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.A global city (also called world city or sometimes alpha city) is a city deemed to be an important node point in the global economic system.^ Globalization and the world of cities.
  • global city networks in world historical perspective 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC irows.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cities in a World-System , ed.
  • global city networks in world historical perspective 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC irows.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cities have a long history as centers for international trade and banking but in light of globalization, these cities now function in four new ways: first, as highly concentrated command points in the organization of the world economy.
  • Global City 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC gse.ed.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The concept comes from geography and urban studies and rests on the idea that globalization can be understood as largely created, facilitated and enacted in strategic geographic locales according to a hierarchy of importance to the operation of the global system of finance and trade.^ It introduces the idea of ‘intelligent design’ in urban development and what elements will need to be thrown into that the design as policy-makers in Singapore consider what they can do to facilitate its emergence as a global city.
  • Singapore: The Art Of Building A Global City « Docuticker 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.docuticker.com [Source type: News]

^ Brugmann, who has been an urban strategy consultant to major cities around the world, reframes the idea of globalization as a global spread of urbanization—forming a single, worldwide system that he refers to as “the City.” Through it, local events are amplified as global ones.

^ In social studies students will build upon the concepts learned in science by seeing how climate and geography influence how people live in cities.

.The most complex of these entities is the "global city," whereby the linkages binding a city have a direct and tangible effect on global affairs through socio-economic means.^ A major cultural and economical city of Switzerland, the city is the first to acquire the “global city” status, meaning Zurich is deemed to be an important node point in the global economical system.
  • Zurich – World’s First Global City 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC blog.hotelclub.com [Source type: General]

^ What distinguishes Sassen's theoretical framework is the emphasis on the formation of cross-border dynamics through which these cities and the growing number of other global cities begin to form strategic transnational networks.
  • Sassen, S.: The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.pupress.princeton.edu [Source type: General]

^ "The most detailed and sophisticated anatomy yet published of the functioning of the new producer services sector in the global economy."--Mark Levine, Urban Affairs Quarterly .
  • Sassen, S.: The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.pupress.princeton.edu [Source type: General]

[1] .The terminology of "global city", as opposed to megacity, is thought to have been first coined by the sociologist Saskia Sassen in reference to her 1991 work, "The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo"[2] though the term "world city" to describe cities which control a disproportionate amount of global business dates to at least Patrick Geddes' use of the term in 1915.[3] Cities can fall from being appropriate to such categorization, such as in the case of cities that have become less cosmopolitan, and less internationally renowned in the current era, e.g., Kaliningrad, Russia, Thessaloniki, Greece and Alexandria, Egypt.^ As such, the u-City will emerge as the world’s first and foremost city.
  • Leading Global u-City | Korea IT Times 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC koreaittimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now it's Saskia Sassen and the global city.
  • [in-enaction] scan: What makes a global city? 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC mail.architexturez.net [Source type: News]
  • [URBANTH-L]Saskia Sassen and the global city 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC lists.ysu.edu [Source type: News]

^ New York is the most global city in the world, but it's far less modern than the average European city."
  • [in-enaction] scan: What makes a global city? 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC mail.architexturez.net [Source type: News]
  • [URBANTH-L]Saskia Sassen and the global city 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC lists.ysu.edu [Source type: News]

Contents

Criteria

.Global City or world city status is seen as beneficial, and because of this many groups have tried to classify and rank which cities are seen as 'world cities' or 'non-world cities'.[3] Although there is a consensus upon leading world cities,[4] the criteria upon which a classification is made can affect which other cities are included.^ With populations that exceed 10 million, at least 20 of the world's city-regions are now home to more people than many small countries.
  • Overview: Global City-Regions Conference 1999 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.sppsr.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A major cultural and economical city of Switzerland, the city is the first to acquire the “global city” status, meaning Zurich is deemed to be an important node point in the global economical system.
  • Zurich – World’s First Global City 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC blog.hotelclub.com [Source type: General]

^ We have a global lead in academic health science; more top universities than any other capital; and the most powerful media, culture, and artistic sector in Europe—if not the world.
  • A Global City Bounces Back. - Newsweek.com 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.newsweek.com [Source type: News]

