tickets to reach this destination [160] [161]. The Isle of Arran is known as "Scotland in Miniature" due to the fact it contains many features of mainland Scotland in microcosm. Brodick Castle is home to beautiful gardens and has a path connecting to path up Goatfell, the highest point on Arran which offers stunning views of Brodick bay during the summer (Castle is located at the north end of Brodick, student discount available). The island is also littered with sites of archaeological and historical interest including many circles of ancient standing stones. Take one of the circle island buses to see it all, watch your time though- know the last bus and ferry of the day. There is a beautiful bay with a castle in the middle on the Northeast in a village called Lochranza.
  • Take a day trip to Rothesay on the Isle of Bute on the paddle steamer Waverley [162]. You can catch the Waverley at the Broomielaw on the banks of the River Clyde, just a short walk from the city centre. Alternatively, regular scheduled ferry services leave from Weymss Bay, served by an hourly rail service from Central Station [163] [164].
  • Owned by the National Trust for Scotland Greenbank House and Gardens [165] make for a pleasant day out in one of Glasgow's leafier suburbs. It's a 30 minute walk from Clarkston railway station (catch the train from Central Station (high level)). The garden's have proven to be an inspiration to gardeners throughout the world.
  • A short (30-40min) bus journey West-bound down the M8 towards Houston is a good day out. Houston is a traditional Scottish village steeped in history (and is nearby to both traditional leather tanning town Bridge-Of-Weir and upmarket Kilmacolm, home to many local celebrities), but its main draw is the Fox & Hounds Pub, home to Houston Brewing Company (http://www.houston-brewing.co.uk/). You'd be amazed how many Glaswegian have made this same short journey to sample the ale and traditional Scottish beers of Houston! Several brews are available all year round, with seasonal specialities on tap depending on the month. Tours of the small but well respected brewing operation are available. This is one of Central Scotland's most well regarded brewing communities, and well worth a trip. Houston is well served by two bus companies, but watch out as last service back into Glasgow ends around 11PM.
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

GLASGOW, a city, county of a city, royal burgh and port of Lanarkshire, Scotland, situated on both banks of the Clyde, 4°11 m. N.W. of London by the West Coast railway route, and 47 m. W.S.W. of Edinburgh by the North British railway. The valley of the Clyde is closely confined by hills, and the city extends far over these, the irregularity of its site making for picturesqueness. The commercial centre of Glasgow, with the majority of important public buildings, lies on the north bank of the river, which traverses the city from W.S.W. to E.N.E., and is crossed by a number of bridges. The uppermost is Dalmarnock Bridge, dating from 1891, and next below it is Rutherglen Bridge, rebuilt in 1896, and superseding a structure of 1775. St Andrew's suspension bridge gives access to the Green to the inhabitants of Hutchesontown, a district which is ap proached also by Albert Bridge, a handsome erection, leading from the Saltmarket. Above this bridge is the tidal dam and weir. ' Victoria Bridge, of granite, was opened in 1856, taking the place of the venerable bridge erected by Bishop Rae in 1345, which was demolished in 1847. Then follows a suspension bridge (dating from 1853) by which foot-passengers from the south side obtain access to St Enoch Square and, finally, the most important bridge of all is reached, variously known as Glasgow, Jamaica Street, or Broomielaw Bridge, built of granite from Telford's designs and first used in 1835. Towards the close of the century it was reconstructed, and reopened in 1899. At the busier periods of the day it bears a very heavy traffic. The stream is spanned between Victoria and Albert Bridges by a bridge belonging to the Glasgow & South-Western railway and by two bridges carrying the lines of the Caledonian railway, one below Dalmarnock Bridge and the other a massive work immediately west of Glasgow Bridge.

Table of contents

Buildings

George Square, in the heart of the city, is an open space of which every possible advantage has been taken. On its eastern side stand the municipal buildings, a palatial pile in Venetian renaissance style, from the designs of William Young, a native of Paisley. They were opened in 1889 and cost nearly £600,000. They form a square block four storeys high and carry a domed turret at each end of the western facade, from the centre of which rises a massive tower. The entrance hall and grand staircase, the council chamber, banqueting hall and reception rooms are decorated in a grandiose style, not unbecoming to the commercial and industrial metropolis of Scotland. Several additional blocks have been built or rented for the accommodation of the municipal staff. Admirably equipped sanitary chambers were opened in 1897, including a bacteriological and chemical laboratory. Up till 1810 the town council met in a hall adjoining the old tolbooth. It then moved to the fine classical structure at the foot of the Saltmarket, which is now used as court-houses. This was vacated in 5842 for the county buildings in Wilson Street. Growth of business compelled another migration to Ingram Street in 1875, and, fourteen years later, it occupied its present quarters. On the southern side of George Square the chief structure is the massive General Post Office. On the western side stand two ornate Italian buildings, the Bank of Scotland and the Merchants' House, the head of which (the dean of gild), along with the head of the Trades' House (the deacon-convener of trades) has been de facto member of the town council since 1711, an arrangement devised with a view to adjusting the frequent disputes between the two gilds. The Royal Exchange, a Corinthian building with a fine portico of columns in two rows, is an admired example of the work of David Hamilton (1768-1843), a native of Glasgow, who designed several of the public buildings and churches, and gained the second prize for a design for the Houses of Parliament. The news-room of the exchange is a vast apartment, 130 ft. long, 60 ft. wide, 130 ft. high, with a richly-decorated roof supported by Corinthian pillars. Buchanan Street, the most important and handsome street in the city, contains the Stock Exchange, the Western Club House (by David Hamilton) and the offices of the Glasgow Herald. In Sauchiehall Street are the Fine Art Institute and the former Corporation Art Gallery. Argyll Street, the busiest thoroughfare, mainly occupied with shops, leads to Trongate, where a few remains of the old town are now carefully preserved. On the south side of the street, spanning the pavement, stands the Tron Steeple, a stunted spire dating from 1637. It is all that is left of St Mary's church, which was burned down in 1793 during the revels of a notorious body known as the Hell Fire Club. On the opposite side, at the corner of High Street, stood the ancient tolbooth, or prison, a turreted building, five storeys high, with a fine Jacobean crown tower. The only remnant of the structure is the tower known as the Cross Steeple.

