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Glutamic acid
Identifiers
CAS number 617-65-2 Yes check.svgY
56-86-0 (L-isomer)
6893-26-1 (D-isomer)
PubChem 611
ChemSpider 591
EC-number 210-522-2
SMILES
InChI
Properties
Molecular formula C5H9NO4
Molar mass 147.13 g mol−1
Appearance white crystalline powder
Density 1.4601 (20 °C)
Melting point
199 °C decomp.
Solubility in water soluble
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
 Yes check.svgY (what is this?)  (verify)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references
.Glutamic acid (abbreviated as Glu or E) is one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids, and its codons are GAA and GAG. It is a non-essential amino acid.^ Glutamine is classified as a "non-essential amino acid."
  • LE Magazine, September 1999 - Report: Glutamine: The Essential "Non-Essential" Amino Acid 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS 300 GRAMS .
  • Supplement Direct 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC supplementdirect.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Essential versus Non-Essential Amino Acids .

.The carboxylate anions and salts of glutamic acid are known as glutamates.^ On the taste of the salt of glutamic acid.
  • 638. Glutamic acid and its salts (WHO Food Additives Series 22) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Interestingly, the two exitatory amino acids — glutamic acid & aspartic acid — are the two acidic amino acids found in proteins, insofar as both have two carboxyl groups rather than one.
  • BRAIN NEUROTRANSMITTERS 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, recombinant protein C in which glutamic acid residues in the Gla domain were systematically mutated to aspartic acid residues was incompletely carboxylated.

Contents

Chemistry

.The side chain carboxylic acid functional group has pKa of 4.1 and exists in its negatively charged deprotonated carboxylate form at physiological pH.^ The charges of the ionized groups were assigned assuming standard amino acid protonation state at pH 7.
  • PLoS ONE: Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase-Derived Epitopes with Specific Domains Expand CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Interestingly, the two exitatory amino acids — glutamic acid & aspartic acid — are the two acidic amino acids found in proteins, insofar as both have two carboxyl groups rather than one.
  • BRAIN NEUROTRANSMITTERS 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ L-GA is an aliphatic amino acid undergoing degradation in the body to glutamine, which is an amino acid with uncharged polar side chains.
  • L-Glutamic acid and glutamine: Exciting molecules of clinical interest Kulkarni C, Kulkarni KS, Hamsa BR - Indian J Pharmacol 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ijp-online.com [Source type: Academic]

History

.Although they occur naturally in many foods, the flavor contributions made by glutamic acid and other amino acids were only scientifically identified early in the twentieth century.^ Blood vessels are made from amino acids.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Male semen is made from amino acids.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is a synthesized form of glutamic acid, a necessary amino acid that occurs naturally in a lot of the foods we eat.
  • MSG is Evil! - Monosodium Glutamate Hiding in Our Food 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The substance was discovered and identified in the year 1866, by the German chemist Karl Heinrich Leopold Ritthausen. .In 1907 Japanese researcher Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University identified brown crystals left behind after the evaporation of a large amount of kombu broth as glutamic acid.^ Therefore, amounts of neurotoxic glutamic acid and neurotoxic aspartic acid ingested daily by an average infant on each of the analyzed formulas would be as follows: .

^ Additional glutamic acid, e.g, 10-20 g, if given to man, may raise the amount of glutamic acid absorbed from ingested protein.
  • 207. Monosodium glutamate (FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series 48a) 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The respective daily intake of bound glutamic acid amounts to 3.5 g and 0.5 g.
  • 207. Monosodium glutamate (FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series 48a) 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.These crystals, when tasted, reproduced the ineffable but undeniable flavor he detected in many foods, most especially in seaweed.^ These additives have NO OTHER purpose other than to enhance to TASTE of food and the SWEETNESS of various diet products.

^ Free glutamate content is said to increase during the process of natural ripening and bring about a fuller taste in many foods, the basis behind is not known.
  • L-Glutamic acid and glutamine: Exciting molecules of clinical interest Kulkarni C, Kulkarni KS, Hamsa BR - Indian J Pharmacol 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ijp-online.com [Source type: Academic]

Professor Ikeda termed this flavor umami. .He then patented a method of mass-producing a crystalline salt of glutamic acid, monosodium glutamate.^ L glutamate, monosodium DL-glutamate or L-glutamic acid respectively.
  • 207. Monosodium glutamate (FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series 48a) 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Method of producing a seasoning material whose main component is the salt of glutamic acid.
  • 638. Glutamic acid and its salts (WHO Food Additives Series 22) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ On the taste of the salt of glutamic acid.
  • 638. Glutamic acid and its salts (WHO Food Additives Series 22) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[1][2]

Biosynthesis

A representation of the structure of L-glutamic acid.
Reactants Products Enzymes
Glutamine + H2O Glu + NH3 GLS, GLS2
NAcGlu + H2O Glu + Acetate (unknown)
α-ketoglutarate + NADPH + NH4+ Glu + NADP+ + H2O GLUD1, GLUD2
α-ketoglutarate + α-amino acid Glu + α-oxo acid transaminase
1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + NAD+ + H2O Glu + NADH ALDH4A1
N-formimino-L-glutamate + FH4 Glu + 5-formimino-FH4 FTCD

Function and uses

Metabolism

.Glutamate is a key molecule in cellular metabolism.^ Glutamate is a key molecule in cellular metabolism .
  • Glutamic acid - Hwiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Glutamic acid - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Glutamate is a key molecule in cellular metabolism.

^ Both pyruvate and oxaloacetate are key components of cellular metabolism, contributing as substrates or intermediates in fundamental processes such as glycolysis , gluconeogenesis and also the citric acid cycle .
  • Glutamic acid - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.In humans, dietary proteins are broken down by digestion into amino acids, which serves as metabolic fuel for other functional roles in the body.^ The primary amino acid in sugar metabolism.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The taste of amino acids, peptides, and proteins.
  • 638. Glutamic acid and its salts (WHO Food Additives Series 22) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Rennie, MJ. Influence of exercise on protein and amino acid metabolism.
  • Glutamate ingestion and its effects at rest and during exercise in humans -- Mourtzakis and Graham 93 (4): 1251 -- Journal of Applied Physiology 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC jap.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.A key process in amino acid degradation is transamination, in which the amino group of an amino acid is transferred to an α-ketoacid, typically catalysed by a transaminase.^ GMP biosynthesis nucleobase, nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism nucleotide metabolism purine nucleotide metabolism purine nucleotide biosynthesis cellular metabolism amino acid and derivative metabolism amino acid metabolism glutamine family amino acid metabolism glutamine metabolism physiological process metabolism biosynthesis .
  • DrugBank: Showing L-Glutamic Acid (DB00142) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.drugbank.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The charges of the ionized groups were assigned assuming standard amino acid protonation state at pH 7.
  • PLoS ONE: Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase-Derived Epitopes with Specific Domains Expand CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Interestingly, the two exitatory amino acids — glutamic acid & aspartic acid — are the two acidic amino acids found in proteins, insofar as both have two carboxyl groups rather than one.
  • BRAIN NEUROTRANSMITTERS 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

