Gluten: Wikis

  
  
  

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Wheat seed, sectioned to reveal endosperm and embryo
Wheat, a prime source of gluten
.Gluten (from Latin gluten "glue") is a composite of the proteins gliadin and glutenin.^ Gluten is actually a type of complex protein, which is a mixture of proteins, glutenin and gliadin.
  • Gluten Allergy Symptoms 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gluten is a mixture of two proteins, gliadin and glutenin.
  • Coeliac disease (coeliac sprue or gluten allergy) 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.netdoctor.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a mixture of gliadin, glutenin, and other proteins.
  • Gluten-Free Diet 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

.These exist, conjoined with starch, in the endosperms of some grass-related grains, notably wheat, rye, and barley.^ Wheat, barley and rye are more closely related than oats.

^ Gluten is an amorphous ergastic protein found combined with starch in the endosperm of some cereals, notably wheat, rye, and barley.

^ He can't have anything with wheat, oat, rye or barley.
  • Gluten Intolerance & Celiac Disease - Ask the Dietitian® 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gliadin and glutenin comprise about 80% of the protein contained in wheat seed.^ It is a mixture of gliadin, glutenin, and other proteins.
  • Gluten-Free Diet 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ See also: Health & Medicine Plants & Animals Cell Biology Molecular Biology Biology It constitutes about 80% of the proteins contained in wheat, and is composed of the proteins gliadin and glutenin..

^ The troublemaker is gluten "a composite of the proteins gliadin and glutenin " which represents the dominant component of wheat grain endosperm.
  • Restorative Remedies - Focus: Gluten Intolerance 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.restorativeremedies.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Gluten Intolerance 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC ifsmed.com [Source type: Academic]

.Being insoluble in water, they can be purified by washing away the associated starch.^ But they're not being used to water decorative pieces!

^ You’ve probably heard the terms soluble and insoluble fiber, but all that really means is how soluble, or dissolvable, they are in water.

^ They come salted, but I wash them in a bath of tap water, then leave out to dry.

.Worldwide, gluten is an important source of nutritional protein, both in foods prepared directly from sources containing it, and as an additive to foods otherwise low in protein.^ HealthNOW - Foods containing Gluten .
  • HealthNOW - Foods containing Gluten 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.healthnowmedical.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What foods and ingredients contain gluten?
  • Gluten-Free Bagels: Gluten Free Easy - Recommended Product 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.glutenfreeeasy.com [Source type: General]

^ If it is not a whole food, it may contain gluten.

.The seeds of most flowering plants have endosperms with stored protein to nourish embryonic plants during germination, but true gluten, with gliadin and glutenin, is limited to certain members of the grass family.^ Gluten is actually a type of complex protein, which is a mixture of proteins, glutenin and gliadin.
  • Gluten Allergy Symptoms 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gluten is a mixture of two proteins, gliadin and glutenin.
  • Coeliac disease (coeliac sprue or gluten allergy) 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.netdoctor.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All grass family seeds contain a 'gluten' of some type.

.The stored proteins of maize and rice are sometimes called glutens, but their proteins differ from wheat gluten by lacking gliadin.^ Characterisation of ?-Gliadins from different wheat species .
  • Wheat Gluten 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC ebook.rsc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sometimes it can be wheat free and have tons of gluten in it.
  • Gluten Ingredient Names: Gluten Free Diets | eHow.com 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ The evidence for this is a test involving a protein found in gluten called gliadin.
  • Gluten 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.vaccinetruth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • grain is bad for all of us and most bread is bad. GLUTEN lines our gut. GLUTEN IS BAD. wheat is bad 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The glutenin in wheat flour gives kneaded dough its elasticity, allows leavening and contributes chewiness to baked products like bagels.^ The substance glutenin, which is in some other grains such as corn and rice, gives kneaded grain doughs their elasticity, allows for leavening and chewiness.
  • Gluten profile at Super Eco 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.supereco.com [Source type: General]

^ Eggs contribute to the structure of a baked product.
  • how_baking_works 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.baking911.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It gives bread dough its elastic texture.
  • Gluten@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: General]
  • Gluten@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC everything2.org [Source type: General]

.Although wheat supplies much of the world's dietary protein and food supply, as much as 0.5% to 1% of the population of the United States has celiac disease, a condition which results from an adverse immune system response to gluten.^ Prevalence of celiac disease in at-risk and not-at-risk groups in the United States.

^ Celiac disease is the result of suffering gluten intolerance.
  • Paleo Cookbooks for Gluten-Free Living - 310 Recipes to Combat Common Food Allergies 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC glutenfreecookbooks.com [Source type: General]

^ What does gluten do to people with celiac disease?