Although almost all the old public buildings of Glasgow have been swept away, the cathedral remains in excellent preservation. It stands in the north-eastern quarter of the city at a height of 104 ft. above the level of the Clyde. It is a beautiful example of Early English work, impressive in its simplicity. Its form is that of a Latin cross, with imperfect transepts. Its length from east to west is 319 ft., and its width 63 ft.; the height of the choir is 93 ft., and of the nave 85 ft. At the centre rises a fine tower, with a short octagonal spire, 2 25 ft. high. The choir, locally known as the High Church, serves as one of the city churches, and the extreme east end of it forms the Lady chapel. The rich western doorway is French in design but English in details. The chapter-house projects from the north-eastern corner and somewhat mars the harmony of the effect. It was built in the 15th century and has a groined roof supported by a pillar 20 ft. high. Many citizens have contributed towards filling the windows with stained glass, executed at Munich, the government providing the eastern ca„,,,, 0 A ?

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-Arnes) d'Scotstounh ll l ordanhilt; .. 7 Scale, t :90,000 o English Miles 2 4 window in recognition of their enterprise. The crypt beneath the choir is not the least remarkable part of the edifice, being without equal in Scotland. It is borne on 65 pillars and lighted by 41 windows. The sculpture of the capitals of the columns and bosses of the groined vaulting is exquisite and the whole is in excellent preservation. Strictly speaking, it is not a crypt, but a lower church adapted to the sloping ground of the right bank of the Molendinar burn. The dripping aisle is so named from the constant dropping of water from the roof. St Mungo's Well in the south-eastern corner was considered to possess therapeutic virtues, and in the crypt a recumbent effigy, headless and handless, is faithfully accepted as the tomb of Kentigern. The cathedral contains few monuments of exceptional merit, but the surrounding graveyard is almost completely paved with tombstones. In 1115 an investigation was ordered by David, prince of Cumbria, into the lands and churches belonging to the bishopric, and from the deed then drawn up it is clear that at that date a cathedral had already been endowed. When David ascended the throne in 1124 he gave to the see of Glasgow the lands of Partick, besides restoring many possessions of which it had been deprived. Jocelin (d. 1199), made bishop in 1174, was the first great bishop, and is memorable for his efforts to replace the cathedral built in 1136 by Bishop John Achaius, which had been destroyed by fire. The crypt is his work, and he began the choir, Lady chapel, and central tower. The new structure was sufficiently advanced to be dedicated in 1197. Other famous bishops were Robert Wishart (d. 1316), appointed in 1272, who was among the first to join in the revolt of Wallace, and received Robert Bruce when he lay under the ban of the church for the murder of Comyn; John Cameron (d. 1446), appointed in 1428, under whom the building as it stands was completed; and William Turnbull (d. 1454), appointed in 1447, who founded the university in 1450. James Beaton or Bethune (1517-1603) was the last Roman Catholic archbishop. He fled to France at the reformation in 1560, and took with him the treasures and records of the see, including the Red Book of Glasgow dating from the reign of Robert III. The documents were deposited in the Scots College in Paris, were sent at the outbreak of the Revolution for safety to St Omer, and were never recovered. This loss explains the paucity of the earlier annals of the city. The zeal of the Reformers led them to threaten to mutilate the cathedral, but the building was saved by the prompt action of the craftsmen, who mustered in force and dispersed the fanatics. Excepting the cathedral, none of the Glasgow churches possesses historical interest; and, speaking generally, it is only the buildings that have been erected since the Ch urches. beginning of the 19th century that have pronounced architectural merit. This was due largely to the long survival of the severe sentiment of the Covenanters, who discouraged, if they did not actually forbid, the raising of temples of beautiful design. Representative examples of later work are found in the United Free churches in Vincent Street, in Caledonia Road and at Queen's Park, designed by Alexander Thomson (1817-1875), an architect of distinct originality; St George's church, in West George Street, a remarkable work by William Stark, erected in the beginning of the 19th century; St Andrew's church in St Andrew's Square off the Saltmarket, modelled after St Martin's-in-the-Fields, London, with a fine Roman portico; some of the older parish churches, such as St Enoch's, dating from 1780, with a good spire (the saint's name is said to be a corruption of Tanew, mother of Kentigern); the episcopal church of St Mary (1870), in Great Western Road, by Sir G. G. Scott; the Roman Catholic cathedral of St Andrew, on the river-bank between Victoria and Broomielaw bridges; the Barony church, replacing the older kirk in which Norman Macleod ministered; and several admirable structures, well situated, on the eastern confines of Kelvingrove Park.

The principal burying-ground is the Necropolis, occupying Fir Park, a hill about 300 ft. high in the northern part of the city. It provides a not inappropriate background to the cathedral, from which it is approached by a bridge, known as the ' Bridge of Sighs," over the Molendinar ravine. The ground, which once formed portion of the estate of Wester Craigs, belongs to the Merchants' House, which purchased it in 1650 from Sir Ludovic Stewart of Minto. A Doric column to the memory of Knox, surmounted by a colossal statue of the reformer, was erected by public subscription on the crown of the height in 1824, and a few years later the idea arose of utilizing the land as a cemetery. The Jews have reserved for their own people a detached area in the north-western corner of the cemetery.

