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Domestic Goat
Conservation status
Domesticated
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Bovidae
Subfamily: Caprinae
Genus: Capra
Species: C. aegagrus
Subspecies: C. a. hircus
Trinomial name
Capra aegagrus hircus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Synonyms
Capra hircus
.The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.^ There are six species and numerous subspecies of sheep distributed throughout Asia and North America, but the domestic sheep now occurs worldwide.
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.The goat is a member of the Bovidae family and is closely related to the sheep: both are in the goat-antelope subfamily Caprinae.^ Feeding: The animals are herded during the day by family members, usually with sheep.
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^ Subtypes, races and related types: Related to both the Short- and Long-eared Somali goat types.
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^ Subtypes, races and related types: Most closely related to the Central and Western Highland goats.
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.There are over three hundred distinct breeds of goat.^ Today, there are some 200 different breeds of goats that produce a variety of products, including milk, meat, and fiber (mohair and cashmere).
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[1]
.Goats are one of the oldest domesticated species.^ The goat was one of the first animals to be domesticated by humans, about 9,000 years ago.
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.Goats have been used for their milk, meat, hair, and skins over much of the world.^ Some goat keepers feed TWICE as much milk as I outline here.

^ To a lesser extent goat skins are needed for various home uses among the Guji people in Borena and Sidamo (carrying rugs, reinforcements to utensils etc).
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^ Skins: Skins of Nubian goats are used as water containers, and some are sold.
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[2] In the twentieth century they also gained in popularity as pets.[3]
.Female goats are referred to as does or nannies, intact males as bucks or billies; their offspring are kids.^ If you want a goat primarily for milk, be sure to get a dairy type doe (female goat).

^ Working goats milkers, pack goats, breeding buck, heavily pregnant does, etc can be fed several pounds of grain a day.

^ The presence of a buck (uncastrated male goat) stimulates the reproductive cycle (estrous) and the behaviors of the does that indicate that they are in the fertile part of their cycle (in heat).
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.Note that many goat breeders prefer the terms "buck" and "doe" to "billy" and "nanny". Castrated males are wethers.^ Male goats, not destined to stand stud as bucks should be castrated (making them wethers).

^ The effect of short-term consumption of a forage containing condensed tannins on gastro-intestinal nematode parasite infections in grazing wether goats.
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^ Working goats milkers, pack goats, breeding buck, heavily pregnant does, etc can be fed several pounds of grain a day.

.Goat meat from younger animals is called kid or cabrito, and from older animals is sometimes called chevon, or in some areas “mutton”.^ CL can be picked up in bedding or by touching some other area that has been contaminated by goats with abscesses, and the infectious organism persists in the environment for several months.
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^ Meat: Goat meat is preferred to mutton in most areas where the Long-eared Somali goat is kept.
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^ North Carolina State University – Extension Animal Husbandry (see Meat Goat) www.cals.ncsu.edu/an_sci/extension/animal/eahmain.html .
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Contents

Etymology

The Modern English word goat comes from the Old English gat which meant "she-goat", and this in turn derived from Proto-Germanic *gaitaz (cf. Old Norse and Dutch geit "goat", German Geiß "she-goat", and Gothic gaits "goat"), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *ghaidos meaning "young goat" but also "jump" (cf. Latin haedus "kid", Old Church Slavonic zajęcǐ "hare", Sanskrit jihīte "he jumps").[4] .To refer to the male of the species, Old English used bucca (which survives as "buck") until a shift to he-goat (and she-goat) occurred in the late 12th century.^ Straight horns, occur on 71% of the males, curved on 26%, with polled goats forming 3% of the population.
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^ Referring to the example we used above to calculate cost ( Feeding Meat Goats section), it is easy to see the impact of a winter hay bill of $35 per doe.
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^ The presence of a buck (uncastrated male goat) stimulates the reproductive cycle (estrous) and the behaviors of the does that indicate that they are in the fertile part of their cycle (in heat).
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"Nanny goat" originated in the 18th century and "billy goat" in the 19th.
Amalthée et la chèvre de Jupiter (Amalthea and Jupiter's goat) Commissioned by the Queen of France in 1787 for the royal dairy at Rambouillet

History

.The most recent genetic analysis[5] confirms the archaeological evidence that the Anatolian Zagros are the likely origin of almost all domestic goats today.^ Origins: Most likely derived from the Somali goat type.
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^ Certainly all pet and dairy goats should not be allowed to carry horns and there is little evidence that they are of much value to the domesticated goat in any application.

^ Most people keep their goats in the pen all the time, though some are never penned at all.

.Neolithic farmers began to keep them for easy access to milk and meat, primarily, also for their dung, which was used as fuel and their bones, hair, and sinew for clothing, building, and tools.^ Referring to the example we used above to calculate cost ( Feeding Meat Goats section), it is easy to see the impact of a winter hay bill of $35 per doe.
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^ Highland farmers in North Omo use part of the family home to keep the small flocks during the night and early hours of the morning.
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^ Goats are used widely all around the globe for meat, fiber production, brush clearing, pack & draught work, showing, pets, and, of course, milk.

[1] .The earliest remnants of domesticated goats dating 10,000 before present are found in Ganj Dareh in Iranian Kurdistan.^ The goat was one of the first animals to be domesticated by humans, about 9,000 years ago.
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.Domestic goats were generally kept in herds that wandered on hills or other grazing areas, often tended by goatherds who were frequently children or adolescents, similar to the more widely known shepherd.^ Around urban areas Nubian goats may be supplemented with crop residues and other feeds.
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^ Goat producers who are really conscientious about ridding a herd of CAE will not allow infected goats to have any contact with non-infected goats.
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^ CL can be picked up in bedding or by touching some other area that has been contaminated by goats with abscesses, and the infectious organism persists in the environment for several months.
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These methods of herding are still used today.
.Historically, goat hide has been used for water and wine bottles in both traveling and transporting wine for sale.^ Skins: Skins of Nubian goats are used as water containers, and some are sold.
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^ These goats are well adapted to arid environments, infrequent watering (every 3-4 days) and travelling long distances.
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^ The Somali make water containers (karbit) and use goat skins to churn butter.
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It has also been used to produce parchment.

Anatomy

.Most goats naturally have two horns, of various shapes and sizes depending on the breed.^ Most are horned; color and size are variable.
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^ However, even after selection, most Tennessee Meat Goats grow more slowly and mature to a smaller size than Boer, Kiko, or dairy goats.
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^ Several meat-goat breeds are available in the U.S. The most widely available and the breed best suited to extensive range is the Spanish meat goat, also known as the “brush” goat.
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.While horns are a predominantly male feature, some breeds of goat have horned females.^ Polled goats are found in 5% of males and 7% of females.
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^ The goats in Sidamo are horned with only 1.7% of females and 1.8% of males being polled.
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^ Deficiency of Zn increased Cu contents, especially in the brain, liver and uterus of female and male goats (Gruen et al.