[1][2] .The manifestations of celiac disease range from no symptoms to malabsorption of nutrients with involvement of multiple organ systems.^ What are the symptoms of Gluten intolerance and Celiac Disease?
  • Gluten intolerance and Celiac Disease | Foodintol.com 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.foodintol.com [Source type: Academic]

^ What are symptoms of celiac disease?
  • Gluten-Free Bagels: Gluten Free Easy - Recommended Product 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.glutenfreeeasy.com [Source type: General]

^ Symptoms of celiac disease include .
  • What I need to know about Celiac Disease 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC digestive.niddk.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The only effective treatment is a lifelong gluten-free diet.^ The only current treatment for Celiac Disease is following a lifelong Gluten-Free Diet.

^ The only treatment for celiac disease is a gluten-free diet.
  • What I need to know about Celiac Disease 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC digestive.niddk.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Celiac Disease 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.niddk.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Life can be enjoyed on a gluten-free diet.
  • Finer Health and Nutrition : Educational Information : Frequently Asked Questions about Gluten Sensitivity 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.finerhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Extraction

.While there is no evidence of this, legend attributes the discovery of gluten to Buddhist monks in 7th-century China who sought meat-like ingredients for use in their vegetarian diet.^ There is no gluten in goat cheese.
  • Gluten-Free Girl and the Chef: what the heck is gluten anyway? 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC glutenfreegirl.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Due to the presence of gluten in the whiskey components before distillation we cannot absolutely guarantee that there are no effects to coeliacs.
  • Gluten-Free Tiramisu — A Gluten-Free Day 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC glutenfreeday.com [Source type: General]

^ Gluten is also used in foods in some unexpected ways, for example as a stabilizing agent or thickener in products like ice-cream and ketchup.
  • Gluten Free Rice Crust Pizza Recipe | HomePizzaChef 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC homepizzachef.com [Source type: General]

.With easily available wheat flour and water they made a dough which they submerged in cold water and kneaded.^ I love that they are made with coconut flour .
  • Gluten Free Chocolate Cupcakes - Gluten Free Recipes | Elana's Pantry 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.elanaspantry.com [Source type: General]

^ The potato dish they made had flour in it.

^ The variations govern the baking qualities of flours, as is shown by the properties of doughs prepared from different kinds of wheat flours; i.e., the dough can be soft and extensible or tough and elastic, or have properties between the extremes.
  • gluten (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The water dissolved the starchy components of the dough and left behind an insoluble, gummy mass, 70% to 80% of which was gluten.^ You’ve probably heard the terms soluble and insoluble fiber, but all that really means is how soluble, or dissolvable, they are in water.

^ Sure, the anti-gluten literature of the 70's and 80's had a definite anti-capitalist flair.
  • Gluten Website FAQ 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.members.cox.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gluten is still extracted from flour by washing out the starch by means fundamentally similar to the ancient way; this exploited the fact that starch is water-soluble while gluten is not, and also that gluten binds together strongly, while starch dissolved in cold water is mobile.^ Gluten-free Flours & Starches .

^ The gluten in the flour is what makes the paste "elastic" and binds it together.

^ Is gluten soluble in water?
  • gluten Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about gluten 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.If a saline solution is used instead of water a purer protein is obtained, with certain harmless impurities going into solution with the starch.^ The dictionary defines gluten as a tough, sticky mixture of plant proteins, obtained by washing out the starch from wheat or other cereal flour and used as an adhesive and thickener.
  • Gluten Test 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.webnat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The water is drained and the slices immersed in an acid solution for three hours, then blanched in boiling water for five minutes.Slices are dried and milled into flour.
  • Gluten Free Flour 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.triumphdining.com [Source type: General]
  • Wheat Free and Gluten Free Recipes 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC nuchiafoods.com [Source type: General]

^ Please note that instead of using the required eggs, I poured three tablespoons of flaxseeds into my mini-cuisinart, whirled them until they turned into flaxmeal, then whisked in 9 tablespoons of boiling water.

.However, on an industrial scale, starch is the prime product, so cold water is the favored solvent.^ However, as with any other ingested product, you should gauge your reaction and learn as much about your favored brands as possible.

.To effect the separation, a slurry of wheat flour is stirred vigorously by machinery until the starch dissolves and the gluten consolidates into a mass, which is collected by centrifugation, then carried, by complex machinery, through several stages combined into a continuous process: Approximately 65% of the water in the wet gluten is removed by means of a screw press, and the residue is sprayed through an atomizing nozzle into a drying chamber, where it remains at an elevated temperature only long enough to evaporate the water without denaturing the gluten.^ Gluten-free Flours & Starches .

^ Several months later she also removed gluten.
  • The Gluten Syndrome, Gluten Sensitivity, Gluten Intolerance, Gluten Connection, Celiac Disease, Gluten Challenge - Home 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC glutensensitivity.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stir until well combined.

