The Full Wiki

Glutamate aspartate transporter: Wikis

Advertisements

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

edit
Solute carrier family 1 (glial high affinity glutamate transporter), member 3
Identifiers
Symbols SLC1A3; EA6; EAAT1; FLJ25094; GLAST; GLAST1
External IDs OMIM600111 MGI99917 HomoloGene20882 GeneCards: SLC1A3 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE SLC1A3 202800 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 6507 20512
Ensembl ENSG00000079215 ENSMUSG00000005360
UniProt P43003 Q543U3
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_004172 NM_148938
RefSeq (protein) NP_004163 NP_683740
Location (UCSC) Chr 5:
36.64 - 36.72 Mb
Chr 15:
8.58 - 8.66 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Solute carrier family 1 (glial high affinity glutamate transporter), member 3, also known as SLC1A3,is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SLC1A3 gene.[1] SLC1A3 is also often called the GLutamate ASpartate Transporter (GLAST) or Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1 (EAAT1) .

GLAST is a protein in the inner mitochondrial membrane which is part of the malate-aspartate shuttle.[2]

Contents

Mechanism

GLAST mediates the transport of glutamic and aspartic acid with the cotransport of three Na+ and one H+ cations and counter transport of one K+ cation. This co-transport coupling allows the transport of glutamate into cells against a concentration gradient.[3]

"Diagram Illustrating the Malate-Asparate Shuttle Pathway". (Glutamate aspartate transporter labeled at bottom center.)  
Expression of SLC1A3 in the Bergmann glia fibers. Mouse brain at 7th postnatal day, sagittal section; GENSAT database.  

Tissue distribution

GLAST is highly expressed in astrocytes and Bergmann glia in the cerebellum.[4][5] In the retina, GLAST is expressed in Muller cells.[6] GLAST is also expressed in a number of other tissues including cardiac myocytes.[2]

Clinical significance

It is associated with type 6 episodic_ataxia.[7]

References

  1. ^ "Entrez Gene: SLC1A3 solute carrier family 1 (glial high affinity glutamate transporter), member 3". http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=6507.  
  2. ^ a b Ralphe JC, Segar JL, Schutte BC, Scholz TD (2004). "Localization and function of the brain excitatory amino acid transporter type 1 in cardiac mitochondria". J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 37 (1): 33–41. doi:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2004.04.008. PMID 15242733.  
  3. ^ Kanai Y, Hediger MA (2004). "The glutamate/neutral amino acid transporter family SLC1: molecular, physiological and pharmacological aspects". Pflugers Arch. 447 (5): 469–79. doi:10.1007/s00424-003-1146-4. PMID 14530974.  
  4. ^ Storck T, Schulte S, Hofmann K, Stoffel W (1992). "Structure, expression, and functional analysis of a Na(+)-dependent glutamate/aspartate transporter from rat brain". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89 (22): 10955–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.22.10955. PMID 1279699.  
  5. ^ Rothstein JD, Martin L, Levey AI, Dykes-Hoberg M, Jin L, Wu D, Nash N, Kuncl RW (1994). "Localization of neuronal and glial glutamate transporters". Neuron 13 (3): 713–25. doi:10.1016/0896-6273(94)90038-8. PMID 7917301.  
  6. ^ Rauen T, Taylor WR, Kuhlbrodt K, Wiessner M (1998). "High-affinity glutamate transporters in the rat retina: a major role of the glial glutamate transporter GLAST-1 in transmitter clearance". Cell Tissue Res. 291 (1): 19–31. doi:10.1007/s004410050976. PMID 9394040.  
  7. ^ Jen JC, Wan J, Palos TP, Howard BD, Baloh RW (2005). "Mutation in the glutamate transporter EAAT1 causes episodic ataxia, hemiplegia, and seizures". Neurology 65 (4): 529–34. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000172638.58172.5a. PMID 16116111.  