Education

The university, founded in 1450 by Bishop Turnbull under a bull of Pope Nicholas V., survived in its old quarters till far in the 19th century. The paedagogium, or college of arts, was at first housed in Rottenrow, but was moved in 1460 to a site in High Street, where Sir James Hamilton of Cadzow, first Lord Hamilton (d. 1479), gave it four acres of land and some buildings. Queen Mary bestowed upon it thirteen acres of contiguous ground, and her son granted it a new charter and enlarged the 4 endowments. Prior to the Revolution its fortunes fluctuated, but in the 18th century it became very famous. By the middle of the 19th century, however, its surroundings had deteriorated, and in 1860 it was decided to rebuild it elsewhere. The ground had enormously increased in value and a railway company purchased it for £10o,000. In 1864 the university bought the Gilmore Hill estate for £65,000, the adjacent property of Dowan Hill for £16,000 and the property of Clayslaps for £17,400. Sir G. G. Scott was appointed architect and selected as the site of the university buildings the ridge of Gilmore Hill - the finest situation in Glasgow. The design is Early English with a suggestion in parts of the Scots-French style of a much later period. The main structure is 540 ft. long and 300 ft. broad. The principal front faces southwards and consists of a lofty central tower with spire and corner blocks with turrets, between which are buildings of lower height. Behind the tower lies the Bute hall, built on cloisters, binding together the various departments and smaller halls, and dividing the massive edifice into an eastern and western quadrangle, on two sides of which are ranged the class-rooms in two storeys. The northern facade comprises two corner blocks, besides the museum, the library and, in the centre, the students' reading-room on one floor and the Hunterian museum on the floor above. On the south the ground falls in terraces towards Kelvingrove Park and the Kelvin. On the west, but apart from the main structure, stand the houses of the principal and professors. The foundation stone was laid in 1868 and the opening ceremony was held in 1870. The total cost of the university buildings amounted to 500,000, towards which government contributed £120,000 and public subscription £250,000. The third marquess of Bute (1847-1900) gave £40,000 to provide the Bute or common hall, a room of fine proportions fitted in Gothic style and divided by a beautiful Gothic screen from the Randolph hall, named after another benefactor, Charles Randolph (1809-1878), a native of Stirling, who had prospered as shipbuilder and marine engineer and left £60,000 to the university. The graceful spire surmounting the tower was provided from the bequest of £5000 by Mr A. Cunningham, deputy town-clerk, and Dr John M`Intyre erected the Students' Union at a cost of £500o, while other donors completed the equipment so generously that the senate was enabled to carry on its work, for the first time in its history, in almost ideal circumstances. The library includes the collection of Sir William Hamilton, and the Hunterian museum, bequeathed by William Hunter, the anatomist, is particularly rich in coins, medals, black-letter books and anatomical preparations. The observatory on Dowan Hill is attached to the chair of astronomy. An interesting link with the past are the exhibitions founded by John Snell (1629-1679), a native of Colmonell in Ayrshire, for the purpose of enabling students of distinction to continue their career at Balliol College, Oxford. Amongst distinguished exhibitioners have been Adam Smith, John Gibson Lockhart, John Wilson (" Christopher North "), Archbishop Tait, Sir William Hamilton and Professor Shairp. The curriculum of the university embraces the faculties of arts, divinity, medicine, law and science. The governing body includes the chancellor, elected for life by the general council, the principal, also elected for life, and the lord rector elected triennially by the students voting in " nations " according to their birthplace (Glottiana, natives of Lanarkshire; Transforthana, of Scotland north of the Forth; Rothseiana, of the shires of Bute, Renfrew and Ayr; and Loudonia, all others). There are a large number of well-endowed chairs and lectureships and the normal number of students exceeds 2000. The universities of Glasgow and Aberdeen unite to return one member to parliament. Queen Margaret College for women, established in 1883, occupies a handsome building close to the botanic gardens, has an endowment of upwards of £25,000, and was incorporated with the university in 1893. Muirhead College is another institution for women.

Elementary instruction is supplied at numerous board schools. Higher, secondary and technical education is provided at several well-known institutions. There are two educational endowments boards which apply a revenue of about Schools £io,000 a year mainly to the foundation of bursaries. and Anderson College in George Street perpetuates the colleges. memory of its founder, John Anderson (1726-1796), professor of natural philosophy in the university, who opened a class in physics for working men, which he conducted to the end of his life. By his will he provided for an institution for the instruction of artisans and others unable to attend the university. The college which bears his name began in 1796 with lectures on natural philosophy and chemistry by Thomas Garnett (1766-1802). Two years later mathematics and geography were added. In 1799 Dr George Birkbeck (1776-1841) succeeded Garnett and began those lectures on mechanics and applied science which, continued elsewhere, ultimately led to the foundation of mechanics' institutes in many towns. In later years the college was further endowed and its curriculum enlarged by the inclusion of literature and languages, but ultimately it was determined to limit the scope of its work to medicine (comprising, however, physics, chemistry and botany also). The lectures of its medical school, incorporated in 1887 and situated near the Western Infirmary, are accepted by Glasgow and other universities. The Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College, formed in 1886 out of a combination of the arts side of Anderson College, the College of Science and Arts, Allan Glen's Institution and the Atkinson Institution, is subsidized by the corporation and the endowments board, and is especially concerned with students desirous of following an industrial career. St Mungo's College, which has developed from an extra-mural school in connexion with the Royal Infirmary, was incorporated in 1889, with faculties of medicine and law. The United Free Church College, finely situated near Kelvingrove Park, the School of Art and Design, and the normal schools for the training of teachers, are institutions with distinctly specialized objects.

The High school in Elmbank is the successor of the grammar school (long housed in John Street) which was founded in the 14th century as an appanage of the cathedral. It was placed under the j urisdiction of the school board in 1873. Other secondary schools include Glasgow Academy, Kelvinside Academy and the girls' and boys' schools endowed by the Hutcheson trust. Several of the schools under the board are furnished with secondary departments or equipped as science schools, and the Roman Catholics maintain elementary schools and advanced academies.

Art Galleries, Libraries and Museums. - Glasgow merchants and Glasgow versity. manufacturers alike have been constant patrons of art, and their liberality may have had some influence on the younger painters who, towards the close of the 19th century, broke away from tradition and, stimulated by training in the studios of Paris, became known as the "Glasgow school." The art gallery and museum in Kelvingrove Park, which was built at a cost of £250,000 (partly derived from the profits of the exhibitions held in the park in 1888 and 1901), is exceptionally well appointed. The collection originated in 1854 in the purchase of the works of art belonging to Archibald M`Lellan, and was supplemented from time to time by numerous bequests of important pictures. It was housed for many years in the Corporation galleries in Sauchiehall Street. The Institute of Fine Arts, in Sauchiehall Street, is mostly devoted to periodical exhibitions of modern art. There are also pictures on exhibition in the People's Palace on Glasgow Green, which was built by the corporation in 1898 and combines an art gallery and museum with a conservatory and winter garden, and in the museum at Camphill, situated within the bounds of Queen's Park. The library and Hunterian museum in the university are mostly reserved for the use of students. The faculty of procurators possess a valuable library which is housed in their hall, an Italian Renaissance building, in West George Street. In Bath Street there are the Mechanics' and the Philosophical Society's libraries, and the Physicians' is in St Vincent Street. Miller Street contains the headquarters of the public libraries. The premises once occupied by the water commission have been converted to house the Mitchell library, which grew out of a bequest of £70,000 by Stephen Mitchell, largely reinforced by further gifts of libraries and funds, and now contains upwards of 100,000 volumes. It is governed by the city council and has been in use since 1877. Another building in this street accommodates both the Stirling and Baillie libraries. The Stirling, with some 50,000 volumes, is particularly rich in tracts of the 16th and 17th centuries, and the Baillie was endowed by George Baillie, a solicitor who, in 1863, gave £18,000 for educational objects. The Athenaeum in St George's Place, an institution largely concerned with evening classes in various subjects, contains an excellent library and reading-room.