The reaction can be generalised as such:
R1-amino acid + R2-α-ketoacid R1-α-ketoacid + R2-amino acid
.A very common α-keto acid is α-ketoglutarate, an intermediate in the citric acid cycle.^ Glutamate, aspartate, asparagine, l -alanine, and d -alanine are derived from intermediates of central metabolism, mostly the citric acid cycle, in one or two steps.
  • Biosynthesis of Glutamate, Aspartate, Asparagine, l-Alanine, and d-Alanine 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC ecosal.aptaracorp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In general, glutamate is synthesized from ammonium and α-ketoglutarate (a component of the Krebs cycle) and is used in the synthesis of proteins, other amino acids, and even other neurotransmitters (such as GABA) ( 3 ).
  • Glutamate and Glutamate Receptors in the Vertebrate Retina -- Webvision -- NCBI Bookshelf 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Both glutamate and GABA are synthesized in the brain from the Krebs citric acid molecule alpha-keto glutarate — a reaction known as the "GABA shunt".
  • BRAIN NEUROTRANSMITTERS 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

.Transamination of α-ketoglutarate gives glutamate.^ Glutamate is also synthesized in the body through transamination of a-ketoglutarate by accepting amino groups from amino acids, first step in metabolism of amino acid.
  • L-Glutamic acid and glutamine: Exciting molecules of clinical interest Kulkarni C, Kulkarni KS, Hamsa BR - Indian J Pharmacol 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ijp-online.com [Source type: Academic]

^ To inhibit transamination of endogenous -ketoglutarate to glutamate, 2 mM (aminooxy)acetate, a general transaminase inhibitor, is included in the reaction.
  • L-Glutamine in vitro regulates rat aortic glutamate content and modulates nitric oxide formation and contractility responses -- Schachter 293 (1): C142 -- AJP - Cell Physiology 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC ajpcell.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Glutamate plays a central role in transamination reaction in which amino acids funnel their amino group to a-ketoglutarate resulting in glutamate formation.
  • L-Glutamic acid and glutamine: Exciting molecules of clinical interest Kulkarni C, Kulkarni KS, Hamsa BR - Indian J Pharmacol 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ijp-online.com [Source type: Academic]

.The resulting α-ketoacid product is often a useful one as well, which can contribute as fuel or as a substrate for further metabolism processes.^ The resulting α-ketoacid product is often a useful one as well, which can contribute as fuel or as a substrate for further metabolism processes.
  • Glutamic acid - Hwiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Glutamic acid - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Glutamic acid: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Both pyruvate and oxaloacetate are key components of cellular metabolism, contributing as substrates or intermediates in fundamental processes such as glycolysis , gluconeogenesis and also the citric acid cycle .
  • Glutamic acid - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Glutamic acid: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Also, Degussa entered Lysine production with an innovative process, which results in a product that has less Lysine but includes number of other aminoacids and nutrients of value.
  • Technology for Production of Glutamic Acid 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.tifac.org.in [Source type: Academic]

Examples are as follows:
Alanine + α-ketoglutarate pyruvate + glutamate
Aspartate + α-ketoglutarate oxaloacetate + glutamate
.Both pyruvate and oxaloacetate are key components of cellular metabolism, contributing as substrates or intermediates in fundamental processes such as glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and also the citric acid cycle.^ Both pyruvate and oxaloacetate are key components of cellular metabolism, contributing as substrates or intermediates in fundamental processes such as glycolysis , gluconeogenesis and also the citric acid cycle .
  • Glutamic acid - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Glutamic acid: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Glutamate is a key molecule in cellular metabolism .
  • Glutamic acid - Hwiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Glutamic acid - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Glutamic acid: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Template:Unicode pyruvate + glutamate aspartate + α-ketoglutarate Template:Unicode oxaloacetate + glutamate Both pyruvate and oxaloacetate are key components of cellular metabolism, contributing as substrates or intermediates in fundamental processes such as glycolysis , gluconeogenesis and also the citric acid cycle .
  • Glutamic acid - Hwiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.Glutamate also plays an important role in the body's disposal of excess or waste nitrogen.^ The body changes excess glutamate to GABA .
  • What exactly is MSG? 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.msgtruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Glutamate also plays an important role in the body's disposal of excess or waste nitrogen .
  • Glutamic acid - Hwiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Glutamic acid - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Glutamic acid: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ L-Glutamine also plays an important role in ammonia disposal....
  • Glutamic Acid | Natural Supplements 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.seacoastvitamins.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Glutamine, L-Glutamine Amino Acid, Glutamine Powder 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.herbs-wholesale.com [Source type: Academic]

Glutamate undergoes deamination, an oxidative reaction catalysed by glutamate dehydrogenase, as follows:
glutamate + water + NADP+ → α-ketoglutarate + NADPH + ammonia + H+
.Ammonia (as ammonium) is then excreted predominantly as urea, synthesised in the liver.^ A mass isotopomers study of urea and glutamine synthesis from 15 N-labeled ammonia in the perfused liver.
  • Newer aspects of glutamine/glutamate metabolism: the role of acute pH changes -- Nissim 277 (4): 493 -- AJP - Renal Physiology 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC ajprenal.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.Transamination can thus be linked to deamination, effectively allowing nitrogen from the amine groups of amino acids to be removed, via glutamate as an intermediate, and finally excreted from the body in the form of urea.^ Glutamic acid (glutamate) is an amino acid used by the body to build proteins.
  • Glutamic Acid - Pills, Powders, Creams, Salves and Gels - 6 Products 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.zooscape.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also the amino group of the L-glutamic acid residue should be suitably protected.
  • :: Sabinsa Corporation :: 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.sabinsa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Precursor to the neurotransmitter amino acid Glutamate (Glutamic Acid).
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

