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.Globalization (or globalisation) describes an ongoing process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a globe-spanning network of communication and trade.^ It is becoming a regulator of the would-be global economy.

^ Economies are becoming deterritorialised, global and transnational.
  • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Contrary to popular usage by the media and various political and economic commentators, 'Globalisation' is not an objective or neutral term which simply describes the contemporary world economy.
  • Globalisation and Imperialism 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.The term is sometimes used to refer specifically to economic globalization: the integration of national economies into the international economy through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows, migration, and the spread of technology.^ That is why globalisation in the form of international trade and foreign investment is such a good thing.

^ But globalisation, as in the spread of trade, knowledge and technology, could exist without capitalism.
  • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The economic crisis is hitting their remittances and investment and trade flows.
  • The Financial Services Club's Blog: Globalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC thefinanser.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .However, globalization is usually recognized as being driven by a combination of economic, technological, sociocultural, political, and biological factors.^ This process is a combination of economic, technological, sociocultural and political forces.
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Technological advances are driving economic globalisation.
  • Globalisation 2000 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.wilpf.int.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Contrary to popular usage by the media and various political and economic commentators, 'Globalisation' is not an objective or neutral term which simply describes the contemporary world economy.
  • Globalisation and Imperialism 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

[2] .The term can also refer to the transnational circulation of ideas, languages, or popular culture through acculturation.^ It refers, in its most general sense, to the global circulation of people, wealth and power, products and services, culture and information, as well as forms of association and interaction.
  • Core 3: People, Power and Politics 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.shortell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has become the central language of international communication in business, politics, administration, science and academia as well as being the dominant language of globalised advertising and popular culture.
  • globalisationofculture 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.cpim.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here lies our responsibility to make out of this universal culture a modern and human language through which the spirit conquers over matter.

Contents

Definitions

The United Nations Building
.An early description of globalization was penned by the American entrepreneur-turned-minister Charles Taze Russell who coined the term 'corporate giants' in 1897,[3] although it was not until the 1960s that the term began to be widely used by economists and other social scientists.^ The earliest written theoretical concepts of globalization were penned by an American entrepreneur-turned-minister Charles Taze Russell who coined the term 'corporate giants' in 1897.
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Members aligned with this viewpoint prefer instead to describe themselves as the Global Justice Movement , the Anti-Corporate-Globalization Movement , the Movement of Movements (a popular term in Italy), the " Alter-globalization " movement (popular in France), the " Counter-Globalization " movement, and a number of other terms.
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^ Herman E. Daly argues that sometimes the terms internationalization and globalization are used interchangeably but there is a slight formal difference.
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.The term has since then achieved widespread use in the mainstream press by the later half of the 1980s.^ The term " globalization " has been used by economists since the 1980s although it was used in social sciences in the 1960s; however, its concepts did not become popular until the latter half of the 1980s and 1990s.
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^ We usually refer to such concept handles or labels as terms, but since this word is often also used to mean a concept -- i.e., the concept it represents -- it can be ambiguous.
  • GLOBALIZATION: KEY CONCEPTS 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Operational architecture is a term in current use in DOD to describe the manner in which military units can be organized, equipped, and trained to achieve greatest tactical efficiency.
  • Globalization and Maritime Power 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.ndu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since its inception, the concept of globalization has inspired numerous competing definitions and interpretations.^ This paper tries to present some interpretations of the concept with indications that global integration is superficial.

[4].
.The United Nations ESCWA has written that globalization "is a widely-used term that can be defined in a number of different ways.^ The terms globalization and anti-globalization are used in various ways.
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^ Put simply, in terms of real flows of economic activity, nation states have already lost their role as meaningful units of participation in the global economy of today's borderless world" (Ohmae, K. 2000.
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^ Herman E. Daly argues that sometimes the terms internationalization and globalization are used interchangeably but there is a slight formal difference.
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When used in an economic context, it refers to the reduction and removal of barriers between national borders in order to facilitate the flow of goods, capital, services and labor...^ Read Snapshot, October 16, 2009 Dollars Without Borders Dilip Ratha The global flow of remittances represents the link between migration and development.

^ The mission of ISO is to develop and promote standards in the world to facilitate the international exchange of goods and services.

^ It operates through at least five channels: cross-border trade in goods and services; international capital mobility; the movement of labor across borders; the flow of ideas, information, and technology around the world; and politics: cooperation among national governments, international rules and institutions, and the activities of nongovernmental actors, such as Greenpeace, the Catholic Church, and even online social networks, such as Facebook.

although considerable barriers remain to the flow of labor... .Globalization is not a new phenomenon.^ There are several versions of this approach but the common element in all these versions is that they all adopt the thesis that globalisation is both a new and an irreversible phenomenon (i.e.
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This phenomenon has already made its entry into the sphere of regional studies through the coinage of a new term glocalisation (globalisation and localisatoin).
  • The 10 Misconceptions of the Opponents of Globalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.hbfasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is still a new field and much remains to be done, but enough has already been achieved to provide a valuable understanding of the phenomenon of globalization.
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.It began in the late nineteenth century, but it slowed down during the period from the start of the First World War until the third quarter of the twentieth century.^ The "First Era of Globalization" began to break down at the beginning of the 20th century with the first World War.
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the result of processes that have been at work in the U.S. and Western Europe—and other parts of the world to a lesser degree—since the beginning of the twentieth century.
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^ Coming next to trade openness, contrary to the evidence produced by Hirst and Thompson, this openness, far from being lower today than in the pre-world war I period, has increased significantly in the last quarter of the twentieth century (i.e.
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This slowdown can be attributed to the inward-looking policies pursued by a number of countries in order to protect their respective industries...^ On the one hand, developing countries must control their financial markets long enough to be able to build up a financial system of banking and credit in order to protect the country from crises.
  • The 10 Misconceptions of the Opponents of Globalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.hbfasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The spread of the dogma of restrictive fiscal policy is undermining the bargain struck with workers in every industrial country.
  • Globalization Free Trade Foreign Aid 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.newsbatch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some economists argue that developing countries need to rely on protective trade barriers in order to develop industry.
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however, the pace of globalization picked up rapidly during the fourth quarter of the twentieth century..."[5]
Saskia Sassen writes that "a good part of globalization consists of an enormous variety of micro-processes that begin to denationalize what had been constructed as national — whether policies, capital, political subjectivity, urban spaces, temporal frames, or any other of a variety of dynamics and domains."[6]
.
HSBC, world's largest bank, operates across the globe.
^ The survivors, however, believe they should also receive compensation from the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank, two of the world's largest financial institutions.

^ For example, movements in the world commodity and money markets can have a very significant impact upon people's lives across the globe.
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^ This has already come true with Mr. Yin’s bank, ICBC, the largest bank in the world by deposits and market capitalisation today.
  • The Financial Services Club's Blog: Globalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC thefinanser.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7][8]
Tom G. Palmer of the Cato Institute defines globalization as "the diminution or elimination of state-enforced restrictions on exchanges across borders and the increasingly integrated and complex global system of production and exchange that has emerged as a result."[9]
.Thomas L. Friedman has examined the impact of the "flattening" of the world, and argues that globalized trade, outsourcing, supply-chaining, and political forces have changed the world permanently, for both better and worse.^ Thomas L. Friedman "examines the impact of the 'flattening' of the globe", and argues that globalized trade , outsourcing , supply-chaining , and political forces have changed the world permanently, for both better and worse.
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Contrary to popular usage by the media and various political and economic commentators, 'Globalisation' is not an objective or neutral term which simply describes the contemporary world economy.
  • Globalisation and Imperialism 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Friedman's argument that outsourcing "low-wage, low-prestige" jobs will prevent the third world youngsters becoming suicide bombers and make life safer for the American youth smacks of racism .

.He also argues that the pace of globalization is quickening and will continue to have a growing impact on business organization and practice.^ He also argues that the pace of globalization is quickening and will continue to have a growing impact on business organization and practice.
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^ The mission of the Ethos Institute is to encourage Brazilian businesses to be more socially responsible and to educate these businesses about the social impact of their business decisions and practices.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ International Forum on Globalization An alliance representing over 60 organizations in 25 countries formed to stimulate thinking, activity, and public education in response to economic globalization and its impact.
  • Globalization in Latin America 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC library.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

[10]
.Noam Chomsky argues that the word globalization is also used, in a doctrinal sense, to describe the neoliberal form of economic globalization.^ Noam Chomsky argues that the word globalization is also used, in a doctrinal sense, to describe the neoliberal form of economic globalization .
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Contrary to popular usage by the media and various political and economic commentators, 'Globalisation' is not an objective or neutral term which simply describes the contemporary world economy.
  • Globalisation and Imperialism 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Accordingly, advocates of other forms of globalization are described as "anti-globalization"; and some, unfortunately, even accept this term, though it is a term of propaganda that should be dismissed with ridicule.
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]
.Herman E. Daly argues that sometimes the terms internationalization and globalization are used interchangeably but there is a significant formal difference.^ Herman E. Daly argues that sometimes the terms internationalization and globalization are used interchangeably but there is a slight formal difference.
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In [1a.1], for example, if we thought of "historical globalization" as a term and tried to define it, we might argue that although the process is old, it did not begin 5000 years ago.
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^ Merely, there is a difference between technology and “technology.” After all, even gm uses an impressive amount of electronics and computers.
  • Hoover Institution - Policy Review - The Optimistic Thought Experiment 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.hoover.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term "internationalization" (or internationalisation) refers to the importance of international trade, relations, treaties etc.^ The term "internationalization" refers to the importance of international trade, relations, treaties etc.
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For from its beginnings in 1980's analysis of perestroika and dtente , the term has grown in importance, and now encompasses a system that has partially supplanted the pre-21 st century mode of international relations.
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^ Your assertion that globalisation is primarily about finance, not trade and investment, is incorrect: the volume of transactions on financial markets bears little relation to their importance.

owing to the .(hypothetical) immobility of labor and capital between or among nations.^ Yes, labor, capital and products cross national borders more easily than before.

^ The world's developed nations have become gigantic investors in each others' markets, allocating and exchanging capital , labor , and knowledge over great distances with fluid agility.
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^ This is happening through, for example, the mobility of capital across national boundaries, the role of multinational corporations and interdependency between different nations economies.
  • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.Finally, Takis Fotopoulos argues that globalization is the result of systemic trends manifesting the market economy’s grow-or-die dynamic, following the rapid expansion of transnational corporations.^ In this case, globalisation is irreversible within the system of the market economy.
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, to demand today to impose social controls on the economic elites in order to protect effectively labour and the environment (beyond regulatory or relatively painless controls on their activities) amounts to demanding to restrict the very dynamic of the system of the market economy itselfa dynamic which crucially depends on the economic health of the economic elites and particularly that of the transnational corporations.
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, it was the market economys grow-or-die dynamic and, in particular, the emergence and continuous expansion [5] of transnational corporations (TNC) and the parallel development of the Euro-dollar market, [6] which led to its internationalised form today.
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because these trends have not been offset effectively by counter-tendencies that could have emanated from trade-union action and other forms of political activity, the outcome has been globalisation.^ This is the trend of political globalization.
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^ Accordingly, advocates of other forms of globalization are described as "anti-globalization"; and some, unfortunately, even accept this term, though it is a term of propaganda that should be dismissed with ridicule.
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is in the Americas that some of the most dramatic tensions between globalisation, regionalism, nationalism and trade unions have been played out.
  • GLOBALISATION, LABOUR AND THE POLANYI PROBLEM 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.theglobalsite.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is a multi-faceted and irreversible phenomenon within the system of the market economy and it is expressed as: economic globalisation, namely, the opening and deregulation of commodity, capital and labour markets which led to the present form of neoliberal globalisation; political globalisation, i.e., the emergence of a transnational elite and the phasing out of the all powerful-nation state of the statist period; cultural globalisation, i.e., the worldwide homogenisation of culture; ideological globalisation; technological globalisation; social globalisation.^ Trade openness* in major market economies .
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tiziana Terranova has stated that globalization has brought a culture of "free labour".
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^ "While globalization has led to benefits for some, it has not led to benefits for all.

[12]

History

Extent of the Silk Road and Spice trade routes blocked by the Ottoman Empire in 1453 spurring exploration
.The historical origins of globalization are the subject of on-going debate.^ We need to make this distinction if we want to use "'global" to think of historical globalization as going back several thousand years.
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^ She views globalizing as:  Sonntag : ...an on-going historical process that is reaching its apex toward the end of the 20th century.
  • GLOBALIZATION: KEY CONCEPTS 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though some scholars situate the origins of globalization in the modern era, others regard it as a phenomenon with a long history.^ Accordingly, advocates of other forms of globalization are described as "anti-globalization"; and some, unfortunately, even accept this term, though it is a term of propaganda that should be dismissed with ridicule.
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^ Some have defined the era of pre-World War I colonialism as an earlier period of globalizationsort of a globalization by force .
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^ Starting in the seventeenth century, the dawn of the modern era, the global state or market has become the sine qua non for this-worldly peace and security.
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.Perhaps the most extreme proponent of a deep historical origin for globalization was Andre Gunder Frank, an economist associated with dependency theory.^ The acknowledgment of failure comes from Globalisations most avid proponents.
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^ Created by Frank Lechner of Emory University: debates; organizations; news; global actors; guide to selected recent literature; theories; glossary .
  • Globalization & Its Critics: An Annotated List 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC newton.uor.edu [Source type: News]

^ E-commerce and the Internet may be the symbols of the most modern version of globalization, but historically the symbols have been the ever-increasing size and speed of ships and the shrinking cost of commercial transport.
  • Globalization and Maritime Power 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.ndu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Frank argued that a form of globalization has been in existence since the rise of trade links between Sumer and the Indus Valley Civilization in the third millennium B.C.[13] Critics of this idea point out that it rests upon an overly-broad definition of globalization.^ That over 90 percent of international trade travels by sea is a fact taken for granted; the dependence of the global economy on maritime transport is hardly remarked upon because, like oxygen, its existence is primarily evident in its absence.
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^ Anti-globalisation organisations claim that globalisation and increasing free international trade increase poverty, and widen the gap between rich and poor.
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^ It is in the Americas that some of the most dramatic tensions between globalisation, regionalism, nationalism and trade unions have been played out.
  • GLOBALISATION, LABOUR AND THE POLANYI PROBLEM 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.theglobalsite.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An early form of globalized economics and culture existed during the Hellenistic Age, when commercialized urban centers were focused around the axis of Greek culture over a wide range that stretched from India to Spain, with such cities as Alexandria, Athens, and Antioch at its center.^ Globalization is no longer centered around a city.
  • Ben Casnocha: The Blog: Globalization 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC ben.casnocha.com [Source type: General]

^ It is inevitable that Economic globalization will bring with it a cultural globalization.

^ Early forms of globalization existed during the Roman Empire , the Parthian empire, and the Han Dynasty , when the Silk Road started in China, reached the boundaries of the Parthian empire, and continued onwards towards Rome.
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.Trade was widespread during that period, and it is the first time the idea of a cosmopolitan culture (from Greek "Cosmopolis", meaning "world city") emerged.^ It will take place every year in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, during the same period as the World Economic Forum, which happens in Davos, Switzerland, at the end of January.

^ British ideals and culture were imposed on other nations during this period.
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^ By that I mean allowing smaller and poorer farmers in developing countries access to world markets for produce and products that they can grow easily and at a fair trade price.

.Others have perceived an early form of globalization in the trade links between the Roman Empire, the Parthian Empire, and the Han Dynasty.^ Accordingly, advocates of other forms of globalization are described as "anti-globalization"; and some, unfortunately, even accept this term, though it is a term of propaganda that should be dismissed with ridicule.
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early forms of globalization existed during the Roman Empire , the Parthian empire, and the Han Dynasty , when the Silk Road started in China, reached the boundaries of the Parthian empire, and continued onwards towards Rome.
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anti-globalisation organisations claim that globalisation and increasing free international trade increase poverty, and widen the gap between rich and poor.
  • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The increasing articulation of commercial links between these powers inspired the development of the Silk Road, which started in western China, reached the boundaries of the Parthian empire, and continued onwards towards Rome.^ Early forms of globalization existed during the Roman Empire , the Parthian empire, and the Han Dynasty , when the Silk Road started in China, reached the boundaries of the Parthian empire, and continued onwards towards Rome.
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The largest element in these flows has been direct foreign investment, which reached $90bn in 1995 and is now the single largest source for financial transfers to developing countries.
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^ There is a lag between the acquisition of power and the development of domestic and international institutions to convert that power into authority.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

[14] .With 300 Greek ships a year sailing between the Greco-Roman world and India, the annual trade may have reached 300,000 tons.^ It may seem like a paradox, but territorially exclusive government and world trade grew together.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Developments in the world system may be changing the relations between states and firms.

^ If its annual growth rate of 10 percent a year can be sustained, China will become the world’s leading economic power in about 20 years.
  • Hoover Institution - Policy Review - The Optimistic Thought Experiment 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.hoover.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]
.The Islamic Golden Age was also an important early stage of globalization, when Jewish and Muslim traders and explorers established a sustained economy across the Old World resulting in a globalization of crops, trade, knowledge and technology.^ The Islamic Golden Age is also an example, when Muslim traders and explorers established an early global economy across the Old World resulting in a globalization of crops , trade, knowledge and technology; and later during the Mongol Empire , when there was greater integration along the Silk Road .
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^ Globalization and the knowledge economy.
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^ Because of the high risks involved with international trade, the British East India Company became the first company in the world to share risk and enable joint ownership of companies through the issuance of shares of stock: an important driver for globalization.
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.Globally significant crops such as sugar and cotton became widely cultivated across the Muslim world in this period, while the necessity of learning Arabic and completing the Hajj created a cosmopolitan culture.^ The Islamic Golden Age is also an example, when Muslim traders and explorers established an early global economy across the Old World resulting in a globalization of crops , trade, knowledge and technology; and later during the Mongol Empire , when there was greater integration along the Silk Road .
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It may be significant that Hay and Marsh do not show the same faith in cosmopolitan global democracy as Held et al.
  • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The readings refer briefly to the IMF, the World Bank and the WTO. Each of these international organizations plays a significant role in global economics.

[16]
Portuguese carrack in Nagasaki, 17th century Japanese Nanban art
.The advent of the Mongol Empire, though destabilizing to the commercial centers of the Middle East and China, greatly facilitated travel along the Silk Road.^ The Islamic Golden Age is also an example, when Muslim traders and explorers established an early global economy across the Old World resulting in a globalization of crops , trade, knowledge and technology; and later during the Mongol Empire , when there was greater integration along the Silk Road .
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early forms of globalization existed during the Roman Empire , the Parthian empire, and the Han Dynasty , when the Silk Road started in China, reached the boundaries of the Parthian empire, and continued onwards towards Rome.
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She has traveled widely in Central and Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, the Middle East and Asia.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: Academic]

.This permitted travelers and missionaries such as Marco Polo to journey successfully (and profitably) from one end of Eurasia to the other.^ The ultimate goal remains to create new possibilities of investment and profit, in other words: new possibilities of growth able to create new accumulation possibilities future ones included.
  • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Skill polarisation has taken place in manufacturing also, with high-skilled professionals at one end and semi-skilled production workers at the other.

^ In the contrary to the words of St. Paul the Apostle in his eternal hymn, "Love seeks not his own" but the good of others (1 Cor 13:4) Can a tide such as this one retreat?

.The so-called Pax Mongolica of the thirteenth century had several other notable globalizing effects.^ However, we must certainly accept that globalisation can no longer be seen to have simple causal effects on other levels such as the national, the regional and the local.
  • GLOBALISATION, LABOUR AND THE POLANYI PROBLEM 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.theglobalsite.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell called outsourcing "a natural effect of the global economic system and the rise of the Internet and broadband communications."

^ In some of the other more well publicised areas of the environmental effects of globalisation New Zealand probably does better than most.
  • VUW Chaplaincies / Issues / Globalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.victoria.ac.nz [Source type: News]

.It witnessed the creation of the first international postal service, as well as the rapid transmission of epidemic diseases such as bubonic plague across the newly unified regions of Central Asia.^ It means the transfer of menial jobs to the third world via the exploitation of cheap labour (the so-called new international division of labour), and the further transfer of services such as call centres and computer programming to such countries and regions (the so-called newer international division of labour).
  • VUW Chaplaincies / Issues / Globalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.victoria.ac.nz [Source type: News]

^ Finally, there is now the global agenda of the G20 to create consistent supervision across regions as well as within regions.
  • The Financial Services Club's Blog: Globalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC thefinanser.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consumption has gone up, along with massive consumer and international economic indebtedness, and yes, more jobs have been created to service this consumption.

[17] .These pre-modern phases of global or hemispheric exchange are sometimes known as archaic globalization.^ These means did not remain limited to commercial use, but also became the means and marketplace for trading ideas and modern exchange of ideas instead of products.

^ These initial conditions remained almost the same during the phase of rapid globalization in the 1990s.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Held et al say that contemporary globalisation is historically unprecedented but that there are earlier pre-modern forms of globalisation.
  • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Up to the sixteenth century, however, even the largest systems of international exchange were limited to the Old World.^ With the development of a global world order, particularly of a global economic system, the old frontiers are disappearing more and more.
  • Conceptual Building Blocks for a Human and Just Globalization 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC threefolding.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The political systems of the West and the nation state as guarantees for and expression of the international division of labor in the modern world system are increasingly dissolving (Sassen 2000).
  • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Prior to the 16 th century, the glocus of our planet's largest world-system was only hemispheric, but since them, it has become planetary.
  • GLOBALIZATION: KEY CONCEPTS 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Age of Discovery brought a broad change in globalization, being the first period in which Eurasia and Africa engaged in substantial cultural, material and biologic exchange with the New World.^ The developing world certainly needs help from the developed world, however it does not need the polluting and unsustainable technologies being pushed at them under the title globalisation.
  • BBC News | TALKING POINT | Globalisation: Capitalist evil or a way out of poverty? 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ It was in this period that areas of sub-saharan Africa and the Island Pacific were incorporated into the world system.
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Globalisation involves new patterns of stratification across and within societies, some becoming enmeshed and some marginalised but in new configurations different to the old core-periphery, North-South and first world-third world classifications.
  • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .It began in the late 15th century, when the two Kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula - Portugal and Castile - sent the first exploratory voyages[19] around the Horn of Africa and to the Americas, "discovered" in 1492 by Christopher Columbus.^ Globalization in a wider context began shortly before the turn of the 16th century, with two Kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula - the Kingdom of Portugal and the Kingdom of Castile .
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "First Era of Globalization" began to break down at the beginning of the 20th century with the first World War.
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Portugal's exploration and trade with most of the coast of Africa , Eastern South America , and Southern and Eastern Asia , was the first major trade based form of globalization.
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Shortly before the turn of the 16th century, Portuguese started establishing trading posts (factories) from Africa to Asia and Brazil, to deal with the trade of local products like gold, spices and timber, introducing an international business center under a royal monopoly, the House of India.^ International trade is equivalent to an increase in productivity.
  • Martin Wolf, Why Globalization Works (I), international trade, free trade 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The acts of production, consumption and disposal have been geographically separated like never before.
  • Toxics Link : Globalisation of waste 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.toxicslink.org [Source type: News]

^ The establishment of the great trading companies formed in the seventeenth century - such as the East India Company and the Royal Africa Company - colonialism, and the opening of the Suez Canal, and the Union Pacific railroad, were all defining moments in the creation of a global economy (Krugman P, 1995).
  • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
.Global integration continued with the European colonization of the Americas initiating the Columbian Exchange,[21] the enormous widespread exchange of plants, animals, foods, human populations (including slaves), communicable diseases, and culture between the Eastern and Western hemispheres.^ Economic integration between Catholic Spain and Protestant England would have to wait; not until 1986 would Spain enter the European Union (albeit no longer with the power to force capitalist change in left-leaning Latin America).
  • Hoover Institution - Policy Review - The Optimistic Thought Experiment 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.hoover.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2002, China was the third largest exporter of cultural goods, after the UK and US. Between 1994 and 2002, both North America's and the European Union's shares of cultural exports declined, while Asia's cultural exports grew to surpass North America.
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Global integration continued through the expansion of European trade in the 16th and 17th centuries, when the Portuguese and Spanish Empires colonized the Americas , followed eventually by France and Britain.
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was one of the most significant global events concerning ecology, agriculture, and culture in history.^ We are in one of the most complex historical opportunities in history in which people are in charge, but not in control.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The question of the similarities and differences between the most recent wave and earlier waves of globalization is clearly an important one.
  • JWSR v5n2-Chase-Dunn 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC jwsr.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One long-run indicator of cultural globalization would be linguistic diversity, a distributional measure of the proportions of the world's population that speak the various languages.
  • JWSR v5n2-Chase-Dunn 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC jwsr.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.New crops that had come from the Americas via the European seafarers in the 16th century significantly contributed to the world's population growth.^ This united "universe" and this one empire contributed positively to the spreading of the Good News of Christianity in the entire world.