.Polled (hornless) goats are not uncommon and there have been incidents of polycerate goats (having as many as eight horns), although this is a genetic rarity thought to be inherited.^ There were no polled goats recorded.
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^ Straight horns, occur on 71% of the males, curved on 26%, with polled goats forming 3% of the population.
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^ The goats in Sidamo are horned with only 1.7% of females and 1.8% of males being polled.
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.Their horns are made of living bone surrounded by keratin and other proteins, and are used for defense, dominance, and territoriality.^ Skins and other products: The horn is used as a musical instrument (zoombara) in Assosa.
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[6]
Goats are ruminants. .They have a four-chambered stomach consisting of the rumen, the reticulum, the omasum, and the abomasum.^ Goats are ruminants; that is, they have a four-compartment stomach designed to digest large quantities of forages.
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Goats have horizontal slit-shaped pupils, an adaptation which increases peripheral depth perception.[7] .Because goats' irises are usually pale, the pupils are much more visible than in animals with horizontal pupils, but very dark irises, such as cattle, deer, most horses and many sheep.^ The MIG systems have been used more extensively with cattle than with sheep or goats.
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^ Goats need more copper than sheep do.
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^ Mineral contents in feed resources, their strengths and weaknesses are nevertheless important to know, especially for goats, where browse, forbs and weeds, which have not been studied analytically very much, play such a vital feeding role (Devendra, 1990).

.Both male and female goats have beards, and many types of goat (most commonly dairy goats, dairy-cross boers, and pygmy goats) may have wattles, one dangling from each side of the neck.^ Beards were observed in 66% of males and 7% of the females.
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^ Polled goats are found in 5% of males and 7% of females.
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^ Wattles were observed in 6% of males and 3% of females.
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[8]
.Some breeds of sheep and goats look similar, but they can usually be told apart because goat tails are short and point up, whereas sheep tails hang down and are usually longer and bigger – though some (like those of Northern European short-tailed sheep) are short, and longer ones are often docked.^ Wild sheep look a little bit goat-like.
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^ The Gedeo in Sidamo do not use goat milk, but they do not seem to like cow milk either.
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^ Though you’d have to come up with some creative use for your snow boots… .
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Reproduction

A 2 month old goat kid in a field of capeweed.
.In some climates, goats are able to breed at any time of the year.^ In addition to pasture or browse, it may be necessary at some times of the year to supplement goats with extra protein and/or energy.
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^ Today, there are some 200 different breeds of goats that produce a variety of products, including milk, meat, and fiber (mohair and cashmere).
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^ Some goat milk markets demand year-round production.
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.In temperate climates and among the Swiss breeds, the breeding season commences as the day length shortens, and ends in early spring.^ Most goats are seasonal breeders, reacting to shorter days as a cue for breeding.
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.Does of any breed come into heat every 21 days for 2 to 48 hours.^ They will continue to cycle (unless they are bred) every 21 days or so, until days lengthen in late January or February.
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^ After Christmas, all bucks are taken from their groups, all does are put back together, and a “clean-up” buck is given one to two additional weeks to catch any does that still come into heat.
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^ In the dry season most owners are able to water their goats every day, 25% water every other day, while 21% water every third day.
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.A doe in heat typically flags her tail often, stays near the buck if one is present, becomes more vocal, and may also show a decrease in appetite and milk production for the duration of the heat.^ Does in heat (estrus) are at the proper stage for breeding; at this time, they will be receptive to the buck.
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^ The presence of a buck (uncastrated male goat) stimulates the reproductive cycle (estrous) and the behaviors of the does that indicate that they are in the fertile part of their cycle (in heat).
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^ Under MIG, legumes and native grasses may reappear in the pasture, and producers often report that the pasture plant community becomes more diverse.
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.Bucks (intact males) of Swiss and northern breeds come into rut in the fall as with the doe's heat cycles.^ Does in heat (estrus) are at the proper stage for breeding; at this time, they will be receptive to the buck.
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^ The presence of a buck (uncastrated male goat) stimulates the reproductive cycle (estrous) and the behaviors of the does that indicate that they are in the fertile part of their cycle (in heat).
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^ After Christmas, all bucks are taken from their groups, all does are put back together, and a “clean-up” buck is given one to two additional weeks to catch any does that still come into heat.
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Rut is characterized by a decrease in appetite and obsessive interest in the does.
.In addition to natural mating, artificial insemination has gained popularity among goat breeders, as it allows easy access to a wide variety of bloodlines.^ Some goat producers (especially those who raise dairy goats) use artificial insemination (A.I.) for breeding.
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Gestation length is approximately 150 days. .Twins are the usual result, with single and triplet births also common.^ Of all births reported 83% were single, 16% were twin and 1% were triplet births.
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^ Single births were 62% of all births while twins were 36% and triplets 2%.
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^ Single births account for 83% of all births while twins account for 17%.
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Less frequent are litters of quadruplet, quintuplet, and even sextuplet kids. Birthing, known as kidding, generally occurs uneventfully. Right before kidding the doe will have a sunken area around the tail and hip. Also she will have heavy breathing, a worried look, become restless and show great display of affection for her keeper. The mother often eats the placenta, which gives her much needed nutrients, helps stanch her bleeding, and parallels the behavior of wild herbivores such as deer to reduce the lure of the birth scent for predators.[9][10]
.Freshening (coming into milk production) occurs at kidding.^ However, for dairy production, it may be more economical to separate the kids from the mothers, feed kids with a milk replacer, and sell the extra goat milk.
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^ However, milk production is less for a doe that kids in the fall than when she kids in the spring.
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.Milk production varies with the breed, age, quality, and diet of the doe; dairy goats generally produce between 660 to 1,800 L (1,500 and 4,000 lb) of milk per 305 day lactation.^ We’re crossbreeding the Boer breed of meat goat, developed in South Africa, with the Spanish does to add carcass quality, but production remains the key.
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^ Please refer to Goats: Sustainable Production Overview for general information on pasturing goats.
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^ Referring to the example we used above to calculate cost ( Feeding Meat Goats section), it is easy to see the impact of a winter hay bill of $35 per doe.
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.On average, a good quality dairy doe will give at least 6 lb (2.7 l) of milk per day while she is in milk.^ Because they have been selected for milk production rather than carcass qualities, dairy breeds will not normally produce a meaty carcass (with the exception of Nubians).
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.A first time milker may produce less, or as much as 16 lb (7.3 l), or more of milk in exceptional cases.^ For milk-producing goats, it is necessary to consider the withdrawal period that a chemical dewormer may require (in order for the goat to be free of residues) before the milk can be sold for consumption.
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^ Because they have been selected for milk production rather than carcass qualities, dairy breeds will not normally produce a meaty carcass (with the exception of Nubians).
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^ Under MIG, legumes and native grasses may reappear in the pasture, and producers often report that the pasture plant community becomes more diverse.
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After the 305 day lactation, the doe will "dry off", typically after she has been bred. .Occasionally, goats that have not been bred and are continuously milked will continue lactation beyond the typical 305 days.^ Milk yield was not affected by F deficiency in goats (Anke and Groppel, 1989), but they had significantly higher fat and protein contents after 35 days in lactation.