.This yields a flour-like powder with a 7% moisture content, which is quickly air-cooled and pneumatically transported to a receiving vessel.^ Store sorghum flour in moisture-vapor-proof, air-tight glass or metal containers or plastic freezer bags.
  • Gluten-Free Sorghum Recipes 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC lancaster.unl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the final step, the collected gluten is sifted and milled to make the product uniform.^ No Ferrara Pan products are made on equipment that is also used to make a product that contains wheat, oat, rye or barley gluten.
  • Gluten free Foods Rock » Halloween Candy List 2009 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC glutenfreefoodsrock.com [Source type: General]

^ While gluten is only found in barley, wheat and rye, cross contamination of products can make it extremely difficult to know what foods can trigger a reaction.

^ Welcome to LiveGlutenFreely.com – your destination for gluten-free product information, new product news and recipes from General Mills.

[3]

Uses

Fried gluten balls
.When dough made with wheat flour is kneaded, gluten forms as glutenin molecules cross-link to make a sub-microscopic network and associates with gliadin, which contributes viscosity and extensibility to the mix.^ If you have flour left over at the end mix it with the egg that’s left to make a dough.

^ It’s made with barley and wheat and not gluten-free.

^ SEITAN (WHEAT, wheat meat) Made from WHEAT gluten.
  • Gluten-Free Diet: Grains and Flours 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.csaceliacs.org [Source type: Reference]

[4] .If such dough is leavened with yeast, sugar fermentation produces bubbles of carbon dioxide which, trapped by the gluten network, cause the dough to swell or rise.^ Carbon dioxide is the primary leavening gas that makes yeast breads rise.
  • how_baking_works 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.baking911.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fermentation fundamentals: Fundamental rheology of yeasted doughs .
  • Wheat Gluten 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC ebook.rsc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Its presence in flour helps make the production of leavened, or raised, baked goods possible because the chainlike molecules form an elastic network that traps carbon dioxide gas and expands with it.
  • gluten (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Baking coagulates the gluten, which, along with starch, stabilizes the shape of the final product.^ Gluten-free labeling will be voluntary but once a final federal definition is in effect, if a manufacturer wants to label a product as “gluten-free,” the food with this gluten-free label must meet the regulatory definition.
  • gluten « Dr. Susan Mitchell - Nutrition Expert 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC susanmitchell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You might be intimidated by what appears to be a long list of flours and/or starches in my gluten free baked goods.

^ Bread & Baked Goods: a variety of amazing gluten-free products (including a large array of breads, buns and holiday baking for sale.
  • mollybglutenfree.com gluten-free, wheat-free,dairy-free,casein&lactose-free,soy-free, corn-free, yeast-free dry mixes, frozen stuffed crepes products 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.mollybglutenfree.com [Source type: General]

.Gluten content has been implicated as a factor in the staling of bread, possibly because it binds water by hydration.^ Gluten is a common food additive, often used in small amounts, because it increases protein content inexpensively, as well as enhances taste and texture in food processing.

^ Strict adherence for life is mandatory, because even a small ingestion of gluten will cause damage to the small intestine and increase the risk factors.
  • Welcome to Soycoffee 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.soycoffee.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bread is perhaps the most challenging gluten-free baked product to make because gluten provides structure, creates a tender crumb, and retains gas.

[5]
.The development of gluten (i.e., enhancing its elasticity) affects the texture of the baked goods.^ Gluten is a common food additive, often used in small amounts, because it increases protein content inexpensively, as well as enhances taste and texture in food processing.

^ Gluten is a type of protein compound in certain cereal grains – primarily wheat, barley, and rye - the basis of breads, baked goods, and pasta.

^ Flavorings enhance a baked good's aroma and taste.
  • how_baking_works 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.baking911.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gluten's attainable elasticity is proportional to its content of glutenins with low molecular weights because that fraction contains the preponderance of the sulfur atoms responsible for the cross-linking in the network.^ This is because oats may contain a small amount of gluten, and are often processed and stored in the same mills as wheat.
  • Coeliac disease (coeliac sprue or gluten allergy) 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.netdoctor.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Protein Some gluten-free flours are low in protein, because they have had the gluten removed, which is itself a protein.
  • The Vegetarian Society - Information Sheet - Gluten-free diet 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.vegsoc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is the role of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) decisive in determination of baking quality of wheat?
  • Wheat Gluten 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC ebook.rsc.org [Source type: Academic]

[6][7] .More development leads to chewier products like pizza and bagels, while less development yields tender baked goods.^ In baked goods guar gum increases dough yield and chewiness.
  • Wheat Free and Gluten Free Recipes 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC nuchiafoods.com [Source type: General]

^ And you feel less like a weirdo or an imposition and more like a welcome friend.
  • Gluten-Free Babe: My quest to live gluten-free for 30 days 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.glutenfreebabe.com [Source type: General]