^ We will see an entirely NEW way of living where we no longer have to work to "survive", but we do activities because we want to "contribute" our gifts and abilities to improve the world.

^ Until now, the strongest economic forces in the world at the threshold of the New Millenium are the United States of America and Europe.

[22]
This phase is sometimes known as proto-globalization. .It was characterized by the rise of maritime European empires, in the 16th and 17th centuries, first the Portuguese and Spanish Empires, and later the Dutch and British Empires.^ The first colonists may not have arrived until centuries later than has been thought, and they did not travel alone.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

^ One only has to look back at the trading empires of England, Spain, Holland and Portugal during the 16th and 17th centuries, the opening up of the New World and trading routes to China and other far eastern countries.

.In the 17th century, globalization became also a private business phenomenon when chartered companies like British East India Company (founded in 1600), often described as the first multinational corporation, as well as the Dutch East India Company (founded in 1602) were established.^ In the 17th century, globalization became a business phenomenon when the British East India Company , which is often described as the first multinational corporation , was established.
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the high risks involved with international trade, the British East India Company became the first company in the world to share risk and enable joint ownership of companies through the issuance of shares of stock: an important driver for globalization.
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For starters, the United States itself is the product of 17th- and 18th-century globalization, as Europe expanded to colonize other continents.
  • Globalization and American Power by Joseph Nye - The Globalist 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.theglobalist.com [Source type: Original source]

.Because of the large investment and financing needs and high risks involved in international trade, the British East India Company became the first company in the world to share risk and enable joint ownership of companies through the issuance of shares of stock: an important driver for globalization.^ How did the English East India Company finance its tea trade?
  • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the high risks involved with international trade, the British East India Company became the first company in the world to share risk and enable joint ownership of companies through the issuance of shares of stock: an important driver for globalization.
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What the world needs is MORE globalisation, more international trade.
  • BBC News | TALKING POINT | Globalisation: Capitalist evil or a way out of poverty? 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
animated map showing Colonial empires evolution from 1492 to present
19th century Great Britain become the first global economic superpower, because of superior manufacturing technology and improved global communications such as steamships and railroads.
.The 19th century witnessed the advent of globalization approaching its modern form.^ Starting in the seventeenth century, the dawn of the modern era, the global state or market has become the sine qua non for this-worldly peace and security.
  • Hoover Institution - Policy Review - The Optimistic Thought Experiment 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.hoover.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Held et al say that contemporary globalisation is historically unprecedented but that there are earlier pre-modern forms of globalisation.
  • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The growth of the global operations of capitalism in the second half of the 19th century were easily as great as those witnessed in the last three decades.

.Industrialization allowed cheap production of household items using economies of scale, while rapid population growth created sustained demand for commodities.^ The period radically transformed Cuban society and the economy, as it necessitated the successful introduction of sustainable agriculture, decreased use of automobiles, and overhauled industry, health, and diet countrywide.

^ The rapid growth generated by industrialization should have helped instill Smith's lesson quickly.
  • Martin Wolf, Why Globalization Works (I), international trade, free trade 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The forces of economy released by the growth of productivity have to be use in a new way to avoid illness of the social life.
  • Conceptual Building Blocks for a Human and Just Globalization 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC threefolding.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Globalization in this period was decisively shaped by nineteenth-century imperialism.^ Globalization Unmasked: Imperialism in the 21st Century .
  • Globalization in Latin America 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC library.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The world-system has undergone major waves of economic globalization before, especially in the last decades of the the nineteenth century.
  • JWSR v5n2-Chase-Dunn 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC jwsr.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you think of the spread of world religions, the huge development of empires in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the stretch of the British Empire: global cultural and economic phenomena are not new.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

.After the Opium Wars and the completion of British conquest of India, vast populations of these regions became ready consumers of European exports.^ Pilots from the regions of the former Soviet Union fly the factory-packaged fish filets to their European consumers in huge Ilyushin planes.
  • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The state became involved in these disputes and this led, in the end, to a war which was catastrophic for the system as a whole, causing massive destruction of productive forces and human life.
  • Globalisation and Imperialism 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.It was in this period that areas of sub-Saharan Africa and the Pacific islands were incorporated into the world system.^ For 59 countries, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa and the countries of the former Eastern Bloc, GNP per capita declined from 1980-96.
  • Globalisation and the Level Playing Field, Reconciling the Geometry 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spectacle.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meanwhile, traditional North-South divides are being reinforced by growing inequalities within the developing world, with sub-Saharan Africa falling further and further behind.
  • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, prior to European contact, the Hawaiian Islands constituted a world-system, and, although the glocus of this system included the whole archipelago, that was only a small part of the world.
  • GLOBALIZATION: KEY CONCEPTS 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Meanwhile, the conquest of new parts of the globe, notably sub-Saharan Africa, by Europeans yielded valuable natural resources such as rubber, diamonds and coal and helped fuel trade and investment between the European imperial powers, their colonies, and the United States.^ Parallels between the failures of man-made systems, such as the economy, and of similarly complex natural ones offer fascinating food for thought.
  • Strategy - Globalization articles from McKinsey Quarterly 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.mckinseyquarterly.com [Source type: News]

^ In this new enlarged edition which includes ten new chapters and a new introduction-- the author reviews the causes and consequences of famine in Sub-Saharan Africa, the dramatic meltdown of financial markets, the demise of State social programs and the devastation resulting from corporate downsizing and trade liberalisation.

^ For 59 countries, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa and the countries of the former Eastern Bloc, GNP per capita declined from 1980-96.
  • Globalisation and the Level Playing Field, Reconciling the Geometry 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spectacle.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed] Said John Maynard Keynes,[23]
The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea, the various products of the whole earth, and reasonably expect their early delivery upon his doorstep. .Militarism and imperialism of racial and cultural rivalries were little more than the amusements of his daily newspaper.^ It has migrated to the other side of the planet, while the US builds little more than houses and weapons .

^ Huntington’s (1998) pessimistic view of a global future of cultural clashes may do more to inflate military budgets than to generate intellectual enrichment.
  • Culture And Economic Development:
    Modernisation To Globalisation
    1 February 2010 9:09 UTC theoryandscience.icaap.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The daily turnover of exchange transactions is more than 1 trillion dollars a day, of which only 15% corresponds to actual commodity trade.

What an extraordinary episode in the economic progress of man was that age which came to an end in August 1914.
.The first phase of "modern globalization" began to break down at the beginning of the 20th century, with the first world war.^ Some have defined the era of pre-World War I colonialism as an earlier period of globalizationsort of a globalization by force .
  • Globalization and maritime Power 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.ndu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But recognising these as major developments, inaugurating a new phase in the history of capitalism, just as the national concentration of capital did at the beginning of the century, is not the same thing as accepting the globalisation orthodoxy.

^ It took over two hundred years for this concept of the secular state to become the dominant political idea of modern politics, first in Europe and then slowly in other parts of the world.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

.The novelist VM Yeates criticised the financial forces of globalization as a factor in creating World War I.^ YaleGlobal's interview with Thomas L. Friedman, author of The World Is Flat , on "the flattening of the global playing field and the forces that are doing it" & the death of the anti-globalization movement (Apr.
  • Globalization & Its Critics: An Annotated List 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC newton.uor.edu [Source type: News]

^ A debate on globalisation at the crossroads considered three main threats to the world economy failed trade talks, financial regulation and global economic imbalances.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

^ Mr Putin said the world needed to create a new international financial architecture to replace an existing model that had become archaic, undemocratic and unwieldy....
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

[24] .The final death knell for this phase came during the gold standard crisis and Great Depression in the late 1920s and early 1930s.^ The failures of global finance have brought the world economy to its knees, threatening a re-run of the Great Depression of the 1930s.

^ After 11 September, banks showed that they had learnt something that they didn’t know during the Great Depression: that they had to act collaboratively to lower interest rates.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The fall in foreign trade in these years was accompanied by two breakdowns in the old international monetary system based on gold with the outbreak of war in 1914 and then again during the great slump of the early 1930s.

[citation needed]
.In the middle decades of the twentieth century globalization was largely driven by the global expansion of multinational corporations based in the United States and Europe, and worldwide exchange of new developments in science, technology and products, with most significant inventions of this time having their origins in the Western world according to Encyclopedia Britannica.^ Most obviously: what is new about globalisation?
  • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the World Economic Forum, the U.S. is currently ranked the second most competitive economy in the world and is also first in technology and innovation, technological readiness, company spending on research and technology, and the quality of its research institutions.

^ Despite massive state interventions in economies around the world, many corporate leaders and investors act as though globalization remains the dominant paradigm.
  • Strategy - Globalization articles from McKinsey Quarterly 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.mckinseyquarterly.com [Source type: News]

[25] .Worldwide export of western culture went through the new mass media: film, radio and television and recorded music.^ Location: University Library / PC 4711 L66X 2006 Discusses the assumption that globalization and mass media – television, radio and films - will have a homogenizing effect on Spanish which will result in a neutral language devoid of cultural personality, local identities and with a limited vocabulary.
  • Globalization in Latin America 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC library.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This has had profound effects on the nature of cultural production, the mass media, television, advertising, business, ways of doing politics, and the ways in which we relate as social beings.

^ Today, it seems that the agreement is already being implemented by instalments, through the back door of the IMF and bilateral agreements, (see T. Fotopoulos, Mass media, Culture, and Democracy, Democracy & Nature , Vol.
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Development and growth of international transport and telecommunication played a decisive role in modern globalization.^ But the ideology of `globalisation' has played a role.

^ The readings refer briefly to the IMF, the World Bank and the WTO. Each of these international organizations plays a significant role in global economics.

^ Greater international trade and investment is happening but within existing structures rather than there being a new global economic structure developed.
  • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In late 2000s, much of the industrialized world entered into a deep recession.^ During the inter-war years, the share of world output that entered into international trade declined; it did not recover until after 1950.
  • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the country merges into the world economy, best practice in China will become best practice globally, products developed in China will become global products, and industrial processes developed in China will become global processes.
  • Strategy - Globalization articles from McKinsey Quarterly 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.mckinseyquarterly.com [Source type: News]

^ There is, for example, much talk about financial services which also means that the MAI has basically been incorporated into the GATS. The GATS is, so to speak, the MAI for the whole world.
  • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

[26] .Some analysts say the world is going through a period of deglobalization after years of increasing economic integration.^ As a consequence, economic changes in one part of the world have an increasing impact elsewhere.
  • Martin Wolf, Why Globalization Works (I), international trade, free trade 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Roumeen Islam on the debate over degree & area of standardization of institutions with increasing trade integration (World Bank Working Paper, Nov.
  • Globalization & Its Critics: An Annotated List 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC newton.uor.edu [Source type: News]

^ It will take place every year in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, during the same period as the World Economic Forum, which happens in Davos, Switzerland, at the end of January.

[27][28] .Up to 45% of global wealth had been destroyed by the global financial crisis in little less than a year and a half.^ Now we have a global financial crisis as well.

^ David Suzuki, 1999) The 200 largest companies in the world employ less than one-third of one percent of the global workforce, but they control more than a quarter of the world's wealth.
  • Economics: Metaphysics Philosophy of Economics, Globalisation as Ecologyof Economics 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But in the endgame of the Asian financial crisis of 1997–98 , with stretched lenders and oil prices cut in half, this unimagined scenario became real.
  • Hoover Institution - Policy Review - The Optimistic Thought Experiment 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.hoover.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] .China has recently become the world’s largest exporter surpassing Germany.^ Prior to the 16 th century, the glocus of our planet's largest world-system was only hemispheric, but since them, it has become planetary.
  • GLOBALIZATION: KEY CONCEPTS 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If its annual growth rate of 10 percent a year can be sustained, China will become the world’s leading economic power in about 20 years.
  • Hoover Institution - Policy Review - The Optimistic Thought Experiment 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.hoover.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More recently, discussions of globalisation (culturally) describe a process by which the world is becoming increasingly interconnected and unified, subject to homogeneous and uniform processes of cultural unification.
  • Culture And Economic Development:
    Modernisation To Globalisation
    1 February 2010 9:09 UTC theoryandscience.icaap.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30]

Modern globalization

.Globalization, since World War II, is largely the result of planning by politicians to break down borders hampering trade to increase prosperity and interdependence thereby decreasing the chance of future war[citation needed].^ The proponents of Globalisation state that free trade across borders on a Level Playing Field is a necessary condition for success.
  • Globalisation and the Level Playing Field, Reconciling the Geometry 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spectacle.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anti-globalisation organisations claim that globalisation and increasing free international trade increase poverty, and widen the gap between rich and poor.
  • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think of globalisation as the increasing extent, intensity, velocity and impact of world-wide interconnectedness.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

.Their work led to the Bretton Woods conference, an agreement by the world's leading politicians to lay down the framework for international commerce and finance, and the founding of several international institutions intended to oversee the processes of globalization.^ The harmonization effort gained a significant boost with the approval of several new international agreements, particularly the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which established the World Trade Organization (WTO).

^ WW-II Bretton-Woods institutions like the World Bank (WB) the International Monetary Fond (IMF), and the World Trade Organization (WTO the continuation of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, GATT, abolished in 1994) (Perkins 2004).
  • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Globalization is a process - a "movement in the direction of greater integration, as both natural and manmade barriers to international economic exchange continue to fall."
  • Martin Wolf, Why Globalization Works (I), international trade, free trade 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.These institutions include the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank), and the International Monetary Fund.^ World Development Report 1997 (World Bank).

^ ZNet Article Rescued from a state of near-irrelevance by the world recession and an infusion of hundreds of billions of dollars (mostly from the U.S., Europe, and Japan), the International Monetary Fund (IMF)...

^ Particular mention is made of the period following the end of the Second World War, in which special attention was given to post-war reconstruction at a global level through the establishment of the Bretton Woods Institutions (the International Monetary Fund and World Bank), in an attempt to prevent the emergence of the socio-economic and political conditions that had resulted in the war in the first place – conditions characteristic of a capitalist crisis (the Great Depression of the 1930s).

.Globalization has been facilitated by advances in technology which have reduced the costs of trade, and trade negotiation rounds, originally under the auspices of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which led to a series of agreements to remove restrictions on free trade.^ In general terms, tariff escalation will be reduced under the Uruguay Round agreement.
  • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The harmonization effort gained a significant boost with the approval of several new international agreements, particularly the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which established the World Trade Organization (WTO).

^ The proponents of Globalisation state that free trade across borders on a Level Playing Field is a necessary condition for success.
  • Globalisation and the Level Playing Field, Reconciling the Geometry 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spectacle.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Since World War II, barriers to international trade have been considerably lowered through international agreements — GATT. Particular initiatives carried out as a result of GATT and the World Trade Organization (WTO), for which GATT is the foundation, have included:
.
  • Promotion of free trade:
    • elimination of tariffs; creation of free trade zones with small or no tariffs
    • Reduced transportation costs, especially resulting from development of containerization for ocean shipping.
    • Reduction or elimination of capital controls
    • Reduction, elimination, or harmonization of subsidies for local businesses
    • Creation of subsidies for global corporations
    • Harmonization of intellectual property laws across the majority of states, with more restrictions
    • Supranational recognition of intellectual property restrictions (e.g.^ Europe is not even a free trade zone.

      ^ We have moved from ‘no to globalisation’ to ‘no to corporate globalisation’.
      • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ The harmonization effort gained a significant boost with the approval of several new international agreements, particularly the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which established the World Trade Organization (WTO).

      patents granted by China would be recognized in the United States)
.Cultural globalization, driven by communication technology and the worldwide marketing of Western cultural industries, was understood at first as a process of homogenization, as the global domination of American culture at the expense of traditional diversity.^ Cultural globalization is not Americanization .

^ He rejects arguments that tie globalization to cultural imperialism or increased homogeneity.
  • Ben Casnocha: The Blog: Globalization 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC ben.casnocha.com [Source type: General]

^ The first priority was to establish a global network of leaders drawn from diverse constituencies.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, a contrasting trend soon became evident in the emergence of movements protesting against globalization and giving new momentum to the defense of local uniqueness, individuality, and identity, but largely without success.^ However, this is not an argument against globalisation but an argument against the type of globalisation going on.
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Abstract: This article discusses the meaning and significance of globalisation in relation to the main theoretical trends on the matter (which are compared and contrasted to the Inclusive Democracy approach), as well as with reference to the nature and potential of the present anti-globalisation movement.
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a start, however, we can begin by using familiar notions as a kind of scaffold on which to construct a new edifice that can more suitably represent globalization as a holistic process or system.
  • GLOBALIZATION: KEY CONCEPTS 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31]
.The Uruguay Round (1986 to 1994)[32] led to a treaty to create the WTO to mediate trade disputes and set up a uniform platform of trading.^ The harmonization effort gained a significant boost with the approval of several new international agreements, particularly the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which established the World Trade Organization (WTO).

^ The dirty secret about Doha is that even the launch of a new WTO round of negotiations is unlikely to do much to bring about genuinely global free trade.

^ They have helped, for instance, to stalemate the Doha round of negotiations of the World Trade Organization (WTO).

.Other bilateral and multilateral trade agreements, including sections of Europe's Maastricht Treaty and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have also been signed in pursuit of the goal of reducing tariffs and barriers to trade.^ Europe is not even a free trade zone.

^ The US, Canada and Mexico—the three members of the North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA)—also trade mostly with each other.

^ In the film, we hear their ‘leader’ (masked), Subcommandante Marcos, speak out against the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), adopted in 1994, to open up trade barriers between North America, Canada and Mexico in the interests of corporate capital.

World exports rose from 8.5% in 1970, to 16.2% of total gross world product in 2001.[33]

Measuring globalization

.Looking specifically at economic globalization, demonstrates that it can be measured in different ways.^ The portrait that emerges from a hard look at the way companies, people, and states interact is a world thats only beginning to realize the potential of true global integration.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

^ There are different kinds of globalisation in the same way as there are different kinds of pregnancy.
  • Globalisation and the Level Playing Field, Reconciling the Geometry 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spectacle.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do we just construct images of globalization, or do the phenomena really exist?  Ontological questions reflect differences in the way we try to understand the world.
  • GLOBALIZATION: KEY CONCEPTS 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These center around the four main economic flows that characterize globalization:
  • Goods and services, e.g., exports plus imports as a proportion of national income or per capita of population
  • Labor/people, e.g., net migration rates; inward or outward migration flows, weighted by population
  • Capital, e.g., inward or outward direct investment as a proportion of national income or per head of population
  • Technology, e.g., international research & development flows; proportion of populations (and rates of change thereof) using particular inventions (especially 'factor-neutral' technological advances such as the telephone, motorcar, broadband)
.As globalization is not only an economic phenomenon, a multivariate approach to measuring globalization is the recent index calculated by the Swiss think tank KOF. The index measures the three main dimensions of globalization: economic, social, and political.^ Features of globalisation (political, economic, cultural and social) .

^ There is, they say, economic or social, political or environmental globalisation.
  • Globalisation and the Level Playing Field, Reconciling the Geometry 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spectacle.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rather than teach under the disciplinary structure — such as economic globalization, political globalization, cultural globalization — we can explore all these dimensions within the context of each ‘P’.
  • Teaching Globalization by Muqtedar Khan - The Globalist 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.theglobalist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition to three indices measuring these dimensions, an overall index of globalization and sub-indices referring to actual economic flows, economic restrictions, data on personal contact, data on information flows, and data on cultural proximity is calculated.^ In addition to three indices measuring these dimensions, an overall index of globalization and sub-indices referring to actual economic flows, economic restrictions, data on personal contact, data on information flows, and data on cultural proximity is calculated.
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are the three Ps of globalization.
  • Teaching Globalization by Muqtedar Khan - The Globalist 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.theglobalist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is inevitable that Economic globalization will bring with it a cultural globalization.

Data is available on a yearly basis for 122 countries, as detailed in Dreher, Gaston and Martens (2008).[34] .According to the index, the world's most globalized country is Belgium, followed by Austria, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands.^ Concentrations have reshaped capital not only in the United States, but also in France, the United Kingdom, Germany and Japan - that is in the five countries that dominated the world economy at the start of the century and where the headquarters of nearly 90% of the world's 200 biggest companies are currently located.
  • Economics: Metaphysics Philosophy of Economics, Globalisation as Ecologyof Economics 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Inequality in wealth mirrors a deep inequity in the rules governing world trade and finance, which have been structured around the interests of the most developed countries.
  • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The poor in developing countries are often better off when their governments ignore the policy advice of the International Monetary Fund and World Bank, according to a study by a World Bank economist.

.The least globalized countries according to the KOF-index are Haiti, Myanmar, the Central African Republic and Burundi.^ Annual "index that measures a countrys global links, from foreign direct investment to international travel, telephone traffic, and Internet servers" .
  • Globalization & Its Critics: An Annotated List 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC newton.uor.edu [Source type: News]

^ Central African Republic .
  • Globalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC uk.oneworld.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Teaching Globalization by Muqtedar Khan - The Globalist 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.theglobalist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • globalization - Computerworld Blogs 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC blogs.computerworld.com [Source type: General]
  • The World Gets Smaller Still 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: News]
  • Globalization update: Indian IT firm reshapes Tucson's tax system 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: News]

[35]
.A.T. Kearney and Foreign Policy Magazine jointly publish another Globalization Index.^ Franklin Foer's essay on the limits of globalization as revealed by the most global of sports ( Foreign Policy , Jan./Feb.
  • Globalization & Its Critics: An Annotated List 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC newton.uor.edu [Source type: News]

^ Foreign Policy In Focus Policy Report by Thomas I. Palley, Director of the Open Society Institute's Globalization Reform Project (2003) .
  • Globalization & Its Critics: An Annotated List 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC newton.uor.edu [Source type: News]

^ Trackbacks (0) Tuesday, March 6, 2007 "Feh" to globalization That's the conclusion of Pankaj Ghemawat in this Foreign Policy essay .
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

.According to the 2006 index, Singapore, Ireland, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Canada and Denmark are the most globalized, while Indonesia, India and Iran are the least globalized among countries listed.^ According to analysis by ITIF, the most innovative nations are Singapore, Sweden, Luxembourg, Denmark and South Korea, with America lagging in sixth place.
  • The Financial Services Club's Blog: Globalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC thefinanser.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ India, China, Brazil, and Indonesia are all quite distant from an OECD country -- especially for inland populations.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

^ In many countries, including Indonesia, small farmers who constitute the majority of the world's population, are being ravaged by the process of globalisation.