^ They will continue to cycle (unless they are bred) every 21 days or so, until days lengthen in late January or February.
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^ For normal milk yields, goats should be given 1.74 g Na/kg ration DM/day, while levels of 0.31 g Na/kg DM/day are inadequate.

[11] .Meat, fibre, and pet breeds are not usually milked and simply produce enough for the kids until weaning.^ When kids are bottle-raised on non-pasteurized milk, the milk is usually pooled for all kids, so that one positive doe can have a disastrous effect on a goat herd’s CAE status.
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^ Today, there are some 200 different breeds of goats that produce a variety of products, including milk, meat, and fiber (mohair and cashmere).
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^ Some CAE-positive goats never show any symptoms of CAE; a good kid producer or a heavy-milking doe that is CAE-positive may still have a place within the herd.
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Male lactation is also known to occur in goats.[12]

Diet

.Goats are reputed to be willing to eat almost anything, except tin cans, and cardboard boxes.^ Contrary to the popular image of goats thriving on tin cans, goats actually require a more nutritious diet than do other ruminants.
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.While goats will not actually eat inedible material, they are browsing animals, not grazers like cattle and sheep, and (coupled with their natural curiosity) will chew on and taste just about anything resembling plant matter in order to decide whether it is good to eat, including cardboard and paper labels from tin cans.^ Wild sheep look a little bit goat-like.
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^ You should try to have your animals in good body condition before winter, so they can tolerate the cold and still have adequate reserves at kidding season.
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^ Goats can be incorporated into existing grazing operations with sheep and cattle, and they can also be used to control weeds and brush to help make use of a pasture’s diversity.
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[13] Another possibility is that the goats are curious about the unusual smells of leftover food in discarded cans or boxes.
A domestic goat feeding in a field of capeweed, a weed which is toxic to most stock animals
.Aside from sampling many things, goats are quite particular in what they actually consume, preferring to browse on the tips of woody shrubs and trees, as well as the occasional broad-leaved plant.^ In addition, they sell many of the books available on general goat production and specialty books on dairy, meat, and fiber goats.
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^ Many suppliers of sheep and goat equipment also offer books in their catalogs, and copies are available from the publishers as well.
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^ Since goats, cattle, and sheep prefer different forages, in many pasture situations these species do not compete for the same food.
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.However, it can fairly be said that their plant diet is extremely varied, and includes some species which are otherwise toxic.^ Levels of requirements as well as thresholds of deficiency and toxicity vary with age, sex, production level, activity level, species and genetic strain of the animal.

[14] They will seldom consume soiled food or contaminated water unless facing starvation. .This is one of the reasons why goat rearing is most often free ranging, since stall-fed goat rearing involves extensive upkeep and is seldom commercially viable.^ Grain is the concentrate most often fed to goats; cereal grains such as oats, corn, barley, and wheat are high in energy (carbohydrate/fat).
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^ Several meat-goat breeds are available in the U.S. The most widely available and the breed best suited to extensive range is the Spanish meat goat, also known as the “brush” goat.
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^ Male slaughter goats are often castrated, since the meat can have a strong flavor in intact males more than four months old.
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.Goats prefer to browse on shrubbery and weeds, more like deer than sheep, preferring them to grasses.^ We also have deer, goats, sheep and pigs.
  • Austin Zoo & Animal Sanctuary - Meet the Animals 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.austinzoo.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Grain should never be more than 50% of the total diet, except for heavily-producing dairy goats.
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^ In case of Mo, goats will tolerate more than 300 mg Mo/kg DM in feed intake, while sheep tolerate only 30 mg/kg DM and cattle will already suffer from diarrhea at 10 mg Mo/kg DM (Falke and Anke, 1987).

Nightshade is poisonous; wilted fruit tree leaves can also kill goats. Silage (corn stalks) is not good for goats, but haylage can be used if consumed immediately after opening. Alfalfa is their favorite hay; fescue is the least palatable and least nutritious. Mold in a goat's feed can make it sick and possibly kill it. .Goats should not be fed grass with any signs of mold.^ Adult meat goats should be fed a maximum of 1% of bodyweight in supplemental grain, with lactating does reaching a maximum of 1.5%.
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.The digestive physiology of a very young kid (like the young of other ruminants) is essentially the same as that of a monogastric animal.^ Like other ruminant animals, goats convert plant material that is unsuitable for human consumption into high-quality animal products.
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Milk digestion begins in the abomasum, the milk having bypassed the rumen via closure of the reticular/esophageal groove during suckling. .At birth, the rumen is undeveloped, but as the kid begins to consume solid feed, the rumen soon increases in size and in its capacity to absorb nutrients.^ It is crucial that kids receive colostrum (the first milk, which contains antibodies to protect the kid from disease) soon after birth.
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^ In some areas, land and feed costs will be higher, increasing the cost of production; in some areas, lack of demand for meat or kids will make marketing more difficult.
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Behavior

Goats establish a dominance hierarchy in flocks, sometimes through head butting
Goats are extremely curious and intelligent. They are easily trained to pull carts and walk on leads. .Ches McCartney, nicknamed "the goat man", toured the United States for over three decades in a wagon pulled by a herd of pet goats.^ Dairy goat industry of the United States.

They are also known for escaping their pens. .Goats will test fences, either intentionally or simply because they are handy to climb on.^ The Gedeo in Sidamo do not use goat milk, but they do not seem to like cow milk either.
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^ Goats may have to be trained to electric fences by placing them in a small paddock to "test" the wire.
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^ Once they have been trained to an electric fence, goats can usually be controlled with two strands of wire in a cross-fence.
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.If any of the fencing can be spread, pushed over or down, or otherwise be overcome, the goats will escape.^ Fences must be tight, and attention must be paid to areas with uneven terrain, as gaps can allow goats to squeeze underneath and escape.
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Being very intelligent, once a weakness in the fence has been discovered, it will be exploited repeatedly. Goats are very coordinated and can climb and hold their balance in the most precarious places. .Goats are also widely known for their ability to climb trees, although the tree generally has to be on somewhat of an angle.^ Several meat-goat breeds are available in the U.S. The most widely available and the breed best suited to extensive range is the Spanish meat goat, also known as the “brush” goat.
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^ Much work has been done recently with goats using MIG, although it is not yet widely published.
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^ Sweet potato vines are fed as dry season supplement and leftover chat (Catha edulis) known as geraba is widely fed to semi-urban goats.
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The vocalization goats make is called bleating.
.Goats have an intensely inquisitive and intelligent nature: they will explore anything new or unfamiliar in their surroundings.^ Reply sss says: August 14, 2009 at 5:14 am I saw this on the news; they interviewed the guy who owned the goat.
  • Mountain Goat Fail - FAIL Blog: Epic Fail Pictures and Videos of Owned, Pwnd and Fail Moments 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC failblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Goats can be picky eaters, and they may not immediately accept new feeds.
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They do so primarily with their prehensile upper lip and tongue. .This is why they investigate items such as buttons, camera cases or clothing (and many other things besides) by nibbling at them, occasionally even eating them.^ Because of these extensive domestic uses 19.5% of the respondents in the pastoral areas said they never sell goat skins and many others said they seldom sell.
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Life expectancy

.Life expectancy for goats is between 15[15] and 18 years.^ The influence of arsenic deficiency on growth, reproductiveness, life expectancy and health of goats.