[3] The criteria for identification tend either to be based on a "yardstick value" ("e.g. if the producer-service sector is the largest sector, then city .X is a world city")[3] or on an "imminent determination" ("if the producer-service sector of city X is greater than the producer-service sector of N other cities, then city X is a world city").^ We have a global lead in academic health science; more top universities than any other capital; and the most powerful media, culture, and artistic sector in Europe—if not the world.
  • A Global City Bounces Back. - Newsweek.com 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.newsweek.com [Source type: News]

^ With populations that exceed 10 million, at least 20 of the world's city-regions are now home to more people than many small countries.
  • Overview: Global City-Regions Conference 1999 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.sppsr.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "The most detailed and sophisticated anatomy yet published of the functioning of the new producer services sector in the global economy."--Mark Levine, Urban Affairs Quarterly .
  • Sassen, S.: The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.pupress.princeton.edu [Source type: General]

[3]

Economic characteristics

Political characteristics

Cultural characteristics

.
The Louvre in Paris
  • International, first-name familiarity; whereby a city is recognized without the need for a political subdivision.^ Cities like these and Frankfurt, Paris and Hong Kong handle a disproportionate share of international financial transactions.
    • The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo by Saskia Sassen (Phil Gyford’s website) 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.gyford.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Opening first will be ROCKSALT (comfort food with attitude) in Timog Avenue, Quezon City serving international family style comfort food in modern and bold interpretations.
    • globalacademyph.com - home 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC globalacademyph.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Inner City Press first asked DFS about this no-bid contract, without providing a copy, some weeks ago.
    • Inner City Press: Global Inner Cities Report 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.innercitypress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .For example, New York City is commonly referred to as just "New York" even though the city is in the state of New York.
  • Renowned cultural institutions (often with high endowments), such as notable museums and galleries, notable opera, orchestras, notable film centres and theatre centres.^ New York is such an active city, Mr. Roddy said.
    • City’s Virtues to Be Sold in New Global Ad Campaign - New York Times 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

    ^ New York--the culture of every culture.
    • about global city review 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC webdelsol.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Even for local residents, the high property prices are forcing people out of the centre, making many postpone marriage and family life.
    • BBC NEWS | Business | Shanghai: Creating a global city 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: News]

    .A lively cultural scene, including film festivals (such as the Toronto International Film Festival), premieres, a thriving music scene, nightlife, an opera company, art galleries, and street performers, annual parades.
  • Several influential media outlets with an international reach, such as the BBC, Reuters, The New York Times, or Agence France-Presse.
  • A strong sporting community, including major sports facilities, home teams in major league sports, and the ability and historical experience to host international sporting events such as the Olympic Games, Football World Cup, or Grand Slam tennis events.^ New York--home of the brave.
    • about global city review 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC webdelsol.com [Source type: General]

    ^ New York--the destination of the world’s refugees.
    • about global city review 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC webdelsol.com [Source type: General]

    ^ New York--the culture of every culture.
    • about global city review 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC webdelsol.com [Source type: General]

    [18]
  • Educational institutions; e.g., universities,[19] international student attendance,[20] research facilities
  • Sites of pilgrimage for world religions (for example, Jerusalem or Rome)
  • Cities containing World Heritage Sites of historical and cultural significance[21]
  • Tourism throughput
  • City as site or subject in Arts and Media, television, film, video games, music, literature, magazines, articles, documentary
  • City as an often repeated historic reference, showcase, or symbolic actions

Infrastructural characteristics

  • An advanced transportation system that includes several highways and/or a large mass transit network offering multiple modes of transportation (rapid transit, light rail, regional rail, ferry, or bus).
  • Extensive and popular[22] mass transit systems, prominent rail usage,[23] road vehicle usage,[24] major seaports[25]
  • A major international airport that serves as an established hub for several international airlines, for example, London.^ Although the roads and rail can be congested, public transport is generally the best way to get around.
    • HSBC global jobs – EMEA jobs – London city guide 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.hsbcnet.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Driven Global is a luxury New York Limousine company with offices in New York, Boston and Washington DC. New York Limo provides New York airport transportation to major airports including John F Kennedy Airport , LaGuardia Airport and Newark International Airport .
    • Driven Global: New York Limousine Service 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC drivenglobal.com [Source type: News]