Effects of globalization

Globalization has various aspects which affect the world in several different ways such as:
.
  • Industrial - emergence of worldwide production markets and broader access to a range of foreign products for consumers and companies.^ They want better access to export markets and the increased foreign investment that flows when investors know that domestic laws are bound by international agreement.

    ^ By that I mean allowing smaller and poorer farmers in developing countries access to world markets for produce and products that they can grow easily and at a fair trade price.

    ^ Increasingly, companies are re-ordering their production on a global basis, establishing a presence in fast-growing markets, and shifting production from high-wage to low-wage economies.
    • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Particularly movement of material and goods between and within national boundaries.^ UPDATE: Thanks to Mitchell Young for pointing to the Baidu commercial on YouTube : The ad is a good example of the difference between economic nationalism and economic protectionism.
    • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Is this type of action incompatible with global solidarity or does it rather illustrate the tension between inter-nationalism and the new global solidarity movements?
    • GLOBALISATION, LABOUR AND THE POLANYI PROBLEM 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.theglobalsite.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This is happening through, for example, the mobility of capital across national boundaries, the role of multinational corporations and interdependency between different nations economies.
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .International trade in manufactured goods increased more than 100 times (from $95 billion to $12 trillion) in the 50 years since 1955.[36] China’s trade with Africa rose sevenfold during 2000-07 alone.^ International trade is equivalent to an increase in productivity.
    • Martin Wolf, Why Globalization Works (I), international trade, free trade 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Consider the huge increase in international trade over the past 20 years.

    ^ With more than 50 tables.
    • Globalization in Latin America 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC library.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

    [37][38]
  • .
  • Financial - emergence of worldwide financial markets and better access to external financing for borrowers.^ They want better access to export markets and the increased foreign investment that flows when investors know that domestic laws are bound by international agreement.

    ^ Your assertion that globalisation is primarily about finance, not trade and investment, is incorrect: the volume of transactions on financial markets bears little relation to their importance.

    .By the early part of the 21st century more than $1.5 trillion in national currencies were traded daily to support the expanded levels of trade and investment.^ Investment globalization was higher (or as high) in 1913 as it was in 1991, while trade globalization was considerably lower in 1913 than it was in 1992.
    • JWSR v5n2-Chase-Dunn 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC jwsr.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The growth rate in international trade in recent years has only been at about the same pace as a century ago, while governments intervene much more to influence the flow of goods and capital than they did then.

    ^ The movement of western economic and political policies and principles, during the 18th and 19th centuries might have influenced parts of the world but during the last quarter of the 20th century the model appears to be more than a little jaded.

    [39] .As these worldwide structures grew more quickly than any transnational regulatory regime, the instability of the global financial infrastructure dramatically increased, as evidenced by the Financial crisis of 2007–2010.^ Now we have a global financial crisis as well.

    ^ Not only do more countries trade with each other more than ever before, and trading a bigger proportion of their GDP, but they trade much more quickly.
    • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ These farms, which average over 2,200 hectares in size, produce more than 85 per cent of the country's marketed output.
    • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [40]
As of 2005–2007, the Port of Shanghai holds the title as the World's busiest port.[41][42][43]
.
  • Economic - realization of a global common market, based on the freedom of exchange of goods and capital.^ The Russian president said there was increasing evidence that existing organisations were not doing a good job regulating global economic relations.
    • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

    ^ This is a politics that works more with a reality of divisions, antagonism and state alliances than the global commonality and agreement required for global cosmopolitan democracy.
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Globalization is a process - a "movement in the direction of greater integration, as both natural and manmade barriers to international economic exchange continue to fall."
    • Martin Wolf, Why Globalization Works (I), international trade, free trade 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    [44] .The interconnectedness of these markets, however meant that an economic collapse in any one given country could not be contained.^ These countries form a market of 200 million people, and account for around one half of Latin America's GDP. The potential for the creation of a dynamic integrated trade space is clearly enormous.
    • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ However, just ten countries received over three quarters of all transfers, with China alone accounting for more than one third.
    • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ However, this does not deny the fact that the market economy of today is very different from that of the last century, even the one prevailing just fifty years ago.
    • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [citation needed]
.
Almost all notable worldwide IT companies are now present in India.
^ Now Nestle is a very powerful, very rich multinational corporation, with companies and factories all over the world.
  • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Four Indians were among the world's top 10 richest in 2008, worth a combined $160 billion.^ Yet over the same period, world output has also nearly tripled, from $10,700 billion to $30,900 billion.

^ Nevertheless, the banks’ interests are probably something to do with the fact that there’s $375 billion worth of remittances sent around the world every year.
  • The Financial Services Club's Blog: Globalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC thefinanser.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Theoretically, the share should be worth $ 10 , but in every world where investors survive, it will be worth $ 100 .
  • Hoover Institution - Policy Review - The Optimistic Thought Experiment 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.hoover.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45] .In 2007, China had 415,000 millionaires and India 123,000.[46]
  • Health Policy - On the global scale, health becomes a commodity.^ The following text points to this distinction.  Koc : [As a ] "process" of expansion of commodity relations on a global scale, globalization is not new but only intensified in recent decades.
    • GLOBALIZATION: KEY CONCEPTS 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Trackbacks (0) Tuesday, March 6, 2007 "Feh" to globalization That's the conclusion of Pankaj Ghemawat in this Foreign Policy essay .
    • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

    ^ About 800,000 passenger vehicles are expected to be manufactured this year in Alabama, all for global brands; cars have become to the state's economy what cotton once was.
    • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

    .In developing nations under the demands of Structural Adjustment Programs, health systems are fragmented and privatized.^ Such money is only made available, however, after the recipients have agreed to policy reforms in their economies-- in short, to implement a structural adjustment program.

    ^ Structural adjustment and women's employment in the developing world .

    ^ To facilitate the mobility of capital across national boundaries, the developing countries were forced to undertake structural adjustments of their economies.

    .Global health policy makers have shifted during the 1990s from United Nations players to financial institutions.^ History shows again and again that policy makers have been surprised by financial crises when they arise,” he says.
    • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

    ^ National governments have been unable to respond to the power of global financial markets, which are now able to mount a direct challenge to the monetary sovereignty of nations.
    • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (Stiglitz is referring to the huge sums many of the world's poorest nations owe to global financial institutions like the IMF and to other nations, which forces poor nations to devote much of their income to debt payment.

    .The result of this power transition is an increase in privatization in the health sector.^ The result of these developments is an oligarchy of private capital the enormous power of which cannot be effectively checked even by a democratically organised political society.
    • Economics: Metaphysics Philosophy of Economics, Globalisation as Ecologyof Economics 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ What supplementary mechanisms could be developed to significantly increase the resources available for development, such as people-to-people giving, public-private sector partnerships, etc.?
    • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Foundation has become a leading force in encouraging private-sector support in health care and education for poor children throughout Brazil.
    • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This privatization fragments health policy by crowding it with many players with many private interests.^ States are not rudderless boats driven by powerful currents of private capital flows, and they retain the power to shape policies in the public interest.
    • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Many of the jobs in the state health sector, education sector, or social service sector have also been converted from full-time to part-time mostly because they have been subcontracted to private agencies.

    .These fragmented policy players emphasize partnerships, specific interventions to combat specific problems (as opposed to comprehensive health strategies).^ Health – the replacement of comprehensive primary health care with selective primary health care; introduction of notions of ‘partnership’ in which patients become ‘clients’ and health professionals become ‘service providers’.

    ^ This is, of course, not surprising given that these strategies are not part of a comprehensive political program for systemic change.
    • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the main, resistance has come from outside of the Alliance to specific effects of neoliberal policies, in the delivery of basic services, in land reform, and in health.

    .Influenced by global trade and global economy, health policy is directed by technological advances and innovative medical trade.^ A debate on globalisation at the crossroads considered three main threats to the world economy failed trade talks, financial regulation and global economic imbalances.
    • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Negotiations about trade barriers appear to be going in one direction, while negotiations about global imbalances seem to be going forward.
    • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

    ^ The abuse of child labor, in contrast, plays a pissant role at best in the global economy , and has no direct effect on the United States.
    • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

    .Global priorities, in this situation, are sometimes at odds with national priorities where increased health infrastructure and basic primary care are of more value to the public than privatized care for the wealthy.^ Obama has said energy is higher priority than health care.
    • Ben Casnocha: The Blog: Globalization 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC ben.casnocha.com [Source type: General]

    ^ However, globalization provides the ability for companies, mostly in developed western nations but mainly American, to pursue a policy of expansion and more especially into developing markets where the demand for manufactured goods, and sometimes services, is likely to increase as infrastructures improve and economies grow.

    ^ This is rather than, or in addition to, more global universal structures, in which common agreement may not be possible and which may be hijacked by more powerful actors.
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [47]
    .
    Britain is a country of rich diversity.
    ^ Dear Ann, Of course, the City contributes to Britain's prosperity, but it is not the main reason our country is rich.

    .As of 2008, 40% of London's total population was from an ethnic minority group.^ In four years, Blackstone's investments in Europe have jumped from about 10% to 30% to 40% of its total business, and the firm has opened offices in London, Hamburg and Paris.
    • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

    .The latest official figures show that in 2008, 590,000 people arrived to live in the UK whilst 427,000 left, meaning that net inward migration was 163,000.[48]
  • Political - some use "globalization" to mean the creation of a world government which regulates the relationships among governments and guarantees the rights arising from social and economic globalization.^ Governments used the money to oppress the people.
    • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ World's people living in " survival " mode .

    ^ Features of globalisation (political, economic, cultural and social) .

    [49] .Politically, the United States has enjoyed a position of power among the world powers, in part because of its strong and wealthy economy.^ Concentrations have reshaped capital not only in the United States, but also in France, the United Kingdom, Germany and Japan - that is in the five countries that dominated the world economy at the start of the century and where the headquarters of nearly 90% of the world's 200 biggest companies are currently located.
    • Economics: Metaphysics Philosophy of Economics, Globalisation as Ecologyof Economics 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This united "universe" and this one empire contributed positively to the spreading of the Good News of Christianity in the entire world.

    ^ The political systems of the West and the nation state as guarantees for and expression of the international division of labor in the modern world system are increasingly dissolving (Sassen 2000).
    • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

    .With the influence of globalization and with the help of The United States’ own economy, the People's Republic of China has experienced some tremendous growth within the past decade.^ China's strong economic growth has made a tremendous contribution to the global economy.
    • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Another fear is that this is a conscious policy of the Mexican government in order to wield influence in the United States.
    • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

    ^ "State socialism and the industrial divide in the world-economy: a comparative essay on the rebellions in Poland and China."
    • JWSR v5n2-Chase-Dunn 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC jwsr.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .If China continues to grow at the rate projected by the trends, then it is very likely that in the next twenty years, there will be a major reallocation of power among the world leaders.^ Howard W. French on interpenetration of the world's emerging economic powers as the next wave in globalization, as exemplified by "huge new investments by India and China in each other's booming economies" ( International Herald Tribune , Nov.
    • Globalization & Its Critics: An Annotated List 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC newton.uor.edu [Source type: News]

    ^ In the following years, and even decades: China, India, Russia and Brazil – not to mention the other medium-sized ‘powers’ -- will continue to industrialise at neck-breaking speed.

    ^ For a good twenty years now we have been told that there is no alternative to neoliberal globalization/the globalization of neoliberalism, and that, in fact, no such alternative is needed either.
    • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

    .China will have enough wealth, industry, and technology to rival the United States for the position of leading world power.^ This united "universe" and this one empire contributed positively to the spreading of the Good News of Christianity in the entire world.

    ^ As technologies have spread through transnational corporations and new communications mediums such as the World Wide Web, states and other potential adversaries have found it easier to pursue asymmetric military strategies to counter U.S. and western military power.
    • Globalization and maritime Power 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.ndu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "State socialism and the industrial divide in the world-economy: a comparative essay on the rebellions in Poland and China."
    • JWSR v5n2-Chase-Dunn 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC jwsr.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [50]
  • .
  • Informational - increase in information flows between geographically remote locations.^ Paul Hirst – What most people mean by ‘globalisation’ is increasing flows of trade and investment between parts of the world and between countries.
    • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Well, firstly, globalization seems to define as the increasing movement of money, services, information and information technology, goods and often people not just between countries but also between continents.

    .Arguably this is a technological change with the advent of fibre optic communications, satellites, and increased availability of telephone and Internet.
  • Language - the most popular language is Mandarin (845 million speakers) followed by Spanish (329 million speakers) and English (328 million speakers).^ And then to satellites, space vehicles, undersea fiber-optic cables and bandwidth, PCs, cell phones and the internet.

    ^ Of particular concern to naval forces is the increasing availability of commercial satellite imagery, as well as satellite communications and navigation systems.
    • Globalization and maritime Power 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.ndu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ To sum up, the changes in the third world agriculture have resulted in increasing the workload on women without adequately increasing the income available, or their control over resources.

    [51] .
    • About 35% of the world's mail, telexes, and cables are in English.
    • Approximately 40% of the world's radio programs are in English.
    • About 50% of all Internet traffic uses English.^ It is not a slogan, but a frequency on which all those concerned about a ‘world that works’ can meet.
      • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Their revenues as a percent of GDP have increased in the 20th century - from about 10% at the beginning of the century to about 40% and sometimes as high as 50%.
      • Martin Wolf, Why Globalization Works (I), international trade, free trade 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Despite my understanding that the world today is becoming a tiny global village (thanks to the Internet), I feel that all the talk about globalisation is just a plot by the G8 countries to have a great edge in terms of trade over and above the "littler" countries.
      • BBC News | TALKING POINT | Globalisation: Capitalist evil or a way out of poverty? 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

      [52]
    • .
  • Competition - Survival in the new global business market calls for improved productivity and increased competition.^ Increasingly, companies are re-ordering their production on a global basis, establishing a presence in fast-growing markets, and shifting production from high-wage to low-wage economies.
    • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Freeing trade increases economic growth, because new technologies, such as the internet, spread faster and foreign competition spurs domestic companies to become more productive.

    ^ For sure, if all the new customers are ignorant, a wider market may drive down the quality of cultural products: Think of tourist souvenirs.

    .Due to the market becoming worldwide, companies in various industries have to upgrade their products and use technology skillfully in order to face increased competition.^ Private capital tends to become concentrated in few hands, partly because of competition among the capitalists, and partly because technological development and the increasing division of labor encourage the formation of larger units of production at the expense of the smaller ones.
    • Economics: Metaphysics Philosophy of Economics, Globalisation as Ecologyof Economics 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Central to these policies were coherent industrial-development strategies, in which import controls and investment regulation were geared towards raising productivity, expanding employment, and competitiveness in world markets.
    • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ But this move, which was to become universal among the advanced countries by the early 1990s, was also consistent with the advance of information technology and the general move towards reliance on market forces.
    • Martin Wolf, Why Globalization Works (I), international trade, free trade 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    [53]
  • .
  • Ecological - the advent of global environmental challenges that might be solved with international cooperation, such as climate change, cross-boundary water and air pollution, over-fishing of the ocean, and the spread of invasive species.^ What is more, the very international integration on which the globalisation consensus places such a stress increases the bargaining power of particular groups of workers.

    ^ Although -- as with any change -- there can be downsides to cultural globalization, this cross-fertilization is overwhelmingly a force for good.

    ^ The global nature of institutions such as finance, problems such as the environment, drugs and crime and developments in international communications and transport lead to more global political forms.
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Since many factories are built in developing countries with less environmental regulation, globalism and free trade may increase pollution.^ How can the globalisation of trade help developing countries?
    • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The infrastructure is the problem in many developing countries, not globalisation.
    • BBC News | TALKING POINT | Globalisation: Capitalist evil or a way out of poverty? 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sweat shops in Mexico: There are a lot of sweatshop factories in Mexico, along the border with the US. After the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was signed by the US, Canada and Mexico - which allows unrestricted trade and investment between these countries - the number of sweatshops increased.
    • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    On the other hand, economic development historically required a "dirty" industrial stage, and it is argued that developing countries should not, via regulation, be prohibited from increasing their standard of living.
.
The construction of continental hotels is a major consequence of globalization process in affiliation with tourism and travel industry, Dariush Grand Hotel, Kish, Iran
  • Cultural - growth of cross-cultural contacts; advent of new categories of consciousness and identities which embodies cultural diffusion, the desire to increase one's standard of living and enjoy foreign products and ideas, adopt new technology and practices, and participate in a "world culture". Some bemoan the resulting consumerism and loss of languages.^ T he idea of globalization is not new.
    • Hoover Institution - Policy Review - The Optimistic Thought Experiment 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.hoover.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Globalisation is not a strategy, nor is it a practice or a process.
    • Globalisation and the Level Playing Field, Reconciling the Geometry 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spectacle.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ What some would call a global culture, a global village, one world.

    Also see Transformation of culture. .
    • Spreading of multiculturalism, and better individual access to cultural diversity (e.g.^ Cross-cultural exchange can spread greater diversity as well as greater similarity: more gourmet restaurants as well as more McDonald's.

      through the export of Hollywood and, to a lesser extent, Bollywood movies). .Some consider such "imported" culture a danger, since it may supplant the local culture, causing reduction in diversity or even assimilation.^ There are some habits we may call "stupid" in economic terms but have a precious "humane" value, such as generosity and forgiveness, and the like.

      ^ But if it is the case that what they say actually lends more credence to the sceptic case then such global politics may only offer some hope.
      • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ To respond to this question, my impression is that in addition to the growing use of a global language, we will also see increased interest in the preservation of local languages and even the standardization of dialects (such as Creoles or "Ebonics"), as a glocalizing response to globalization -- emergent diversity will augment residual diversity in language as in many other cultural forms.
      • GLOBALIZATION: KEY CONCEPTS 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .Others consider multiculturalism to promote peace and understanding between peoples.^ Even when unilateral, free trade policies "promote prosperity and peaceful relations with other countries."
      • Martin Wolf, Why Globalization Works (I), international trade, free trade 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

      .A third position gaining popularity is the notion that multiculturalism to a new form of monoculture in which no distinctions exist and everyone just shift between various lifestyles in terms of music, cloth and other aspects once more firmly attached to a single culture.^ As a start, however, we can begin by using familiar notions as a kind of scaffold on which to construct a new edifice that can more suitably represent globalization as a holistic process or system.
      • GLOBALIZATION: KEY CONCEPTS 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Examples – hip-hop; ‘world music’; fusion food; African artefacts in clothing on New York fashion ramps.

      ^ However, we need to be clear about these differences, how they can actually reinforce and test each other, and for that reason we also need terms that clearly distinguish between them.
      • GLOBALIZATION: KEY CONCEPTS 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .Thus not mere cultural assimilation as mentioned above but the obliteration of culture as we know it today.^ "Only thus do we become capable of that genuine dialogue of cultures and religions so urgently needed today."
      • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

      [54][55]
    • Greater international travel and tourism. .WHO estimates that up to 500,000 people are on planes at any one time.^ The World Social Forums gathered up to 100.000 people and more from all over the world under the motto: Another world is possible!
      • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

      ^ This was a plastic tent city on a hilltop that could house up to 50,000 residents or 12,500 families.
      • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ China, home to one in five of the world's people, is catching up with rich countries.

      .February 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed][56] In 2008, there were over 922 million international tourist arrivals, with a growth of 1.9% as compared to 2007.[57]
    • Greater immigration,[58] including illegal immigration.^ Greater international trade and investment is happening but within existing structures rather than there being a new global economic structure developed.
      • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Alongside this there was an enormous growth of international finance, since the financial system was based on the unrestricted flow of gold from country to country.

      ^ But there is another narrative which has been growing side by side with it: the growth of international law, in response to the Holocaust and the Second World War.
      • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

      [59] .The IOM estimates there are more than 200 million migrants around the world today.^ It has been estimated that there are more than 100 million women missing from this planet.

      ^ The World Bank estimates that reform of the international trade rules could take 300 million people out of poverty.

      ^ How many more than 30 million unemployed can it handle?
      • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

      [60] .Newly available data show that remittance flows to developing countries reached $328 billion in 2008.[61]
    • Spread of local consumer products (e.g., food) to other countries (often adapted to their culture).
    • Worldwide fads and pop culture such as Pokémon, Sudoku, Numa Numa, Origami, Idol series, YouTube, Orkut, Facebook, and MySpace.^ The general proposition taken by Rostow, and others, was that in order to produce and consume like the wealthy, one had to change “traditional” cultural attributes and proceed in orderly fashion to achieve a “take-off” into sustained development.
      • Culture And Economic Development:
        Modernisation To Globalisation
        1 February 2010 9:09 UTC theoryandscience.icaap.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Explain: Often when businesses want to trade in other countries, the governments of the countries ask the businesses to pay taxes, or to obtain import or export licenses.
      • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ It is also questionable whether expenditure on food imports constitutes the most productive use of one of the scarcest resources of low-income countries namely, their foreign exchange.
      • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .Accessible to those who have Internet or Television, leaving out a substantial segment of the Earth's population.
    • Worldwide sporting events such as FIFA World Cup and the Olympic Games.
    • Incorporation of multinational corporations in to new media.^ Such corporations that often get mentioned include Coca-Cola and McDonalds, or media multinationals such as News Corporation that have stakes in many forms of media, from newspapers to book publishing, the internet and TV, and across different areas of the globe (Thompson 1995; McChesney 1999).
      • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ I do not believe the warnings of those who predict a massive disruption of civilization by hordes of sociopaths waging "cyberwar"  9 But I do think that the new communications technologies provide new opportunities for the less powerful to organize themselves to respond should global capitalism run them over or leave them out.
      • JWSR v5n2-Chase-Dunn 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC jwsr.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ So powerful has this consensus about `globalisation' become that those who still want to challenge the logic of the world system are often treated as throwbacks to the past.

      .As the sponsors of the All-Blacks rugby team, Adidas had created a parallel website with a downloadable interactive rugby game for its fans to play and compete.^ That way all foreign producers compete on a level playing field.