[16] .An instance of a goat reaching the age of 24 has been reported.^ Male goats (bucks) reach puberty earlier than females and must either be separated from them by the age of four months or be castrated to prevent unwanted breedings.
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[17]
Several factors can reduce this average expectancy, however; problems during kidding can lower a doe's expected life span to 10 or 11, and stresses of going into rut can lower a buck's expected life span to 8 or 10.[17]

Goats in agriculture

.
Goat husbandry is common through the Norte Chico region in Chile, but also produces severe erosion and desertification.
^ This goat type is more prolific than other goat types in the region and is potentially a desirable meat producer in the highlands.
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^ Electric netting is also an option for temporary or permanent fencing in management intensive grazing systems; however, several goat producers have lost animals that tangled their horns in the netting.
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Image from upper Limarí River
.A goat is useful to humans either living or dead, first as a renewable provider of milk and fiber, and then as meat and hide.^ Meat and fiber goats are particularly useful for brush control.
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^ Covers milk, meat, and fiber.
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^ For the poorest families in Wolayta and Konso the goat provides the only milk to feed to children.
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.Some charities provide goats to impoverished people in poor countries, because goats are easier and cheaper to manage than cattle, and have multiple uses.^ To a lesser extent goat skins are needed for various home uses among the Guji people in Borena and Sidamo (carrying rugs, reinforcements to utensils etc).
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^ Skins: Skins of Nubian goats are used as water containers, and some are sold.
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^ Some individual goats have a higher natural immunity than others, and those are the animals that you should select.
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.In addition, goats are used for driving and packing purposes.^ Goat skins in Tigray are used for a multitude of purposes.
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^ Skins: Goat skins in Tigray are used for a multitude of purposes.
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.For instance, the intestine is used to make "catgut", which is still in use as a material for internal human surgical sutures and strings for musical instruments.^ Skins and other products: The horn is used as a musical instrument (zoombara) in Assosa.
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.The horn of the goat, which signifies wellbeing (Cornucopia), is also used to make spoons.^ Goats can be incorporated into existing grazing operations with sheep and cattle, and they can also be used to control weeds and brush to help make use of a pasture’s diversity.
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^ The Somali make water containers (karbit) and use goat skins to churn butter.
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^ Skins: Almost all pastoral groups in South Omo use goat skins to make traditional leather garments for women.
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[18]
The Boer goat - in this case a buck - is a widely-kept meat breed.

Meat

.The taste of goat meat is similar to that of lamb meat[citation needed]; in fact, in the English-speaking islands of the Caribbean, and in some parts of Asia, particularly Pakistan and India, the word “mutton” is used to describe both goat and lamb meat.^ Meat and fiber goats are particularly useful for brush control.
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^ Ad describing use of Domestic machine in both family and factory settings.
  • Sewing Machines | Historical Trade Literature in Smithsonian Collections 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.sil.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ To a lesser extent goat skins are needed for various home uses among the Guji people in Borena and Sidamo (carrying rugs, reinforcements to utensils etc).
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However, some feel that it has a similar taste to veal or venison, depending on the age and condition of the goat. .The flavor of goat meat is said to be primarily linked to the presence of 4-methyloctanoic and 4-methylnonanoic acid [19].^ Male slaughter goats are often castrated, since the meat can have a strong flavor in intact males more than four months old.
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^ Because of these extensive domestic uses 19.5% of the respondents in the pastoral areas said they never sell goat skins and many others said they seldom sell.
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It can be prepared in a variety of ways including stewed, baked, grilled, barbecued, minced, canned, fried, curried, or made into sausage. Due to its low fat content, the meat can toughen at high temperatures without additional moisture. .One of the most popular goats grown for meat is the South African Boer, introduced into the United States in the early 1990s.^ The Boer goat originated in South Africa, and was imported to the United States in 1993.
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^ We’re crossbreeding the Boer breed of meat goat, developed in South Africa, with the Spanish does to add carcass quality, but production remains the key.
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^ Meat: Goat meat is preferred to mutton in most areas where the Long-eared Somali goat is kept.
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.The New Zealand Kiko is also considered a meat breed, as is the myotonic or "fainting goat", a breed originating in Tennessee.^ Tennessee Meat Goats originated from the “Fainting Goat,” but have been selected for heavier muscling and larger size.
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^ The Kiko is a New Zealand breed selected for survival and growth rate.
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^ Tennessee Woodenleg goats, also known as “Fainting Goats” and “Tennessee Stifflegs,” are myotonic – their muscles become extremely stiff when they are frightened.
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Milk, butter and cheese