Neurotransmitter

.Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate nervous system.^ Glutamate is a well-established excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
  • L-Glutamic acid and glutamine: Exciting molecules of clinical interest Kulkarni C, Kulkarni KS, Hamsa BR - Indian J Pharmacol 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ijp-online.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system and mediates neurotransmission across most excitatory synapses.
  • Journal of Biomedical Science | Full text | Glutamate (mGluR-5) gene expression in brain regions of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats as a function of age: role in regulation of calcium release from thepancreatic islets in vitro. 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.jbiomedsci.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The major excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate central nervous system is the amino acid glutamate.
  • Ionotropic glutamate receptor activation increases intracellular calcium in prolactin-releasing cells of the adenohypophysis -- Bellinger et al. 291 (6): E1188 -- AJP - Endocrinology and Metabolism 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC ajpendo.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.At chemical synapses, glutamate is stored in vesicles.^ Neuroactive glutamate is stored in synaptic vesicles in presynaptic axon terminals (Fykse and Fonnum, 1996).
  • Webvision: Glutamate and glutamate receptors in the vertebrate retina 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC webvision.med.utah.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Lehre K. P., Danbolt N. C. The number of glutamate transporter subtype molecules at glutamatergic synapses: chemical and stereological quantification in young adult rat brain.
  • Glutamate as a Neurotransmitter in the Brain: Review of Physiology and Pathology -- Meldrum 130 (4): 1007 -- Journal of Nutrition 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

.Nerve impulses trigger release of glutamate from the pre-synaptic cell.^ Glioma cells release glutamate.
  • Glioma Cells Release Excitotoxic Concentrations of Glutamate -- Ye and Sontheimer 59 (17): 4383 -- Cancer Research 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC cancerres.aacrjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nerve impulses trigger release of glutamate from the pre-synaptic cell.
  • Glutamic acid - Hwiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Glutamic acid - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Glutamic acid: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ High concentrations of glutamate can trigger seizures or kill brain cells—and levels that dip too low can cause coma.
  • A Novel Chemical Target: Scientific American 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.scientificamerican.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the opposing post-synaptic cell, glutamate receptors, such as the NMDA receptor, bind glutamate and are activated.^ Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit 3A .
  • DrugBank: Showing L-Glutamic Acid (DB00142) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.drugbank.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ NMDA receptors are ligand gated because the binding of glutamate (ligand) is required to activate the channel.
  • Glutamate and Glutamate Receptors in the Vertebrate Retina -- Webvision -- NCBI Bookshelf 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit epsilon-3 .
  • DrugBank: Showing L-Glutamic Acid (DB00142) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.drugbank.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Because of its role in synaptic plasticity, glutamate is involved in cognitive functions like learning and memory in the brain[3].^ It is important in synaptic plasticity, learning, and development.
  • Arch Neurol -- Glutamate Transporters in Neurologic Disease, March 2001, Maragakis and Rothstein 58 (3): 365 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC archneur.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Glutamate through AMPA and kainate receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS and through NMDA receptors, it mediates slow excitatory response, which plays a role in long-term adaptive and pathological changes in the brain involving synaptic plasticity.
  • L-Glutamic acid and glutamine: Exciting molecules of clinical interest Kulkarni C, Kulkarni KS, Hamsa BR - Indian J Pharmacol 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ijp-online.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Corpus striatum is best known for its role in the planning and modulation movement pathways but also involved in a variety of cognitive process involving executive function.
  • Journal of Biomedical Science | Full text | Glutamate (mGluR-5) gene expression in brain regions of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats as a function of age: role in regulation of calcium release from thepancreatic islets in vitro. 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.jbiomedsci.com [Source type: Academic]

.The form of plasticity known as long-term potentiation takes place at glutamatergic synapses in the hippocampus, neocortex, and other parts of the brain.^ Glutamate through AMPA and kainate receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS and through NMDA receptors, it mediates slow excitatory response, which plays a role in long-term adaptive and pathological changes in the brain involving synaptic plasticity.
  • L-Glutamic acid and glutamine: Exciting molecules of clinical interest Kulkarni C, Kulkarni KS, Hamsa BR - Indian J Pharmacol 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ijp-online.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are also differences in the proximity of astrocytic processes to glutamatergic synapses, such that synaptic cross-talk may be possible at certain sites in the hippocampus.
  • Glutamate as a Neurotransmitter in the Brain: Review of Physiology and Pathology -- Meldrum 130 (4): 1007 -- Journal of Nutrition 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Information storage and plasticity require that synapses carry out two opposing tasks: maintaining stable long-term synaptic connections while at the same time remaining plastic and allowing for rapid changes in synaptic strength.
  • ScienceDirect - Neuron : Glutamate Receptor Dynamics in Dendritic Microdomains 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC cl.exct.net [Source type: Academic]

.Glutamate transporters[4] are found in neuronal and glial membranes.^ Localization of neuronal and glial glutamate transporters.
  • Evidence of elevated glutamate in multiple sclerosis using magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T -- Srinivasan et al. 128 (5): 1016 -- Brain 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- The potential role of glutamate transporters in the pathogenesis of normal tension glaucoma 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Plasma membrane glutamate transporters also transport D -aspartate and L -aspartate.
  • Glutamate as a Neurotransmitter in the Brain: Review of Physiology and Pathology -- Meldrum 130 (4): 1007 -- Journal of Nutrition 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Glutamate transporters in retinal neurons (more...
  • Glutamate and Glutamate Receptors in the Vertebrate Retina -- Webvision -- NCBI Bookshelf 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.They rapidly remove glutamate from the extracellular space.^ They rapidly remove glutamate from the extracellular space.
  • Glutamic acid - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Glutamic acid: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ This indicates that even the chronic release of glutamate by glioma cells into a relatively large extracellular space is sufficient to induce neuronal glutamate toxicity.
  • Glioma Cells Release Excitotoxic Concentrations of Glutamate -- Ye and Sontheimer 59 (17): 4383 -- Cancer Research 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC cancerres.aacrjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This biochemical pathway also serves as an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism, which functions by removing the synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space and converting it to the nontoxic amino acid glutamine before toxicity occurs.
  • Method and composition for protecting neuronal tissue from damage induced by elevated glutamate levels - Patent application 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

.In brain injury or disease, they can work in reverse and excess glutamate can accumulate outside cells.^ In brain injury or disease, they can work in reverse and excess glutamate can accumulate outside cells.
  • Glutamic acid - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Glutamic acid: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ It is manufactured -- in chemical plants -- where certain selected genetically engineered bacteria -- feeding on a liquid nutrient medium -- excrete the free glutamic acid they synthesize outside of their cell membrane into the liquid medium in which they are grown.
  • http://www.relfe.com/07/glutamic_acid_glutamate_msg.html 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.relfe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • MSG Being Sprayed On Fruits, Veggies, Grains, Nuts!!! 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.rense.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Glutamate plays a key role in memory and learning , but excess glutamate can lead to the disruption of nerve cell communication or nerve cell death.