Charities

The old Royal Infirmary, designed by Robert Adam and opened in 1794, adjoining the cathedral, occupies the site of the archiepiscopal palace, the last portion of which was removed towards the close of the 18th century. The chief architectural feature of the infirmary is the central dome forming the roof of the operating theatre. On the northern side are the buildings of the medical school attached to the institution. The new infirmary commemorates the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria. A little farther north, in Castle Street, is the blind asylum. The Western Infirmary is to some extent used for the purposes of clinical instruction in connexion with the university, to which it stands in immediate proximity. Near it is the Royal hospital for sick children. To the south of Queen's Park is Victoria Infirmary, and close to it the deaf and dumb institution. On the bank of the river, not far from the south-eastern boundary of the city, is the Belvedere hospital for infectious diseases, and at Ruchill, in the north, is another hospital of the same character opened in 1900. The Royal asylum at Gartnavel is situated near Jordanhill station, and the District asylum at Gartloch (with a branch at West Muckroft) lies in the parish of Cadder beyond the north-eastern boundary. There are numerous hospitals exclusively devoted to the treatment of special diseases, and several nursing institutions and homes. Hutcheson's Hospital, designed by David Hamilton and adorned with statues of the founders, is situated in Ingram Street, and by the increase in the value of its lands has become a very wealthy body. George Hutcheson (1580-1639), a lawyer in the Trongate near the tolbooth, who afterwards lived in the Bishop's castle, which stood close to the spot where the Kelvin enters the Clyde, founded the hospital for poor old men. His brother Thomas (1589-1641) established in connexion with it a school for the lodging and education of orphan boys, the sons of burgesses. The trust, through the growth of its funds, has been enabled to extend its educational scope and to subsidize schools apart from the charity.

Monuments

Most of the statues have been erected in George Square. They are grouped around a fluted pillar 80 ft. high, surmounted by a colossal statue of Sir Walter Scott by John Ritchie (1809-1850), erected in 1837, and include Queen Victoria and the Prince Consort (both equestrian) by Baron Marochetti; James Watt by Chantrey; Sir Robert Peel, Thomas Campbell the poet, who was born in Glasgow, and David Livingstone, all by John Mossman; Sir John Moore, a native of Glasgow, by Flaxman, erected in 1819; James Oswald, the first member returned to parliament for the city after the Reform Act of 1832; Lord Clyde (Sir Colin Campbell), also a native, by Foley, erected in 1868; Dr Thomas Graham, master of the mint, another native, by Brodie; Robert Burns by G. E. Ewing, erected in 1877, subscribed for in shillings by the working men of Scotland; and William Ewart Gladstone by Hamo Thornycroft, unveiled by Lord Rosebery in 1902. In front of the Royal Exchange stands the equestrian monument of the duke of Wellington. In Cathedral Square are the statues of Norman Macleod, James White and James Arthur, and in front of the Royal infirmary is that of Sir James Lumsden, lord provost and benefactor. Nelson is commemorated by an obelisk 143 ft. high on the Green, which was erected in 1806 and is said to be a copy of that in the Piazza del Popolo at Rome. One of the most familiar statues is the equestrian figure of William III. in the Trongate, which was presented to the town in 1735 by James Macrae (1677-1744), a poor Ayrshire lad who had amassed a fortune in India, where he was governor of Madras from 1725 to 1730.

Recreations

Of the theatres the chief are the King's in Bath Street, the Royal and the Grand in Cowcaddens, the Royalty and Gaiety in Sauchiehall Street, and the Princess's in Main Street. Variety theatres, headed by the Empire in Sauchiehall Street, are found in various parts of the town. There is a circus in Waterloo Street, a hippodrome in Sauchiehall Street and a zoological garden in New City Road. The principal concert halls are the great hall of the St Andrew's Halls, a group of rooms belonging to the corporation; the City Hall in Candleriggs, the People's Palace on the Green, and Queen's Rooms close to Kelvingrove Park. Throughout winter enormous crowds throng the football grounds of the Queen's Park, the leading amateur club, and the Celtic, the Rangers, the Third Lanark and other prominent professional clubs.

Parks and Open Spaces

The oldest open space is the Green (140 acres), on the right bank of the river, adjoining a denselypopulated district. It once extended farther west, but a portion was built over at a time when public rights were not vigilantly guarded. It is a favourite area for popular demonstrations, and sections have been reserved for recreation or laid out in flower-beds. Kelvingrove Park, in the west end, has exceptional advantages, for the Kelvin burn flows through it and the ground is naturally terraced, while the situation is beautified by the adjoining Gilmore Hill with the university on its summit. The park was laid out under the direction of Sir Joseph Paxton, and contains the Stewart fountain, erected to commemorate the labours of Lord Provost Stewart and his colleagues in the promotion of the Loch Katrine water scheme. The other parks on the right bank are, in the north, Ruchill (53 acres), acquired in 1891, and Springburn (534 acres), acquired in 1892, and, in the east, Alexandra Park (120 acres), in which is laid down a nine-hole golf-course, and Tollcross (824 acres), beyond the municipal boundary, acquired in 1897. On the left bank Queen's Park (130 acres), occupying a commanding site, was laid out by Sir Joseph Paxton, and considerably enlarged in 1894 by the enclosure of the grounds of Camphill. The other southern parks are Richmond (44 acres), acquired in 1898, and named after Lord Provost Sir David Richmond, who opened it in 1899; Maxwell, which was taken over on the annexation of Pollokshields in 1891; Bellahouston (176 acres), acquired in 1895; and Cathkin Braes (50 acres), 32m. beyond the south-eastern boundary, presented to the city in 1886 by James Dick, a manufacturer, containing " Queen Mary's stone," a point which commands a view of the lower valley of the Clyde. In the north-western district of the town 40 acres between Great Western Road and the Kelvin are devoted to the Royal Botanic Gardens, which became public property in 1891. They are beautifully laid out, and contain a great range of hothouses. The gardens owed much to Sir William Hooker, who was regius professor of botany in Glasgow University before his appointment to the directorship of Kew Gardens.