A goat being milked on an organic farm.
.Goats produce approximately 2% of the world's total annual milk supply[20].^ Grain should never be more than 50% of the total diet, except for heavily-producing dairy goats.
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^ Caprine Supply and Hoegger Supply Company both sell goat equipment, including veterinary supplies and equipment for disbudding and tattooing, insemination, and milking and dairy equipment, and more.
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^ For milk-producing goats, it is necessary to consider the withdrawal period that a chemical dewormer may require (in order for the goat to be free of residues) before the milk can be sold for consumption.
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.Goat milk differs from cow or human milk by having higher digestibility, distinct alkalinity, higher buffering capacity, and certain therapeutic values in human medicine and nutrition[21].^ Goat milk is believed to have medicinal value.
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^ Milk: Afar goats are extensively milked (hadore hana) for food, medicine and sale.
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^ The Gedeo in Sidamo do not use goat milk, but they do not seem to like cow milk either.
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Basic composition of various milks (mean values per 100g)[22]
Constituent Goat Cow Human
Fat (g) 3.8 3.6 4.0
Protein (g) 3.5 3.3 1.2
Lactose (g) 4.1 4.6 6.9
Ash (g) 0.8 0.7 0.2
Total solids (g) 12.2 12.3 12.3
Calories 70 69 68
.Some goats are bred for milk, which can be drunk raw, although some people recommend pasteurization to reduce bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.^ Many ethnic groups – including Hispanic, Muslim, and Caribbean peoples – enjoy goat meat, called “chevon” by some and “cabrito” by others.
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^ When kids are bottle-raised on non-pasteurized milk, the milk is usually pooled for all kids, so that one positive doe can have a disastrous effect on a goat herd’s CAE status.
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^ Today, there are some 200 different breeds of goats that produce a variety of products, including milk, meat, and fiber (mohair and cashmere).
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[23] If the strong-smelling buck is not separated from the does, his scent will affect the milk. .Goat's milk is commonly processed into cheese, goat butter, ice cream, cajeta and other products.^ It discusses the five major considerations to be addressed in planning for dairy goat production: labor, sales and marketing, processing, regulations, and budgeting and economics.
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^ Called “cabrito” or “chevon,” goat meat is considered a gourmet or health food by some, is popular in areas with certain ethnic populations, and is often processed into products such as sausage or jerky.
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^ Value-added Dairy Options This presents considerations for those who want to increase their profitability by bottling milk, making cheese or yogurt, or doing some other processing of their milk.
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.Goat's milk can replace sheep's milk or cow's milk in diets of those who are allergic.^ Some goat producers (especially those who raise dairy goats) use artificial insemination (A.I.) for breeding.
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^ However, for dairy production, it may be more economical to separate the kids from the mothers, feed kids with a milk replacer, and sell the extra goat milk.
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[24] .However, like cow's milk, goat's milk has lactose (sugar), and may cause gastrointestinal problems for individuals with lactose intolerance.^ For milk-producing goats, it is necessary to consider the withdrawal period that a chemical dewormer may require (in order for the goat to be free of residues) before the milk can be sold for consumption.
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^ However, the larger udders of the dairy breeds will cause problems in brushy areas.
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^ However, for dairy production, it may be more economical to separate the kids from the mothers, feed kids with a milk replacer, and sell the extra goat milk.
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[24]
.Goat's milk naturally has small fat globules, which means the cream remains suspended in the milk, instead of rising to the top, as in raw cow's milk; therefore, it does not need to be homogenized.^ Reed and his wife, Randy Jane, run 100 beef cows and 500 meat goat does on their place today.
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^ When kids are bottle-raised on non-pasteurized milk, the milk is usually pooled for all kids, so that one positive doe can have a disastrous effect on a goat herd’s CAE status.
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^ Mitchell, 1991 ) Dairy goats’ nutritional requirements during lactation are very high, and therefore more supplemental feed will be needed to maintain milk production.
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.Many dairy goats, in their prime, average 6 to 8 pounds (2.7 to 3.6 kg) of milk daily (roughly 3 to 4 US quarts (2.7 to 3.6 liters)) during a ten-month lactation, producing more after freshening and gradually dropping in production toward the end of their lactation.^ It includes production information specific to dairy goats, including choosing breeds and selecting stock.
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^ More information on supplemental feeding of dairy goats is available in ATTRA’s Dairy Goats: Sustainable Production .
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^ Grain should never be more than 50% of the total diet, except for heavily-producing dairy goats.
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The milk generally averages 3.5 percent butterfat. .A doe may be expected to reach her heaviest production during her third or fourth lactation.^ Mitchell, 1991 ) Dairy goats’ nutritional requirements during lactation are very high, and therefore more supplemental feed will be needed to maintain milk production.
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[25] It is also said that "formula derived from goat's milk is unsuitable for babies who are lactose intolerant as it contains levels of lactose similar to cow's-milk-based infant formulae."[26]
.Goat butter is white because goats produce milk with the yellow beta-carotene converted to a colorless form of vitamin A.^ For milk-producing goats, it is necessary to consider the withdrawal period that a chemical dewormer may require (in order for the goat to be free of residues) before the milk can be sold for consumption.
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^ Because they have been selected for milk production rather than carcass qualities, dairy breeds will not normally produce a meaty carcass (with the exception of Nubians).
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^ When breeding begins in the fall, producer Sue Drummond feeds her angora goats not only hay, grain, and salt but also vitamins (A, D, and E) and di-calcium phosphate.
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.Goat cheese is known as chèvre in France, after the French word for "goat". Some varieties include Rocamadour and Montrachet.^ Today, there are some 200 different breeds of goats that produce a variety of products, including milk, meat, and fiber (mohair and cashmere).
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[27]

Fiber

.The Angora breed of goats produces long, curling, lustrous locks of mohair.^ When breeding begins in the fall, producer Sue Drummond feeds her angora goats not only hay, grain, and salt but also vitamins (A, D, and E) and di-calcium phosphate.
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^ Today, there are some 200 different breeds of goats that produce a variety of products, including milk, meat, and fiber (mohair and cashmere).
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.The entire body of the goat is covered with mohair and there are no guard hairs.^ There were no polled goats recorded.
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^ Today, there are some 200 different breeds of goats that produce a variety of products, including milk, meat, and fiber (mohair and cashmere).
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^ If there are no adult worms in any goats in your herd, this infestation cannot occur.
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The locks constantly grow and can be four inches or more in length. .Angora crossbreeds, such as the pygora and the nigora, have been created to produce mohair and/or cashgora on a smaller, easier-to-manage animal.^ Intensively managed livestock become calmer and tamer, and handling them calmly makes them easier to work with when things such as loading, vaccinating, or other tasks need to be done.
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^ Electric netting is also an option for temporary or permanent fencing in management intensive grazing systems; however, several goat producers have lost animals that tangled their horns in the netting.
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.The wool is shorn (cut from the body) twice a year, with an average yield of about 10 pounds.^ Goats are notoriously wasteful; add on about 20 percent to allow for waste, which brings the total amount of hay needed to approximately 20,800 pounds, or 10 tons.
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Most goats have softer insulating hairs nearer the skin, and longer guard hairs on the surface. The desirable fiber for the textile industry is the former, and it goes by several names (down, cashmere and pashmina). The coarse guard hairs are of little value as they are too coarse, difficult to spin and difficult to dye. .The cashmere goat produces a commercial quantity of cashmere wool, which is one of the most expensive natural fibers commercially produced; cashmere is very fine and soft.^ Chapter 1 (Fundamentals of Goat Practice) is very helpful to producers as well as veterinarians.
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^ Very good general book for producers of dairy goats.
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^ Today, there are some 200 different breeds of goats that produce a variety of products, including milk, meat, and fiber (mohair and cashmere).
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.The cashmere goat fiber is harvested once a year, yielding around 9 ounces (200 grammes) of down.^ Today, there are some 200 different breeds of goats that produce a variety of products, including milk, meat, and fiber (mohair and cashmere).
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In South Asia, cashmere is called "pashmina" (from Persian pashmina, "fine wool"). In the 18th and early 19th century, Kashmir (then called Cashmere by the English), had a thriving industry producing shawls from goat down imported from Tibet and Tartary through Ladakh. .The shawls were introduced into Western Europe when the General in Chief of the French campaign in Egypt (1799-1802) sent one to Paris.^ This disease is usually introduced into a herd from a purchased animal or one returning from a show.
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Since these shawls were produced in the upper Kashmir and Ladakh region, the wool came to be known as "cashmere".