^ Sugar also acts as a tenderizing agent during mixing by inhibiting gluten development and during baking by delaying gelatinization or the cake's structure from setting.
  • how_baking_works 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.baking911.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In general, bread flours are high in gluten while cake flours are low.^ This means Gluten is also present in all baked foods that are made from these grains: bread, pies, cake, breakfast cereals, porridge, cookies, pizza and pasta.
  • Gluten intolerance and Celiac Disease | Foodintol.com 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.foodintol.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This gives flour its characteristic chewiness and permits breads and cakes to rise during baking as the gases within expand and are trapped in the gluten superstructure.
  • gluten Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about gluten 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Depending on the type of wheat and where and when it was planted, the resulting flour can be high-gluten (milled from hard winter wheat), low-gluten (from soft spring wheat), or moderate (a combination of the two).
  • how_baking_works 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.baking911.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Kneading promotes the formation of gluten strands and cross-links, so a baked product is chewier in proportion to how much the dough is worked.^ This gives flour its characteristic chewiness and permits breads and cakes to rise during baking as the gases within expand and are trapped in the gluten superstructure.
  • gluten Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about gluten 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Here is their link: http://www.kinnikinnick.ca/ Another great source for gluten-free products is the Gluten Free Pantry.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Gluten-free Foods 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ This corn gluten herbicide works because there are some natural chemicals in it that inhibit root formation at the time of germination, says Christians.
  • Corn Gluten Meal Research Page : Department of Horticulture 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.hort.iastate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Increased wetness of the dough also enhances gluten development.^ Gluten is a common food additive, often used in small amounts, because it increases protein content inexpensively, as well as enhances taste and texture in food processing.

^ Water and milk enhance the development of gluten and/or gelatinization of starch in the flour or the setting of the structure (baking) and thus serve as a toughener.
  • how_baking_works 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.baking911.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Salt tightens the bonds between the two proteins that comprise gluten and so increases the strength of the dough, giving it the elasticity it needs to be rolled.
  • how_baking_works 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.baking911.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .Shortening inhibits formation of cross-links, so it is used, along with diminished water and minimal working, when a tender and flaky product, such as pie crust, is desired.^ In the past I have also used the ‘Cause You’re Special pie crust mix with great results.

^ This corn gluten herbicide works because there are some natural chemicals in it that inhibit root formation at the time of germination, says Christians.
  • Corn Gluten Meal Research Page : Department of Horticulture 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.hort.iastate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was my mom who discovered that having a cold working surface makes it a lot easier to roll out pie crusts.

.Gluten, dried and milled to powder and added to ordinary flour dough, improves rising and increases the bread's structural stability and chewiness,[9].^ This is done to improve the quality of the dough and the volume of the bread.
  • how_baking_works 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.baking911.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gluten is a mixture of two proteins, gliadin and glutenin which when mixed with water it becomes sticky and so forms the familiar texture of dough made from wheat and rye flour.
  • Coeliac disease & Gluten intolerance - the facts. 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.foodreactions.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The element in the cereal that forms the rubbery sponge in risen bread so it doesn't crumble and rises high without collapsing, is gluten.
  • Gluten In Bread - Choosing The Right Flour For Bread 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.healthrecipes.com [Source type: General]

.Such doughs must be worked vigorously if they are to rise to their full capacity, so a bread machine or food processor may be required for their kneading.^ It binds the dough in foods such as bread and other baked goods.
  • Wheat, Gluten Allergy, Gluten Intolerance and Gluten Enteropathy 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.scienceinafrica.co.za [Source type: Academic]

^ The label or menu must clearly state “gluten-free”; otherwise there may be overt or trace amounts of gluten in the food.
  • Nutrolution - Evolved Nutrition for Busy People 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC nutrolution.com [Source type: General]

^ Again, they may be insulted that you won't eat their food.

[10] .The added gluten provides supplemental protein to what would otherwise be high-carbohydrate preparations.^ Supplemental enzymes provide a great safety net to catch unknown or unavoidable sources of gluten.

^ Some people have difficulty digesting the carbohydrate part of gluten, not the protein part.

^ Gastroenterology , Volume 128, Issue 4, pps S79-S86 Shatin R : Preliminary report of the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with high protein gluten-free diet and supplements.
  • Gluten intolerance and Celiac Disease | Foodintol.com 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.foodintol.com [Source type: Academic]

.The protein content of pet foods is also enhanced by adding gluten.^ Gluten is a common food additive, often used in small amounts, because it increases protein content inexpensively, as well as enhances taste and texture in food processing.