Communications

The North British railway terminus is situated in Queen Street, and consists of a high-level station (main line) and a low-level station, used in connexion with the City & District line, largely underground, serving the northern side of the town, opened in 1886. The Great Northern and North-Eastern railways use the high-level line of the N.B.R., the three companies forming the East Coast Joint Service. The Central terminus of the Caledonian railway in Gordon Street, served by the West Coast system (in which the London & North-Western railway shares), also comprises a high-level station for the main line traffic and a low-level station for the Cathcart District railway, completed in 1886 and made circular for the southern side and suburbs in 1894, and also for the connexion between Maryhill and Rutherglen, which is mostly underground. Both the underground lines communicate with certain branches of the main line, either directly or by change of carriage. The older terminus of the Caledonian railway in Buchanan Street now takes the northern and eastern traffic. The terminus of the Glasgow & South-Western railway company in St Enoch Square serves the country indicated in its title, and also gives the Midland railway of England access to the west coast and Glasgow. The Glasgow Subway - an underground cable passenger line, 62 m. long, worked in two tunnels and passing below the Clyde twice - was opened in 1896. Since no more bridge-building will be sanctioned west of the railway bridge at the Broomielaw, there are at certain points steam ferry boats or floating bridges for conveying vehicles across the harbour, and at Stobcross there is a subway for foot and wheeled traffic. Steamers, carrying both goods and passengers, constantly leave the Broomielaw quay for the piers and ports on the river and firth, and the islands and sea lochs of Argyllshire. The city is admirably served by tramways which penetrate every populous district and cross the river by Glasgow and Albert bridges. Trade. - Natural causes, such as proximity to the richest field of coal and ironstone in Scotland and the vicinity of hill streams of pure water, account for much of the great development of trade in Glasgow. It was in textiles that the city showed its earliest predominance, which, however, has not been maintained, owing, it is alleged, to the shortage of female labour. Several cotton mills are still worked, but the leading feature in the trade has always been the manufacture of such light textures as plain, striped and figured muslins, ginghams and fancy fabrics. Thread is made on a considerable scale, but jute and silk are of comparatively little importance. The principal varieties of carpets are woven. Some factories are exclusively devoted to the making of lace curtains. The allied industries of bleaching, printing and dyeing, on the other hand, have never declined. The use of chlorine in bleaching was first introduced in Great Britain at Glasgow in 1787, on the suggestion of James Watt, whose father-in-law was a bleacher; and it was a Glasgow bleacher, Charles Tennant, who first discovered and made bleaching powder (chloride of lime). Turkey-red dyeing was begun at Glasgow by David Dale and George M`Intosh, and the colour was long known locally as Dale's red. A large quantity of grey cloth continues to be sent from Lancashire and other mills to be bleached and printed in Scottish works. These industries gave a powerful impetus to the manufacture of chemicals, and the works at St Rollox developed rapidly. Among prominent chemical industries are to be reckoned the alkali trades - including soda, bleaching powder and soapmaking - the preparation of alum and prussiates of potash, bichromate of potash, white lead and other pigments, dynamite and gunpowder. Glass-making and paper-making are also carried on, and there are several breweries and distilleries, besides factories for the making of aerated waters, starch, dextrine and matches. Many miscellaneous trades flourish, such as clothing, confectionery, cabinet-making, bread and biscuit making, boot and shoe making, flour mills and saw mills, pottery and indiarubber. Since the days of the brothers Robert Foulis (1705-1776) and Andrew Foulis (1712-1775), printing, both letterpress and colour, has been identified with Glasgow, though in a lesser degree than with Edinburgh. The tobacco trade still flourishes, though much lessened. But the great industry is iron-founding. The discovery of the value of blackband ironstone, till then regarded as useless " wild coal," by David Mushet (1772-1847), and Neilson's invention of the hot-air blast threw the control of the Scottish iron trade into the hands of Glasgow ironmasters, although the furnaces themselves were mostly erected in Lanarkshire and Ayrshire. The expansion of the industry was such that, in 1859, one-third of the total output in the United Kingdom was Scottish. During the following years, however, the trade seemed to have lost its elasticity, the annual production averaging about one million tons of pig-iron. Mild steel is manufactured extensively, and some crucible cast steel is made. In addition to brass foundries there are works for the extraction of copper and the smelting of lead and zinc. With such resources every branch of engineering is well represented. Locomotive engines are built for every country where railways are employed, and all kinds of builder's ironwork is forged in enormous quantities, and the sewingmachine factories in the neighbourhood are important. Boilermaking and marine engine works, in many cases in direct connexion with the shipbuilding yards, are numerous. Shipbuilding, indeed, is the greatest of the industries of Glasgow, and in some years more than half of the total tonnage in the United Kingdom has been launched on the Clyde, the yards of which extend from the harbour to Dumbarton on one side and Greenock on the other side of the river and firth. Excepting a trifling proportion of wooden ships, the Clyde-built vessels are of iron and steel, the trade having owed its immense expansion to the prompt adoption of this material. Every variety of craft is turned out, from battleships and great liners to dredging-plant and hopper barges.