Goat breeds

.Goat breeds fall into overlapping, general categories.^ Away on weed-control projects for the majority of the summer and into the fall if possible, the goats are brought back to Smoke Ridge’s 220 acres by mid-October.
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.They are generally distributed in to those used for dairy, fiber, meat, skins, and as companion animals.^ Meat goats can be raised with very little supplemental grain and with minimal shelter, and are generally an easy-care animal.
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^ Some goat producers (especially those who raise dairy goats) use artificial insemination (A.I.) for breeding.
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^ In addition, they sell many of the books available on general goat production and specialty books on dairy, meat, and fiber goats.
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.Some breeds are also particularly noted as pack goats.^ In some operations—particularly dairies—goats are raised in confinement, and all their feed is brought to them.
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^ Breed Notes Whatever breed is chosen for the meat goat operation, strict culling will be necessary to maintain a productive and profitable herd.
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^ Today, there are some 200 different breeds of goats that produce a variety of products, including milk, meat, and fiber (mohair and cashmere).
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Showing

A Nigerian Dwarf milker in show clip. This doe is angular and dairy with a capacious and well supported mammary system.
.Goat breeders' clubs frequently hold shows, where goats are judged on traits relating to conformation, udder quality, evidence of high production, longevity, build and muscling (meat goats and pet goats) and fiber production and the fiber itself (fiber goats).^ The health and productivity of the goat (as with all ruminants) depends on the rumen function; microorganisms in the rumen digest fiber and carbohydrates and protein to supply the animal with nutrients.
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^ In parts of Sidamo and Arsi the long legs, ears and body suggest a lowland-type conformation, but at high altitudes in Bale, Arsi and Sidamo goats have a hairy coat.
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^ In addition, they sell many of the books available on general goat production and specialty books on dairy, meat, and fiber goats.
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.People who show their goats usually keep registered stock and the offspring of award-winning animals command a higher price.^ Animals on highly-stocked pastures will usually carry a heavier parasite load, due to the increased amount of fecal matter on the pasture.
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^ Some individual goats have a higher natural immunity than others, and those are the animals that you should select.
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^ Goats are usually milked before and after grazing; herdsboys may milk the animals while out grazing.
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.Registered goats, in general, are usually higher-priced if for no other reason than that records have been kept proving their ancestry and the production and other data of their sires, dams, and other ancestors.^ Worldwide, goat meat production is higher than meat production from cattle or hogs.
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^ Please refer to Goats: Sustainable Production Overview for general information on pasturing goats.
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^ Some individual goats have a higher natural immunity than others, and those are the animals that you should select.
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.A registered doe is usually less of a gamble than buying a doe at random (as at an auction or sale barn) because of these records and the reputation of the breeder.^ However, milk production is less for a doe that kids in the fall than when she kids in the spring.
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^ For example, the teats of milking does are usually dipped in disinfectant after milking, while the teat opening is dilated, because bacteria entering the teat can cause mastitis.
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Children's clubs such as 4-H also allow goats to be shown. Children's shows often include a showmanship class, where the cleanliness and presentation of both the animal and the exhibitor as well as the handler's ability and skill in handling the goat are scored. In a showmanship class, conformation is irrelevant since this is not what is being judged.
.Various "Dairy Goat Scorecards" (milking does) are systems used for judging shows in the US. The American Dairy Goat Association (ADGA) scorecard for an adult doe includes a point system of a hundred total with major categories that include general appearance, the dairy character of a doe (physical traits that aid and increase milk production), body capacity, and specifically for the mammary system.^ It includes production information specific to dairy goats, including choosing breeds and selecting stock.
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^ To a lesser extent goat skins are needed for various home uses among the Guji people in Borena and Sidamo (carrying rugs, reinforcements to utensils etc).
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^ The animal’s stage of production also influences body condition; for example, a doe in early lactation will almost always lose condition.
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Young stock and bucks are judged by different scorecards which place more emphasis on the other three categories; general appearance, body capacity, and dairy character.
The American Goat Society (AGS) has a similar, but not identical scorecard that is used in their shows. .The miniature dairy goats may be judged by either of the two scorecards.^ However, for dairy production, it may be more economical to separate the kids from the mothers, feed kids with a milk replacer, and sell the extra goat milk.
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^ Goat meat, which is 50 to 65% leaner than beef, will be either the primary product or, in the case of dairy or fiber enterprises, an important secondary one.
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^ Dairy breeds may be crossed with Spanish goats to produce a larger kid, and the resulting cross will produce more milk.
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.The "Angora Goat scorecard" used by the Colored Angora Goat Breeder's Association CAGBA (which covers the white and the colored goats) includes evaluation of an animal's fleece color, density, uniformity, fineness, and general body confirmation.^ Meat goats can be raised with very little supplemental grain and with minimal shelter, and are generally an easy-care animal.
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^ The Rare Bare Somali clan associate particular parts of the goat's body with specific parts of the human body.
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^ The ATTRA publication Small Ruminant Resources includes a list of books, Web sites, and ATTRA publications that are useful to producers of goats and sheep.
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.Disqualifications include: a deformed mouth, broken down pasterns, deformed feet, crooked legs, abnormalities of testicles, missing testicles, more than 3 inch split in scrotum, and close-set or distorted horns.^ To prevent overgrazing, farmers should be careful to understock rather than overstock land and always remove animals from a pasture when the pasture is grazed down to about 3 to 4 inches.
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^ The power lines were close to the ground on the top of the hill, and the goat’s horns got stuck in them, and he zipped down the power lines.
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Religion, mythology, and folklore