      [62]
    • .
  • Social - development of the system of non-governmental organisations as main agents of global public policy, including humanitarian aid and developmental efforts.^ Systemic and non-systemic approaches to globalisation .
    • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ While they are still legally sovereign, nation-states powers, functions and authority are being reconstituted by international governance and law, by global ecological, transportation and communications developments and non-territorial organisations such as multinational corporations (MNCs) and transnational social movements.
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In this case, globalisation is a reversible development, even within the system of the market economy.
    • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [63]
  • .
  • Technical
  • Legal/Ethical
  • Religious
    • The spread and increased interrelations of various religious groups, ideas, and practices and their ideas of the meanings and values of particular spaces.^ International trade agreements inhibit such mercantilist tendencies.
      • Martin Wolf, Why Globalization Works (I), international trade, free trade 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Economic globalization has been accelerated by what information technology has done to the movement of money.
      • JWSR v5n2-Chase-Dunn 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC jwsr.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ What the world needs is MORE globalisation, more international trade.
      • BBC News | TALKING POINT | Globalisation: Capitalist evil or a way out of poverty? 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

      [64]

Cultural effects

Globalization has had an impact on different cultures around the world.
Japanese McDonald's fast food as an evidence of corporate globalization and the integration of the same into different cultures.
."Culture" is defined as patterns of human activity and the symbols that give these activities significance.^ Given his significant commitments to these pursuits and his desire to spend more time with his family in the coming years, he agreed to examine closely the planned activities of the Commission.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Culture is what people eat, how they dress, beliefs they hold, and activities they practice.^ People might not tell the truth about how much they enjoy their cheap Chinese goods.
  • Ben Casnocha: The Blog: Globalization 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC ben.casnocha.com [Source type: General]

^ Comparative Religion is a discipline that supports research on how metaphysical beliefs and related practices affect and are affected by globalization.
  • GLOBALIZATION: KEY CONCEPTS 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is an obvious Eurocentric position, which holds that because of the exceptional characteristics of European culture and rationality, the people were able to transcend their limitations and extend their influence across the world.
  • Culture And Economic Development:
    Modernisation To Globalisation
    1 February 2010 9:09 UTC theoryandscience.icaap.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Globalization has joined different cultures and made it into something different.^ The upshot of all this change is that national cultures are fragmenting into a kaleidoscope of different ones.

^ Third, globalisation is seen as something heterogeneous with varying effects in different forms and locations rather than something which is homogeneous and general.
  • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also argues that different places and people in Africa contribute to the way in which ‘the global’ is being made.

As Erla Zwingle, from the National Geographic article titled “Globalization” states, “When cultures receive outside influences, they ignore some and adopt others, and then almost immediately start to transform them.”[65]
.One classic culture aspect is food.^ For instance, aspects of national culture such as media, film, religion, food, fashion and music are so infused with inputs from international sources that national culture is no longer separate from the international.
  • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Someone in America can be eating Japanese noodles for lunch while someone in Sydney, Australia is eating classic Italian meatballs. India is known for its curry and exotic spices. France is known for its cheeses. America is known for its burgers and fries. .McDonalds is an American company which is now a global enterprise with 31,000 locations worldwide.^ This should alleviate some of the concern expressed by those fearful of global “Americanisation” “even “McDonaldisation” of the world, mentioned in the introduction.
  • Culture And Economic Development:
    Modernisation To Globalisation
    1 February 2010 9:09 UTC theoryandscience.icaap.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nonetheless, the process of globalization is allowing some major multi-national companies, mostly American, to grow to the extent that their financial clout is now bigger than many small and underdeveloped countries and this allows them to exert undue influence.

^ The Globalist News about Latin American economies, cultures and politics, and how they influence the global community from a global media and education company that solely covers globalization.
  • Globalization in Latin America 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC library.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This company is just one example of food causing cultural influence on the global scale.^ The question is, are global companies and globalization a cause for good or not?

^ One example is the clothes company Levi.
  • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perhaps some examples will clarify this point: the INTERNET is clearly a technoglobalizing cause of globalization, but its widespread use is also a technoglobating consequence.
  • GLOBALIZATION: KEY CONCEPTS 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another common practice brought about by globalization is the usage of Chinese symbol in tattoos.^ Globalization has brought about huge reductions in the number of people in extreme poverty.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

^ This brings us to another set of writings about globalisation that speak to this understanding of representation, that is, that critique globalisation from the understanding that it constitutes a particular discourse about the world.

^ The UN's Global Compact, for instance, talks about spreading "good practices" based on "universal principles".

.These tattoos are popular with today’s youth despite the lack of social acceptance of tattoos in China.^ These zones were shaped by religious traditions that are still powerful today, despite the forces of modernisation.
  • Culture And Economic Development:
    Modernisation To Globalisation
    1 February 2010 9:09 UTC theoryandscience.icaap.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66] .Also, there is a lack of comprehension in the meaning of Chinese characters that people get,[67] making this an example of cultural appropriation.^ For example, the peak in oil production has just been passed meaning we are beyond exploiting 50% of all there is.
  • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ There is, for example, much talk about financial services which also means that the MAI has basically been incorporated into the GATS. The GATS is, so to speak, the MAI for the whole world.
  • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The Chinese financial system is of unclear quality, commercial practices in the country lack transparency, and so much of what goes on there is “subprime,” so to speak.

.The internet breaks down cultural boundaries across the world by enabling easy, near-instantaneous communication between people anywhere in a variety of digital forms and media.^ This could begin to break down the distinctions between "the state" and "the people."
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

^ Democracy for the new millennium must allow citizens to gain access to, and render accountable, the social, economic and political processes which cut across and transform their traditional community boundaries in the larger world.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The world-systems perspective provides a view of the long-term interaction between the expansion and deepening of capitalism and the efforts of people to protect themselves from exploitation and domination.
  • JWSR v5n2-Chase-Dunn 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC jwsr.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Internet is associated with the process of cultural globalization because it allows interaction and communication between people with very different lifestyles and from very different cultures.^ The Internet is a very effective model for Globalisation.
  • Globalisation and the Level Playing Field, Reconciling the Geometry 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spectacle.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this way globalisation is not something that acts on something called Africa, but global processes and relations are to be understood as being the product of complex interactions between ‘the local’ and ‘the global’, with different communities and individuals in Africa contributing towards the shaping of these global processes and being shaped in turn by them.

^ They say that their book focuses on economics but that they feel if there are doubts about the globalisation of the world economy then there have to be doubts also about the globalisation of culture, because the latter is strongly connected to the former.
  • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Photo sharing websites allow interaction even where language would otherwise be a barrier.^ Language is often at the heart of national culture: The French would scarcely be French if they spoke English (although Belgian Walloons are not French even though they speak it).

^ This would remain true, Wolf asserts, even if all "policy barriers to movement" were removed.
  • Martin Wolf, Why Globalization Works (I), international trade, free trade 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even if all trade barriers were abolished, many services would still not be traded.

Negative effects

.Globalization has been one of the most hotly debated topics in international economics over the past few years.^ In perhaps the most comprehensive study to date, Scorecard on Globalization 1980-2000, Mark Weisbrot, Dean Baker and other researchers at the Center for Economic and Policy Research documented that key measures of progress have declined globally in the past twenty years .

^ Globalization is a process - a "movement in the direction of greater integration, as both natural and manmade barriers to international economic exchange continue to fall."
  • Martin Wolf, Why Globalization Works (I), international trade, free trade 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A debate on globalisation at the crossroads considered three main threats to the world economy failed trade talks, financial regulation and global economic imbalances.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

.Globalization has also generated significant international opposition over concerns that it has increased inequality and environmental degradation.^ What is more, the very international integration on which the globalisation consensus places such a stress increases the bargaining power of particular groups of workers.

^ Anti-globalisation organisations claim that globalisation and increasing free international trade increase poverty, and widen the gap between rich and poor.
  • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In general, it refers to a set of political and economic principles that correspond with that period of increasing global interconnectedness that has been called globalisation.

[68] .In the Midwestern United States, globalization has eaten away at its competitive edge in industry and agriculture, lowering the quality of life in locations that have not adapted to the change.^ In fact, as many observers of American life have long argued, the United States seems to be a deviant case (Lipset, 1990; 1996).
  • Culture And Economic Development:
    Modernisation To Globalisation
    1 February 2010 9:09 UTC theoryandscience.icaap.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women who come to work in these units accept wages much lower than the male industrial work force in the lowest rung.

^ Political globalisation refers to the withering away of the nation-state (at least as far as economic sovereignty is concerned).
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[69]

Effect on disease

.Globalization, the flow of information, goods, capital and people across political and geographic boundaries, has also helped to spread some of the deadliest infectious diseases known to humans.^ Wolf cites Brink Lindsay, "Against the Dead Hand," where it is noted that globalization involves (1) the spread of market-oriented economic policies that (2) encourage the reduction of government-imposed barriers to international flows of goods, services, and capital, that (3) increasingly integrate markets across political boundaries.
  • Martin Wolf, Why Globalization Works (I), international trade, free trade 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Capital has flowed more freely but states have been stricter on controlling immigration, ie people movements.
  • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The enormous computing and political power needed to control networked information flows is a measure of the power of the structure and the process.
  • Globalisation and the Level Playing Field, Reconciling the Geometry 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spectacle.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[70] .Starting in Asia, the Black Death killed at least one-third of Europe's population in the 14th century.^ The SCAs have been occurring in the Europe-centered world-system since at least the fourteenth century.
  • JWSR v5n2-Chase-Dunn 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC jwsr.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On a more self-interested level, the textile mills of Lancashire depended on foreign markets to absorb over one third of their output by the end of the nineteenth century.
  • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For imports from Asia, the average tariff reduction is about one third, compared with 20-25 per cent for other developing regions.
  • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[71] .Modern modes of transportation allow more people and products to travel around the world at a faster pace, they also open the airways to the transcontinental movement of infectious disease vectors.^ Hence the modern world-system has remained multicentric in the core, and this is due mainly to the shift toward a form of accumulation based more on the production and profitable sale of commodities - capitalism.
  • JWSR v5n2-Chase-Dunn 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC jwsr.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than one billion young people in the developing world are now living in conditions of severe deprivation, according to a report for the Unicef .

^ By that I mean allowing smaller and poorer farmers in developing countries access to world markets for produce and products that they can grow easily and at a fair trade price.

[72] One example of this occurring is AIDS/HIV.[73] .Approximately 1.1 million persons are living with HIV/AIDS in the United States,[74] and AIDS remains the leading cause of death among African American women between ages 25 and 34.[75] Due to immigration, approximately 500,000 people in the United States are believed to be infected with Chagas disease.^ The money he donated probably helped to buy drugs that will help prolong the lives of many, until science can find a vaccine to save the lives of the millions suffering from the disease.
  • BBC News | TALKING POINT | Globalisation: Capitalist evil or a way out of poverty? 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Capital has flowed more freely but states have been stricter on controlling immigration, ie people movements.
  • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the age of globalization and outsourcing, and with a vast underground labor pool from illegal immigration, the average American worker is seeing a different life and a troubling future.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

[76] .In 2006, the tuberculosis (TB) rate among foreign-born persons in the United States was 9.5 times that of U.S.-born persons.^ Water prices were set in dollars and annual rate increases were to be measured against the consumer price index of the United States, an economic structure impossible for the population to bear.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the scale of its contribution, the United States has always had a dominant voice and has at all times exercised an effective veto.

^ For each unit of gross domestic product (GDP), measured at market exchange rates, developing Asia consumes nearly five times as much energy as Japan and nearly three times as much as the United States (US).
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

[77]

Brain drain

.Opportunities in richer countries drives talent away from poorer countries, leading to brain drains.^ The rich countries become richer and the poorer countries also benefit greatly from globalisation.
  • BBC News | TALKING POINT | Globalisation: Capitalist evil or a way out of poverty? 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, the pro-globalization lobby insists that in order to improve the lot of poorer countries then richer countries, for that read companies and economies, must become even richer.

^ The lead paragraphs make it sound like the brain drain is causing these countries to stay in poverty.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

Brain drain has cost the African continent over $4.1 billion in the employment of 150,000 expatriate professionals annually.[78] .Indian students going abroad for their higher studies costs India a foreign exchange outflow of $10 billion annually.^ The simplest would be to impose a tax on the transactions of foreign-exchange markets, which could generate two-and-a-half trillion (thousand billion) dollars a year.

^ The foreign exchange earned is either repatriated abroad as MNC's profits or used up for debt repayment, or appropriated by the local elite for expensive imports.

^ At a national level, subsidised dumping by the industrialised countries reduces the foreign-exchange costs of imports.
  • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[79]

Economic liberalization

.The World today is so interconnected that the collapse of the subprime mortgage market in the U.S. has led to a global financial crisis and recession on a scale not seen since the Great Depression.^ Now, the global financial crisis has undermined faith in free markets.

^ That turned a world recession into the Great Depression.

^ European trade was liberalized world-wide in the 19th century but waned under protectionist pressures, ending in the trade wars of the 1920s and 1930s which played a major role in the catastrophes of the Great Depression and WW-II. Since 1945, under U.S. leadership, globalization has been slowly making up the lost ground.
  • Martin Wolf, Why Globalization Works (I), international trade, free trade 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[80] .Government deregulation and failed regulation of Wall Street's investment banks were important contributors to the subprime mortgage crisis.^ The World Bank and IMF are asking governments to cut deficits at the expense of social programs, and yet it is the investment in social programs that will have the greatest impact in improving the social and economic situation of the poor.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It follows from this that the central role for governments is not to regulate markets, but to facilitate their relentless expansion by removing barriers to trade and investment (Ghai D and Alcantara C, 1994).
  • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It cannot be led by a bank or mobile operator, but needs to be led by a collaborative effort of banks, mobile carriers, governments agencies, regulators and more.
  • The Financial Services Club's Blog: Globalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC thefinanser.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[81][82]
.A flood of consumer goods such as televisions, radios, bicycles, and textiles into the United States, Europe, and Japan has helped fuel the economic expansion of Asian tiger economies in recent decades.^ Water prices were set in dollars and annual rate increases were to be measured against the consumer price index of the United States, an economic structure impossible for the population to bear.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She said Japan is often looked at as a model for economic growth and development by other Asian Nations.

^ The growth of international courts such as the ICC (the International Criminal Court) – a shining example, and it will happen despite the United States.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

[83] .However, Chinese textile and clothing exports have recently encountered criticism from Europe, the United States and some African countries.^ Developing countries have also suffered from the depressed state of Northern demand for their exports.
  • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The EU and the United States are major offenders, but others -- including developing countries -- are not without blame....
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

^ Otherwise, how does one explain why Arab immigrants in Europe are worse off than those in the United States?
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

[84][85] .In South Africa, some 300,000 textile workers have lost their jobs due to the influx of Chinese goods.^ Workers from all over have been pouring into Louisiana, some bused in by contracting companies, others simply turning up on their own in search of jobs.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

^ After all, even in the British Airways, the total number of jobs lost since privatisation has been 17,000; the number of computer operators taken on by British Airways in India is 130.

^ Most dislocated workers find new jobs in six months, many far sooner; but some are unemployed for an extended period.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

[86] A total of 3.2 million – one in six U.S. factory jobs – have disappeared since the start of 2000.[87]

Effect on Income disparity

.A study by the World Institute for Development Economics Research at United Nations University reports that the richest 1% of adults alone owned 40% of global assets in the year 2000. The three richest people possess more financial assets than the poorest 10% of the world's population, combined [5][citation needed].^ In fact, far more than in the developed world.
  • BBC News | TALKING POINT | Globalisation: Capitalist evil or a way out of poverty? 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ This year Oxfam was invited to contribute to the Bank's report on world development.

^ Wealthy nations can invest more in developing the skills of their people.
  • Martin Wolf, Why Globalization Works (I), international trade, free trade 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The combined wealth of the 10 million millionaires grew to nearly $41 trillion in 2008.[88] In 2001, 46.4% of people in sub-Saharan Africa were living in extreme poverty.^ For 59 countries, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa and the countries of the former Eastern Bloc, GNP per capita declined from 1980-96.
  • Globalisation and the Level Playing Field, Reconciling the Geometry 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spectacle.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Mexico during the first half of the 1990s there was economic growth, yet the number of people living below the poverty line increased by 14 million in the 10 years from the mid-1980s.

^ Meanwhile, traditional North-South divides are being reinforced by growing inequalities within the developing world, with sub-Saharan Africa falling further and further behind.
  • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[89] Nearly half of all Indian children are undernourished.[90]

Effect on environmental degradation

Burning forest in Brazil. .The removal of forest to make way for cattle ranching was the leading cause of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon from the mid 1960s.^ The forests of Asia have been burning for many years too, and in late 2005 the Brazilian parliament has approved the clearing of 50% of the remaining Amazon.
  • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The lead paragraphs make it sound like the brain drain is causing these countries to stay in poverty.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

.Recently, soybeans have become one of the most important contributors to deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.^ I think the free-trade negotiations next spring are one of the most important reasons for the Liberals calling the election now.

^ One of the most important effects will be to increase the cost of imported technologies on which competitiveness in international markets depends.
  • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Brazilian Landless Workers Movement is the largest social movement in Latin America and one of the most successful grassroots movements in the world.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[91]
.The Worldwatch Institute said the booming economies of China and India are planetary powers that are shaping the global biosphere.^ The global economy and the power of workers .

^ For Sen, the problem is not free trade and the market economy, but the inequality of global power, which however he believes it can be adequately checked by NGOs, a watchdog institution that would be concerned with inequality and fair trade etc.
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any realistic reform of global economic governance is going to give China and India more power than Russia relative to the status quo, because Russia still has the great power trappings it inherited from the Cold War.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

.In 2007, China has overtaken the United States as the world's biggest producer of CO2.^ Saudi Arabia, the worlds biggest oil producer, led the cartels efforts to counter Venezuela and Irans attempts to use Opec as a tool against the US. .
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

^ "State socialism and the industrial divide in the world-economy: a comparative essay on the rebellions in Poland and China."
  • JWSR v5n2-Chase-Dunn 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC jwsr.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In order to improve this situation, the First World countries should not persist their national interests, which, for instance, now the United States tries to do.
  • BBC News | TALKING POINT | Globalisation: Capitalist evil or a way out of poverty? 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[92] .At present rates, tropical rainforests in Indonesia would be logged out in 10 years, Papua New Guinea in 13 to 16 years.^ The new data suggest the rate never reached the 30 percent estimated by some early researchers, nor the nearly 13 percent given by the United Nations in 1998.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

^ As this Washington Post story from last year suggests , American restaurants tend to innovate by using new cooking styles to present more traditional foods.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

^ In 1964, copper ore was discovered at Panguna in Central Bougainville, Papua New Guinea, leading to the biggest open cut mine in the world.
  • Globalisation and the Level Playing Field, Reconciling the Geometry 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spectacle.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[93] A major source of deforestation is the logging industry, driven spectacularly by China and Japan.[94] .Thriving economies such as China and India are quickly becoming large oil consumers.^ (See, Hayek, "The Road to Serfdom" ) & As for autocratic capitalist states like China and Singapore, Wolf notes that such states tend to eventually become democratic.
  • Martin Wolf, Why Globalization Works (I), international trade, free trade 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ China and India are very powerful examples of the benefits of liberalisation: before they started their reforms, growth was slow, but as they have opened up their economies, growth has accelerated.

^ Imports account for over a quarter of GDP, a huge figure for a such a large and populous economy.

[95][96] .China has seen oil consumption grow by 8% yearly since 2002, doubling from 1996–2006.[97] Crude oil prices in the last several years have steadily risen from about $25 a barrel in August 2003 to over $140 a barrel in July 2008.[98] State of the World 2006 report said the two countries' high economic growth hid a reality of severe pollution.^ In fact, let's just excerpt this 2004 International Energy Agency report to see the effect of high oil prices on the non-OPC members of the developing world as a whole: The adverse economic impact of higher oil prices on oil-importing developing countries is generally even more severe than for OECD countries.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

^ However absolute poverty decreased from 250 million to 20 million in China due to the forces of economic globalization which allowed this country to grow and create many alternatives, including new rural and urban enterprises.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To a certain extent, high oil prices are eventually self-limiting since they stimulate the development of additional supplies and crimp demand.

The report states:
The world's ecological capacity is simply insufficient to satisfy the ambitions of China, India, Japan, Europe and the United States as well as the aspirations of the rest of the world in a sustainable way[99]
.Without more recycling, zinc could be used up by 2037, both indium and hafnium could run out by 2017, and terbium could be gone before 2012.[100] It said that if China and India were to consume as much resources per capita as United States or Japan in 2030 together they would require a full planet Earth to meet their needs.^ Water prices were set in dollars and annual rate increases were to be measured against the consumer price index of the United States, an economic structure impossible for the population to bear.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Besides, in the process of globalization and stripping the earth of resources and minerals much of the earth’s soil is being ruined and when the earth can no longer support communities what will they do?

^ More than 200 million Harlequin romance novels, a Canadian export, were sold in 1990; they account for two-fifths of mass-market paperback sales in the United States.

[101] .In the longterm these effects can lead to increased conflict over dwindling resources[102] and in the worst case a Malthusian catastrophe.^ By stunting development and increasing poverty, high world oil prices contribute to instability that can lead to internal civil strife and regional conflict.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

^ A recession could have a destabilising effect on a number of world regions, which could lead to military conflict.
  • BBC News | TALKING POINT | Globalisation: Capitalist evil or a way out of poverty? 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ It is now widely accepted that the greenhouse effect, which is the main symptom of the ecological crisis today, is already leading to catastrophic climatic consequences [13] .
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Food security

.The head of the International Food Policy Research Institute, stated in 2008 that the gradual change in diet among newly prosperous populations is the most important factor underpinning the rise in global food prices.^ Global Research , February 1, 2008 .
  • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In pursuit of a sustainable urban setting 04.02.2008 With global urban population expecting to rise to over five billion by 2025, there is a need to evolve sustainable urbanisation processes, says architect Dr. Nizamuddin Ahmed .
  • Globalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC uk.oneworld.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dear Philippe, Isn't it ironic that globalisation's most startling legacy is not to be fusion food, cheap flights or the web - but debt and deflation?

[103] .From 1950 to 1984, as the Green Revolution transformed agriculture around the world, grain production increased by over 250%.^ The impact of Northern subsidies Agricultural subsidisation, over-production, and export dumping by the industrialised countries have been the most visible manifestations of the special status of agriculture in world trade.
  • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, it is time that there were global standards to address the quality, reliability and safety of all manufactured products and for all foodstuffs that are exported and imported around the world.

^ In 1950, they accounted for around one half of world agricultural trade.
  • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[104] .The world population has grown by about 4 billion since the beginning of the Green Revolution and most believe that, without the Revolution, there would be greater famine and malnutrition than the UN presently documents (approximately 850 million people suffering from chronic malnutrition in 2005).^ India, home to more than a fifth of the developing world’s population, is also catching up with the west.

^ People there, of course, were un affected by the terrorist attacks in New York and openly questioned what about the world was different.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A billion are learning it, about a third of the world's population are exposed to it, and by 2050, it is reckoned, half the world will be more or less proficient in it.

[105][106]
.It is becoming increasingly difficult to maintain food security in a world beset by a confluence of "peak" phenomena, namely peak oil, peak water, peak phosphorus, peak grain and peak fish.^ Yet today’s world is one in which borders have become an increasingly abstract concept.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Estrada government is promoting a false sense of "food security" as the Philippines becomes a net importer of rice despite our sufficient grains harvest.

^ In truth, it is simply shorthand for how our lives are becoming increasingly intertwined with those of distant peoples and places around the world - economically, politically and culturally.

Growing populations, falling energy sources and food shortages will create the "perfect storm" by 2030, according to the UK government chief scientist. .He said food reserves are at a 50-year low but the world requires 50% more energy, food and water by 2030.[107][108] The world will have to produce 70% more food by 2050 to feed a projected extra 2.3 billion people and as incomes rise, the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) warned.^ Since the land is poor, many have turned from agriculture to producing fireworks at home, a dangerous practice which has become the major source of income for 80% of local people, with no safety controls and frequent accidents.
  • Globalization in Latin America 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC library.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ ZNet Article “In the next 60 seconds, 10 children will die of hunger,” says a United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) online video.