.This process causes calcium ions to enter cells via NMDA receptor channels, leading to neuronal damage and eventual cell death, and is called excitotoxicity.^ This overexcitation can lead to effects that can cause cell damage and/or death.

^ Calcium ions flood into the cell, causing it fire uncontrollably.
  • General Chemistry Online: The Poisoned Needle 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC antoine.frostburg.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The glutamate receptor ion channels.
  • Ionotropic glutamate receptors: genetics, behavior and electrophysiology 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.wormbook.org [Source type: Academic]

The mechanisms of cell death include
  • Glu/Ca2+-mediated promotion of transcription factors for pro-apoptotic genes, or downregulation of transcription factors for anti-apoptotic genes.
.Excitotoxicity due to glutamate occurs as part of the ischemic cascade and is associated with stroke and diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, lathyrism, autism, some forms of mental retardation and Alzheimer's disease[citation needed].^ Motor neuron disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis).
  • Glutamate as a Neurotransmitter in the Brain: Review of Physiology and Pathology -- Meldrum 130 (4): 1007 -- Journal of Nutrition 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Decreased platelet glutamate uptake in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
  • Glutamate mediates platelet activation through the AMPA receptor -- Morrell et al. 205 (3): 575 -- The Journal of Experimental Medicine 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC jem.rupress.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Glutamate excitotoxicity has been proposed to be the final common pathway in a number of nervous system diseases, including stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and AIDS dementia (1 , 23) .
  • Glioma Cells Release Excitotoxic Concentrations of Glutamate -- Ye and Sontheimer 59 (17): 4383 -- Cancer Research 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC cancerres.aacrjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Glutamic acid has been implicated in epileptic seizures.^ Two percent intraarterial sodium glutamate increased epileptic fits and intracisternal L-glutamic acid caused tonic-clonic convulsions in animals and man.
  • 638. Glutamic acid and its salts (WHO Food Additives Series 22) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Glutamic acid is the main precursor of GABA. Does not easily pass through the blood-brain barrier, which has important clinical implications.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Increased transcription of glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST/GluT-1) mRNA following kainic acid-induced limbic seizure.
  • Arch Neurol -- Glutamate Transporters in Neurologic Disease, March 2001, Maragakis and Rothstein 58 (3): 365 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC archneur.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

.Microinjection of glutamic acid into neurons produces spontaneous depolarisations around one second apart, and this firing pattern is similar to what is known as paroxysmal depolarizing shift in epileptic attacks.^ Individual paroxysmal depolarizing shifts were also synchronized between neurons ( Figure 6 C).
  • Glutamate Injury-Induced Epileptogenesis in Hippocampal Neurons: An In Vitro Model of Stroke-Induced "Epilepsy" -- Sun et al. 32 (10): 2344 -- Stroke 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Surviving neurons manifested spontaneous, recurrent, epileptiform discharges in neural networks characterized by paroxysmal depolarizing shifts and high-frequency spike firing that persisted for the life of the culture.
  • Glutamate Injury-Induced Epileptogenesis in Hippocampal Neurons: An In Vitro Model of Stroke-Induced "Epilepsy" -- Sun et al. 32 (10): 2344 -- Stroke 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, neuronal death may occur because the inflammatory process interferes with the conversion of glutamate into glutamine.
  • LE Magazine, September 1999 - Report: Glutamine: The Essential "Non-Essential" Amino Acid 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

.This change in the resting membrane potential at seizure foci could cause spontaneous opening of voltage-activated calcium channels, leading to glutamic acid release and further depolarization.^ At resting membrane potential, its channel is blocked by Mg 2+ .
  • The Emerging Role of Glutamate in the Pathophysiology and Treatment of Schizophrenia -- Goff and Coyle 158 (9): 1367 -- Am J Psychiatry 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC ajp.psychiatryonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Glutamate receptors are classified into 2 broad groups based on their structures and modes of operation: ionotropic glutamate receptors are heterotetrameric or homotetrameric channels that are opened by glutamate, thus causing sodium influx and plasma membrane depolarization, and metabotropic glutamate receptors are plasma membrane homodimers that modulate enzyme and channel functions and gene transcription via second messenger–dependent mechanisms.
  • Arch Neurol -- Diagnostic and Pathogenic Significance of Glutamate Receptor Autoantibodies, May 2008, Pleasure 65 (5): 589 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC archneur.highwire.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Glutamate which causes excitotoxic neuronal damage, increases calcium influx through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in post synaptic neurons, leading to phospholipase A 2 mediated arachidonic acid release and neuronal injury by inhibiting the sodium ion channels [ 21 ].
  • Journal of Biomedical Science | Full text | Glutamate (mGluR-5) gene expression in brain regions of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats as a function of age: role in regulation of calcium release from thepancreatic islets in vitro. 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.jbiomedsci.com [Source type: Academic]

.Experimental techniques to detect glutamate in intact cells include using a genetically-engineered nanosensor.^ This technique is optimized for glutamate detection and measurement.
  • Evidence of elevated glutamate in multiple sclerosis using magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T -- Srinivasan et al. 128 (5): 1016 -- Brain 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ C , where 100 µmol/L cystine was used to induce calcium oscillations, exogenous glutamate showed identical Ca 2+ oscillations in 21 ± 2.07% of glioma cells ( Fig.
  • Autocrine Glutamate Signaling Promotes Glioma Cell Invasion -- Lyons et al. 67 (19): 9463 -- Cancer Research 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC cancerres.aacrjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The cell's DNA will then detect this low level of Glutamate and cause enzymes to be produced to do the conversion.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

[6] .The sensor is a fusion of a glutamate-binding protein and two fluorescent proteins.^ The sensor is a fusion of a glutamate-binding protein and two fluorescent proteins.
  • Glutamic acid - Hwiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Glutamic acid - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Glutamic acid: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ RCSB PDB : Structure Summary for 2CT6 - solution structure of the sh3 domain-binding glutamic acid-rich-like protein 2       POP-OUT .
  • RCSB PDB : Structure Summary for 2CT6 - solution structure of the sh3 domain-binding glutamic acid-rich-like protein 2 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.pdb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A bifunctional membrane-bound protein from Salmonella typhimurium responsible for the two-step oxidation of proline to glutamate.
  • References - glutamate dehydrogenase - HORT640 - Metabolic Plant Physiology - Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture - Purdue University 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