^ Gluten is also making headlines now, because some Chinese suppliers are accused of slipping the industrial chemical melamine into wheat gluten that was added to American pet food, resulting in a product recall.
  • Jury Is Still Out on Gluten, the Latest Dietary Villain - New York Times 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Recipes commonly use all-purpose flour, which has a moderate gluten or protein content.
  • how_baking_works 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.baking911.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .When cooked in broth, gluten absorbs some of the surrounding liquid (including the taste) and becomes firm to the bite, so is widely used in vegetarian, vegan and Buddhist cuisines as a meat substitute.^ Gluten is also used in some medications.

^ It is frequently used in gluten-free cooking as a substitute for wheat gluten.

^ If you don’t know what gluten is, it is a mix of two proteins which is found in some grass-related grains including wheat, barley and rye.

.In China, as miàn jin, it is the basis for imitation meats resembling chicken, duck, fish, pork and beef.^ All meats can be rubbed -- beef, pork, or chicken.
  • All Seasoning-Gluten Free Items 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.allseasoning.com [Source type: General]

^ The sauce can be enjoyed on chicken, pork, fish or beef.
  • All Seasoning-Gluten Free Items 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.allseasoning.com [Source type: General]

^ It's great for grilling chicken, fish, pork, or steak!
  • All Seasoning-Gluten Free Items 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.allseasoning.com [Source type: General]

The Japanese variants, called namafu, yakifu, and seitan, are used in the same way.

Gluten as an additive

.The "Codex Alimentarius" set of international standards for food labeling has a standard relating to the labelling of products as "gluten free", however this standard does not apply to "foods which in their normal form do not contain gluten".[12] Gluten is used as a stabilizing agent in products like ice-cream and ketchup, where it may be unexpected.^ Looking for the label ‘Gluten Free’ is a most comforting label on your food.
  • DFWCeliac.org 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC dfwceliac.org [Source type: General]

^ What are the best gluten free mixes to use?

^ Wards, gluten free on label .

[13][14] .Foods of this kind present a problem because the hidden gluten constitutes a hazard for people with celiac disease: In the United States, at least, gluten might not be listed on the labels of such foods because the U.S, Food and Drug Administration has classified gluten as GRAS (Generally recognized as safe).^ Can people "grow out of" Celiac disease?

^ What does gluten do to people with celiac disease?

^ Gluten intolerance and Celiac Disease .
  • Gluten intolerance and Celiac Disease | Foodintol.com 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.foodintol.com [Source type: Academic]

[15] .Requirements for proper labeling are being formulated by the USDA. In the United Kingdom, only cereals currently need to be labelled, while other products are voluntary.^ Our product formulas and ingredients may change, therefore the ingredient label on the package is always the best and most current information about our products.

^ Should someone be allergic to wheat or other grain and develop a rash when products containing these are applied to the skin, then they need to avoid that specific grain, not gluten.
  • Gluten Free Skincare? | DERMAdoctor Skin Insight 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC blog.dermadoctor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gluten-free labeling will be voluntary but once a final federal definition is in effect, if a manufacturer wants to label a product as “gluten-free,” the food with this gluten-free label must meet the regulatory definition.
  • gluten « Dr. Susan Mitchell - Nutrition Expert 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC susanmitchell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]

Adverse reactions

.Between 0.5 and 1.0 percent of people in the United States are sensitive to gluten due to Coeliac disease.^ What does gluten do to people with celiac disease?

^ Coeliac disease & Gluten intolerance - the facts.
  • Coeliac disease & Gluten intolerance - the facts. 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.foodreactions.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coeliac disease is caused by gluten intolerance.
  • Coeliac disease & Gluten intolerance - the facts. 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.foodreactions.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17][18] .Coeliac disease is caused by an abnormal immune reaction to partially digested gliadin.^ Coeliac disease is caused by gluten intolerance.
  • Coeliac disease & Gluten intolerance - the facts. 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.foodreactions.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When these reactions cause small intestinal damage visible on a biopsy, the syndrome has been called celiac sprue, celiac disease, or gluten sensitive enteropathy.
  • Finer Health and Nutrition : Educational Information : Frequently Asked Questions about Gluten Sensitivity 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.finerhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coeliac disease can cause dramatic weight loss, vomiting and diarrhoea as the gluten irritates the small intestine.
  • Gluten-Free Communion and the Staff of Life 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.enabling.org [Source type: Original source]

.It probably occurs with comparable frequencies among all wheat-eating populations in the world.^ Allergic reactions to wheat can be acute or delayed, occurring within minutes or a few hours after eating or inhaling wheat.