The goat Heiðrún consumes the foliage of the tree Læraðr, while her udders produce mead, collected in a pot bellow (1895) by Lorenz Frølich.
The Scapegoat by William Holman Hunt (1854).
According to Norse mythology, the god of thunder, Thor, has a chariot that is pulled by the goats Tanngrisnir and Tanngnjóstr. .At night when he sets up camp, Thor eats the meat of the goats, but take care that all bones remain whole.^ All Big Cats are categorized as mammals as well as carnivores, which means that they eat meat.
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^ This is a goat research program with specialists who are willing to answer questions about all types of goats—dairy, meat, mohair, and cashmere.
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^ A dairy operation will usually have extensive barn and pen set-ups, while a large meat goat operation may use only trees in the pasture as shelter.
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Then he wraps the remains up, and in the morning, the goats always come back to life to pull the chariot. .When a farmer's son who is invited to share the meal breaks one of the goats' leg bones to suck the marrow, the animal's leg remains broken in the morning, and the boy is forced to serve Thor as a servant to compensate for the damage.^ Cause when he is, he satnd on his two back legs and try to show off… The farmer who owned the goat assumed he’d been trying to show off – and that was how he got his horns around the wire and slided down… Some german turist got him down after half an hour.
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^ The goat was one of the first animals to be domesticated by humans, about 9,000 years ago.
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.Possibly related, the Yule Goat is one of the oldest Scandinavian and Northern European Yule and Christmas symbols and traditions.^ Noxious weeds are a significant and increasing problem for cattle graziers in the Northern states, and the goats offer one solution to the ecological challenge.
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.Yule Goat originally denoted the goat that was slaughtered around Yule, but it may also indicate a goat figure made out of straw.^ Around urban areas Nubian goats may be supplemented with crop residues and other feeds.
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^ Social functions: Young Boran boys of the same age group may slaughter a goat to celebrate their birthdays.
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^ A cream-coloured goat should be slaughtered and the mother made to drink the rumen contents while the child is wrapped in the skin.
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It is also used about the custom of going door-to-door singing carols and getting food and drinks in return, often fruit, cakes and sweets. "Going Yule Goat" is similar to the British custom wassailing, both with heathen roots. The Gävle Goat is a giant version of the Yule Goat, erected every year in the Swedish city of Gävle.
The Greek god, Pan, is said to have the upper body of a man and the horns and lower body of a goat. Pan was a very lustful god, nearly all of the myths involving him had to do with him chasing nymphs. He is also credited with creating the pan flute.
.The goat is one of the twelve-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar.^ The goat was one of the first animals to be domesticated by humans, about 9,000 years ago.
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^ Goats eat the forages, the goats’ manure replaces some purchased fertilizers, and the life cycles of various crop and animal pests are interrupted.
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.Each animal is associated with certain personality traits; those born in a year of the goat are predicted to be shy, introverted, creative, and perfectionist.^ Some individual goats have a higher natural immunity than others, and those are the animals that you should select.
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^ The goat was one of the first animals to be domesticated by humans, about 9,000 years ago.
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See Goat (zodiac).
Several mythological hybrid creatures are believed to consist of parts of the goat, including the Chimera . The Capricorn sign in the Western zodiac is usually depicted as a goat with a fish's tail. .Fauns and satyrs are mythological creatures that are part goat and part human.^ The Rare Bare Somali clan associate particular parts of the goat's body with specific parts of the human body.
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^ The Rare Bare Somali clan associates particular parts of the goat's body with specific parts of the human body and uses.
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The mineral bromine is named from the Greek word "brόmos," which means "stench of he-goats."
Goats are mentioned many times in the Bible. .A goat is considered a "clean" animal by Jewish dietary laws and was slaughtered for an honored guest.^ Pastures are considered “clean” if goats or sheep have not been grazed on them for 12 months, or if they have been hayed or rotated with row crops.
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It was also acceptable for some kinds of sacrifices. Goat-hair curtains were used in the tent that contained the tabernacle (Exodus 25:4). On Yom Kippur, the festival of the Day of Atonement, two goats were chosen and lots were drawn for them. One was sacrificed and the other allowed to escape into the wilderness, symbolically carrying with it the sins of the community. From this comes the word "scapegoat". A leader or king was sometimes compared to a male goat leading the flock. In the New Testament, Jesus told a parable of The Sheep and the Goats. (Gospel of Matthew 25)
Christianity has associated Satan with imagery of goats (see Pan (mythology)). A common superstition in the Middle Ages was that goats whispered lewd sentences in the ears of the saints. The origin of this belief was probably the behavior of the buck in rut, the very epitome of lust. .The common medieval depiction of the Devil was that of a goat-like face with horns and small beard (a goatee).^ Somehow the goat got it’s horn stuck on the wire, and the goat slided down like you would on a zip-line.
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The Black Mass, a probably-mythological "Satanic mass," was said to involve a black goat, the form in which Satan supposedly manifested himself for worship.
The goat has had a lingering connection with Satanism and pagan religions, even into modern times. .The inverted pentagram, a symbol used in Satanism, is said to be shaped like a goat's head.^ Reply If I had a real life says: August 13, 2009 at 8:03 am Looks like a giant goat is humping the ‘M’ shaped duplex.
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The "Baphomet of Mendes" refers to a satanic goat-like figure from 19th century occultism.

Feral goats

Feral goat in Aruba
Goats readily revert to the wild if given the opportunity. .They have established themselves in many areas: feral goats occur in Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain, the Galapagos and in many other places.^ Around urban areas Nubian goats may be supplemented with crop residues and other feeds.
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^ CL can be picked up in bedding or by touching some other area that has been contaminated by goats with abscesses, and the infectious organism persists in the environment for several months.
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^ Vestigial ears, which are not found in other goat types, occurred concentrated in one site, Dollo, in Borana.
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.When feral goats reach large populations in habitats which are not adapted to them, they may have serious negative effects, such as removing native scrub, trees and other vegetation.^ Goats may shelter under large trees.
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^ To consume that amount, however, goats must be pastured in an area with a large quantity of available vegetative forage.
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^ Goats can be picky eaters, and they may not immediately accept new feeds.
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Feral goats are a severe problem in Australia.[28] .However, in other circumstances they may become a natural component of the habitat.^ However, there are other organisms that may be the culprit, and treatment depends on knowing the infectious agent.
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See also

References

  1. ^ a b Hirst, K. Kris. "The History of the Domestication of Goats". About.com. Accessed August 18, 2008.
  2. ^ Coffey, Linda, Margo Hale, and Ann Wells; "Goats: Sustainable Production Overview.
  3. ^ McLeod, Lianne; "Goats as Pets" at About.com.
  4. ^ Watkins, Calvert, et alii; The American Heritage Dictionary (1975, edited by William Morris).
  5. ^ Naderi et al. (November 18, 2008). "The goat domestication process inferred from large-scale mitochondrial DNA analysis of wild and domestic individuals". PNAS 105 (46): 17659–17664. doi:10.1073/pnas.0804782105. 
  6. ^ Goat Medicine: Horns, books.google.com
  7. ^ "Experiments On The Function Of Slit-Form Pupils", Toronto Univ. Studies in Psychology v. 2
  8. ^ Frequently Asked Questions - Triple I Goats, tripleigoats.com
  9. ^ Feichtenberger, Klaus, Jill Clarke, Elyse Eisenberg, and Otmar Penker (Writers and Directors). (2008). Prince of the Alps. [Television Production]. ORF/Nature. Event occurs at Shortly after birth. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/episodes/prince-of-the-alps/introduction/523/. Retrieved 2009-05-05. "'The mother eats the placenta to prevent predators from getting the sent.'" 
  10. ^ Roe III, Leonard Lee (2004). The Deer of North America. Globe Pequot. pp. 224. ISBN 9781592284658. http://books.google.com/books?id=ni6Hbqm04vIC&pg=PA244&lpg=PA244&dq=deer+eating+placenta&source=bl&ots=7mszZUL9MJ&sig=TnjcKgmY7Le4PEYCwnx4JFg4SEE&hl=en&ei=SqUASquzO5q0NbHexNsH&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7#PPA244,M1. "Almost all wild animals and most domestic ones eat the afterbirth as soon as they can. The primary reason, I think, is to get rid of it so that it will not attract predators. . .Canine scavengers throughout the world are attracted to herd animals when they give birth, for the placental sacs provide an easily scavenged feast." 
  11. ^ Dairygoatjournal.com
  12. ^ Kumar, Dr. Davendra; S. Saha, O.H. Chaturvedi, Sushil Kumar, J.S. Mann, J.P. Mittal and V.K. Singh. "Lactation in Males". ISSGPU - Indian Society for Sheep and Goat Production and Utilization Newsletter (Avikanagar, Rajasthan: Central Sheep & Wool Research Institute) (2). http://www.issgpu.org/newsletter-2.htm#3. Retrieved 31-12-2009. 
  13. ^ "Learning About Goats". Texas Department of Agriculture. http://www.tsgra.com/PDF-files/secogoats.pdf. 
  14. ^ "War on Weeds," Rails to Trails Magazine, Spring 2004, p. 3
  15. ^ "What is the Life Expectancy of Pets?". http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-life-expectancy-of-pets.htm. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  16. ^ William S. Spector, ed (1956). Handbook of Biological Data. Saunders. 
  17. ^ a b "Teeth, Life Expectancy & How to estimate a goat's age". fiascofarm.com. 16 Match 2009. http://fiascofarm.com/goats/age.htm. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  18. ^ anonymous; Goat-Horn Spoon.
  19. ^ Cramer, D.A. (1983) Chemical compounds implicated in lamb flavor. Food Technonogy. flavor.. 37:249-257 and Wong, E., Nixon, L.N. and Johnson, B.C. (1975) The contribution of 4-methyloctanoic (hircinoic) acid to mutton and goat meat flavor. New Zealand j. Agr. Res. 18:261-266. Both cited in K. Intarapichet K., Sihaboot W. and Chungsiriwat P. (date?) Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Emulsion Goat Meat Sausages Containing Pork Fat or Shortening available as a PDF from- [1]
  20. ^ FAO. 1997. 1996 Production Yearbook. Food Agr. Organ., UN. Rome, Italy.
  21. ^ Devendra, C., and M. Burns. 1970. Goat production in the tropics. Commonwealth Bur. Anim. Breeding and Genetics,Tech. Commun. No. 19.
  22. ^ Park,W.Y.,G.F.W. Haenlein.ed. 2006. Handbook of Milk of Non-Bovine Mammals. Blackwell Publishing.
  23. ^ Ekici, K, &alii; "Isolation of Some Pathogens from Raw Milk of Different Milch [sic] Animals", Pakistan Journal of Nutrition v 3 (2004) #3, pp 161-162.
  24. ^ a b The World's Healthiest Foods. "Milk, goat", whfoods.org
  25. ^ American Dairy Goat Association, adga.org
  26. ^ Professor Martin Marshall - Deputy Chief Medical Officer - Department of Health (22 August 2006). "Withdrawal From Sale of Infants Milks Based on Goats' Milk on 17 September 2006". non-urgent memo. Department of Health. http://www.info.doh.gov.uk/doh/embroadcast.nsf/vwDiscussionAll/1BDFD19113CFC28C802571D20051E715. Retrieved 2007-08-12. 
  27. ^ Chèvre cheese, foodnetwork.com
  28. ^ it is believed that there are over 50,000 feral goats in the Australian Outback."The feral goat (Capra hircus) - Invasive species fact sheet"., environment.gov.au