^ Infrastructure programs will cost more because construction materials are energy-intensive and this will reduce the Banks ability to handle many development projects on the continent.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

[109] .Social scientists have warned of the possibility that global civilization is due for a period of contraction and economic re-localization, due to the decline in fossil fuels and resulting crisis in transportation and food production.^ The Caravan targets the immoral practices of transnational corporations (TNCs) in their push for corporate dominance and control of local and regional food and agricultural production systems.

^ Also, globalisation seems to imply that transporting goods and foodstuffs thousands of miles using valuable fossil fuels and creating massive pollution is somehow a good thing.
  • BBC News | TALKING POINT | Globalisation: Capitalist evil or a way out of poverty? 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The greatest danger to globalization today is the possibility of an economic crack-up in China.

.[110] [111] [112] One paper even suggested that the future might even bring about a restoration of sustainable local economic activities based on hunting and gathering, shifting horticulture, and pastoralism.^ The dirty secret about Doha is that even the launch of a new WTO round of negotiations is unlikely to do much to bring about genuinely global free trade.

^ Of course no one seems to have an answer to what will happen if the neoliberal economic politics fail since no one even has ever thought about an alternative.
  • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Fears about an Americanized uniformity are over-blown: American cultural products are not uniquely dominant; local ones are alive and well.

[113]
The journal Science published a four-year study in November 2006, which predicted that, at prevailing trends, the world would run out of wild-caught seafood in 2048.[114]

Drug and illicit goods trade

.The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) issued a report that the global drug trade generates more than $320 billion a year in revenues.^ This is rather than, or in addition to, more global universal structures, in which common agreement may not be possible and which may be hijacked by more powerful actors.
  • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Investment globalization was higher (or as high) in 1913 as it was in 1991, while trade globalization was considerably lower in 1913 than it was in 1992.
  • JWSR v5n2-Chase-Dunn 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC jwsr.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is a politics that works more with a reality of divisions, antagonism and state alliances than the global commonality and agreement required for global cosmopolitan democracy.
  • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[115] .Worldwide, the UN estimates there are more than 50 million regular users of heroin, cocaine and synthetic drugs.^ With more than 50 tables.
  • Globalization in Latin America 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC library.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There's a challenge in protesting a private organization made up of corporate heads such as TABD: It is more obscure than organizations such as the WTO or World Bank.

^ How many more than 30 million unemployed can it handle?
  • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

[116] .The international trade of endangered species is second only to drug trafficking.^ As in other areas of international trade, the only real defence against unfair recourse to NTBs is retaliatory action - and this is an area in which developing countries have unequal leverage.
  • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1970, 90% of all international transactions were trade transactions, and only 10% were financial transactions.

^ It is argued by campaigners that impoverished countries faced with a health emergency have a right under international trade legislation to buy generic drugs.

[117] .Traditional Chinese medicine often incorporates ingredients from all parts of plants, the leaf, stem, flower, root, and also ingredients from animals and minerals.^ This applies to all of nature (animals and plants as much as natural elements and landscapes), the entire human being (including its skin, hair, etc.
  • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The use of parts of endangered species (such as seahorses, rhinoceros horns, saiga antelope horns, and tiger bones and claws) has created controversy and resulted in a black market of poachers who hunt restricted animals.^ For people who participate in global markets by selling their labour, there are two determinants of the benefits which result: incomes and security.
  • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Special interest influence is always greater in non-market systems, since every divergence from market results opens more inducements and opportunities for corruption.
  • Martin Wolf, Why Globalization Works (I), international trade, free trade 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ganapathi, a sustainable agriculture practitioner from the village of Pudukottai who was part of the People's Caravan, uses an integrated system of crops and animals in his farm to control pests and fertilise his soils.

[118][119] In 2003, 29% of open sea fisheries were in a state of collapse.[120]

Sweatshops

A maquila in Mexico
.It can be said that globalization is the door that opens up an otherwise resource-poor country to the international market.^ The crisis-prone international capital markets are a particular headache for developing countries.

^ Anti-globalisation organisations claim that globalisation and increasing free international trade increase poverty, and widen the gap between rich and poor.
  • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any survey will show that those countries that have opened their markets to international trade have seen an increase in the living standards of their population (refer to The Economist, which has in the last six months analysed the results of such a survey).
  • BBC News | TALKING POINT | Globalisation: Capitalist evil or a way out of poverty? 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Where a country has little material or physical product harvested or mined from its own soil, large corporations see an opportunity to take advantage of the “export poverty” of such a nation.^ If history offers one lesson, it is that poverty and inequality do not create a fertile soil for political stability, either at a national level or on the world stage.
  • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whatever else happens in the world the wealthy and powerful, in developed and developing nations, will remain rich and are likely to become even richer as they take advantage of the opportunities that arise to make a profit, sometimes from their own knack and ability and sometimes from other people’s efforts and suffering.

^ Today, this non-profit association has more than 270 corporate members - large, medium and small - from diverse economic sectors and regions of the country.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Where the majority of the earliest occurrences of economic globalization are recorded as being the expansion of businesses and corporate growth, in many poorer nations globalization is actually the result of the foreign businesses investing in the country to take advantage of the lower wage rate: even though investing, by increasing the Capital Stock of the country, increases their wage rate.^ It was a massive capital exporter, investing in the foreign industries that were being protected.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The fact is that whilst some nations, and a few individuals, are increasing their wealth they are also increasing levels of poverty because the poorer levels in advanced, industrial nations are not benefiting, economically and socially, from the growth in global business and global business opportunities.

^ Thus, as regards the state, If we take into account the significant increase in foreign penetration of stock exchange and bond markets [50] that has taken place in the last quarter of a century or so, it becomes obvious that no national government today may follow economic policies that are disapproved of by the capital markets, which have the power to create an intolerable economic pressure on the respective country s borrowing ability, currency value and investment flows.
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One example used by anti-globalization protestors is the use of sweatshops by manufacturers.^ Perhaps some examples will clarify this point: the INTERNET is clearly a technoglobalizing cause of globalization, but its widespread use is also a technoglobating consequence.
  • GLOBALIZATION: KEY CONCEPTS 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in just a year, the ‘anti-globalization’ movement has matured from a congregation of protestors to a constructive social force.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, concerning the goals of the activists involved in the anti-globalisation movement, they obviously follow the type of analysis used to interpret globalisation.
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

According to Global Exchange these “Sweat Shops” are widely used by sports shoe manufacturers and mentions one company in particular – Nike.[121] .There are factories set up in the poor countries where employees agree to work for low wages.^ There, they are subject to low wages, poor working conditions and health problems.

^ Poor countries had to set up projects planned by developed countries, which were not appropriate for the country.
  • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Far from earning more, workers from poor countries would end up out of a job.

.Then if labour laws alter in those countries and stricter rules govern the manufacturing process the factories are closed down and relocated to other nations with more conservative, laissez-faire economic policies.^ Other countries are growing more powerful.
  • Ben Casnocha: The Blog: Globalization 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC ben.casnocha.com [Source type: General]

^ For developed nations then the outsourcing of work to areas of cheaper labour, as part of the process of globalization, is likely to lead, at some stage, to a backlash as the indigenous peoples of those countries begin to realize that globalization and immigration are greatly affecting their pay, conditions and general economic well-being.

^ Explain: Often when businesses want to trade in other countries, the governments of the countries ask the businesses to pay taxes, or to obtain import or export licenses.
  • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.There are several agencies that have been set up worldwide specifically designed to focus on anti-sweatshop campaigns and education of such.^ And there's no end in sight: several of the groups, including Blackstone and KKR, are in the process of setting up new investment funds aimed in part or entirely at Europe.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

^ The results of Globalisation so far show that there is an inherent inequality in the structure designed to prevent peripheral economies from catching up with the core economies.
  • Globalisation and the Level Playing Field, Reconciling the Geometry 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spectacle.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is not only undemocratic for self-interested foreign companies blackmailed by self-selected anti-capitalist campaigners to be setting social standards in developing countries.

.In the USA, the National Labor Committee has proposed a number of bills as part of the The Decent Working Conditions and Fair Competition Act, which have thus far failed in Congress.^ If globalisation is going to be a force for the good, the multi-nationals need to act in a responsible manner by paying the workers reasonable wages and giving them proper working conditions.
  • BBC News | TALKING POINT | Globalisation: Capitalist evil or a way out of poverty? 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The legislation would legally require companies to respect human and worker rights by prohibiting the import, sale, or export of sweatshop goods.^ UE, UK/Nigeria How can paying a worker around one dollar a day with few rights be good?
  • BBC News | TALKING POINT | Globalisation: Capitalist evil or a way out of poverty? 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Business has to abide by a battery of legislation on workers' rights, product liability, health and safety, environmental protection and much else.

^ Surveys show that skilled workers, good infrastructure and nearby customers determine where companies invest far more than low taxes and regulation.

[122]
.Specifically, these core standards include no child labor, no forced labor, freedom of association, right to organize and bargain collectively, as well as the right to decent working conditions.^ These conditions have changed to some extent during the last two decades as hyper-mobile capital has attacked organized labor, dismantled welfare states and down-sized middle class work forces.
  • JWSR v5n2-Chase-Dunn 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC jwsr.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If globalisation is going to be a force for the good, the multi-nationals need to act in a responsible manner by paying the workers reasonable wages and giving them proper working conditions.
  • BBC News | TALKING POINT | Globalisation: Capitalist evil or a way out of poverty? 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Annie Bird, an activist for Rights Action, a human rights organization in Washington, D.C., is working with the Pacux community to help them gain compensation.

[123]
.Tiziana Terranova has stated that globalization has brought a culture of "free labour". In a digital sense, it is where the individuals (contributing capital) exploits and eventually "exhausts the means through which labour can sustain itself". For example, in the area of digital media (animations, hosting chat rooms, designing games), where it is often less glamourous than it may sound.^ Globalisation of free market capitalism is.
  • BBC News | TALKING POINT | Globalisation: Capitalist evil or a way out of poverty? 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Often it is capitalist globalisation, rather than globalisation itself, that is opposed.
  • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For instance areas of sub-Saharan Africa are much less integrated than the powerhouses of East Asia, Europe and North America, with global inequality rising and protectionism still rife, for example in Europe and the USA in response to imports from growing Asian economies.
  • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the gaming industry, a Chinese Gold Market has been established.[124]

Pro-globalization (globalism)

.Supporters of free trade claim that it increases economic prosperity as well as opportunity, especially among developing nations, enhances civil liberties and leads to a more efficient allocation of resources.^ Anti-globalisation organisations claim that globalisation and increasing free international trade increase poverty, and widen the gap between rich and poor.
  • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the difference between limited protectionism and a trade war is a matter of degree: the former would involve fewer casualties, for sure, but it would not lead to economic resurrection.

^ She said Japan is often looked at as a model for economic growth and development by other Asian Nations.

.Economic theories of comparative advantage suggest that free trade leads to a more efficient allocation of resources, with all countries involved in the trade benefiting.^ International trade brings a lot of benefits -- lower consumer prices, more choice -- but also causes a lot of disruption in millions of workers' households with people losing their jobs.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

^ But the difference between limited protectionism and a trade war is a matter of degree: the former would involve fewer casualties, for sure, but it would not lead to economic resurrection.

^ The ministerial declaration which launched the Round included in its first objective the extension of benefits from international trade to developing countries as one of the major aims of the negotiations.
  • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In general, this leads to lower prices, more employment, higher output and a higher standard of living for those in developing countries.^ This has multiplied world output by seven, trebling living standards in developed and developing countries.

^ International trade brings a lot of benefits -- lower consumer prices, more choice -- but also causes a lot of disruption in millions of workers' households with people losing their jobs.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

^ Any survey will show that those countries that have opened their markets to international trade have seen an increase in the living standards of their population (refer to The Economist, which has in the last six months analysed the results of such a survey).
  • BBC News | TALKING POINT | Globalisation: Capitalist evil or a way out of poverty? 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[125][126]
Dr. Francesco Stipo, Director of the USA Club of Rome suggests that “the world government should reflect the political and economic balances of world nations. A world confederation would not supersede the authority of the State governments but rather complement it, as both the States and the world authority would have power within their sphere of competence".[127]
.Proponents of laissez-faire capitalism, and some libertarians, say that higher degrees of political and economic freedom in the form of democracy and capitalism in the developed world are ends in themselves and also produce higher levels of material wealth.^ DH – There is no longer a clear separation between the political problems we face in the developed world and the political problems faced in the developing world.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Farida Akhter, Executive Director of UBINIG (Policy Research for Development Alternatives) says many Asian countries like Bangladesh are rice producing countries with many rice varieties produced by the farmers themselves.

^ We are making such material available to our readers under the provisions of "fair use" in an effort to advance a better understanding of political, economic and social issues.
  • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

.They see globalization as the beneficial spread of liberty and capitalism.^ They see globalization as the beneficial spread of liberty and capitalism.
  • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The promise of financial globalization—that it will spread risk and allocate capital better—remains largely unfulfilled.

^ Clearly the crises would not have developed as they did without exposure to global capital markets.

[125]
.Supporters of democratic globalization are sometimes called pro-globalists.^ The list of pro-globalisation organisations is some of the organisations that support globalisation.
  • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They believe that the first phase of globalization, which was market-oriented, should be followed by a phase of building global political institutions representing the will of world citizens.^ As I have long argued, if NGOs are to be taken seriously in global politics this has to change - and it appears that they are finally starting to put their houses in order.

^ For Sen, the problem is not free trade and the market economy, but the inequality of global power, which however he believes it can be adequately checked by NGOs, a watchdog institution that would be concerned with inequality and fair trade etc.
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This last hypothesis bears on the question of adjustments of political and social institutions to increases in economic and technological globalization.
  • JWSR v5n2-Chase-Dunn 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC jwsr.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The difference from other globalists is that they do not define in advance any ideology to orient this will, but would leave it to the free choice of those citizens via a democratic process.^ However, we need to be clear about these differences, how they can actually reinforce and test each other, and for that reason we also need terms that clearly distinguish between them.
  • GLOBALIZATION: KEY CONCEPTS 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ America and Britain tell them to get lost as the banks would leave America and Britain if they did that.
  • The Financial Services Club's Blog: Globalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC thefinanser.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no doubt that there are differences between the transformationalists and sceptics: on definition (should the processes they see be defined as internationalisation or globalisation?
  • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.Some, such as former Canadian Senator Douglas Roche, O.C., simply view globalization as inevitable and advocate creating institutions such as a directly-elected United Nations Parliamentary Assembly to exercise oversight over unelected international bodies.^ One idea that found support was the ‘e-Parliament’ to draw together national elected representatives through a global databases and virtual ad-hoc issue groups.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The growth of international courts such as the ICC (the International Criminal Court) – a shining example, and it will happen despite the United States.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The new money has to go towards funding global governance institutions (which would, as a result, no longer be directly dependent upon the interests of the most powerful countries), and towards creating and investing in the social infrastructures of the poor countries.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

Anti-globalization

.The "anti-globalization movement" is a term used to describe the political group who oppose the neoliberal version of globalization, while criticisms of globalization are some of the reasons used to justify this group's stance.^ Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation Movement .
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reason is the globalization of so-called neoliberalism.
  • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The potential of the anti-globalisation movement .
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."Anti-globalization" may also involve the process or actions taken by a state or its people in order to demonstrate its sovereignty and practice democratic decision-making.^ Globalisation is not a strategy, nor is it a practice or a process.
  • Globalisation and the Level Playing Field, Reconciling the Geometry 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spectacle.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As I have long argued, if NGOs are to be taken seriously in global politics this has to change - and it appears that they are finally starting to put their houses in order.

^ Although the precise channels of causality are ill defined, it is plausible that the attitudes manifested in the survey responses are underpinning behaviors and practices that may impede successful globalization.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

.Anti-globalization may occur in order to maintain barriers to the international transfer of people, goods and beliefs, particularly free market deregulation, encouraged by organizations such as the International Monetary Fund or the World Trade Organization.^ What the world needs is MORE globalisation, more international trade.
  • BBC News | TALKING POINT | Globalisation: Capitalist evil or a way out of poverty? 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ That is why globalisation in the form of international trade and foreign investment is such a good thing.

^ Globalisation of free market capitalism is.
  • BBC News | TALKING POINT | Globalisation: Capitalist evil or a way out of poverty? 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Moreover, as Naomi Klein argues in her book No Logo, anti-globalism can denote either a single social movement or an umbrella term that encompasses a number of separate social movements[128] such as nationalists and socialists.^ Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation Movement .
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The potential of the anti-globalisation movement .
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The nature of the anti-globalisation movement .
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In either case, participants stand in opposition to the unregulated political power of large, multi-national corporations, as the corporations exercise power through leveraging trade agreements which in some instances damage the democratic rights of citizens[citation needed], the environment particularly air quality index and rain forests[citation needed], as well as national government's sovereignty to determine labor rights,[citation needed] including the right to form a union, and health and safety legislation, or laws as they may otherwise infringe on cultural practices and traditions of developing countries.^ Corporate and government power can only be curtailed through transparency and accountability.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is a political challenge in one country, a developed one, which is crucial to good governance everywhere, including developing countries.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ You are the government of a small, developing country.
  • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.Some people who are labeled "anti-globalist" or "sceptics" (Hirst and Thompson)[129] consider the term to be too vague and inaccurate.^ Consider, for example, the ethnoglobal concerns of indigenous peoples who, for generations, found themselves isolated as helpless victims of colonizing conquerors.
  • GLOBALIZATION: KEY CONCEPTS 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You can see here that Hirst and Thompson argue that in some respects the world economy is very internationalised (see also Hirst and Thompson 2000 on the over-internationalisation of the British economy).
  • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think a some people have the wrong perception of anti-capitalist/anti-globalisation protestors.
  • BBC News | TALKING POINT | Globalisation: Capitalist evil or a way out of poverty? 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[130][131] .Podobnik states that "the vast majority of groups that participate in these protests draw on international networks of support, and they generally call for forms of globalization that enhance democratic representation, human rights, and egalitarianism."^ The international human rights regime.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Rejecting the notion that they were opposed to globalization per se, participants ranging from Lori Wallach, a radical trade lawyer from Public Citizen, which organized the Seattle protests, to Mary Robinson, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, called for a different form of globalization – ethical globalization – with a social and environmental dimension and concerned with human rights.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead, he suggested new ‘Global Issue Networks’: ad hoc groupings convened by international organisations to address a specific concern, which would first produce norms on the issue, and then implement these norms through increasing the breadth of participation in the Networks over time.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Joseph Stiglitz and Andrew Charlton write:[132]
.The anti-globalization movement developed in opposition to the perceived negative aspects of globalization.^ Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation Movement .
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The potential of the anti-globalisation movement .
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The nature of the anti-globalisation movement .
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term 'anti-globalization' is in many ways a misnomer, since the group represents a wide range of interests and issues and many of the people involved in the anti-globalization movement do support closer ties between the various peoples and cultures of the world through, for example, aid, assistance for refugees, and global environmental issues.^ Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation Movement .
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The potential of the anti-globalisation movement .
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Globalisation is, to many, the issue of our age.

.Some members aligned with this viewpoint prefer instead to describe themselves as the "Global Justice Movement", the "Anti-Corporate-Globalization Movement", the "Movement of Movements" (a popular term in Italy), the "Alter-globalization" movement (popular in France), the "Counter-Globalization" movement, and a number of other terms.^ However, this should not lead to the usual uncritical glorification of the anti-globalisation movement or to illusions about its potential.
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As it is obvious from the above description of the main trends within the anti-globalisation movement, the reformist trends are clearly dominant and give it the present overall picture of a reformist movement.
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The consequence however of this lack of unity, common goals and strategy is that the anti-globalisation movement shows signs that it has already reached its peak.
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Critiques of the current wave of economic globalization typically look at both the damage to the planet, in terms of the perceived unsustainable harm done to the biosphere, as well as the perceived human costs, such as poverty, inequality, miscegenation, injustice and the erosion of traditional culture which, the critics contend, all occur as a result of the economic transformations related to globalization.^ Do you think that development and globalisation harm or benefit traditional cultures?
  • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Russian president said there was increasing evidence that existing organisations were not doing a good job regulating global economic relations.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

^ Such an approach would perhaps need to be both horizontally integrated across different but overlapping issue areas, and also vertically integrated through involving all levels of governance from global to local.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They challenge directly the metrics, such as GDP, used to measure progress promulgated by institutions such as the World Bank, and look to other measures, such as the Happy Planet Index,[133] created by the New Economics Foundation.^ We must link the progressive implementation of free trade with efforts to reduce the economic vulnerability of the poorest countries by eliminating debt, reversing the outflow of net capital assets from the South to the North, and creating new economic facilities at organisations like the World Bank, the IMF and UN for development purposes.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The World Bank and IMF are asking governments to cut deficits at the expense of social programs, and yet it is the investment in social programs that will have the greatest impact in improving the social and economic situation of the poor.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Doha, RIP by Arvind Subramanian, Peterson Institute for International Economics Op-ed in the Business Standard , New Delhi July 10, 2007 .
  • Research Areas: Main 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.iie.com [Source type: Academic]

[134] .They point to a "multitude of interconnected fatal consequences–social disintegration, a breakdown of democracy, more rapid and extensive deterioration of the environment, the spread of new diseases, increasing poverty and alienation"[135] which they claim are the unintended but very real consequences of globalization.^ On the environment: I’m terrified of the global consequences of what is happening.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They all share a common element: unlike the much more realistic social-liberals, they all adopt the thesis that globalisation is not a new phenomenon but something already existing at the beginning of last century and then go on to explore ways of resisting it (without raising any anti-systemic challenge) on the grounds that, apart from its adverse effects on labour and the environment, globalisation is also incompatible with the present democracy.
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then, it is said by writers on the three waves, there was a more sober set of accounts that reacted against this with scepticism and argued that globalisation is not new and that probably the processes being described are not very global either (eg Hirst and Thompson 1996.
  • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The terms globalization and anti-globalization are used in various ways.^ Finally, concerning the goals of the activists involved in the anti-globalisation movement, they obviously follow the type of analysis used to interpret globalisation.
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In their different ways, proponents of the Washington consensus and the anti-globalisation movements are both materialists.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It seems that postmodern influences are significant among the anti-globalisation activists and this is reflected in the lack of unity that characterises the various currents.
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Noam Chomsky believes that[136][137]
.The term "globalization" has been appropriated by the powerful to refer to a specific form of international economic integration, one based on investor rights, with the interests of people incidental.^ Probe International is a Toronto-based citizens' group investigating the economic and environmental impact of Canadian aid and companies overseas.

^ These countries form a market of 200 million people, and account for around one half of Latin America's GDP. The potential for the creation of a dynamic integrated trade space is clearly enormous.
  • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, it should not be forgotten that, although usually it is economic globalisation that many people have in mind when they talk about globalisation, economic globalisation is only one aspect, (or one component) ― though the main one ― of globalisation.
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

That is why the business press, in its more honest moments, refers to the "free trade agreements" as "free investment agreements" (Wall St. Journal). .Accordingly, advocates of other forms of globalization are described as "anti-globalization"; and some, unfortunately, even accept this term, though it is a term of propaganda that should be dismissed with ridicule.^ So even though global companies are bigger than before, they are not necessarily more powerful.