^ Also, since commercially prepared foods that contain wheat are usually among the least healthy foods, a gluten free diet actually encourages healthier eating over all.
  • Gluten Website FAQ 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.members.cox.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I found out that I had Celiac's Disease 2 years go and all of a sudden my eating world was turned upside down!
  • Garlic Jims - Gluten Free Reviews 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC garlicjims.com [Source type: General]

[19] .Certain allergies and neuropathies are also caused by gluten consumption and inhalation.^ Gluten causes allergy-like reactions in certain people.
  • Gluten-Free Diet 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A gluten-free diet is essential for most people with gluten allergies or celiac disease, a condition which causes intestinal damage when gluten is eaten.
  • Gluten-Free Diet Slideshow: Popular Gluten-Free Foods 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]
  • Gluten-Free Diet Slideshow on MedicineNet.com 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: General]

^ We know that alcohol causes and aggravates a leaky gut; many authorities believe that a leaky gut is a common cause as well as a consequence of food allergies and gluten sensitivity.
  • Gluten Test 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.webnat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
.Note that wheat allergy and Coeliac disease are different disorders.^ These include allergy and Coeliac disease.
  • Wheat, Gluten Allergy, Gluten Intolerance and Gluten Enteropathy 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.scienceinafrica.co.za [Source type: Academic]

^ Coeliac disease - associated disorders and survival.
  • Gluten intolerance and Celiac Disease | Foodintol.com 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.foodintol.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Coeliac disease (coeliac sprue or gluten allergy) .
  • Coeliac disease (coeliac sprue or gluten allergy) 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.netdoctor.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]

See also

References

  1. ^ Presutti, John; et al. (2007-12-27). "Celiac Disease". American Family Physician 76 (12): 196–1802. http://www.aafp.org/afp/20071215/1795.html. 
  2. ^ Hill, ID; Horvath; Fasano (Jan 1995). "Epidemiology of celiac disease". The American journal of gastroenterology 90 (1): 163–4. ISSN 0002-9270. PMID 7801932.  edit
  3. ^ "Wheat". GEA Barr-Rosin. http://www.barr-rosin.com/applications/wheat.asp. Retrieved 8 September 2009. 
  4. ^ Woychick, JH. "The Gluten Proteins and Deamidated Soluble Wheat Protein (SWP)". http://www.friedli.com/research/PhD/gluten/chap2.html. Retrieved 8 September 2009. 
  5. ^ Sahlstrom, S. & Brathen, E. (1997). Effects of enzyme preparations for baking, mixing time and resting time on bread quality and bread staling. Food Chemistry, 58, 1, 75-80. Effects of wheat variety and processing conditions in experimental bread baking studied by univariate and multivariate analyses.
  6. ^ Edwards, N. M.; Mulvaney, S. J.; Scanlon, M. G.; Dexter, J. E. (2003). "Role of gluten and its components in determining durum semolina dough viscoelastic properties". Cereal chemistry 80 (6): 755–763. doi:10.1094/CCHEM.2003.80.6.755. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=15273405. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  7. ^ Tosi, Paola; Masci, Stefania; Giovangrossi, Angela2; D'Ovidio, Renato; Bekes, Frank; Larroque, Oscar; Napier, Johnathan; Shewry, Peter (September 2005). [http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/molb/2005/00000016/00000002/00005912 "Modification of the Low Molecular Weight (LMW) Glutenin Composition of Transgenic Durum Wheat: Effects on Glutenin Polymer Size and Gluten Functionality"]. Molecular Breeding 16 (2): 113–126. doi:10.1007/s11032-005-5912-1. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/molb/2005/00000016/00000002/00005912. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  8. ^ "Baking Technology, Bread". Bakersassist. http://www.bakersassist.nl/processing5-2.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  9. ^ Amendola, J., Rees, N., & Lundberg, D. E. (2002). Understanding Baking
  10. ^ Echkardt, LW & Butts, DC. (1997). Rustic European Breads from your Bread Machine
  11. ^ "Pet Foods". International Wheat Gluten Association. http://www.iwga.net/04_pet.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  12. ^ "Codex Standard For "Gluten-Free Foods" CODEX STAN 118-1981" (PDF). Codex Alimentarius. February 22, 2006. http://www.codexalimentarius.net/download/standards/291/CXS_118e.pdf. 
  13. ^ Pat Kendall, Ph.D., R.D. (March 31, 2003). "Gluten sensitivity more widespread than previously thought". Colorado State University Extension. http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/columnnn/nn030331.html. 
  14. ^ "Following a Gluten-free Diet". Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. A Harvard teaching hospital. http://bidmc.harvard.edu/default.asp?leaf_id=12799. 
  15. ^ "Sec. 184.1322 Wheat gluten". Code of Federal Regulations Center. April 1, 2007. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=184.1322. 
  16. ^ "Guidance Notes on the Food Labelling (Amendment) (No. 2) Regulations 2004" (PDF). Food Standards Agency. November 2005. http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/labelamendguid21nov05.pdf. 
  17. ^ "Celiac Disease". National Digestive Diseases Information Clearing House. National Institutes of Health (NIH). 2004. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/celiac/index.htm. Retrieved 8 September 2009. 
  18. ^ "Celiac disease". Consensus Development Panel on Celiac Disease. National Institutes of Health (NIH). 2005. http://www.guideline.gov/summary/summary.aspx?doc_id=5692&nbr=0. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  19. ^ van Heel D, West J (2006). "Recent advances in coeliac disease". Gut 55 (7): 1037–46. doi:10.1136/gut.2005.075119. PMID 16766754. http://gut.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/55/7/1037. 
  20. ^ David A. Nelsen. "Gluten Sensitive Enteropathy". http://www.uams.edu/celiac/review/GSE1.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  21. ^ "Food intolerance and coeliac disease" (PDF). Food Standards Agency. September 2006. http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/allergyfactsheettwo.pdf. Retrieved 8 September 2009. 