    ^ At the same time, the city boasts advanced traffic systems, including Incheon International Airport, Incheon Port, a number of expressways, regional roads, subways and railroads.
    • Incheon Strives to Be Reborn as World-class Global City | Korea IT Times 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.koreaittimes.com [Source type: News]

    .Airports with significant passenger traffic and international passengers traffic.^ In 2009, the Philadelphia Airport lacks significant connections to major international cities, specifically in Asia, Australia, and Africa.
    • Philadelphia 2040: A New Kind of Global City 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Denver International Airport recently celebrated its 10th birthday and reached the 50 million passenger milestone.

    ^ At the same time, the city boasts advanced traffic systems, including Incheon International Airport, Incheon Port, a number of expressways, regional roads, subways and railroads.
    • Incheon Strives to Be Reborn as World-class Global City | Korea IT Times 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.koreaittimes.com [Source type: News]

    [26] or .cargo movements
  • An advanced communications infrastructure on which modern trans-national corporations rely, such as fiberoptics, Wi-Fi networks, cellular phone services, and other high-speed lines of communications.^ AT&T, MCI, Sprint, and Telmex provide voice and data services with modern infrastructure.
    • Global Nearshore - Global Delivery Centers 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.softtek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Prudential Spirit of Community Awards - The Prudential Spirit of Community Awards honor young people in middle level and high school grades for outstanding volunteer service to their communities.
    • Welcome to the City of Dothan, Alabama - Global Community 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www3.dothan.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Though healthcare is commonly associated with high paying jobs, such as doctors and technicians, there are also many opportunities for lower paid service jobs.
    • Philadelphia 2040: A New Kind of Global City 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

    .For example, Seoul and Tokyo are known as the digital and technology capitals of the world.
  • Health facilities; e.g.^ The most strategic example of this unbundling is probably the global city, which has emerged as a partly denationalized platform for global capital and for the most diverse mix of people from all over the world.
    • CHAPTER 11. The Global City : A Companion to the Anthropology of Politics : Blackwell Reference Online 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.blackwellreference.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Arts/Culture Economy Features Health India Indian Muslim International Literature Muslim World Science/Technology Sports Terrorism Women .
    • A tour of Deoband: a city of global importance | TwoCircles.net 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.twocircles.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Most Popular Local California National/World Entertainment Business Technology Politics ABC30 Sports & Ag Watch Consumer Watch Education Watch Health Watch Bizarre .
    • abc30.com: Fresno City Council Member Gains Global Perspective On Trip Through Brazil 9/02/07 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC abclocal.go.com [Source type: General]

    hospitals, medical laboratories
  • Prominent skylines/skyscrapers (for example Shanghai or Hong Kong)[27]

Studies

GaWC studies

Alfa (Alpha) World Cities 2008
.One of the first attempts to define, categorize, and rank global cities was made in 1998 by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC) based at the geography department of Loughborough University, United Kingdom.^ "Studying global cities allows one to see that ...
  • [in-enaction] scan: What makes a global city? 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC mail.architexturez.net [Source type: News]
  • [URBANTH-L]Saskia Sassen and the global city 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC lists.ysu.edu [Source type: News]

^ Globalization and the world of cities.
  • global city networks in world historical perspective 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC irows.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A major cultural and economical city of Switzerland, the city is the first to acquire the “global city” status, meaning Zurich is deemed to be an important node point in the global economical system.
  • Zurich – World’s First Global City 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC blog.hotelclub.com [Source type: General]

.The roster was outlined in the GaWC Research Bulletin 5 and ranked cities based on their provision of "advanced producer services" such as accountancy, advertising, finance, and law.^ GaWC Research Bulletin 289 .
  • GLOBAL URBAN COMPETITIVENESS PROJECT 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.gucp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Beaverstock, Smith and Taylor (1999) use Sassens focus on producer services to classify 55 cities as alpha, beta and/or gamma world cities based on the presence of branch offices of transnational accountancy, advertising, banking/finance and law firms (See Figure 6).
  • global city networks in world historical perspective 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC irows.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This years ranking also identifies the cities with the best infrastructure based on electricity supply, water availability, telephone and mail services, public transportation, traffic congestion and the range of international flights from local airports.
  • Global HR News: Quality of Living Global City Rankings 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.globalhrnews.com [Source type: News]