.When glutamate binds, the fluorescence of the sensor under ultraviolet light changes by resonance between the two fluorophores.^ Mastorodemos V, Zaganas I, Spanaki C, Bessa M, Plaitakis A. Molecular basis of human glutamate dehydrogenase regulation under changing energy demands.
  • References - glutamate dehydrogenase - HORT640 - Metabolic Plant Physiology - Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture - Purdue University 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Hayakawa T, Yamaya T, Mae T, Ojima K. Changes in the content of two glutamate synthase proteins in spikelets of rice (Oryza sativa) plants during ripening.
  • References - glutamate dehydrogenase - HORT640 - Metabolic Plant Physiology - Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture - Purdue University 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Colocalization and fluorescence resonance energy transfer between cdk5 and AT8 suggests a close association in pre-neurofibrillary tangles and neurofibrillary tangles.
  • Inhibition of Pin1 Reduces Glutamate-induced Perikaryal Accumulation of Phosphorylated Neurofilament-H in Neurons -- Kesavapany et al. 18 (9): 3645 -- Molecular Biology of the Cell 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.molbiolcell.org [Source type: Academic]

.Introduction of the nanosensor into cells enables optical detection of the glutamate concentration.^ Introduction of the nanosensor into cells enables optical detection of the glutamate concentration.
  • Glutamic acid - Hwiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ High concentrations of glutamate can trigger seizures or kill brain cells—and levels that dip too low can cause coma.
  • A Novel Chemical Target: Scientific American 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.scientificamerican.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Glutamate-induced changes in the cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) in cerebellar granule cells and non-neuronal cells.
  • Rat cerebellar granule cells are protected from glutamate-induced excitotoxicity by S-nitrosoglutathione but not glutathione -- Li et al. 286 (4): C893 -- AJP - Cell Physiology 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC ajpcell.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.Synthetic analogs of glutamic acid that can be activated by ultraviolet light and two-photon excitation microscopy have also been described.^ Two percent intraarterial sodium glutamate increased epileptic fits and intracisternal L-glutamic acid caused tonic-clonic convulsions in animals and man.
  • 638. Glutamic acid and its salts (WHO Food Additives Series 22) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Metabotropic glutamate receptor activation enhances the activities of two types of Ca2+-activated k+ channels in rat hippocampal astrocytes.
  • Glutamate receptor, metabotropic, type 1 : Full Text : UCSD-Nature Molecule Pages 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.signaling-gateway.org [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the two main excitatory amino acids, the other being Glutamate (Glutamic Acid).
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

[7] .This method of rapidly uncaging by photostimulation is useful for mapping the connections between neurons, and understanding synapse function.^ This method of rapidly uncaging by photostimulation is useful for mapping the connections between neurons, and understanding synapse function.
  • Glutamic acid - Hwiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Glutamic acid - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Glutamic acid: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The small but significant increase in glutamate immunoreactivity observed in the photostimulated brains indicates the ability of the method to induce glutamate uncaging in situ ( Fig.
  • Focal and Temporal Release of Glutamate in the Mushroom Bodies Improves Olfactory Memory in Apis mellifera -- Locatelli et al. 25 (50): 11614 -- Journal of Neuroscience 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Rather, this synchronization appeared to rely on local nonpropagated events and was a function of the distance between the recorded neurons.
  • Glutamate Released from Glial Cells Synchronizes Neuronal Activity in the Hippocampus -- Angulo et al. 24 (31): 6920 -- Journal of Neuroscience 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

.Evolution of glutamate receptors is entirely the opposite in invertebrates, particularly arthropods and nematodes, where glutamate stimulates glutamate-gated chloride channels.^ Glutamate-gated chloride channels: distribution and function in C. elegans 3.
  • Ionotropic glutamate receptors: genetics, behavior and electrophysiology 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.wormbook.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The tetrameric structure of a glutamate receptor channel.
  • Ionotropic glutamate receptors: genetics, behavior and electrophysiology 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.wormbook.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The glutamate receptor ion channels.
  • Ionotropic glutamate receptors: genetics, behavior and electrophysiology 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.wormbook.org [Source type: Academic]

.The beta subunits of the receptor respond with very high affinity to glutamate and glycine.^ Glutamate receptor delta-1 subunit .
  • DrugBank: Showing L-Glutamic Acid (DB00142) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.drugbank.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit 3A .
  • DrugBank: Showing L-Glutamic Acid (DB00142) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.drugbank.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit epsilon-3 .
  • DrugBank: Showing L-Glutamic Acid (DB00142) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.drugbank.ca [Source type: Academic]

[8] .Targeting these receptors has been the therapeutic goal of anthelmintic therapy using avermectins.^ We next used additional pharmacological approaches to demonstrate signaling through the AMPAR and its potential as a target for antithrombotic therapy.
  • Glutamate mediates platelet activation through the AMPA receptor -- Morrell et al. 205 (3): 575 -- The Journal of Experimental Medicine 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC jem.rupress.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the case of NMDA receptors, subunit composition may lead to differential targeting between these compartments.
  • ScienceDirect - Neuron : Glutamate Receptor Dynamics in Dendritic Microdomains 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC cl.exct.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Taken together, these observations demonstrate that subunit-specific differences in NMDA receptor synaptic targeting correlate with distinct diffusional and synaptic properties.
  • ScienceDirect - Neuron : Glutamate Receptor Dynamics in Dendritic Microdomains 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC cl.exct.net [Source type: Academic]

.Avermectins target the alpha-subunit of glutamate-gated chloride channels with high affinity.^ Cloning of an avermectin-sensitive glutamate-gated chloride channel from Caenorhabditis elegans .
  • Ionotropic glutamate receptors: genetics, behavior and electrophysiology 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.wormbook.org [Source type: Academic]

^ High-affinity ivermectin binding to recombinant subunits of the Haemonchus contortus glutamate-gated chloride channel.
  • Ionotropic glutamate receptors: genetics, behavior and electrophysiology 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.wormbook.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The high-affinity glutamate transporter family.
  • Transient upregulation of the glial glutamate transporter GLAST in response to fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor and epidermal growth factor in cultured astrocytes -- Suzuki et al. 114 (20): 3717 -- Journal of Cell Science 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC jcs.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