Further reading

.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.GLUTEN, a tough, tenacious, ductile, somewhat elastic, nearly tasteless and greyish-yellow albuminous substance, obtained from the flour of wheat by washing in water, in which it is insoluble.^ Gluten is the name of the insoluble protein in wheat.

^ GLUTEN, a tough, tenacious, ductile, somewhat elastic, nearly tasteless and greyish-yellow albuminous substance, obtained from the flour of wheat by washing in water, in which it is insoluble.

^ Gluten is a water-insoluble, elastic like protein found in wheat.

.Gluten, when dried, loses about two-thirds of its weight, becoming brittle and semi-transparent; when strongly heated it crackles and swells, and burns like feather or horn.^ How to lose weight on a gluten free diet How to lose weight on a gluten free diet .

^ Can you really have more energy and lose weight on the gluten free diet?

^ Becoming well-educated about gluten and learning how to read food labels will greatly help you avoid products containing gluten.

.It is soluble in strong acetic acid, and in caustic alkalis, which latter may be used for the purification of starch in which it is present.^ It also may be used in the manufacture of certain amino acids, including glutamic acid and its salt, the seasoning agent monosodium glutamate .
  • gluten (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It may be separated from the flour of grain by subjecting this to a current of water, the starch and other soluble matters being thus washed out.
  • Gluten@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: General]
  • Gluten@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC everything2.org [Source type: General]

^ A company can list malt or starch and may vary using corn or barley but the product has to always be avoided.
  • BrownCowFarm.com: Crafted With Care - GLuten Intolerance 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.browncowfarm.com [Source type: Original source]

When treated with. 1 to 2% solution of hydrochloric acid it swells up, and at length forms a liquid resembling a solution of albumin, and laevorotatory as regards polarized light. .Moistened with water and exposed to the air gluten putrefies, and evolves carbon dioxide, hydrogen and sulphuretted hydrogen, and in the end is almost entirely resolved into a liquid, which contains leucin and ammonium phosphate and acetate.^ Moistened with water and exposed to the air gluten putrefies, and evolves carbon dioxide, hydrogen and sulphuretted hydrogen, and in the end is almost entirely resolved into a liquid, which contains leucin and ammonium phosphate and acetate.

^ On analysis gluten shows a composition of about 53% of carbon, 7% of hydrogen, and nitrogen 15 to 18%, besides oxygen, and about r % of sulphur , and a small quantity of inorganic matter.

^ The gluten in flour makes it ideal for baking, because the chainlike protein molecules of the gluten trap carbon dioxide and expand with it as it is heated.
  • Gluten Definition | Definition of Gluten at Dictionary.com 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.On analysis gluten shows a composition of about 53% of carbon, 7% of hydrogen, and nitrogen 15 to 18%, besides oxygen, and about r % of sulphur, and a small quantity of inorganic matter.^ On analysis gluten shows a composition of about 53% of carbon, 7% of hydrogen, and nitrogen 15 to 18%, besides oxygen, and about r % of sulphur , and a small quantity of inorganic matter.

^ Any product containing even tiny quantities of gluten must be totally avoided by people with coeliac disease; it is not a matter of a tiny amount won’t harm?.
  • Gluten Free food 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC madebymona.com [Source type: General]

^ Posted On February 3, 2008 10:15:18 AM ...ed for food intolerances- like dairy or gluten intolerance?
  • Gluten Allergy | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.According to H. Ritthausen it is a mixture of glutencasein (Liebig's vegetable fibrin), glutenfibrin, gliadin (Pflanzenleim), glutin or vegetable gelatin, and mucedin, which are all closely allied to one another in chemical composition.^ According to H. Ritthausen it is a mixture of glutencasein (Liebig's vegetable fibrin ), glutenfibrin, gliadin (Pflanzenleim), glutin or vegetable gelatin , and mucedin, which are all closely allied to one another in chemical composition.