[4] .The GaWC inventory identifies three levels of global cities and several sub-ranks.^ After identifying that the market is underserved with many large companies unwilling or unable to provide the correct level of support and services for small businesses, Global Geeks was established.
  • Historic Ellicott City, MD - Global Geeks 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.ellicottcity.net [Source type: General]

^ Several significant developments have occurred within the Bonifacio Global City in the last several years: .
  • Megaworld Properties / Bellagio / Corinthian Hills / Forbeswood Heights / Mckinley Hill Village / Paseo Parkview / Greenbelt Radissons / Greenbelt Parkplace 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC megaworldproperties.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Quality of Living global city rankings 2008 Register on our site .
  • Quality of Living global city rankings 2008 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.mercer.com [Source type: News]

.This roster generally denotes cities in which there are offices of certain multinational corporations providing financial and consulting services rather than denoting other cultural, political, and economic centres.^ The results, from painted intersections to cob benches and other organic structures, invite people "to inhabit the planet on our own terms" rather than the grid-locked culture imposed by the city.

^ Urban leaderships -political, corporate, economic- are under more immediate pressure to act on these conditions than national governments.
  • CGT / Events / Global Power City Index: Toward an Urban Geopolitics? 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC cgt.columbia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are now more than three hundred city-regions around the world with populations of more than one million.
  • Oxford University Press: Global City-Regions: Allen J. Scott 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.us.oup.com [Source type: Academic]

.The 2004 rankings acknowledged several new indicators while continuing to rank city economics more heavily than political or cultural factors.^ Urban leaderships -political, corporate, economic- are under more immediate pressure to act on these conditions than national governments.
  • CGT / Events / Global Power City Index: Toward an Urban Geopolitics? 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC cgt.columbia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are now more than three hundred city-regions around the world with populations of more than one million.
  • Oxford University Press: Global City-Regions: Allen J. Scott 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.us.oup.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the last 15 years, the city has been transformed into a glittering metropolis of 21 million people, with more skyscrapers than New York and a public transport system that will soon overtake London's in size.
  • BBC NEWS | Business | Shanghai: Creating a global city 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: News]

.The 2008 roster, similar to the 1998 version is sorted into categories of "Alpha" world cities (with four sub-categories), "Beta" world cities (three sub-categories), "Gamma" world cities (three sub-categories), and cities with "High sufficiency" or "Sufficiency" world city presence.^ A roster of world cities.
  • global city networks in world historical perspective 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC irows.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tokyo into a world city.
  • global city networks in world historical perspective 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC irows.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are now more than three hundred city-regions around the world with populations of more than one million.
  • Oxford University Press: Global City-Regions: Allen J. Scott 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.us.oup.com [Source type: Academic]

The 2008 roster of leading Alpha, Beta and Gamma World Cities is reproduced below; see the source for the complete roster:[28][29]
Alpha World Cities ++:
Alpha World Cities +:
Alpha World Cities:
Alpha World Cities :
Beta World Cities +:
Beta World Cities:
Beta World Cities :
Gamma World Cities +:
Gamma World Cities:
Gamma World Cities :

Global Cities Index

.In October 2008, the American journal Foreign Policy, in conjunction with consulting firm A.T. Kearney and the Chicago Council on Global Affairs, published a ranking of global cities, based on consultation with Saskia Sassen, Witold Rybczynski, and others.^ Saskia Sassen and others have further elaborated the global city hypothesis.
  • global city networks in world historical perspective 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC irows.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Quality of Living global city rankings 2008 – Mercer survey .
  • Quality of Living global city rankings 2008 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.mercer.com [Source type: News]

^ To define this sometimes controversial and shifting term, a variety of sources were consulted, most notably sociologist Saskia Sassen and reports on global cities by Foreign Policy Magazine.
  • Philadelphia 2040: A New Kind of Global City 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