[9] .These receptors have also been described in arthropods, such as Drosophila melanogaster[10] and Lepeophtheirus salmonis.^ These studies have largely focused on NMDA receptor-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity such as NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD).
  • Glutamate and Unipolar Depression Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The pharmacology of these receptors is similar to that described for glutamate transporters, as the glutamate-elicited current is (1) dependent upon external Na+, (2) reduced by transporter blockers, and (3) insensitive to glutamate agonists and antagonists.
  • Webvision: Glutamate and glutamate receptors in the vertebrate retina 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC webvision.med.utah.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Subsequently, these were extracted and analyzed for amino acids as previously described ( 10 ) by the Waters picotag system.
  • Glutamate ingestion: the plasma and muscle free amino acid pools of resting humans -- Graham et al. 278 (1): E83 -- AJP - Endocrinology and Metabolism 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC ajpendo.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[11] .Irreversible activation of these receptors with avermectins results in hyperpolarization at synapses and neuromuscular junctions resulting in flaccid paralysis and death of nematodes and arthropods.^ Receptors activated by AMPA and kainate in vertebrate CNS and at arthropod neuromuscular junctions desensitize rapidly with a time constant of <50 ms (Dudel et al.
  • Glutamate is a Fast Excitatory Transmitter at Some Buccal Neuromuscular Synapses in Aplysia -- Fox and Lloyd 82 (3): 1477 -- Journal of Neurophysiology 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC jn.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although this difference could be due to B3's terminals being deeper in the bundle and less accessible to bath applied glutamate, it is also possible that it represents a real physiological difference between receptors at these neuromuscular synapses.
  • Glutamate is a Fast Excitatory Transmitter at Some Buccal Neuromuscular Synapses in Aplysia -- Fox and Lloyd 82 (3): 1477 -- Journal of Neurophysiology 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC jn.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many of these models have implicated activation of the N -methyl- D -aspartate receptor (NMDAR) for epileptogenesis.
  • Glutamate Injury-Induced Epileptogenesis in Hippocampal Neurons: An In Vitro Model of Stroke-Induced "Epilepsy" -- Sun et al. 32 (10): 2344 -- Stroke 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

L-Glutamic acid at physiological conditions

Brain nonsynaptic glutamatergic signaling circuits

.Extracellular glutamate in Drosophila brains has been found to regulate postsynaptic glutamate receptor clustering, via a process involving receptor desensitization.^ PubMed ] Augustin H, Grosjean Y, Chen K, Sheng Q, Featherstone DE: Nonvesicular release of glutamate by glial xCT transporters suppresses glutamate receptor clustering in vivo.
  • DrugBank: Showing L-Glutamic Acid (DB00142) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.drugbank.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Glutamate through AMPA and kainate receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS and through NMDA receptors, it mediates slow excitatory response, which plays a role in long-term adaptive and pathological changes in the brain involving synaptic plasticity.
  • L-Glutamic acid and glutamine: Exciting molecules of clinical interest Kulkarni C, Kulkarni KS, Hamsa BR - Indian J Pharmacol 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ijp-online.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Synaptic trapping of GluR4 involves an extracellular binding to pentraxins ( Sia et al., 2007 ), a process that may be important for recruitment of AMPA receptors to the postsynaptic specialization during synaptogenesis.
  • ScienceDirect - Neuron : Glutamate Receptor Dynamics in Dendritic Microdomains 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC cl.exct.net [Source type: Academic]

[12] .A gene expressed in glial cells actively transports glutamate into the extracellular space,[12] while in the nucleus accumbens stimulating group II metabotropic glutamate receptors, this gene was found to reduce extracellular glutamate levels.^ Metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 precursor mGluR7 .
  • DrugBank: Showing L-Glutamic Acid (DB00142) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.drugbank.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Glutamate transporters and transporter-like receptors.
  • Webvision: Glutamate and glutamate receptors in the vertebrate retina 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC webvision.med.utah.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Localization of neuronal and glial glutamate transporters.
  • Evidence of elevated glutamate in multiple sclerosis using magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T -- Srinivasan et al. 128 (5): 1016 -- Brain 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Transient upregulation of the glial glutamate transporter GLAST in response to fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor and epidermal growth factor in cultured astrocytes -- Suzuki et al. 114 (20): 3717 -- Journal of Cell Science 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC jcs.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

[13] .This raises the possibility that this extracellular glutamate plays an "endocrine-like" role as part of a larger homeostatic system.^ This raises the possibility that this extracellular glutamate plays an "endocrine-like" role as part of a larger homeostatic system.
  • Glutamic acid: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Excitotoxicity due to glutamate occurs as part of the ischemic cascade and is associated with stroke and diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, lathyrism, and Alzheimer's disease.
  • Glutamic acid: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of its role in synaptic plasticity, it is believed that glutamic acid is involved in cognitive functions like learning and memory in the brain.
  • Glutamic acid: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

GABA precursor

.Glutamate also serves as the precursor for the synthesis of the inhibitory GABA in GABA-ergic neurons.^ Precursor to GABA, an important inhibitory neurotransmitter.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is the rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of -aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS. The enzyme is selectively expressed in GABA-ergic neurones and in pancreatic β-cells.
  • Spectrum of neurological syndromes associated with glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies: diagnostic clues for this association -- Saiz et al. 131 (10): 2553 -- Brain 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A major finding of the present study, therefore, is that every GABA-containing neuron also contained glutamate.
  • Glutamate, GABA and Precursor Amino Acids in Adult Mouse Neocortex: Cellular Diversity Revealed by Quantitative Immunocytochemistry -- Hill et al. 10 (11): 1132 -- Cerebral Cortex 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC cercor.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.This reaction is catalyzed by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), which is most abundant in the cerebellum and pancreas.^ Solimena M, DeCamilli P. Autoimmunity to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in stiff-man syndrome and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
  • Spectrum of neurological syndromes associated with glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies: diagnostic clues for this association -- Saiz et al. 131 (10): 2553 -- Brain 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Demonstration of GAD-65 as the main immunogenic isoform of glutamate decarboxylase in type 1 diabetes and determination of autoantibodies using a radioligand produced by eukaryotic expression.
  • WikiGenes - GAD1 - glutamate decarboxylase 1 (brain, 67kDa) 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.wikigenes.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Two of the most important autoantigens in diabetes pathogenesis, in both mice and humans, are insulin and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65 ( 18 , 19 ).
  • CD4+ T Cells from Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD)65-specific T Cell Receptor Transgenic Mice Are Not Diabetogenic and Can Delay Diabetes Transfer -- Tarbell et al. 196 (4): 481 -- The Journal of Experimental Medicine 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC jem.rupress.org [Source type: Academic]