^ Most adults with the allergy have been sick in one way or another all of their lives.
  • Watch Out For Gluten Allergy! | get gluten free 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC getglutenfree.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Simmer for another 5-10 minutes, until all vegetables are slightly softened.
  • Nutrolution - Evolved Nutrition for Busy People 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC nutrolution.com [Source type: General]

.It is the gliadin which confers upon gluten its capacity of cohering to form elastic masses, and of separating readily from associated starch.^ It is the gliadin which confers upon gluten its capacity of cohering to form elastic masses, and of separating readily from associated starch.

^ Thompson T. Wheat starch, gliadin, and the gluten-free diet.
  • Gluten-Free Diet 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Determined to serve our friends their favorites, we set upon making our menu available in a gluten free form.

.In the so-called gluten of the flour of barley, rye and maize, this body is absent (H. Ritthausen and U. Kreusler).^ Gluten is also found in rye, barley, and oats.

^ Gluten is in wheat, rye, and barley.
  • Gluten Allergy | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ All varieties of wheat (including graham flour, farina, semolina and durum), barley, rye, bulgur, Kamut, kasha, matzo meal, spelt and triticale contain gluten, as well as the foods made out of them.
  • "Gluten" and "Gluten-Free" - What These Terms REALLY Mean and the Essentials You Need to Know 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC bodyecology.com [Source type: General]

.The gluten yielded by wheat which has undergone fermentation or has begun to sprout is devoid of toughness and elasticity.^ Gluten proteins in wheat flours make dough elastic and stretchy, and trap gas within baked goods, providing a light, airy structure.

^ Gluten is an elastic protein that is found in barley, wheat and rye.

^ Gluten is a water-insoluble, elastic like protein found in wheat.

These qualities can be restored to it by kneading with salt, lime-water or alum. .Gluten is employed in the manufacture of gluten bread and biscuits for the diabetic, and of chocolate, and also in the adulteration of tea and coffee.^ Bread, pasta, dairy products, meat, tea, coffee, sugar, soft drinks and alcohol are all acid forming in the human digestive system.
  • Gluten Free Health|Celiac and Coeliac Disease and symptoms information blog 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC glutenfreehealth.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tea breads, chocolate covered pretzels, and creating your own cakes ~ we offer a wide variety suitable for every occasion.
  • Grandma?s Goodies Specializes in making Delicious Treats ?Which Happen to be Gluten-Free!!! 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC glutenfreedessertsconnecticut.com [Source type: General]

^ She’ll be munching on Aleia’s Gluten Free Italian bread crumbs, parmesan croutons, almond horn cookies and chocolate chip cookies!
  • Hold The Gluten - A Gluten Free Celiac Blog and Podcast 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC holdthegluten.net [Source type: General]

.For making bread it must be used fresh, as otherwise it decomposes, and does not knead well.^ It cannot be used alone to make bread.
  • Gluten Free Flour 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.triumphdining.com [Source type: General]
  • Wheat Free and Gluten Free Recipes 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC nuchiafoods.com [Source type: General]

^ The protein binds moisture meaning your bread and baked goods will usually be more moist and "fresh" than traditional baking yields as well.
  • Low Carb Luxury: High Gluten Flour or Vital Wheat Gluten? 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.lowcarbluxury.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gluten Recipes Bread Use Zojirushi's exclusive Home Made Menu function to adjust to the knead, rise and bake times.
  • Gluten Recipes Bread 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Granulated gluten is a kind of vermicelli, made in some starch manufactories by mixing fresh gluten with twice its weight of flour, and granulating by means of a cylinder and contained stirrer, each armed with spikes, and revolving in opposite directions.^ Gluten-free Flours & Starches .

^ Gluten flour is made by washing the starch out of wheat flour.
  • Gluten Celiac Disease 10 January 2010 20:59 UTC glutenfreeworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mix the butter and the flours and starches together.

The process is completed by the drying and sifting of the granules.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also gluten

German

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German Wikipedia has an article on:
Gluten
Wikipedia de

Noun

Gluten n.
  1. gluten

Simple English

— a prime source of gluten]]

Gluten is a composite of the proteins gliadin and glutenin. These proteins are found in the endosperms of some grass-like grains such as wheat, rye and barley. Gliadin and glutenin make up about 80% of the protein contained in wheat seed. As they are insoluble in water, they can be got by washing away the starch in the grain. Worldwide, gluten is an important source of food protein, both in foods prepared directly from grains with gluten in them, and as an additive to foods that are low in protein.

Gluten and coeliac disease

Some people are very sensitive to glutens in their food. When they eat foods which contain gluten, these people may experience stomach cramps, bloating, gas and diarrhoea. This sensitivity is called coeliac disease (in North America, it is usually spelled "celiac disease").

Further reading


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 13, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Gluten, which are similar to those in the above article.








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