The Port

The harbour extends from Glasgow Bridge to the point where the Kelvin joins the Clyde, and occupies 206 acres. For the most part it is lined by quays and wharves, which have a total length of 84 m., and from the harbour to the sea vessels drawing 26 ft. can go up or down on one tide. It is curious to remember that in the middle of the 18th century the river was fordable on foot at Dumbuck, 12 m. below Glasgow and 12 m. S.E. of Dumbarton. Even within the limits of the present harbour Smeaton reported to the town council in 1740 that at Pointhouse ford, just east of the mouth of the Kelvin, the depth at low water was only 15 in. and at high water 39 in. The transformation effected within a century and a half is due to the energy and enterprise of the Clyde Navigation Trust. The earliest shipping-port of Glasgow was Irvine in Ayrshire, but lighterage was tedious and land carriage costly, and in 1658 the civic authorities endeavoured to purchase a site for a spacious harbour at Dumbarton. Being thwarted by the magistrates of that burgh, however, in 1662 they secured 13 acres on the southern bank at a spot some 2 m. above Greenock, which became known as Port Glasgow, where they built harbours and constructed the first graving dock in Scotland. Sixteen years later the Broomielaw quay was built, but it was not until the tobacco merchants appreciated the necessity of bringing their wares into the heart of the city that serious consideration was paid to schemes for deepening the waterway. Smeaton's suggestion of a lock and dam 4 m. below the Broomielaw was happily not accepted. In 1768 John Golborne advised the narrowing of the river and the increasing of the scour by the construction of rubble jetties and the dredging of sandbanks and shoals. After James Watt's report in 1769 on the ford at Dumbuck, Golborne succeeded in 1775 in deepening the ford to 6 ft. at low water with a width of 300 ft. By Rennie's advice in 1799, following up Golborne's recommendation, as many as 200 jetties were built between Glasgow and Bowling, some old ones were shortened and low rubble walls carried from point to point of the jetties, and thus the channel was made more uniform and much land reclaimed. By 1836 there was a depth of 7 or 8 ft. at the Broomielaw at low water, and in 1840 the whole duty of improving the navigation was devolved upon the Navigation Trust. Steam dredgers were kept constantly at work, shoals were removed and rocks blasted away. Two million cubic yards of matter are lifted every year and dumped in Loch Long. By 1900 the channel had been deepened to a minimum of 22 ft., and, as already indicated, the largest vessels make the open sea in one tide, whereas in 1840 it took ships drawing only 15 ft. two and even three tides to reach the sea. The debt of the Trust amounts to £6,000,000, and the annual revenue to X450,000. Long before these great results had been achieved, however, the shipping trade had been revolutionized by the application of steam to navigation, and later by the use of iron for wood in shipbuilding, in both respects enormously enhancing the industry and commerce of Glasgow. From 1812 to 1820 Henry Bell's " Comet," 30 tons, driven by an engine of 3 horse-power, plied between Glasgow and Greenock, until she was wrecked, being the first steamer to run regularly on any river in the Old World. Thus since the appearance of that primitive vessel phenomenal changes had taken place on the Clyde. When the quays and wharves ceased to be able to accommodate the growing traffic, the construction of docks became imperative. In 1867 Kingston Dock on the south side, of 53 acres, was opened, but soon proved inadequate, and in 1880 Queen's Dock (two basins) at Stobcross, on the north side, of 30 acres, was completed. Although this could accommodate one million tons of shipping, more dock space was speedily called for, and in 1897 Prince's Dock (three basins) on the opposite side, of 72 acres, was opened, fully equipped with hydraulic and steam cranes and all the other latest appliances. There are, besides, three graving docks, the longest of which (880 ft.) can be made at will into two docks of 417 ft. and 457 ft. in length. The Caledonian and Glasgow & South-Western railways have access to the harbour for goods and minerals at Terminus Quay to the west of Kingston Dock, and a mineral dock has been constructed by the Trust at Clydebank, about 32 m. below the harbour. The shipping attains to colossal proportions. The imports consist chiefly of flour, fruit, timber, iron ore, live stock and wheat; and the exports principally of cotton manufactures, manufactured iron and steel, machinery, whisky, cotton yarn, linen fabrics, coal, jute, jam and foods, and woollen manufactures.