.Stiff-man syndrome is a neurologic disorder caused by anti-GAD antibodies, leading to a decrease in GABA synthesis and therefore, impaired motor function such as muscle stiffness and spasm.^ Solimena M, DeCamilli P. Autoimmunity to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in stiff-man syndrome and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
  • Spectrum of neurological syndromes associated with glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies: diagnostic clues for this association -- Saiz et al. 131 (10): 2553 -- Brain 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ [Abstract/ Free Full Text] Rakocevic G, Raju R, Semino-Mora C, Dalkas MC. Stiff-person syndrome with cerebellar disease and high-titer anti-GAD antibodies.
  • Spectrum of neurological syndromes associated with glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies: diagnostic clues for this association -- Saiz et al. 131 (10): 2553 -- Brain 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ [Web of Science] [Medline] Rakocevic G, Raju R, Dalkas MC. Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with stiff-person syndrome.
  • Spectrum of neurological syndromes associated with glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies: diagnostic clues for this association -- Saiz et al. 131 (10): 2553 -- Brain 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Since the pancreas is also abundant for the enzyme GAD, a direct immunological destruction occurs in the pancreas and the patients will have diabetes mellitus.^ Since the pancreas is also abundant for the enzyme GAD, a direct immunological destruction occurs in the pancreas and the patients will have diabetes mellitus.
  • Glutamic acid - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), also known as Type I diabetes, is a severe metabolic disease of the pancreas.

^ Objectives To show a link between GAD-Ab and some patients with cerebellar ataxia and to clarify their clinical and immunologic profiles.
  • Arch Neurol -- Abstract: Cerebellar Ataxia With Anti-Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Antibodies: Study of 14 Patients, February 2001, Honnorat et al. 58 (2): 225 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC archneur.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

Flavor enhancer

.Free glutamic acid is present in a wide variety of foods, including cheese and soy sauce and is responsible for one of the five basic tastes of the human sense of taste (umami).^ The content of free L-glutamic acid in various foods.
  • 638. Glutamic acid and its salts (WHO Food Additives Series 22) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Umami: a basic taste.
  • 638. Glutamic acid and its salts (WHO Food Additives Series 22) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The content of free L-glutamic acid in various foods (part 2).
  • 638. Glutamic acid and its salts (WHO Food Additives Series 22) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Glutamic acid is often used as a food additive and flavour enhancer in the form of its sodium salt, monosodium glutamate (MSG).^ Food industry l The MSG is used as a flavor enhancer in savories.
  • L-Glutamic acid and glutamine: Exciting molecules of clinical interest Kulkarni C, Kulkarni KS, Hamsa BR - Indian J Pharmacol 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ijp-online.com [Source type: Academic]

^ L glutamate, monosodium DL-glutamate or L-glutamic acid respectively.
  • 207. Monosodium glutamate (FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series 48a) 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, MSG is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, while "glutamate," as the term is used most often these days, is the ionic form of glutamic acid.
  • LE Magazine, September 1999 - Report: Glutamine: The Essential "Non-Essential" Amino Acid 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

Nutrient

.All meats, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, as well as kombu are excellent sources of glutamic acid.^ Commercial source for production of glutamic acid .
  • L-Glutamic acid and glutamine: Exciting molecules of clinical interest Kulkarni C, Kulkarni KS, Hamsa BR - Indian J Pharmacol 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ijp-online.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Truncating the glutamic acid at the N-terminal position 104 completely abrogates IL-2 production from clone 15H2 (Fig.
  • Determination of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase 65 Peptides Presented by the Type I Diabetes-Associated HLA-DQ8 Class II Molecule Identifies an Immunogenic Peptide Motif -- Herman et al. 163 (11): 6275 -- The Journal of Immunology 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Glutamate is found in abundance in both 'free' and 'bound' forms in all natural food stuffs - meat, poultry, fish, cheese, milk (including human breast milk), tomatoes, mushrooms, and many other vegetables - peas and broccoli.
  • L-Glutamic acid and glutamine: Exciting molecules of clinical interest Kulkarni C, Kulkarni KS, Hamsa BR - Indian J Pharmacol 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ijp-online.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some protein-rich plant foods also serve as sources.^ (Endogenous sources could include amino acids, e.g., L -leucine, serving as precursors for glutamate synthesis and proteins yielding glutamate via proteolysis.
  • L-Glutamine in vitro regulates rat aortic glutamate content and modulates nitric oxide formation and contractility responses -- Schachter 293 (1): C142 -- AJP - Cell Physiology 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC ajpcell.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.Ninety-five percent of the dietary glutamate is metabolized by intestinal cells in a first pass.^ To ascertain whether antigen content varied with cortical depth, the mean PVs for all glutamate-IR cells analysed were plotted against percent cortical depth.
  • Glutamate, GABA and Precursor Amino Acids in Adult Mouse Neocortex: Cellular Diversity Revealed by Quantitative Immunocytochemistry -- Hill et al. 10 (11): 1132 -- Cerebral Cortex 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC cercor.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates that equine estrogens can prevent glutamate-induced translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytosol in the rat primary cortical cells.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Glutamate-induced apoptosis in primary cortical neurons is inhibited by equine estrogens via down-regulation of caspase-3 and prevention of mitochondrial cytochrome c release 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These glutamate analogues regulate IP3 mass accumulation in accordance with their ability to protect cells, and protection appears to take place at the level of glutathione metabolism.
  • Program Book - The Glutamate Cascade: Common Pathways of Central Nervous System Disease States - Poster Abstracts 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.nida.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[14]

Plant growth

.Auxigro is a plant growth preparation that contains 30% glutamic acid.^ We have found that major brands of infant formula, if not all infant formulas, contain some processed free glutamic acid (MSG).