Further reading

  • Arriza JL, Fairman WA, Wadiche JI, et al. (1994). "Functional comparisons of three glutamate transporter subtypes cloned from human motor cortex.". J. Neurosci. 14 (9): 5559–69. PMID 7521911.  
  • Nomura N, Nagase T, Miyajima N, et al. (1995). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. II. The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0041-KIAA0080) deduced by analysis of cDNA clones from human cell line KG-1.". DNA Res. 1 (5): 223–9. PMID 7584044.  
  • Takai S, Yamada K, Kawakami H, et al. (1995). "Localization of the gene (SLC1A3) encoding human glutamate transporter (GluT-1) to 5p13 by fluorescence in situ hybridization.". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 69 (3-4): 209–10. PMID 7698014.  
  • Shashidharan P, Huntley GW, Meyer T, et al. (1995). "Neuron-specific human glutamate transporter: molecular cloning, characterization and expression in human brain.". Brain Res. 662 (1-2): 245–50. PMID 7859077.  
  • Kirschner MA, Arriza JL, Copeland NG, et al. (1995). "The mouse and human excitatory amino acid transporter gene (EAAT1) maps to mouse chromosome 15 and a region of syntenic homology on human chromosome 5.". Genomics 22 (3): 631–3. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1437. PMID 8001975.  
  • Kawakami H, Tanaka K, Nakayama T, et al. (1994). "Cloning and expression of a human glutamate transporter.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 199 (1): 171–6. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1994.1210. PMID 8123008.  
  • Shashidharan P, Plaitakis A (1993). "Cloning and characterization of a glutamate transporter cDNA from human cerebellum.". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1216 (1): 161–4. PMID 8218410.  
  • Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, et al. (1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction.". Anal. Biochem. 236 (1): 107–13. doi:10.1006/abio.1996.0138. PMID 8619474.  
  • Stoffel W, Sasse J, Düker M, et al. (1996). "Human high affinity, Na(+)-dependent L-glutamate/L-aspartate transporter GLAST-1 (EAAT-1): gene structure and localization to chromosome 5p11-p12.". FEBS Lett. 386 (2-3): 189–93. PMID 8647279.  
  • Yu W, Andersson B, Worley KC, et al. (1997). "Large-scale concatenation cDNA sequencing.". Genome Res. 7 (4): 353–8. PMID 9110174.  
  • Dunlop J, Lou Z, McIlvain HB (1999). "Properties of excitatory amino acid transport in the human U373 astrocytoma cell line.". Brain Res. 839 (2): 235–42. PMID 10519046.  
  • Koch HP, Kavanaugh MP, Esslinger CS, et al. (1999). "Differentiation of substrate and nonsubstrate inhibitors of the high-affinity, sodium-dependent glutamate transporters.". Mol. Pharmacol. 56 (6): 1095–104. PMID 10570036.  
  • Ye ZC, Rothstein JD, Sontheimer H (2000). "Compromised glutamate transport in human glioma cells: reduction-mislocalization of sodium-dependent glutamate transporters and enhanced activity of cystine-glutamate exchange.". J. Neurosci. 19 (24): 10767–77. PMID 10594060.  
  • Szymocha R, Akaoka H, Dutuit M, et al. (2000). "Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-infected T lymphocytes impair catabolism and uptake of glutamate by astrocytes via Tax-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha.". J. Virol. 74 (14): 6433–41. PMID 10864655.  
  • Mordrelle A, Jullian E, Costa C, et al. (2000). "EAAT1 is involved in transport of L-glutamate during differentiation of the Caco-2 cell line.". Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 279 (2): G366–73. PMID 10915646.  
  • Seal RP, Shigeri Y, Eliasof S, et al. (2002). "Sulfhydryl modification of V449C in the glutamate transporter EAAT1 abolishes substrate transport but not the substrate-gated anion conductance.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (26): 15324–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.011400198. PMID 11752470.  
  • Palmada M, Kinne-Saffran E, Centelles JJ, Kinne RK (2002). "Benzodiazepines differently modulate EAAT1/GLAST and EAAT2/GLT1 glutamate transporters expressed in CHO cells.". Neurochem. Int. 40 (4): 321–6. PMID 11792462.  
  • Scott HL, Pow DV, Tannenberg AE, Dodd PR (2002). "Aberrant expression of the glutamate transporter excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1) in Alzheimer's disease.". J. Neurosci. 22 (3): RC206. PMID 11826152.  
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMID 12477932.  
  • Vallat-Decouvelaere AV, Chrétien F, Gras G, et al. (2003). "Expression of excitatory amino acid transporter-1 in brain macrophages and microglia of HIV-infected patients. A neuroprotective role for activated microglia?". J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 62 (5): 475–85. PMID 12769187.  

External links

Advertisements

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message