^ Some discuss alternatives that are none: a reform of the WTO; a control of globalization through NGOs; a return to Keynesianism; a restoration of social market economy; or even a revival of socialism.
  • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Even international capitalists have some uses for global regulation, as is attested by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
  • JWSR v5n2-Chase-Dunn 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC jwsr.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.No sane person is opposed to globalization, that is, international integration.^ Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) DEMOCRACY & NATURE : The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY .
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Surely not the left and the workers movements, which were founded on the principle of international solidarity — that is, globalization in a form that attends to the rights of people, not private power systems.^ Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation Movement .
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People arriving after 4 PM to attend a closing plenary session with world famous author and economist David Korten found that the doors of the college had been chained and locked.

^ So, one of the key issues for global governance is the separation of the electoral process in the United States from the private funding of the electoral system.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

.The dominant propaganda systems have appropriated the term "globalization" to refer to the specific version of international economic integration that they favor, which privileges the rights of investors and lenders, those of people being incidental.^ I will therefore call non-systemic all those approaches to globalisation which, in order to interpret it, refer to various exogenous factors that are not directly related to the structural characteristics and the dynamics of the market economy system.
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Globalisation, European Integration and the discursive construction of economic imperatives.
  • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They say that their book focuses on economics but that they feel if there are doubts about the globalisation of the world economy then there have to be doubts also about the globalisation of culture, because the latter is strongly connected to the former.
  • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In accord with this usage, those who favor a different form of international integration, which privileges the rights of human beings, become "anti-globalist."^ The international human rights regime.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ "The relationship between international trade and human rights is important.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those who seek alternatives cannot be the gravediggers of capitalism, but its humanisers and reformers.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

.This is simply vulgar propaganda, like the term "anti-Soviet" used by the most disgusting commissars to refer to dissidents.^ We usually refer to such concept handles or labels as terms, but since this word is often also used to mean a concept -- i.e., the concept it represents -- it can be ambiguous.
  • GLOBALIZATION: KEY CONCEPTS 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term ‘remittances’ is generally used to refer to foreign workers sending money home and represents major GDP for many countries.
  • The Financial Services Club's Blog: Globalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC thefinanser.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Categories like his will be useful for historians whereas most social scientists may find the dichotomous scheme adequate for their purposes.
  • GLOBALIZATION: KEY CONCEPTS 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is not only vulgar, but idiotic. .Take the World Social Forum, called "anti-globalization" in the propaganda system – which happens to include the media, the educated classes, etc., with rare exceptions.^ The strength of the World Social Forum is that it is civil."
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Relying only on his passionate belief that now was the time for a World Social Forum and that Porto Alegre was the place, I agreed to come give one of the opening speeches.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this case, the maximum extent of any locus within a world-system is its glocus, i.e., its fully globalized geographic extent in that system..
  • GLOBALIZATION: KEY CONCEPTS 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The WSF is a paradigm example of globalization. .It is a gathering of huge numbers of people from all over the world, from just about every corner of life one can think of, apart from the extremely narrow highly privileged elites who meet at the competing World Economic Forum, and are called "pro-globalization" by the propaganda system.^ It’s the job of all people who are engaged in the critical interrogation of globalisation.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ No one model or one way of thinking about global governance can fit all.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Globalization has brought about huge reductions in the number of people in extreme poverty.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

An observer watching this farce from Mars would collapse in hysterical laughter at the antics of the educated classes.
Critics argue that:
.
  • Poorer countries suffering disadvantages: While it is true that globalization encourages free trade among countries, there are also negative consequences because some countries try to save their national markets.^ There never has been free trade.
    • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The proponents of Globalisation state that free trade across borders on a Level Playing Field is a necessary condition for success.
    • Globalisation and the Level Playing Field, Reconciling the Geometry 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spectacle.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The dirty secret about Doha is that even the launch of a new WTO round of negotiations is unlikely to do much to bring about genuinely global free trade.

    .The main export of poorer countries is usually agricultural goods.^ The impact of Northern subsidies Agricultural subsidisation, over-production, and export dumping by the industrialised countries have been the most visible manifestations of the special status of agriculture in world trade.
    • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The main beneficiaries of a very generalised reduction of agricultural tariffs would be the Cairns Group, not the poorest countries.
    • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Export license – a license giving a business permission to send goods out of a country.
    • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Larger countries often subsidise their farmers (like the EU Common Agricultural Policy), which lowers the market price for the poor farmer's crops compared to what it would be under free trade.^ On the one hand, it allows the North to force its agricultural surplus onto the South by means of highly subsidized dumping prices, thereby destroying the national markets and sale opportunities for local farmers; on the other hand, products from the South are kept from Northern markets by tax barriers.
    • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The seminar-"Strengthening Farmers and Systems of Sustainable Agriculture in the Free Market Era in Indonesia"-was organised to inform participants of the agricultural policy of the Indonesian government within the context globalisation and trade liberalisation.

    ^ For Sen, the problem is not free trade and the market economy, but the inequality of global power, which however he believes it can be adequately checked by NGOs, a watchdog institution that would be concerned with inequality and fair trade etc.
    • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [138]
  • .
  • Exploitation of foreign impoverished workers: The deterioration of protections for weaker nations by stronger industrialized powers has resulted in the exploitation of the people in those nations to become cheap labor.^ You may have connections to communities in Australia that until recently were booming by exporting to China, and drawing in lots of foreign workers as a result; how are they coping?

    ^ Second, that it undermines workers' rights and environmental protection by encouraging a "race to the bottom" between governments competing for jobs and foreign investment.

    ^ Further, in many impoverished countries, those below the age of 25 constitute up to 65% of the total population, creating a rising tide of young people entering the labor market and post secondary educational system.
    • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Due to the lack of protections, companies from powerful industrialized nations are able to offer workers enough salary to entice them to endure extremely long hours and unsafe working conditions, though economists question if consenting workers in a competitive employers' market can be decried as "exploited". It is true that the workers are free to leave their jobs, but in many poorer countries, this would mean starvation for the worker, and possible even his/her family if their previous jobs were unavailable.^ Western countries have laws to protect workers’ rights, but many developing countries do not.
    • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Possible answers Places where people have to work very hard, little pay, long hours, not enough food or water, unfair treatment by bosses, risk beatings or rape, human rights are violated, unsafe conditions, child labour, etc.
    • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Many jobs have disappeared entirely due to computerization, also in administrative fields (Frbel et al.
    • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

    [139]
  • .
  • The shift to outsourcing: The low cost of offshore workers have enticed corporations to buy goods and services from foreign countries.^ Equalise the trade by selling their goods and services at a sufficient price to cover the costs of their participation.
    • Globalisation and the Level Playing Field, Reconciling the Geometry 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spectacle.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It is also questionable whether expenditure on food imports constitutes the most productive use of one of the scarcest resources of low-income countries namely, their foreign exchange.
    • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ And of course many of these firms are shifting production to low-wage countries, making the global gap even wider.

    .The laid off manufacturing sector workers are forced into the service sector where wages and benefits are low, but turnover is high .^ To reach the most marginalized sector of the female labor force, domestic workers, CEMINA established the award winning Women's Radio Network to support women's radio programs.
    • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Protesters certainly caught Monsanto flatfooted, lopping $8.6 billion off its market value, so weakening the company it was forced into a shotgun marriage with Pharmacia.

    ^ Increasingly, companies are re-ordering their production on a global basis, establishing a presence in fast-growing markets, and shifting production from high-wage to low-wage economies.
    • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .October 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] This has contributed to the deterioration of the middle class[citation needed] which is a major factor in the increasing economic inequality in the United States .^ Water prices were set in dollars and annual rate increases were to be measured against the consumer price index of the United States, an economic structure impossible for the population to bear.
    • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The EU and the United States are major offenders, but others -- including developing countries -- are not without blame....
    • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Largely because of economic stagnation in Japan and mega-mergers among U.S. firms, the United States dominates the top 200.

    .October 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Families that were once part of the middle class are forced into lower positions by massive layoffs and outsourcing to another country.^ From France to parts of the Middle-East not everyone responds positively to the globalisation of American culture.
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In addition, for these countries, the entry of China into the world economy is a massive shock, both positive and, in some cases, negative.
    • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

    .This also means that people in the lower class have a much harder time climbing out of poverty because of the absence of the middle class as a stepping stone.^ Democracy at the crudest level means that you know who has made a decision, and the next time around you have a chance to throw him or her out if you don’t like it.
    • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ At the same time, thousands of activists will gather downtown to educate citizens and confront delegates when they step out for parties with the governors of Ohio and Kentucky.

    ^ However, carefully defining it is important because a lot of confusion on the matter, even among analysts, is created by the fact that different people attach different meanings to the term globalisation.
    • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [140]
  • .
  • Weak labor unions: The surplus in cheap labor coupled with an ever growing number of companies in transition has caused a weakening of labor unions in the United States.^ The group has convinced the United States and the European Union to adopt what it calls an "early warning" system, which alerts corporations to regulations that may be "barriers to trade."

    ^ The abuse of child labor, in contrast, plays a pissant role at best in the global economy , and has no direct effect on the United States.
    • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

    ^ While a substantial number of people agreed with this idea, dissenting voices pointed out that the only thing that was new was that people in the United States were more aware of terrorism.
    • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Unions lose their effectiveness when their membership begins to decline. .As a result unions hold less power over corporations that are able to easily replace workers, often for lower wages, and have the option to not offer unionized jobs anymore.^ International trade brings a lot of benefits -- lower consumer prices, more choice -- but also causes a lot of disruption in millions of workers' households with people losing their jobs.
    • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Whereas a good share of GM's jobs were unionized and decently paid, Wal-Mart is a notorious union-buster that employs armies of workers on a part-time basis to avoid paying benefits.

    ^ Workers will often lose their jobs if they demand better conditions or pay.
    • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [138]
  • .
  • Increase exploitation of child labor: for example, a country that experiencing increases in labor demand because of globalization and an increase the demand for goods produced by children, will experience greater a demand for child labor.^ The Russian president said there was increasing evidence that existing organisations were not doing a good job regulating global economic relations.
    • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

    ^ The effect of successful Globalisation in the current mould will place much higher demands on energy production and because of its linkage with the US dollar, drive global energy costs much higher.
    • Globalisation and the Level Playing Field, Reconciling the Geometry 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spectacle.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This is a transformatory driving force because this globalisation changes peoples life experiences.
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This can be "hazardous" or “exploitive”, e.g., quarrying, salvage, cash cropping but also includes the trafficking of children, children in bondage or forced labor, prostitution, pornography and other illicit activities.^ The globalization section includes the latest news and commentary on issues related to debt, trade, immigration and labor rights, among others.
    • Globalization in Latin America 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC library.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Their punchline: Fortunately, abhorrent images of children chained in factories or forced into prostitution stand out for their relative rarity.
    • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

    [141]
.In December 2007, World Bank economist Branko Milanovic has called much previous empirical research on global poverty and inequality into question because, according to him, improved estimates of purchasing power parity indicate that developing countries are worse off than previously believed.^ According to the World Bank, developing countries are " net lenders to developed countries".

^ Global inequality, is it getting worse?
  • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The poor in developing countries are often better off when their governments ignore the policy advice of the International Monetary Fund and World Bank, according to a study by a World Bank economist.

.Milanovic remarks that "literally hundreds of scholarly papers on convergence or divergence of countries’ incomes have been published in the last decade based on what we know now were faulty numbers."^ In practically every developing country, the numbers living on less than a dollar a day have increased over the last two decades.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Policy considerations: a post-Uruguay Round agenda While the Uruguay Round agreement poses a number of potential threats to some of the poorest countries, it also has the potential to generate income gains for others.
  • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mugabe made the remarks in the wake of acts of violence, which the opposition MDC unleashed, in different centers across the country last week.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

.With the new data, possibly economists will revise calculations, and he also believed that there are considerable implications estimates of global inequality and poverty levels.^ There are no foreigners at the global level.
  • Globalisation and the Level Playing Field, Reconciling the Geometry 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spectacle.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If history offers one lesson, it is that poverty and inequality do not create a fertile soil for political stability, either at a national level or on the world stage.
  • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Globalisation, many believe, is leading the world to rack and ruin - and there is little we can do about it.

.Global inequality was estimated at around 65 Gini points, whereas the new numbers indicate global inequality to be at 70 on the Gini scale.^ While a substantial number of people agreed with this idea, dissenting voices pointed out that the only thing that was new was that people in the United States were more aware of terrorism.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The money grafs: Globalization's staunch defenders point to evidence indicating that countries are well advised to open their markets.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

^ The number of people living with HIV globally has reached its highest level with an estimated 40.3 million people, up from an estimated 37.5 million in 2003.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

[142]
.The critics of globalization typically emphasize that globalization is a process that is mediated according to corporate interests, and typically raise the possibility of alternative global institutions and policies, which they believe address the moral claims of poor and working classes throughout the globe, as well as environmental concerns in a more equitable way.^ My interest is in what are to be the institutions of that alternative world?
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So whatever kind of public good you look at – whether it is environmental protection, financial stability or a more radical, global egalitarian programme – it now requires multilateral action and multilateral institutions to deliver it.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This is rather than, or in addition to, more global universal structures, in which common agreement may not be possible and which may be hijacked by more powerful actors.
  • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[143]
.The movement is very broad[citation needed], including church groups, national liberation factions, peasant unionists, intellectuals, artists, protectionists, anarchists, those in support of relocalization and others.^ One idea that found support was the ‘e-Parliament’ to draw together national elected representatives through a global databases and virtual ad-hoc issue groups.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The socialdemocratic trend, which today is mainly supported by trade unionists, NGOs and ex-Marxists who have moved to social democracy, after the move of social democrats to social-liberalism.
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, several national monuments were blown up or removed during those years including this Cathedral ...
  • The Financial Services Club's Blog: Globalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC thefinanser.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some are reformist, (arguing for a more moderate form of capitalism) while others are more revolutionary (arguing for what they believe is a more humane system than capitalism) and others are reactionary, believing globalization destroys national industry and jobs.^ "How can we make globalization more humane?
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some economies are more international than others.

^ As is well known, the anti-globalisation movement consists of heterogeneous elements with a huge diversity of goals ranging from reformist demands proposed by NGOs, mainstream Greens, trade unions and others up to revolutionary demands of a systemic nature supported mainly by anarchists, eco-anarchists and the like.
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of the key points made by critics of recent economic globalization is that income inequality, both between and within nations, is increasing as a result of these processes.^ That’s one critical point.
  • The Financial Services Club's Blog: Globalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC thefinanser.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [These] economic processes influence migration processes by a) encouraging migration or making it necessary on the one hand, b) improving the (technical) possibilities of closing borders, and c) increasing the employment of "illegal" migrant workers.
  • GLOBALIZATION: KEY CONCEPTS 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both of these perspectives are implicit in the final sentence of Tehranian's text which tells us that we can think of globalization as both a positive and negative process -- it has good and bad consequences.  He writes: From a humanist perspective, globalization entails both positive and negative consequences: it is both narrowing and widening the income gaps among and within nations, intensifying and diminishing political domination, and homogenizing and pluralizing cultural identities.
  • GLOBALIZATION: KEY CONCEPTS 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One article from 2001 found that significantly, in 7 out of 8 metrics, income inequality has increased in the twenty years ending 2001. Also, "incomes in the lower deciles of world income distribution have probably fallen absolutely since the 1980s". Furthermore, the World Bank's figures on absolute poverty were challenged.^ This parasitic recipe is born out by the figures from the UN and the World Bank.
  • Globalisation and the Level Playing Field, Reconciling the Geometry 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spectacle.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One recent World Bank study estimates that a deterioration in income distribution in Bangladesh during the 1980s resulted in the head-count index of poverty falling by 0.3 per cent, rather than the 1.9 per cent which would have resulted had the income-distribution curve remained unchanged (World Bank 1996).
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^ The income gap between the worlds richest 20% and the poorest 20% increased from 30:1 in 1960 to 74:1 in 1997.
  • Globalisation and the Level Playing Field, Reconciling the Geometry 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spectacle.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The article was skeptical of the World Bank's claim that the number of people living on less than $1 a day has held steady at 1.2 billion from 1987 to 1998, because of biased methodology.^ More than 70% of population is poor, living on less than $1 a day .

^ Of the world’s 6 billion people, 2.8 billion live on less than $2.00 per day.
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^ According to the latest World Bank data, the proportion of the east Asian population living on less than a dollar a day at purchasing power parity fell from 56 percent in 1981 to 16 percent in 2001.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

[144]
.A chart that gave the inequality a very visible and comprehensible form, the so-called 'champagne glass' effect,[145] was contained in the 1992 United Nations Development Program Report, which showed the distribution of global income to be very uneven, with the richest 20% of the world's population controlling 82.7% of the world's income.^ ZNet Article “In the next 60 seconds, 10 children will die of hunger,” says a United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) online video.

^ The income gap between the worlds richest 20% and the poorest 20% increased from 30:1 in 1960 to 74:1 in 1997.
  • Globalisation and the Level Playing Field, Reconciling the Geometry 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spectacle.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ India, home to more than a fifth of the developing world’s population, is also catching up with the west.

[146]
Distribution of world GDP, 1989
Quintile of Population Income
Richest 20% 82.7%
Second 20% 11.7%
Third 20% 2.3%
Fourth 20% 2.4%
Poorest 20% 0.2%
.Source: United Nations Development Program.^ Additionally, representatives of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the United Nations Development Programme and CIVICUS participated in the meeting.
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1992 Human Development Report
[147]
Economic arguments by fair trade theorists claim that unrestricted free trade benefits those with more financial leverage (i.e. the rich) at the expense of the poor.[148]
.Americanization related to a period of high political American clout and of significant growth of America's shops, markets and object being brought into other countries.^ It’s one political mechanism that countries can use to learn to collaborate with each other, to resolve cross-border problems, to pool sovereignty and deliver public goods.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ These purport to confirm a close and mutually reinforcing correlation between growth and integration into world markets.
  • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "However, the greatest impact may be political, as corporations transform economic clout into political power."

.So globalization, a much more diversified phenomenon, relates to a multilateral political world and to the increase of objects, markets and so on into each others countries.^ Even with preferential access to the EU market, the ACP countries have failed to diversify, with over 80 per cent of their export earnings coming from primary commodities.
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^ This is a politics that works more with a reality of divisions, antagonism and state alliances than the global commonality and agreement required for global cosmopolitan democracy.
  • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Establishing the effects of globalisation on poverty reduction and income distribution in respect of people, as distinct from countries, is more difficult.
  • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Critics of globalization talk of Westernization. .A 2005 UNESCO report[149] showed that cultural exchange is becoming more frequent from Eastern Asia but .^ As Tyler Cowen points out in his excellent book, cross-border cultural exchange increases diversity within societies -- but at the expense of making them more alike.

^ Cross-cultural exchange can spread greater diversity as well as greater similarity: more gourmet restaurants as well as more McDonald's.

^ According to the report, the steepest increases in HIV infections have occurred in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (25% increase to 1.6 million) and East Asia.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

.In 2002, China was the third largest exporter of cultural goods, after the UK and US. Between 1994 and 2002, both North America's and the European Union's shares of cultural exports declined, while Asia's cultural exports grew to surpass North America.^ Within the developing world, the benefits of trade liberalisation will be unequally distributed between the larger, more advanced exporters of manufacturing goods in south-east Asia and Latin America and the poorer primary-commodity producers in Africa and elsewhere.
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^ It would also give US and EU exporters of manufactures and services eyeing up new markets in India and China something to fight for.

^ He said that some politicians in Europe and North America had been blaming China for problems in their own economies that they had failed to tackle themselves.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

.Related factors are the fact that Asia's population and area are several times that of North America.^ Furthermore agricultural issues, including the need for North America to open its markets and the fact that farms have become “corporatized,” have also compounded the problem.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the first four years of the 1990s, East Asia's GDP grew at five times the rate for sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America's at twice the rate.
  • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The free-trade zone of the Americas, covering all of North and South America, has been the subject of intense, highly secretive negotiations for several years.

.Some opponents of globalization see the phenomenon as the promotion of corporatist interests.^ Harnessing the forces of globalization to serve the interests of the poor • What types of alliances are required to maximize the benefits of globalization and mitigate some of the negative aspects?
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, in the case in which we see globalisation as a non-systemic phenomenon, this implies that we see it as the result of an exogenous change in economic policy.
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some important concepts can help us see links between all the dimensions of globalization identified above are the generic notions of function and structure .
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[150] .They also claim that the increasing autonomy and strength of corporate entities shapes the political policy of countries.^ States are not rudderless boats driven by powerful currents of private capital flows, and they retain the power to shape policies in the public interest.
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^ The ideal type they use is, they say, an extreme one, but represents what globalisation would be if it were occurring and they say it is one that shapes discussions in business and political circles.
  • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ National economic, political and cultural forces are transformed and have to share their sovereignty with other entities (of global governance and international law, as well as with mobile capital, multi-national corporations and global social movements) but they are not removed.
  • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[151][152]

International Social Forums

.See main articles: European Social Forum, the Asian Social Forum,(Africa Social Forum), World Social Forum (WSF).^ The World Social Forum To Provide Space for Economic Alternatives , World Social Forum ~ November 6 .

^ Relying only on his passionate belief that now was the time for a World Social Forum and that Porto Alegre was the place, I agreed to come give one of the opening speeches.
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^ The World Social Forum To Provide Space for Economic Alternatives .

.The first WSF in 2001 was an initiative of the administration of Porto Alegre in Brazil.^ Assim foi em 2001, no I Fórum Social Mundial, em Porto Alegre, que surpreendeu pelo novidade e potencialidades.
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^ Tonight I am on the plane back home from the second World Social Forum, held in Porto Alegre with three times as many people as the first year.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Commission was profiled in the Economist, National Public Radio, the BBC, and a number of other newspapers and journals resulting from activities in Porto Alegre, Brazil.
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.The slogan of the World Social Forum was "Another World Is Possible". It was here that the WSF's Charter of Principles was adopted to provide a framework for the forums.It proved to be a vibrant player in macro level.^ The strength of the World Social Forum is that it is civil."
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Relying only on his passionate belief that now was the time for a World Social Forum and that Porto Alegre was the place, I agreed to come give one of the opening speeches.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Het voorgaande komt aardig tot uitdrukking in de bekende slogan van het WSF: “Another world is possible”.
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.The WSF became a periodic meeting: in 2002 and 2003 it was held again in Porto Alegre and became a rallying point for worldwide protest against the American invasion of Iraq.^ Next year they are planning regional gatherings in Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and in Porto Alegre for the regional meeting for the Americas.
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^ The World Social Forum convened it’s second annual meeting in Porto Alegre January 31-February 4, 2002, timed to coincide with the World Economic Forum, convened this year in New York.
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^ The PAG Steering Committee held its inaugural meeting at the Breuninger Foundation estate on Wasan Island in the Muskoka Lakes of Ontario, Canada, on July 6-10, 2002.
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.In 2004 it was moved to Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay, in India), to make it more accessible to the populations of Asia and Africa.^ India, home to more than a fifth of the developing world’s population, is also catching up with the west.