.Foreign Policy noted that "the world’s biggest, most interconnected cities help set global agendas, weather transnational dangers, and serve as the hubs of global integration.^ Globalization and the world of cities.
  • global city networks in world historical perspective 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC irows.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To define this sometimes controversial and shifting term, a variety of sources were consulted, most notably sociologist Saskia Sassen and reports on global cities by Foreign Policy Magazine.
  • Philadelphia 2040: A New Kind of Global City 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

^ Transnational companies choose to locate in Philadelphia, and firms within Philadelphia have a global reach to business communities all over the world, which include Rio de Janeiro, New Delhi, Mexico City, London, and Hong Kong.
  • Philadelphia 2040: A New Kind of Global City 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

.They are the engines of growth for their countries and the gateways to the resources of their regions."^ Most core countries have achieved a replacement fertility rate, but semiperipheral regions still have a higher fertility rate and faster population growth.
  • global city networks in world historical perspective 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC irows.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30]
.The rankings are based on the evaluation of 24 metrics in five areas: business activity, human capital, information exchange, cultural experience, and political engagement.^ Includes basic business background, BBB Accreditation information, and BBB complaint activity over the previous three years.
  • Global Transportation Management Consultants | BBB Review | Salt Lake City, UT 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.bbb.org [Source type: News]

^ This cultural and human exchange was a really great moment for the students and for me.

^ Participate in international networks, exchange successful experiences of local businesses, and cooperate with other cities on themes of urban relevance, .
  • Positions| Rosario City Hall - International Affairs Office | IE3 Global Internships 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC ie3global.ous.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The top thirty of the 60 cities ranked were:
Rank City Best category (position in that category)
1 New York City Business Activity and Human Capital (1st)
2 London Cultural Experience (1st)
3 Paris Information Exchange (1st)
4 Tokyo Business Activity (2nd)
5 Hong Kong Business Activity and Human Capital (5th)
6 Los Angeles Human Capital (4th)
7 Singapore Business Activity (6th)
8 Chicago Human Capital (3rd)
9 Seoul Information Exchange (5th)
10 Toronto Cultural Experience (4th)
11 Washington, D.C. Political Engagement (1st)
12 Beijing Political Engagement (7th)
13 Brussels Information Exchange (2nd)
14 Madrid Information Exchange (9th)
15 San Francisco Human Capital (12th)
16 Sydney Human Capital (8th)
17 Berlin Cultural Experience (8th)
18 Vienna Political Engagement (9th)
19 Moscow Cultural Experience (6th)
20 Shanghai Business Activity (8th)
21 Frankfurt Business Activity (11th)
22 Bangkok Political Engagement (13th)
23 Amsterdam Business Activity (10th)
24 Stockholm Information Exchange (13th)
25 Mexico City Cultural Experience (9th)
26 Zürich Information Exchange (8th)
27 Dubai Information Exchange (14th)
28 Istanbul Political Engagement (8th)
29 Boston Human Capital (9th)
30 Rome Cultural Experience (15th)

Global Power City Index

.The Institute for Urban Strategies at The Mori Memorial Foundation in Tokyo, Japan issued a comprehensive study of global cities in October 2009. The ranking is based on six overall categories, "Economy," "Research & Development," "Cultural Interaction," "Livability," "Ecology & Natural Environment," and "Accessibility," with 69 individual indicators among them.^ Business Lifestyle 2009 quality of living global city rankings .
  • 2009 quality of living global city rankings | Business Lifestyle | CPI Financial 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.cpifinancial.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Institutions Business Livability Transportation Natural Environment These categories hold a wealth of assets, and, in 2009, they have the potential to catapult the city onto the global stage, while remaining grounded in a solid foundation of inherent resources and historical precedent, and drawing from local ingenuity and innovation.
  • Philadelphia 2040: A New Kind of Global City 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

^ Philadelphia can achieve this vision of a global city by investing in three crucial contributors to the city's competitive advantage and quality of life: Education Entrepreneurship Equity 7 In order to provide focused and effective strategies within these sectors, the plan examines Philadelphia in 2009 through five lenses: Institutions Business Transportation Livability Natural Environment With the city's current context established, the vision plan presents targeted yet comprehensive tools for increasing educational attainment, opening doors to business and entrepreneurs, and helping Philadelphia's workers gain access to opportunities previously out of reach.
  • Philadelphia 2040: A New Kind of Global City 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

[31] .This Japanese ranking also breaks down top ten world cities ranked in subjective categories such as "manager, researcher, artist, visitor and resident."^ Even if such P-5 politics is the norm in the doling out of top jobs at the UN, procurement is supposedly less subject to power politics.
  • Inner City Press: Global Inner Cities Report 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.innercitypress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The top ten green vehicles ranged from 57 down to 45 points out of a maximum 100.