Government

By the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889 the city was placed entirely in the county of Lanark, the districts then transferred having previously belonged to the shires of Dumbarton and Renfrew. In 1891 the boundaries were enlarged to include six suburban burghs and a number of suburban districts, the area being increased from 6111 acres to 11,861 acres. The total area of the city and the conterminous burghs of Govan, Partick and Kinning Park - which, though they successfully resisted annexation in 1891, are practically part of the city - is 15,659 acres. The extreme length from north to south and from east to west is about 5 m. each way, and the circumference measures 27 m. In 1893 the municipal burgh was constituted a county of a city. Glasgow is governed by a corporation consisting of 77 members, including 14 bailies and the lord provost. In 1895 all the powers which the town council exercised as police commissioners and trustees for parks, markets, water and the like were consolidated and conferred upon the corporation. Three years later the two parish councils of the city and barony, which administered the poor law over the greater part of the city north of the Clyde, were amalgamated as the parish council of Glasgow, with 31 members. As a county of a city Glasgow has a lieutenancy (successive lords provost holding the office) and a court of quarter sessions, which is the appeal court from the magistrates sitting as licensing authority. Under the corporation municipal ownership has reached a remarkable development, the corporation owning the supplies of water, gas and electric power, tramways and municipal lodging-houses. The enterprise of the corporation has brought its work prominently into notice, not only in the United Kingdom, but in the United States of America and elsewhere. In 1859 water was conveyed by aqueducts and tunnels from Loch Katrine (364 ft. above sea-level, giving a pressure of 70 or 80 ft. above the highest point in the cit y) to the reservoir at Mugdock (with a capacity of 500,000,000 gallons), a distance of 27 m., whence after filtration it was distributed by pipes to Glasgow, a further distance of 7 m., or 34 m. in all. During the next quarter of a century it became evident that this supply would require to be augmented, and powers were accordingly obtained in 1895 to raise Loch Katrine 5 ft. and to connect with it by tunnel Loch Arklet (455 ft. above the sea), with storage for 2,050,000,000 gallons, the two lochs together possessing a capacity of twelve thousand million gallons. The entire works between the loch and the city were duplicated over a distance of 232 m., and an additional reservoir, holding 694,000,000 gallons, was constructed, increasing the supply held in reserve from 121days' to 302 days'. In 1909 the building of a dam was undertaken 14 m. west of the lower end of Loch Arklet, designed to create a sheet of water 22 m. long and to increase the water-supply of the city by ten million gallons a day. The water committee supplies hydraulic power to manufacturers and merchants. In 1869 the corporation acquired the gasworks, the productive capacity of which exceeds 70 million cub. ft. a day. In 1893 the supply of electric light was also undertaken, and since that date the city has been partly lighted by electricity. The corporation also laid down the tramways, which were leased by a company for twenty-three years at a rental of £150 a mile per annum. When the lease expired in 1894 the town council took over the working of the cars, substituting overhead electric traction for horse-power. One of the most difficult problems that the corporation has had to deal with was the housing of the poor. By the lapse of time and the congestion of population, certain quarters of the city, in old Glasgow especially, had become slums and rookeries of the worst description. The condition of the town was rapidly growing into a byword, when the municipality obtained parliamentary powers in 1866 enabling it to condemn for purchase over-crowded districts, to borrow money and levy rates. The scheme of reform contemplated the demolition of Io,000 insanitary dwellings occupied by 50,000 persons, but the corporation was required to provide accommodation for the dislodged whenever the numbers exceeded 500. In point of fact they never needed to build, as private enterprise more than kept pace with the operations of the improvement. The work was carried out promptly and effectually, and when the act expired in 1881 whole localities had been recreated and nearly 40,000 persons properly housed. Under the amending act of 1881 the corporation began in 1888 to build tenement houses in which the poor could rent one or more rooms at the most moderate rentals; lodging-houses for men and women followed, and in 1896 a home was erected for the accommodation of families in certain circumstances. The powers of the improvement trustees were practically exhausted in 1896, when it appeared that during twenty-nine years £1,955,550 had been spent in buying and improving land and buildings, and £231,500 in building tenements and lodging-houses; while, on the other side, ground had been sold for 1,072,000, and the trustees owned heritable property valued at £692,000, showing a deficiency of £423,050. Assessment of ratepayers for the purposes of the trust had yielded £593, 000, and it was estimated that these operations, beneficial to the city in a variety of ways, had cost the citizens £ 24,000 a year. In 1897 an act was obtained for dealing in similar fashion with insanitary and congested areas in the centre of the city, and on the south side of the river, and for acquiring not more than 25 acres of land, within or without the city, for dwellings for the poorest classes. Along with these later improvements the drainage system was entirely remodelled, the area being divided into three sections, each distinct, with separate works for the disposal of its own sewage. One section (authorized in 1891 and doubled in 1901) comprises sq. m. - one-half within the city north of the river, and the other in the district in Lanarkshire - with works at Dalmarnock; another section (authorized in 1896) includes the area on the north bank not provided for in 1891, as well as the burghs of Partick and Clydebank and intervening portions of the shires of Renfrew and Dumbarton, the total area consisting of 14 sq. m., with works at Dalmuir, 7 m. below Glasgow; and the third section (authorized in 1898) embraces the whole municipal area on the south side of the river, the burghs of Rutherglen, Pollokshaws, Kinning Park and Govan, and certain districts in the counties of Renfrew and Lanark-14 sq. m. in all, which may be extended by the inclusion of the burghs of Renfrew and Paisley - with works at Braehead, I m. east of Renfrew. Among other works in which it has interests there may be mentioned its representation on the board of the Clyde Navigation Trust and the governing body of the West of Scotland Technical College. In respect of parliamentary representation the Reform Act of 1832 gave two members to Glasgow, a third was added in 1868 (though each elector had only two votes), and in 1885 the city was split up into seven divisions, each returning one member.

Population

Throughout the 19th century the population grew prodigiously. Only 77,385 in 1801, it was nearly doubled in twenty years, being 147,043 in 1821, already outstripping Edinburgh. It had become 395,5 0 3 in 1861, and in 1881 it was 511,415. In 1891, prior to extension of the boundary, it was 565,839, and, after extension, 658,198, and in 1901 it stood at 761,709. The birth-rate averages 33, and the death-rate 21 per moo, but the mortality before the city improvement scheme was carried out was as high as 33 per 1000. Owing to its being convenient of access from the Highlands, a very considerable number of Gaelic-speaking persons live in Glasgow, while the great industries attract an enormous number of persons from other parts of Scotland. The valuation of the city, which in 1878-1879 was £3,420,697, now exceeds £5,000,000.