^ That the changes happen within the country, because the country is developing, is getting more industry, and more of the population is moving to cities.
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^ Since three billion of the worlds people still work as small farmers (Amin 2004), the AoA threatens the survival of more than half the worlds population.
  • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

This last appointment saw the participation of 75,000 delegates.
.In the meantime, regional forums took place following the example of the WSF, adopting its Charter of Principles.^ The Herzliya security conference took place on the Israeli coast and the World Economic Forum was held in the Swiss mountains.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

.The first European Social Forum (ESF) was held in November 2002 in Florence.^ The Secretariat is working with Candido Grzybowski to involve the Commission in the activities of the World Social Forum, including several presentations on the Commission's activities at the 2002 Porto Allegre conference.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead, they attend the rival World Social Forum, which is held at about the same time as Davos.
  • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

^ Tonight I am on the plane back home from the second World Social Forum, held in Porto Alegre with three times as many people as the first year.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The slogan was "Against the war, against racism and against neo-liberalism". It saw the participation of 60,000 delegates and ended with a huge demonstration against the war (1,000,000 people according to the organizers).^ But one can plausibly be against the dominant form of globalisation today – the neo-liberal form.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They are generally clearer about what they’re against than what they are for, although what they are really against – globalisation, capitalism, neo-liberalism – is not always very clear either.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The movement then spread wide and fast across the globe and mobilized a total of up to 15 million people for protests against the wars in Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, and Iraq.
  • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The other two ESFs took place in Paris and London, in 2003 and 2004 respectively.^ It took over two hundred years for this concept of the secular state to become the dominant political idea of modern politics, first in Europe and then slowly in other parts of the world.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A second meeting of the Steering Committee was hosted by the Breuninger Foundation and also took place at Wasan Island, Canada, on July 9 - 12, 2003.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Recently there has been some discussion behind the movement about the role of the social forums.^ Some discuss alternatives that are none: a reform of the WTO; a control of globalization through NGOs; a return to Keynesianism; a restoration of social market economy; or even a revival of socialism.
  • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Looking Back, Looking Forward " World Social Forum, Porto Alegre, Brazil February 5, 2002 Two years ago, when a friend from Brazil started talking about plans to organize a global gathering of social movements, it was impossible for me to imagine.
  • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is the potential of the anti-globalisation movement to bring about a systemic change, as some participants demand, or at least a radical social change to drastically alter the character of the present globalisation, as the majority calls for?
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some see them as a "popular university", an occasion to make many people aware of the problems of globalization.^ Nearly four thousand people died in the 11 September attacks and everyone agrees that global terrorism is a pressing and urgent problem.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the more naïve people who talk about globalisation imagine that its world processes are alien to traditional, local societies.
  • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Globalisation has become a convenient catch-all for everything many people dislike about the modern world.

.Others would prefer that delegates concentrate their efforts on the coordination and organization of the movement and on the planning of new campaigns.^ The postmodernist trend, which has been adopted by some activists, particularly feminists, Greens and others belonging to what used to be called new social movements.
  • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And as we've seen in Seattle and Prague and many other places around the world, a new peoples' movement against corporate globalization is beginning to take off.

^ As thousands of students joined with trade unionists, environmentalists and others to demonstrate against the World Trade Organization, a new era of protest was dawning.

.However it has often been argued that in the dominated countries (most of the world) the WSF is little more than an 'NGO fair' driven by Northern NGOs and donors most of which are hostile to popular movements of the poor.^ Inequality in wealth mirrors a deep inequity in the rules governing world trade and finance, which have been structured around the interests of the most developed countries.
  • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The poor in developing countries are often better off when their governments ignore the policy advice of the International Monetary Fund and World Bank, according to a study by a World Bank economist.

^ Royal Dutch Shell Group has more than 2,000 companies operating in more than 100 countries.

[153]

See also

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    • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

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  70. ^ Dr. Daulaire. Globalization and Health. Retrieved October 11, 2006 from http://www.globalhealth.org/assets/html/drmed3.html
  71. ^ Stéphane Barry and Norbert Gualde, in L'Histoire n° 310, June 2006, pp.45–46, say "between one-third and two-thirds"; Robert Gottfried (1983). "Black Death" in Dictionary of the Middle Ages, volume 2, pp.257–67, says "between 25 and 45 percent".
  72. ^ The Impact of Globalization on Infectious Disease Emergence and Control: Exploring the Consequences and Opportunities, Workshop Summary - Forum on Microbial Threats
  73. ^ "The virus from Africa reached the U.S. by way of Haiti, a genetic study shows". Los Angelese Times. October 30, 2007.
  74. ^ "Obama Ends U.S. Travel Ban On Visitors, Immigrants With HIV-AIDS". ABC News. October 30, 2009.
  75. ^ "Report: Black U.S. AIDS rates rival some African nations". CNN.com. July 29, 2008.
  76. ^ "Chagas disease", HealthCentral.com.
  77. ^ "Trends in Tuberculosis Incidence --- United States, 2006". CDC.gov. March 23, 2007 / 56(11);245-250.
  78. ^ "Brain drain in Africa"
  79. ^ "Students’ exodus costs India forex outflow of $10 bn: Assocham". Thaindian News. January 26, 2009.
  80. ^ "Economic Crisis in a Globalized World". Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). November 21, 2008
  81. ^ "The fruit of hypocrisy". The Guardian. September 16, 2008
  82. ^ "Banks Taking Same Risks That Led to Crisis: ECB's Noyer". CNBC.com. October 26, 2009.
  83. ^ Vogel, Ezra F. 1991. The Four Little Dragons: The Spread of Industrialization in East Asia. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
  84. ^ "SOUTH AFRICA: Fallout as China sews up textile market". IRIN Africa. June 29, 2005.
  85. ^ Growth of China's textile industry slows". Chinadaily.com.cn. March 21, 2007.
  86. ^ "Asia strips Africa's textile industry". Asia Times. April 26, 2005.
  87. ^ "Factory jobs: 3 million lost since 2000". USATODAY.com. April 20, 2007.
  88. ^ "Growth of millionaires in India fastest in world ". Thaindian News. June 25, 2008.
  89. ^ "Birth rates 'must be curbed to win war on global poverty'". The Independent. January 31, 2007.
  90. ^ "Half of India's children malnourished, says NGO report". Calcutta News. October 15, 2009.
  91. ^ "Brazil Amazon deforestation soars". BBC News. January 24, 2008.
  92. ^ "China overtakes US as world's biggest CO2 emitter". Guardian.co.uk. June 19, 2007.
  93. ^ "China is black hole of Asia's deforestation." Asia News. March 24, 2008.
  94. ^ "Japan depletes Borneo's rainforests; China remains largest log importer"
  95. ^ Oil price 'may hit $200 a barrel', BBC News
  96. ^ "Running Out of Planet to Exploit". The New York Times. April 21, 2008.
  97. ^ "International Petroleum (Oil) Consumption Data". U.S. Energy Information Administration. http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/oilconsumption.html. Retrieved 2007-12-20. 
  98. ^ http://tfc-charts.com/chart/QM/W
  99. ^ "Booming nations 'threaten Earth'". BBC News. January 12, 2006.
  100. ^ "Earth's natural wealth: an audit". New Scientist. May 23, 2007.
  101. ^ "State of the World 2006: China and India Hold World in Balance". Worldwatch Institute. 11 January 2006.
  102. ^ "Effects of Over-Consumption and Increasing Populations". 26 September 2001. Retrieved on 19 June 2007
  103. ^ von Braun, "High and Rising Food Prices", 2008, p 5, slide 14
  104. ^ Kindall, Henery W & Pimentel, David (May 1994). "Constraints on the Expansion of the Global Food Supply". Ambio. 23 (3). http://dieoff.org/page36.htm. 
  105. ^ "The limits of a Green Revolution?". BBC News. March 29, 2007.
  106. ^ "Feed the world? We are fighting a losing battle, UN admits". The Guardian. February 26, 2008.
  107. ^ "World faces 'perfect storm' of problems by 2030, chief scientist to warn". The Guardian. March 18, 2009.
  108. ^ "Global crisis 'to strike by 2030'". BBC News. March 19, 2009.
  109. ^ "Global food production will have to increase 70% for additional 2.3 billion people by 2050". Finfacts.com. September 24, 2009.
  110. ^ Tainter, JA 1996. Complexity, Problem Solving, and Sustainable Societies. In Costanza, R, Segura,O & Martinez-Alier, J (eds) Getting Down to Earth: Practical Applications of Ecological Economics. Washington, DC: Island Press:61–76.
  111. ^ Pimentel, D & Pimentel, M 2008. Food, Energy, and Society. 3rd edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press:137–159.
  112. ^ Catton, WR Jr 1980. Overshoot: The Ecological Basis of Revolutionary Change. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
  113. ^ Helga Vierich "Before farming and after globalization: the future of hunter- gatherers may be brighter than you think", In Before Farming 2008/4 article 4(1). See also discussion at: http://www.waspress.co.uk/journals/beforefarming/journal_20084/editorial/index.php
  114. ^ Juliet Eilperin (2 November 2006). ""Seafood Population Depleted by 2048, Study Finds"". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/11/02/AR2006110200913.html. 
  115. ^ http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2009/gashc3947.doc.htm
  116. ^ "Drug Trade". BBC News.
  117. ^ "Will traditional Chinese medicine mean the end of the wild tiger?". San Francisco Chronicle. November 11, 2007.
  118. ^ "India says Chinese medicine fuels tiger poaching". Reuters. September 17, 2009.
  119. ^ "Rhino rescue plan decimates Asian antelopes". New Scientist. February 12, 2003.
  120. ^ "'Only 50 years left' for sea fish", BBC News. 2 November 2006.
  121. ^ http://www.globalexchange.org/campaigns/sweatshops/nike/faq.html
  122. ^ GovTrack, S. 3485
  123. ^ http://www.educatingforjustice.org/stopnikesweatshops.htm
  124. ^ Terry Flew. Ten Key Contemparary New Media Theorist.2008.P 78
  125. ^ a b Sachs, Jeffrey (2005). The End of Poverty. New York, New York: The Penguin Press. ISBN 1-59420-045-9. 
  126. ^ "World Bank, Poverty Rates, 1981–2002" (PDF). http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DATASTATISTICS/Resources/table2-7.pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-04. 
  127. ^ http://www.usacor.org/archive/index.html
  128. ^ No Logo: No Space, No Choice, No Jobs, Naomi Klein.
  129. ^ Hirst and Thompson "The Future of Globalisation" Published: Cooperation and Conflict, Vol. 37, No. 3, 247-265 (2002)DOI: 10.1177/0010836702037003671 http://cac.sagepub.com/cgi/content/short/37/3/247
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  131. ^ [3] Podobnik, Bruce, Resistance to Globalization: Cycles and Evolutions in the Globalization Protest Movement, p. 2.
  132. ^ Stiglitz, Joseph & Charlton Fair Trade for All: How Trade Can Promote Development. 2005 p. 54 n. 23
  133. ^ The Happy Planet Index
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  135. ^ Capra, Fritjof (2002). The Hidden Connections. New York, New York: Random House. ISBN 0-385-49471-8. 
  136. ^ Noam Chomsky Znet 07 May 2002 / The Croatian Feral Tribune 27 April 2002 [4]
  137. ^ Interview by Sniježana Matejčić, June 2005 en 2.htm
  138. ^ a b Hurst E. Charles. Social Inequality: Forms, Causes, and consequences, 6th ed. P.41
  139. ^ Chossudovsky, Michel. The globalization of poverty and the new world order / by Michel Chossudovsky. Edition 2nd ed. Imprint Shanty Bay, Ont. : Global Outlook, c2003.
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  141. ^ Pavcnik, Nina (September 2005). "Child Labor in the Global Economy". Journal of Economic Perspectives 19 (1): 199–220. doi:10.1257/0895330053147895. 
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  143. ^ Fórum Social Mundial
  144. ^ Wade, Robert Hunter. 'The Rising Inequality of World Income Distribution', Finance & Development, Vol 38, No 4 December 2001
  145. ^ Xabier Gorostiaga,"World has become a 'champagne glass' globalization will fill it fuller for a wealthy few' National Catholic Reporter, Jan 27, 1995 '
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  150. ^ Lee, Laurence (17 May 2007). "WTO blamed for India grain suicides". Al Jazeera. http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/2ED53A8B-1058-49CF-B9FF-3D96639456D1.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-17. 
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  152. ^ Perkins, John (2004). Confessions of an Economic Hit Man. San Francisco, California: Berrett-Koehler. ISBN 1-57675-301-8. 
  153. ^ Pambazuka News

Further reading

  • Barbara, Christopher (2008). International legal personality: Panacea or pandemonium? .Theorizing about the individual and the state in the era of globalization.^ This requires state-building, and public management capacity at the level of individual states, and at the level of supranational regions, and at the level of the global economy.
    • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ About 800,000 passenger vehicles are expected to be manufactured this year in Alabama, all for global brands; cars have become to the state's economy what cotton once was.
    • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

    ^ The Myth of the Powerless State: Governing the Economy in a Global Era .
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Saarbrücken: Verlag Dr. Müller. ISBN 3639115147. .http://www.amazon.com/International-legal-personality-pandemonium-globalization/dp/3639115147/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1230743211&sr=1-2. 
  • Barzilai, Gad (2008).^ The Nation , November 29 th , http://www.thenation.com/doc/19991129/mcchesney .
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For more information, please see these websites: http://www.savekirthar.org , http://www.oilwatch.org.ec/tegantai/ , http://www.shell.com/royal-en/ .

    ^ Globalisation after 11 September: the argument of our time , http://www.opendemocracy.net/globalisation-institutions_government/article_637.jsp .
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Beyond Relativism: Where is Political Power in Legal Pluralism.^ PH – David’s aims are admirable, but real democracy beyond the nation-state, a real , popular power of decision at the global level, is beyond the political horizon.
    • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

    The Berkeley Electronic Press. pp. 395–416. .http://www.bepress.com/til/default/vol9/iss2/art4/. 
  • Bastardas-Boada, Albert (2002), “World Language Policy in the Era of Globalization: Diversity and Intercommunication from the Perspective of 'Complexity'", Noves SL, Revista de Sociolingüística (Barcelona), http://www6.gencat.net/llengcat/noves/hm02estiu/metodologia/a_bastardas1_9.htm.
  • von Braun, Joachim; Eugenio Diaz-Bonilla (2007).^ The Nation , November 29 th , http://www.thenation.com/doc/19991129/mcchesney .
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Developing Countries’ Anti-Cyclical Policies in a Globalized World .
    • Globalization in Latin America 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC library.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Trackbacks (0) Tuesday, March 6, 2007 "Feh" to globalization That's the conclusion of Pankaj Ghemawat in this Foreign Policy essay .
    • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

    Globalization of Food and Agriculture and the Poor. .Oxford: Oxford University Press.^ UN, Human Development Report 2000 (NY: Oxford University Press, 2000).
    • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Oxford : Oxford University Press.
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ UN, Human Development Report 1999 (NY: Oxford University Press, 1999).
    • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 9780195695281. .http://www.ifpri.org/PUBS/otherpubs/globalpoor.asp. 
  • Peter Berger, Four Faces of Global Culture (The National Interest, Fall 1997).
  • Friedman, Thomas L. (2005).^ CEMINA (Comunicacao Educacao e Informacao em Genero) http://www.mstbrazil.org (English) .
    • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ethos Website: http://www.ethos.org.br (Portuguese) .
    • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ But the reality is that the AIDS epidemic continues to outstrip global and national efforts to contain it," said UNAIDS Executive Director Dr Peter Piot.
    • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

    The World Is Flat. .New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.^ Among the pro-globalizers, Thomas Friedman, columnist for The New York Times and author of The Lexus and the Olive Tree (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1999), believes that globalization is "globalizing American culture and American cultural icons."

    ISBN 0-374-29288-4. 
  • Glyn, Andrew (2006). Capitalism Unleashed: Finance, Globalization, and Welfare. .Oxford: Oxford University Press.^ UN, Human Development Report 2000 (NY: Oxford University Press, 2000).
    • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Oxford : Oxford University Press.
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ UN, Human Development Report 1999 (NY: Oxford University Press, 1999).
    • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0199226792. .http://www.oup.com/us/catalog/general/subject/Economics/International/?view=usa&ci=9780199226795. 
  • Gowan, Peter (1999).^ The Future of the US Workforce by Jacob Funk Kirkegaard, Peterson Institute for International Economics Op-ed in the Globalist April 14, 2008 .
    • Research Areas: Main 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.iie.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Nation , November 29 th , http://www.thenation.com/doc/19991129/mcchesney .
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For more information, please see these websites: http://www.savekirthar.org , http://www.oilwatch.org.ec/tegantai/ , http://www.shell.com/royal-en/ .

    .The Global Gamble: Washington's Faustian Bid for World Dominance.^ As befits our global world, I was talking on the telephone to a Samoan friend in Washington DC who runs Counterpart, an ngo active in sixty countries.
    • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Commission on Globalisation met in Mexico City in December 2002 in a world increasingly dominated by the probability of American action in Iraq.
    • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    London: Verso. ISBN 1859842712. .http://www.versobooks.com/books/ghij/g-titles/gowan_global.shtml. 
  • Grinin, Leonid.^ The Nation , November 29 th , http://www.thenation.com/doc/19991129/mcchesney .
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For more information, please see these websites: http://www.savekirthar.org , http://www.oilwatch.org.ec/tegantai/ , http://www.shell.com/royal-en/ .

    ^ Truth About Trade's report ( http://www.truthabouttrade.com ) provides "an outline of the history, goals, financial strength and level of activism for ...

    .Globalization and Sovereignty: Why do States Abandon their Sovereign Prerogatives?.^ Political globalisation refers to the withering away of the nation-state (at least as far as economic sovereignty is concerned).
    • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ That's why the United States' quest for energy security must encompass global energy security too.
    • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Can the European Union provide an alternative model of globalisation to that of the United States in terms of sharing of sovereignty.
    • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

    .http://old.uchitel-izd.ru/index.php?option=content&task=view&id=155&Itemid=97.
     
  • Haggblade, Steven; et al.^ This sounds like a more radical position than that of the sceptics but Held et al qualify this argument with the view that territorial boundaries are still important.
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (2007). .Transforming the Rural Nonfarm Economy: Opportunities and Threats in the Developing World.^ A debate on globalisation at the crossroads considered three main threats to the world economy failed trade talks, financial regulation and global economic imbalances.
    • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

    ^ To get those things, the poor of the world need economic development and a market economy that can afford public goods and the taxes to pay for them.
    • Globalisation: the argument of our time | openDemocracy 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To the detached observer, noting the contrast between the presumed benefits of globalisation and developments in the real world, the international economy displays a number of worrying trends.
    • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Johns Hopkins University Press.^ Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.
    • Globalization in Latin America 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC library.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, Washington DC .
    • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Yet Francis Fukuyama, a professor of international political economy at the Johns Hopkins University, is nearer the mark when he talks about the "end of history."

    pp. 512. ISBN 978-0-8018-8663-8. .http://www.ifpri.org/pubs/jhu/transformrural.asp. 
  • Kitching, Gavin (2001).^ CEMINA (Comunicacao Educacao e Informacao em Genero) http://www.mstbrazil.org (English) .
    • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ethos Website: http://www.ethos.org.br (Portuguese) .
    • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For more information, please see these websites: http://www.savekirthar.org , http://www.oilwatch.org.ec/tegantai/ , http://www.shell.com/royal-en/ .

    .Seeking Social Justice through Globalization.^ Some discuss alternatives that are none: a reform of the WTO; a control of globalization through NGOs; a return to Keynesianism; a restoration of social market economy; or even a revival of socialism.
    • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Caravan seeks an end to globalisation; and instead advocates genuine agrarian reform to achieve food security, social justice, and land and food without poisons.

    ^ So companies are not irresponsible if they maximise profits within the framework of the law; it is society that is irresponsible if it seeks to pursue (often misguided) social and environmental aims through CSR. .

    Escaping a Nationalist Perspective
    . Penn State Press. ISBN 0271021624. .http://www.gavinkitching.com/africa_3.htm. 
  • Gernot Kohler and Emilio José Chaves (Editors) “Globalization: Critical Perspectives” Haupauge, New York: Nova Science Publishers (http://www.novapublishers.com/) ISBN 1-59033-346-2. With contributions by Samir Amin, Christopher Chase Dunn, Andre Gunder Frank, Immanuel Wallerstein
  • Mander, Jerry; Edward Goldsmith (1996).^ Wallerstein, Immanuel, Globalization or the age of transition?
    • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Frank, Andre Gunder, 2005, Orientierung im Weltsystem.
    • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Science article is called Economic Networks: The New Challenges by Frank Schweitzer et al.
    • The Financial Services Club's Blog: Globalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC thefinanser.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The case against the global economy : and for a turn toward the local.^ In this case, globalisation is a reversible development, even within the system of the market economy.
    • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This time, the argument supporting the case for the supposed end of globalisation is based on the present slowdown in the US economy and the election of George Bush as US president.
    • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ However, the relative weakness of the local economies, especially in the developing world, and the strength of global market-forces means that adjustment to world market pressures poses tough challenges.
    • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    San Francisco: Sierra Club Books. ISBN 0-87156-865-9. 
  • Moore, Karl; David Lewis (2009). Origins of Globalization. .New York: Routledge.^ New York: Routledge, 2001.
    • Globalization in Latin America 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC library.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York: Routledge, 2000.
    • Globalization in Latin America 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC library.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York: Routledge, 2005.
    • Globalization in Latin America 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC library.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 978-0-415-80598-8. .http://www.routledgehistory.com/books/The-Origins-of-Globalization-isbn9780415805988. 
  • Murray, Warwick E. (2006).^ For more information, please see these websites: http://www.savekirthar.org , http://www.oilwatch.org.ec/tegantai/ , http://www.shell.com/royal-en/ .

    ^ Truth About Trade's report ( http://www.truthabouttrade.com ) provides "an outline of the history, goals, financial strength and level of activism for ...

    ^ Mobilizing Against the FTAA in http://www.a20.org [103] Timothy W. Luke, Globalization, Popular Resistance and Postmodernity (in this issue).
    • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Geographies of Globalization. .New York: Routledge.^ New York: Routledge, 2001.
    • Globalization in Latin America 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC library.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York: Routledge, 2000.
    • Globalization in Latin America 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC library.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York: Routledge, 2005.
    • Globalization in Latin America 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC library.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .ISBN 0415317991. 
  • Osterhammel, Jurgen; Niels P. Petersson (2005).^ Osterhammel, Jrgen and Petersson, Niels P. (2005) Globalization: A Short History .
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Globalization: A Short History.^ Osterhammel, Jrgen and Petersson, Niels P. (2005) Globalization: A Short History .
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.^ Possible conflict of interest alert : I have an advance contract for my globalization book with Princeton University Press.
    • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Woodstock : Princeton University Press.
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0-691-12165-6. .http://www.amazon.com/Globalization-Short-History-Jurgen-Osterhammel/dp/0691121656/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238939576&sr=1-1. 
  • Raffaele Feola, La Globalizzazione dell'Arte.^ The Nation , November 29 th , http://www.thenation.com/doc/19991129/mcchesney .
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For more information, please see these websites: http://www.savekirthar.org , http://www.oilwatch.org.ec/tegantai/ , http://www.shell.com/royal-en/ .

    ^ Globalisation after 11 September: the argument of our time , http://www.opendemocracy.net/globalisation-institutions_government/article_637.jsp .
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .L'UTOPIA DEL GLOBALE, Napoli 2009.
  • Reinsdorf, Marshall and Matthew J. Slaughter (2009).^ Globalization and the Perceptions of American Workers by Kenneth F. Scheve and Matthew J. Slaughter March 2001 .
    • Research Areas: Main 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.iie.com [Source type: Academic]

    .International Trade in Services and Intangibles in the Era of Globalization.^ Anti-globalisation organisations claim that globalisation and increasing free international trade increase poverty, and widen the gap between rich and poor.
    • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Greater international trade and investment is happening but within existing structures rather than there being a new global economic structure developed.
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Globalization of IT Services and White Collar Jobs: The Next Wave of Productivity Growth [pdf] by Catherine L. Mann, Peterson Institute for International Economics December 2003 .
    • Research Areas: Main 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.iie.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.^ Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.
    • Globalization in Latin America 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC library.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 9780226709598. 
  • Sen, Amartya (1999). Development as Freedom. .Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.^ New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
    • Globalization in Latin America 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC library.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ UN, Human Development Report 2000 (NY: Oxford University Press, 2000).
    • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New Haven : Yale University Press.
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 019289330.
     