^ Combined with its educational assets, the city ranks in the top 10 U.S. metro areas in the number engineering degrees held by residents and boasts a higher average chemical industry wage than in the U.S. at large.
  • Philadelphia 2040: A New Kind of Global City 23 January 2010 9:58 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

Rank City Score Best category (position)
1 New York City 330.4 Economy (1.) Research & Development (1.)
2 London 322.3 Cultural Interaction (1.)
3 Paris 317.8 Livability (1.) Accessibility (1.)
4 Tokyo 305.6 Economy (2.) Research & Development (2.)
5 Singapore 274.4 Economy (5.) Cultural Interaction (5.)
6 Berlin 259.3 Livability (2.)
7 Vienna 255.1 Ecology & Natural Environment (3.)
8 Amsterdam 250.5 Accessibility (3.)
9 Zürich 242.5 Ecology & Natural Environment (2.)
10 Hong Kong 242.5 Economy (4.)
11 Madrid 242.5 Ecology & Natural Environment (7.) Accessibility (7.)
12 Seoul 242.1 Research & Development (4.)
13 Los Angeles 240.0 Research & Development (5.)
14 Sydney 237.3 Ecology & Natural Environment (9.)
15 Toronto 234.6 Livability (5.)
16 Frankfurt 232.9 Accessibility (5.)
17 Copenhagen 231.7 Economy (9.) Livability (9.)
18 Brussels 229.9 Livability (8.)
19 Geneva 229.7 Ecology & Natural Environment (1.)
20 Boston 226.2 Research & Development(6.)
Following positions and scores:
21. Shanghai (224.1), 22. Chicago (221.1), 23. Vancouver (219.1), 24. San Francisco (218.1), 25. Osaka (215.1), 26. Beijing (211.4), 27. Kuala Lumpur (204.1), 28. Milan (203.5), 29. Bangkok (199.1), 30. Fukuoka (196.5), 31. Taipei (195.9), 32. Moscow (179.5), 33. São Paulo (177.7), 34. Mumbai (165.5), 35. Cairo (132.2)

Cities ranked by category

Rank Population of city (proper) Population of metropolitan area[32] Percentage foreign born[33] Expatriate cost of living[9] Metro systems by annual passenger ridership Metro systems by the route length Annual airport traffic by passenger[34] Number of billionaires (U.S. dollars)[35] Gross Metropolitan Product at total PPPs[36]
1 Mumbai Tokyo Dubai Tokyo Tokyo London London New York City Tokyo
2 Shanghai Seoul Miami Osaka Moscow New York City New York City London New York City
3 Karachi Mexico City Amsterdam Moscow New York City Berlin Tokyo Moscow Los Angeles
4 Delhi New York City Toronto Geneva Seoul Madrid Atlanta Hong Kong Chicago
5 Istanbul Mumbai Muscat Hong Kong Mexico City Moscow Chicago Los Angeles Paris
6 São Paulo Jakarta Vancouver Zürich Paris Seoul Paris Dallas London
7 Moscow São Paulo Auckland Copenhagen Hong Kong Shanghai Los Angeles Istanbul Osaka
8 Seoul Delhi Geneva New York City London Paris Dallas San Francisco Mexico City
9 Beijing Osaka Mecca Beijing Osaka Beijing Frankfurt Chicago,
Mumbai,
São Paulo,
Tokyo
Philadelphia
10 Mexico City Shanghai The Hague Singapore São Paulo Tokyo Beijing n/a Washington, D.C.