^ Human spinal fluid contains 0.34-1.64 (mean 1.03 mg/l) free glutamic acid (Dickinson & Hamilton, 1966).
  • 207. Monosodium glutamate (FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series 48a) 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The major immunogenic epitopes of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 do not contain a negatively charged residue that binds in the P9 pocket of the HLA-DQ8 molecule.
  • Determination of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase 65 Peptides Presented by the Type I Diabetes-Associated HLA-DQ8 Class II Molecule Identifies an Immunogenic Peptide Motif -- Herman et al. 163 (11): 6275 -- The Journal of Immunology 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]

Production

.China-based Fufeng Group Limited is the largest producer of glutamic acid in the world, with capacity increasing to 300,000 tons at the end of 2006 from 180,000 tons during 2006, putting them at 25%–30% of the Chinese market.^ Increased anxiety and altered responses to anxiolytics in mice deficient in the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase.
  • LE Magazine, September 1999 - Report: Glutamine: The Essential "Non-Essential" Amino Acid 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, increased filling of receptor slots could produce increased molecular crowding and retention of glutamate receptors through nonchemical interactions, which may be especially important for persistent trapping of newly mobilized receptors during synaptic potentiation.
  • ScienceDirect - Neuron : Glutamate Receptor Dynamics in Dendritic Microdomains 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC cl.exct.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Interestingly, the two exitatory amino acids — glutamic acid & aspartic acid — are the two acidic amino acids found in proteins, insofar as both have two carboxyl groups rather than one.
  • BRAIN NEUROTRANSMITTERS 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

Meihua is the second largest Chinese producer. Together, the top five producers have roughly 50% share in China. Chinese demand is roughly 1.1 million tons per year, while global demand, including China, is 1.7 million tons per year.

Pharmacology

.The drug phencyclidine (more commonly known as PCP) antagonizes glutamic acid non-competitively at the NMDA receptor.^ Non-NMDA receptor .
  • Glutamate and Glutamate Receptors in the Vertebrate Retina -- Webvision -- NCBI Bookshelf 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Three - dimensional models of non - NMDA glutamate receptor...
  • ScienceDirect - Neuron : Glutamate Receptor Dynamics in Dendritic Microdomains 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC cl.exct.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit epsilon-1 .
  • DrugBank: Showing L-Glutamic Acid (DB00142) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.drugbank.ca [Source type: Academic]

.For the same reasons, sub-anaesthetic doses of ketamine have strong dissociative and hallucinogenic effects.^ To study these interactions, we are examining the effects of dopamine agonists and antagonists on subhypnotic doses of the N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist, ketamine, in humans.
  • Program Book - The Glutamate Cascade: Common Pathways of Central Nervous System Disease States - Poster Abstracts 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.nida.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ RESULTS: Subanesthetic doses of ketamine treatment caused acute and sustained antidepressant-like effects.
  • Glutamate and Unipolar Depression Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Intrathecal administration of the GABAA antagonist bicuculline (40 to 80 nmol) or the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine (80 nmol) had no effect at doses that induce strong nociceptive behaviors.
  • Program Book - The Glutamate Cascade: Common Pathways of Central Nervous System Disease States - Poster Abstracts 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.nida.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Glutamate does not easily pass the blood brain barrier, but instead this transport is mediated by a high affinity transport system.^ This system transports glutamate and α-ketoglutarate, but not aspartate.
  • Biosynthesis of Glutamate, Aspartate, Asparagine, l-Alanine, and d-Alanine 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC ecosal.aptaracorp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Glutamic acid is the main precursor of GABA. Does not easily pass through the blood-brain barrier, which has important clinical implications.
  • Bible Life Ministries - Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Life and Healing. 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When the kinetic parameter estimates for X AG – glutamate transport system activities among cell populations, as summarized in Table 1 , are considered in terms of EAAC-1 content, it is clear that a greater EAAC-1 protein content is associated with a lower maximal transport activity and changing transporter affinity.
  • Expression of apical membrane L-glutamate transporters in neonatal porcine epithelial cells along the small intestinal crypt-villus axis -- Fan et al. 287 (2): G385 -- AJP - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC ajpgi.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[15] .It can also be converted into glutamine.^ Glutamate, released by glutamatergic neurons, is taken up into glial cells where it is converted into glutamine by the enzyme glutamine synthetase.
  • Method and composition for protecting neuronal tissue from damage induced by elevated glutamate levels - Patent application 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In this process, glutamate is actively taken up into glia, converted to glutamine and then exported to neurons (Hertz, 1979 ; Kalloniatis and Tomisich, 1999 ).
  • Glutamate, GABA and Precursor Amino Acids in Adult Mouse Neocortex: Cellular Diversity Revealed by Quantitative Immunocytochemistry -- Hill et al. 10 (11): 1132 -- Cerebral Cortex 1 February 2010 8:08 UTC cercor.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

See also

References

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  8. ^ Laughton, D.L., Wheeler, S.V., Lunt, G.G. and Wolstenholme, A.J. 1995. "The beta-subunit of Caenorhabditis elegans avermectin receptor responds to glycine and is encoded by chromosome 1". J. Neurochem. 64, 2354-2357
  9. ^ Cully, D.F., Vassilatis, D.K., Liu, K.K., Paress, P.S., Van der Ploeg, L.H.T., Schaeffer, J.M. and Arena, J.P. 1994. "Cloning of an avermectin-sensitive glutamate gated choride channels from Caenorhabditis elegans". Nature 371, 707-711
  10. ^ Cully, D.F., Paress, P.S., Liu, K.K., Schaeffer, J.M. and Arena, J.P. 1996. "Identification of a Drosophila melanogaster glutamate-gated chloride channel sensitive to the antiparasitic agent avermectin". J. Biol. Chem. '271, 20187-20191'
  11. ^ Tribble, N.D., Burka, J.F. and Kibenge, F.S.B. 2007. "Identification of the genes encoding for putative gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) alpha receptor subunits in sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis)". J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 30, 163-167
  12. ^ a b Augustin H, Grosjean Y, Chen K, Sheng Q, Featherstone DE (2007). "Nonvesicular release of glutamate by glial xCT transporters suppresses glutamate receptor clustering in vivo". Journal of Neuroscience 27 (1): 111–123. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4770-06.2007. PMID 17202478. 
  13. ^ Zheng Xi, Baker DA, Shen H, Carson DS, Kalivas PW (2002). "Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors modulate extracellular glutamate in the nucleus accumbens". Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 300 (1): 162–171. doi:10.1124/jpet.300.1.162. PMID 11752112. 
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  15. ^ Smith QR (April 2000). "Transport of glutamate and other amino acids at the blood-brain barrier". J. Nutr. 130 (4S Suppl): 1016S–22S. PMID 10736373. http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10736373. 

Further reading

  • Nelson, David L.; Cox, Michael M. (2005), Principles of Biochemistry (4th ed.), New York: W. H. Freeman, ISBN 0-7167-4339-6 

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