  • Sirkin, Harold L; James W. Hemerling and Arindam K. Bhattacharya (2008). Globality: Competing with Everyone from Everywhere for Everything. .New York: Business Plus.^ This leads to a fundamental question -- what on earth motivated the New York Times to put this article on the front page of its Business section?
    • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

    pp. 292. ISBN 0446178292. .http://www.bcg.com/globality. 
  • Smith, Charles (2007).^ The Nation , November 29 th , http://www.thenation.com/doc/19991129/mcchesney .
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For more information, please see these websites: http://www.savekirthar.org , http://www.oilwatch.org.ec/tegantai/ , http://www.shell.com/royal-en/ .

    ^ Globalisation after 11 September: the argument of our time , http://www.opendemocracy.net/globalisation-institutions_government/article_637.jsp .
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .International Trade and Globalisation, 3rd edition.^ Greater international trade and investment is happening but within existing structures rather than there being a new global economic structure developed.
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ That is why globalisation in the form of international trade and foreign investment is such a good thing.

    ^ Competitive Liberalization and Global Free Trade: A Vision for the Early 21st Century by C. Fred Bergsten, Peterson Institute for International Economics .
    • Research Areas: Main 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.iie.com [Source type: Academic]

    Stocksfield: Anforme. ISBN 1905504101. 
  • Steger, Manfred (2002). .Globalism: the new market ideology.^ However, the current combination of globalization and the deregulation of markets and the information technology revolution has created a new more volatile situation.
    • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For developing countries, globalisation is seen as the door to new opportunities - wider markets for trade, private capital inflows, improved access to technology, and greater efficiency.
    • Globalisation and Liberalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC hdr.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In this sense, todays globalisation (or, preferably, internationalisation) is indeed a new phenomenon, although it is the outcome of the dynamics of the market economy that was established two centuries ago.
    • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.^ The Postindustrial Alternative to Corporate Globalization, Lanham, Rowman & Littlefield .
    • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003.394p.
    • Globalization in Latin America 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC library.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 1998.
    • Globalization in Latin America 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC library.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0742500721.
     
  • Steger, Manfred (2003). .Globalization: A Very Short Introduction.^ In short, Hirst and Thompson show globalisation to be a very uneven process.
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.^ New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
    • Globalization in Latin America 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC library.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ UN, Human Development Report 2000 (NY: Oxford University Press, 2000).
    • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New Haven : Yale University Press.
    • The Third Wave in Globalisation Theory - Luke Martell 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.sussex.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0-19-280359-X.
     
  • Stiglitz, Joseph E. (2002). Globalization and Its Discontents. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-32439-7. 
  • Stiglitz, Joseph E. (2006). .Making Globalization Work.^ This, by the way, is one of the basic problem I find with the parts of Making Globalization Work that I've read.
    • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

    New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-06122-1.
     
  • Tausch, Arno (2008). .Multicultural Europe: Effects of the Global Lisbon Process.^ The first criticism refers to the fact that this approach gives the impression that the new transnational capitalist class is the cause of the present globalisation whereas, in fact, it is only the effect of this process.
    • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ So, in this problematique, there is an interacting process in which economic globalisation is facilitated by technological globalisation but also enhances it, political globalisation is the necessary complement of economic globalisation, whereas social and cultural globalisation are the inevitable effects of economic globalisation.
    • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers. ISBN 978-1-60456-806-6. .https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=7489. 
  • Tausch, Arno (2009).^ For more information, please see these websites: http://www.savekirthar.org , http://www.oilwatch.org.ec/tegantai/ , http://www.shell.com/royal-en/ .

    ^ Truth About Trade's report ( http://www.truthabouttrade.com ) provides "an outline of the history, goals, financial strength and level of activism for ...

    ^ World Social Forum Website: http://www.worldsocialforum.com .
    • Commission on Globalisation | Coming Events 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.worldforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Titanic 2010? The European Union and its failed “Lisbon strategy.^ From the "failed" Seattle meeting, the TABD calls for "harmonization of regulations and standards" between the United States and the European Union(EU).

    Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers. ISBN 978-1-60741-826-9. .https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=8314. 
  • Rafael Domingo Osle, The New Global Law (Cambridge Uiversity Press, 2010)
  • Wolf, Martin (2004).^ New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
    • Globalization in Latin America 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC library.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ For more information, please see these websites: http://www.savekirthar.org , http://www.oilwatch.org.ec/tegantai/ , http://www.shell.com/royal-en/ .

    ^ New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995.
    • Globalization in Latin America 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC library.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Why Globalization Works. .New Haven: Yale University Press.^ New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
    • Globalization in Latin America 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC library.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York: New York University Press, 2006.
    • Globalization in Latin America 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC library.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York: Columbia University Press, c2005.
    • Globalization in Latin America 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC library.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 978-0300102529. 

External links

.

Multimedia


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.Globalization, or globalisation, is the increasing interdependence, integration and interaction among people and corporations in disparate locations around the world.^ Despite massive state interventions in economies around the world, many corporate leaders and investors act as though globalization remains the dominant paradigm.
  • Strategy - Globalization articles from McKinsey Quarterly 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.mckinseyquarterly.com [Source type: News]

^ Anti-globalisation campaigners unite around the belief that world governance is influenced too strongly by corporate promotion of unconditional global economic growth over sustainable development.
  • OneWorld Globalisation Guide 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC uk.oneworld.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fourth, the flows of money, ideas, drugs, arms and, to a lesser extent, people around the world, have eroded in crucial respects the importance of territorial boundaries.
  • The Monotheistic Religions in the Era of Globalisation - Centre for World Dialogue 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC worlddialogue.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is an umbrella term which refers to a complex of economic, trade, social, technological, cultural and political interrelationships.^ Features of globalisation (political, economic, cultural and social) .

^ Globalization, thus, has powerful economic, political, cultural and social dimensions.
  • the theory and experience of globalization 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.infed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its a controversial process that assaults national sovereignty, erodes local culture and tradition and threatens economic and social stability."
  • GLOBILISATION AND PLIGHT OF TRIBALS 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.goethals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sourced

  • If America likes it, then eventually it will be gone. .
    • Yao Changke [1]
  • "Globalization" is a horrible term, in the sense that it encompasses all kinds of things; it's used very widely and vaguely.^ IT HAS BECOME increasingly fashionable to use the term globalisation as a description of the international economy and international political relations .
    • Against capitalist globalisation - Irish anarchist writings on neoliberalism and the anti - capitalist protests 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC struggle.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Herman E. Daly argues that sometimes the terms internationalization and globalization are used interchangeably but there is a slight formal difference.
    • Globalization encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As a start, however, we can begin by using familiar notions as a kind of scaffold on which to construct a new edifice that can more suitably represent globalization as a holistic process or system.
    • GLOBALIZATION: KEY CONCEPTS 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • Projects to stop the spread of AIDS have tried to establish protective boundaries ...^ Saudi Arabia, especially, has tried to stop Venezeula from hijacking the meeting to push its nationalist cause and its spread its criticism of the US, Opecs biggest customer.
    • danieldrezner.com :: Daniel W. Drezner :: globalization Archives 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.danieldrezner.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Bristol-Myers made a $100 million gift for clinics and research to help stop the spread of AIDS in southern Africa.

    by requiring HIV tests in order to cross national boundaries. .The boundaries of nation-states, however, are increasingly permeable by all kinds of flows.^ The political systems of the West and the nation state as guarantees for and expression of the international division of labor in the modern world system are increasingly dissolving (Sassen 2000).
    • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ However, Wolf points out that the state and ruling elites were becoming increasingly dependent on the loyalty of the rapidly increasing working class.
    • Martin Wolf, Why Globalization Works (I), international trade, free trade 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Initially, all economic barriers to trade would be translated into tariffs, and over time, all tariffs would be eliminated, erasing all economic boundaries among nations.
    • The Real Costs of Globalization 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.ssu.missouri.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Nothing can bring back the hygienic shields of colonial boundaries. The age of globalization is the age of universal contagion. .
    • Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Empire, p.^ Hardt, Michael und Negri, Antonio, 2001, Empire, Cambridge, Harvard Univ.
      • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Hardt, M and Negri, A (2000) Empire .
      • GLOBALISATION, LABOUR AND THE POLANYI PROBLEM 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.theglobalsite.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ A review of Negri and Hardt's book Empire from an anarchist perspective, this started off as a talk for the Dublin WSM branch .
      • Against capitalist globalisation - Irish anarchist writings on neoliberalism and the anti - capitalist protests 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC struggle.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .136.
  • Simplifying a great deal, one could argue that postmodernist discourses appeal primarily to the winners in the processes of globalization and fundamentalist discourses to the losers.^ Globalisation as discourse and process of contestation .

    ^ In [1a.1], for example, if we thought of "historical globalization" as a term and tried to define it, we might argue that although the process is old, it did not begin 5000 years ago.
    • GLOBALIZATION: KEY CONCEPTS 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Revolution in telecommunication technology is one such important device which speeded up the globalisation process.
    • globalisationofculture 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.cpim.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Empire, p.^ Hardt, Michael und Negri, Antonio, 2001, Empire, Cambridge, Harvard Univ.
      • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Hardt, M and Negri, A (2000) Empire .
      • GLOBALISATION, LABOUR AND THE POLANYI PROBLEM 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.theglobalsite.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ A review of Negri and Hardt's book Empire from an anarchist perspective, this started off as a talk for the Dublin WSM branch .
      • Against capitalist globalisation - Irish anarchist writings on neoliberalism and the anti - capitalist protests 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC struggle.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      150.
  • Globalization must be met with a counter-globalization, Empire with a counter-Empire. .
    • Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Empire, p.^ Hardt, Michael und Negri, Antonio, 2001, Empire, Cambridge, Harvard Univ.
      • The Consequences of Globalization and Neoliberal Policies. What are the Alternatives? 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Hardt, M and Negri, A (2000) Empire .
      • GLOBALISATION, LABOUR AND THE POLANYI PROBLEM 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.theglobalsite.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ A review of Negri and Hardt's book Empire from an anarchist perspective, this started off as a talk for the Dublin WSM branch .
      • Against capitalist globalisation - Irish anarchist writings on neoliberalism and the anti - capitalist protests 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC struggle.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      207.
  • Let's discuss the world. .To answer the question, "is globalisation possible without God", the simple answer is "yes". Globalisation is after all itself a code word, a mask, for not using the C-word, capitalism.^ Under the Globalisation dispensation world is reduced to the status of economic territories to be exploited by transnational capital without any accountability or obligation to the Nation States.
    • globalisationofculture 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.cpim.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In some cases it will play a key role giving access to capital and markets and creating jobs not possible using only local resources.
    • VUW Chaplaincies / Issues / Globalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.victoria.ac.nz [Source type: News]

    ^ Without sound underlying social and moral values and principles ‘globalized’ capitalism relies on the base instincts of profit, greed and selfishness.

    .Globalisation is basically the latest phase of expanding capitalism.^ The gap between rich and poor has widened as global capitalism has expanded.
    • the theory and experience of globalization 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.infed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This not something which is neutral, this is a capitalism that has its rules: it has its economic rules, it has its political rules, it has its cultural rules and it has its military rules.^ Contrary to popular usage by the media and various political and economic commentators, 'Globalisation' is not an objective or neutral term which simply describes the contemporary world economy.
    • Globalisation and Imperialism 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Rather, it was the military and economic power generated by capitalism that made European hegemony possible.
    • JWSR v5n2-Chase-Dunn 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC jwsr.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This would not be the usual political party, but a form of democracy in action, which would undertake various forms of intervention not only at the political level but also at the economic, the social, ecological and cultural levels: .
    • Globalisation, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalisation 'Movement' TAKIS FOTOPOULOS DEMOCRACY & NATURE: The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY vol.7, no.2, (July 2001) 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.democracynature.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    It is a system. .At the heart of this system is the United States of America, the world's only existing empire today.^ Communist States in the World–system .
    • JWSR v5n2-Chase-Dunn 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC jwsr.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Concentrations have reshaped capital not only in the United States, but also in France, the United Kingdom, Germany and Japan - that is in the five countries that dominated the world economy at the start of the century and where the headquarters of nearly 90% of the world's 200 biggest companies are currently located.
    • Economics: Metaphysics Philosophy of Economics, Globalisation as Ecologyof Economics 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The "pharmacy to the world," once located at the intersection of Germany, Switzerland, and France, today is found in the United States.
    • Articles About Globalization — HBS Working Knowledge 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC hbswk.hbs.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The first time in the history of humanity that you have just had a single empire, so dominant, whose military budget is higher than the military budgets of the next 15 countries put together, and whose military-industrial complex itself is the eleventh largest economic entity in the world.^ Would you invite me next time?
    • ECB: Globalisation and public perceptions 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.ecb.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ First mooted at the technological level (no return to the simpler life, or to pre-micro chip production), we also encountered it, in terms of imperialist domination, in the political sphere—although here the vicissitudes of world history should suggest that no empire lasts forever.
    • New Left Review - Fredric Jameson: Globalization and Political Strategy 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC newleftreview.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In particular, the governments of the great industrialized countries (G7) must not neglect their joint responsibility for world economics.
    • Conceptual Building Blocks for a Human and Just Globalization 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC threefolding.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This is the reality we live in, and this is the reality which confronts us in different ways.^ Do we just construct images of globalization, or do the phenomena really exist?  Ontological questions reflect differences in the way we try to understand the world.
    • GLOBALIZATION: KEY CONCEPTS 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ And it's presented to them as a real alternative to the way they live ...
    • Economics: Metaphysics Philosophy of Economics, Globalisation as Ecologyof Economics 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

  • Globalizing a bad thing makes it worse.^ Now whether this means the end of Dubai, another global knockdown, tighter lending or worse, we don’t know yet as it could not be as bad as it looks (really?!
    • The Financial Services Club's Blog: Globalisation 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC thefinanser.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Do you think globalisation is a good thing or a bad thing?
    • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ However, whenever we have the ideal types in mind, we are more likely to view the whole process of globalization as a good or a bad thing.
    • GLOBALIZATION: KEY CONCEPTS 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www2.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .But globalizing a good thing is usually good.^ Globalisation has a done a lot of good things.

    ^ Also, globalisation seems to imply that transporting goods and foodstuffs thousands of miles using valuable fossil fuels and creating massive pollution is somehow a good thing.
    • BBC News | TALKING POINT | Globalisation: Capitalist evil or a way out of poverty? 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ More generally, there remains the question of what kinds of things can be bought and sold in a world where the trajectory to good globalization takes place.
    • Hoover Institution - Policy Review - The Optimistic Thought Experiment 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.hoover.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Unsourced

.
  • I define globalization as the freedom of our corporations to invest where and when we want, to produce what we want, to buy and sell where we want, and to keep all the economic restrictions through labour law or other political regulations as slight as possible.
  • The poor complain; they always do,
    But that's just idle chatter.^ They are profoundly concerned with producing, buying, selling, investing and prospering in the world”.

    ^ They want your freedom.

    ^ They are just as relevant as they always have been.
    • JWSR v5n2-Chase-Dunn 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC jwsr.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


    .Our system brings rewards to all,
    At least to all who matter.
    ^ The agents are all those who are tired of wars and hatred and who desire a humane, sustainable and fair world-system.
    • JWSR v5n2-Chase-Dunn 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC jwsr.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Having established the system of communication then one has to address the matter of consumers; that is who will purchase these products and where are the best markets in which the farmers can trade their goods.

    ^ We know that it is incredibly hard for any government to change course and turn around, but for the sake of our children, our grandchildren and all of Earth’s natural systems this must be done.

    .
    • Poem by a Canadian economist (Gerald Helleiner) [4]
  • After the big companies have reached their goal and have collected enough money to buy a planet, they go home and all that is left are products.^ Consequently, they have been relegated to a marginal role, if for no other reason than that they have lost most of their money and have no significant capital left to invest in anything.
    • Hoover Institution - Policy Review - The Optimistic Thought Experiment 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.hoover.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Therefore, they can hide behind the globalization which is based on going beyond all ethnic or racial boundaries.

    ^ Shoppers pay high prices to buy their clothes, because of the respect they have for the name of the company.
    • Globalisation Teacher Final 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Globalization only gives us products, and kills our culture.^ In this, we are guided by the hope that the right sort of globalization might prevent the apocalypse and give us peace in our time.
    • Hoover Institution - Policy Review - The Optimistic Thought Experiment 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.hoover.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Rather than a dialogue between cultures, we are witnessing a spread of global brands, images and ideologies, which increasingly threatens the diversity of our cultures, political systems and identities.
    • Globalisation 2000 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.wilpf.int.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The effect of successful Globalisation in the current mould will place much higher demands on energy production and because of its linkage with the US dollar, drive global energy costs much higher.
    • Globalisation and the Level Playing Field, Reconciling the Geometry 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.spectacle.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Culture, if we help it, can last forever but toys are only temporary and are insignifigant compared to who we are. .
    • Edward McMahan an English Psycologist
  • The task of providing a human dimension to development in the era of Globalization has become a major challenge, since all of us have to deal not only with a radically new reality, but especially with the ethical vacuum which the idolatry of the marketplace has caused...^ Globalisers present the present era of capitalist development as entirely new.
    • Globalisation and Imperialism 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But the most important and relevant point is that English has been the native language of the two modern hegemonic powers, British and the USA. Moreover, in the present era of capitalist/imperialist globalisation, those powers exercise their authority in all domains of human life the economic, political and military and of course, in the cultural domain as well.
    • globalisationofculture 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.cpim.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New Era vs. Business as Usual : Is G. a new global age, or is there really nothing new under the sun and will governments and regions retain distinct strengths?
    • Globalization 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.12manage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • Fernando Henrique Cardoso, former president of Brazil

External links

Wikipedia
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Look up globalization in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

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Please help develop this page
This page was created, but so far, little content has been added. .Everyone is invited to help expand and create educational content for Wikiversity.^ Students Space is a web2.0 site created for this goal, to help, enable, push both students and educators to share knowledge and learn with one another.

.If you need help learning how to add content, see the editing tutorial and the MediaWiki syntax reference.^ You can also learn how LinguaLinx helped New York City Department of Education communicate with 1.8 million families across 1,500 schools in which 43% of students speak a language other than English at home.
  • Globalization blog 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC gilbane.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You can also read about how Lasselle Ramsay contributed to global content value chain development at Hewlett-Packard .
  • Globalization blog 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC gilbane.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You can also learn how STAR Group helped BMW Motorrad implement an end-to-end infrastructure for global technical communication.
  • Globalization blog 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC gilbane.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Please do not simply copy-and-paste large chunks from other projects.
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Lunar Boom Town provides some introduction to globalization issues as regional differences dramatically effect venture startup activities.
^ Some major corporations are openly talking of an end to global production chains, compressing them instead into regional chains in order to reduce transport costs and emissions.
  • OneWorld Globalisation Guide 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC uk.oneworld.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is in the Americas that some of the most dramatic tensions between globalisation, regionalism, nationalism and trade unions have been played out.
  • GLOBALISATION, LABOUR AND THE POLANYI PROBLEM 1 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.theglobalsite.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This should alleviate some of the concern expressed by those fearful of global “Americanisation” “even “McDonaldisation” of the world, mentioned in the introduction.
  • Culture And Economic Development:
    Modernisation To Globalisation
    1 February 2010 9:09 UTC theoryandscience.icaap.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Any assistance in identifying ways to usefully model real work influences in the learning activities will be gratefully received.^ We will see an entirely NEW way of living where we no longer have to work to "survive", but we do activities because we want to "contribute" our gifts and abilities to improve the world.

^ Really, the only way to see if they suit your interests, or if using them online suits your style of learning, is to give them a try...

^ So as they start looking for financial planners they can work with in various jurisdictions; the CFP certification is one of the ways they are identifying who's competent and who's ethical."

Mirwin 14:37, 25 November 2007 (UTC)

Simple English

File:Arabic
A sign for a McDonald's restaurant in Arabic. Globalization brings many companies to different parts of the world.
Globalization is the way that local or national ways of doing things become global, that is, done together around the world. It is about economics or trade, technology, politics, and culture.[1] People feel differently about globalization: some think it helps everyone while others think it hurts some people.

Contents

Definition

When most people talk about globalization, they usually mean changes in the economy that happen because of free trade and technology. In the late 20th century, many countries agreed to lower tariffs, or taxes on goods that are imported from other countries. The Internet and other communication technologies also made it easy for people to buy and sell products to people around the world.

Herman E. Daly has said that there is an important difference between internationalization and globalization. Internationalization is about nations working together for the same goals. These are things like treaties, alliances, and other international agreements. Globalization is about making national borders less important for those who want to buy or sell things around the world. He says that globalization is making "national economies into one global economy"[2] because many depend on people from other countries.

Criticism

Some people, like Noam Chomsky, do not like globalization because they feel it only helps rich people get richer by making poor people poorer. Offshore outsourcing, when companies hire workers in cheaper countries, is often a part of globalization. This sometimes means that some people lose their jobs. Joseph Stiglitz has said that international groups like the World Bank and the IMF have made it harder for poorer nations to get richer. Critics of globalization also feel that it leads to global brands, like Coca-Cola and McDonald's, taking over smaller, local shops and businesses. Jean Baudrillard believes that globalization hurts local cultures and is the cause of most terrorism. He also believes that most critics of globalization just want to stay in power.[3]

Support

Others, like Thomas Friedman, believe that globalization can bring people together and make everyone richer without getting rid of local cultures. People who support globalization also believe that it makes war less likely because it is bad for business. Friedman believed that no two nations with a McDonald's would ever go to war with each other. After NATO bombed Serbia, he changed and said that no two nations who make products for Dell Computers would ever go to war.[4]

Many believe that globalization helps out poorer nations by bringing them business. A report by the World Bank said that poverty in India and Indonesia was cut in half because of globalization. The report also said that people in poorer nations are living longer and better because they were making more money.[5]

References

  1. Sheila L. Croucher. Globalization and Belonging: The Politics of Identity a Changing World. Rowman & Littlefield. (2004). p.10
  2. Daly, Herman (1999). "Globalization versus Internationalization - Some Implications". Ecological Economics. Elsevier. pp. 31–37. http://www.uvm.edu/%7Ejdericks/EEtheory/Daly_on_Globalization.pdf. 
  3. Baudrillard, Jean (2002). "The Violence of the Global". Power Inferno. Galilee. pp. 63-83. http://www.egs.edu/faculty/baudrillard/baudrillard-the-violence-of-the-global.html. /
  4. The World is Flat (ISBN 1-59397-668-2), Thomas L. Friedman, pg 421
  5. The World Bank (08-2000). "Poverty in an Age of Globalization". http://www1.worldbank.org/economicpolicy/globalization/documents/povertyglobalization.pdf. 

More Reading

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 19, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Globalization, which are similar to those in the above article.








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