History

There are several theories as to the origin of the name of Glasgow. One holds that it comes from Gaelic words meaning " dark glen," descriptive of the narrow ravine through which the Molendinar flowed to the Clyde. But the more generally accepted version is that the word is the Celtic Cleschu, afterwards written Glesco or Glasghu, meaning " dear green spot " (glas, green; cu or ghu, dear), which is supposed to have been the name of the settlement that Kentigern found here when he came to convert the Britons of Strathclyde. Mungo became the patron-saint of Glasgow, and the motto and arms of the city are wholly identified with him - " Let Glasgow Flourish by the Preaching of the Word," usually shortened to " Let Glasgow Flourish." It is not till the 12th century, however, that the history of the city becomes clear. About 1178 William the Lion made the town by charter a burgh of barony, and gave it a market with freedom and customs. Amongst more or less isolated episodes of which record has been preserved may be mentioned the battle of the Bell o' the Brae, on the site of High Street, in which Wallace routed the English under Percy in 1300; the betrayal of Wallace to the English in 1305 in a barn situated, according to tradition, in Robroyston, just beyond the north-eastern boundary of the city; the ravages of the plague in 1350 and thirty years later; the regent Arran's siege, in 1544, of the bishop's castle, garrisoned by the earl of Glencairn, and the subsequent fight at the Butts (now the Gallowgate) when the terms of surrender were dishonoured, in which the regent's men gained the day. Most of the inhabitants were opposed to Queen Mary and many actively supported Murray in the battle of Langside - the site of which is now occupied by the Queen's Park - on the 13th of May 1568, in which she lost crown and kingdom. A memorial of the conflict was erected on the site in 1887. Under James VI. the town became a royal burgh in 1636, with freedom of the river from the Broomielaw to the Cloch. But the efforts to establish episcopacy aroused the fervent anti-prelatical sentiment of the people, who made common cause with the Covenanters to the end of their long struggle. Montrose mulcted the citizens heavily after the battle of Kilsyth in 1645, and three years later the provost and bailies were deposed for contumacy to their sovereign lord. Plague and famine devastated the town in 1649, and in 1652 a conflagration laid a third of the burgh in ashes. Even after the restoration its sufferings were acute. It was the headquarters of the Whiggamores of the west and its prisons were constantly filled with rebels for conscience' sake. The government scourged the townsfolk with an army of Highlanders, whose brutality only served to strengthen the resistance at the battles of Drumclog and Bothwell Brig. With the Union, hotly resented as it was at the time, the dawn of almost unbroken prosperity arose. By the treaty of Union Scottish ports were placed, in respect of trade, on the same footing as English ports, and the situation of Glasgow enabled it to acquire a full share of the ever-increasing Atlantic trade. Its commerce was already considerable and in population it was now the second town in Scotland. It enjoyed a practical monopoly of the sale of raw and refined sugars, had the right to distil spirits from molasses free of duty, dealt largely in cured herring and salmon, sent hides to English tanners and manufactured soap and linen. It challenged the supremacy of Bristol in the tobacco trade - fetching cargoes from Virginia, Maryland and Carolina in its own fleet - so that by 1772 its importations of tobacco amounted to more than half of the whole quantity brought into the United Kingdom. The tobacco merchants built handsome mansions and the town rapidly extended westwards. With the surplus profits new industries were created, which helped the city through the period of the American War. Most, though not all, of the manufactures in which Glasgow has always held a foremost place date from this period. It was in 1764 that James Watt succeeded in repairing a hitherto unworkable model of Newcomen's fire (steam) engine in his small workshop within the college precincts. Shipbuilding on a colossal scale and the enormous developments in the iron industries and engineering were practically the growth of the 19th century. The failure of the Western bank in 1857, the Civil War in the United States, the collapse of the City of Glasgow bank in 1878, among other disasters, involved heavy losses and distress, but recovery was always rapid.

Authorities.-J. Cleland, Annals of Glasgow (Glasgow, 1816); Duncan, Literary History of Glasgow (Glasgow, 1886); Registrum Episcopatus Glasgow (Maitland Club, 1843); Pagan, Sketch of the History of Glasgow (Glasgow, 1847); Sir J. D. Marwick, Extracts from the Burgh Records of Glasgow (Burgh Records Society); Charters relating to Glasgow (Glasgow, 1891); River Clyde and Harbour of Glasgow (Glasgow, 1898); Glasgow Past and Present (Glasgow, 1884); Munimenta Universitatis Glasgow (Maitland Club, 1854); Strang, Glasgow and its Clubs (Glasgow, 1864); Reid (" Senex "), Old Glasgow (Glasgow, 1864); A. Macgeorge, Old Glasgow (Glasgow, 1888); Deas, The River Clyde (Glasgow, 1881); Gale, Loch Katrine Waterworks (Glasgow, 1883); Mason, Public and Private Libraries of Glasgow (Glasgow, 1885); J. Nicol, Vital, Social and Economic Statistics of Glasgow (1881); J.B.Russell, Life in One Room (Glasgow, 1888); Ticketed Houses (Glasgow, 1889); T. Somerville, George Square (Glasgow, 1891); J. A. Kilpatrick, Literary Landmarks of Glasgow (Glasgow, 1898); J. K. M'Dowall, People's History of Glasgow (Glasgow, 1899); Sir J. Bell and J. Paton, Glasgow: Its Municipal Organization and Administration (Glasgow, 1896); Sir D. Richmond, Notes on Municipal Work (Glasgow, 1899); J. M. Lang, Glasgow and the Barony (Glasgow, 1895); Old Glasgow (Glasgow, 1896); J. H. Muir, Glasgow in 190z.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Etymology

From Brythonic glas cu (green hollow); usually romantically translated as "the dear green place." Compare modern Gaelic Glaschu

Pronunciation

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Particularly: “local and general Scottish required”

Proper noun

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Singular
Glasgow

Plural
-

Glasgow

  1. A city in Lanarkshire and the largest in Scotland.

Translations

Related terms


Simple English

File:Wfm buchanan
Buchanan Street looking southward.

Glasgow (Scottish: Glaschu, Lowland Scots: Glesga) is the biggest and busiest city in Scotland, and is on the banks of the River Clyde. People from Glasgow are known as "Glaswegians" (glas-wee-jans), which is a name also used for words that are used only in Glasgow - also known as "The Glasgow Patter".

The number of people living inside and around Glasgow is thought to be around 2,300,000 which, although a very big number, is nowhere near the number of people living in Glasgow during the famous times of the shipyards on the River Clyde. It was the second biggest city in the world after London at one point in the 1800s. Many people from other countries visit Glasgow for holidays and trips; most of these people are from Europe France, America (the US and Canada) for weekend and week trips.

There are two airports in the city, Glasgow International Airport and Glasgow Prestwick International Airport. The main railway stations in the city are Glasgow Central and Queen Street stations. They provide rail links to the rest of Scotland, and to the rest of the U.K and Europe..

There are a number of theatres and concert halls in the city. Namely is the SECC, The Scottish Exhibition & Conference Centre, the Royal concert hall, The Kings theartre, The pavilion theartre, The Theartre royal and many more.

Glasgow has several football teams - the best-known are Rangers F.C. and Celtic F.C.. Partick Thistle, Clydebank, and Queens Park F.C. also play in the city.

The weather in Glasgow is almost always changing, and it is hard to say what the entire day's weather is like. Very often, the weather is worst in the morning when it is mostly damp and sometimes misty or even foggy; the Glasgow Patter also refers to dreich weather - damp and drizzly. However, the weather mostly improves through the afternoon and more often than not the weather stays dry and at an average temperature.

In summer it is popular as a base for tourists. They can stay in Glasgow and then travel to see Loch Lomond and the Western Isles. One of the oldest paddle-steamer boats is in Glasgow, and in the summer one can travel down the Clyde to visit other towns and islands.

Twinned cities








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