See also

References

  1. ^ Sassen, Saskia - The global city: strategic site/new frontier
  2. ^ Sassen, Saskia - The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. (1991) - Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07063-6
  3. ^ a b c d e Doel,M. & Hubbard, P., (2002), "Taking World Cities Literally: Marketing the City in a Global Space of flows",City, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 351-368. Subscription required
  4. ^ a b GaWC Research Bulletin 5, GaWC, Loughborough University, 28 July 1999
  5. ^ Urban Characteristics,City Level, 1993PDF (61.6 KB), "World Resources 1998-99", WRI, 1998.
  6. ^ Global Urban Indicators Database 2 (1998 data) (data sets in .ZIP), UN-HABITAT
  7. ^ World Indices, Bloomberg
  8. ^ J.V. Beaverstock, World City Networks 'From Below', GaWC, Loughborough University, 29 September 2005
  9. ^ a b Mercer's 2008 Cost of living highlights, Mercer, 02 June 2009
  10. ^ The World's Billionaires, Forbes, 2008
  11. ^ Chapter 5: Globalization and cultural choicePDF (352 KB), "2004 Human Development Report" (page 99), UNDP, 2004
  12. ^ Chapter 9: Urban DataPDF (196 KB), "World Resources 1998-99", WRI, 1998
  13. ^ City Profiles, UN
  14. ^ Mobility 2001PDF (1.59 MB), WBCSD
  15. ^ WORLD URBANIZATION PROSPECTS: THE 2003 REVISIONPDF (3.73 MB), UN, 2004
  16. ^ World-wide quality of living survey, Mercer, 10 April 2006
  17. ^ The city development indexPDF, "THE STATE OF THE WORLD'S CITIES REPORT 2001", UN-HABITAT, 21 June 2006
  18. ^ P. De Groote, Economic and Tourism Aspects of the Olympic Games, GaWC, Loughborough University, 21 September 2005
  19. ^ [1]PDF (registration required)
  20. ^ K. O'Connor, International Students and Global Cities, GaWC, Loughborough University, 17 February 2005
  21. ^ World Heritage List, UNESCO
  22. ^ Estimated Ridership of the World’s Largest Public Transit Systems, 1998
  23. ^ COMMUTER RAIL (SUBURBAN RAIL, REGIONAL RAIL) IN THE UNITED STATES: INTERNATIONAL CONTEXTPDF (218 KB), October 2003
  24. ^ Traffic Intensity by International Urban Area: 1990
  25. ^ Largest seaports of the world
  26. ^ Mapping the Global Network Economy on the Basis of Air Passenger Transport Flows, GaWC, Loughborough University, 8 December 2004
  27. ^ The World's Best Skylines
  28. ^ "The World According to GaWC 2008". Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC). Loughborough University. http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/world2008t.html. Retrieved 2009-05-07. 
  29. ^ "The World According to GaWC 2008 - Graph". Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC). Loughborough University. http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/world2008c.html. Retrieved 2009-05-27. 
  30. ^ "The 2008 Global Cities Index". Foreign Policy (November/December 2008). October 21, 2008. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/story/cms.php?story_id=4509. Retrieved 2008-10-31. 
  31. ^ "Global Power City Index 2009". Tokyo, Japan: Institute for Urban Strategies at The Mori Memorial Foundation. October 22, 2009. http://www.mori-m-foundation.or.jp/english/research/project/6/pdf/GPCI2009_English.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-29. 
  32. ^ R.L. Forstall, R.P. Greene, and J.B. Pick, "Which are the largest? Why published populations for major world urban areas vary so greatly", City Futures Conference, (University of Illinois at Chicago, July 2004) – Table 5 (p.34)
  33. ^ gstudy.com international statisticsPDF (522 KB)
  34. ^ http://www.aci.aero/aci/aci/file/Press%20Releases/2007_PRs/PR_180707_TOP10.pdf
  35. ^ In Pictures: Top Billionaire Cities, Forbes, 3 June 2009
  36. ^ PriceWaterhouseCoopers, "UK Economic Outlook, March 2007", page 5. ""Table 1.2 – Top 30 urban agglomeration GDP rankings in 2005 and illustrative projections to 2020 (using UN definitions and population estimates)"" (PDF). http://www.ukmediacentre.pwc.com/imagelibrary/downloadMedia.asp?MediaDetailsID=863. Retrieved 2007-03-09. 

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