External links


Domestic Goat
File:Irish
Conservation status
Domesticated
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Bovidae
Subfamily: Caprinae
Genus: Capra
Species: C. aegagrus
Subspecies: C. a. hircus
Trinomial name
Capra aegagrus hircus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Synonyms
Capra hircus

The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe. The goat is a member of the Bovidae family and is closely related to the sheep as both are in the goat-antelope subfamily Caprinae. There are over three hundred distinct breeds of goat.[1]

Goats are one of the oldest domesticated species. Goats have been used for their milk, meat, hair, and skins over much of the world.[2] In the twentieth century they also gained in popularity as pets.[3]

Female goats are referred to as does or nannies, intact males as bucks or billies; their offspring are kids. Note that many goat breeders prefer the terms "buck" and "doe" to "billy" and "nanny". Castrated males are wethers. Goat meat from younger animals is called kid or cabrito, and from older animals is sometimes called chevon, or in some areas “mutton”.

Contents

Etymology

The Modern English word goat comes from the Old English gat which meant "she-goat", and this in turn derived from Proto-Germanic *gaitaz (cf. Old Norse and Dutch geit "goat", German Geiß "she-goat", and Gothic gaits "goat"), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *ghaidos meaning "young goat" but also "jump" (cf. Latin haedus "kid", Old Church Slavonic zajęcǐ "hare", Sanskrit jihīte "he jumps").[4] To refer to the male of the species, Old English used bucca (which survives as "buck") until a shift to he-goat (and she-goat) occurred in the late 12th century. "Nanny goat" originated in the 18th century and "billy goat" in the 19th.

File:Amalthea Julien Louvre
Amalthée et la chèvre de Jupiter (Amalthea and Jupiter's goat) Commissioned by the Queen of France in 1787 for the royal dairy at Rambouillet

History

Goats are among the earliest animals domesticated by humans.[5] The most recent genetic analysis[6] confirms the archaeological evidence that the Anatolian Zagros are the likely origin of almost all domestic goats today. Another major genetic source of modern goats is the Bezoar goat; distributed from the mountainous regions of Asia Minor across the Middle East to Sind.[5]

Neolithic farmers began to keep them for easy access to milk and meat, primarily, also for their dung, which was used as fuel and their bones, hair, and sinew for clothing, building, and tools.[1] The earliest remnants of domesticated goats dating 10,000 years before present are found in Ganj Dareh in Iranian Kurdistan. Goat remains have been found at archaeological sites in Jericho, Choga, Mami, Djeitun and Cayonu; dating the domestication of goats in western Asia at between 8000 and 9000 years ago.[5] Domestic goats were generally kept in herds that wandered on hills or other grazing areas, often tended by goatherds who were frequently children or adolescents, similar to the more widely known shepherd. These methods of herding are still used today.

Historically, goat hide has been used for water and wine bottles in both traveling and transporting wine for sale. It has also been used to produce parchment.

Anatomy

Most goats naturally have two horns, of various shapes and sizes depending on the breed. All goats have horns unless they are "polled" meaning they have one parent with a dominant polled gene.[7] There have been incidents of polycerate goats (having as many as eight horns), although this is a genetic rarity thought to be inherited. Their horns are made of living bone surrounded by keratin and other proteins, and are used for defense, dominance, and territoriality.[8]

Goats are ruminants. They have a four-chambered stomach consisting of the rumen, the reticulum, the omasum, and the abomasum.

Goats have horizontal slit-shaped pupils, an adaptation which increases peripheral depth perception.[9] Because goats' irises are usually pale, the pupils are much more visible than in animals with horizontal pupils, but very dark irises, such as cattle, deer, most horses and many sheep.

Both male and female goats have beards, and many types of goat (most commonly dairy goats, dairy-cross boers, and pygmy goats) may have wattles, one dangling from each side of the neck.[10]

Some breeds of sheep and goats look similar, but they can usually be told apart because goat tails are short and point up, whereas sheep tails hang down and are usually longer and bigger – though some (like those of Northern European short-tailed sheep) are short, and longer ones are often docked.

Reproduction

File:Domestic goat kid in
A 2 month old goat kid in a field of capeweed.

In some climates, goats are able to breed at any time of the year. In temperate climates and among the Swiss breeds, the breeding season commences as the day length shortens, and ends in early spring. Does of any breed come into heat every 21 days for 2 to 48 hours. A doe in heat typically flags her tail often, stays near the buck if one is present, becomes more vocal, and may also show a decrease in appetite and milk production for the duration of the heat.

Bucks (intact males) of Swiss and northern breeds come into rut in the fall as with the doe's heat cycles. Rut is characterized by a decrease in appetite and obsessive interest in the does.

In addition to natural mating, artificial insemination has gained popularity among goat breeders, as it allows easy access to a wide variety of bloodlines.

File:Suckling
Suckling

Gestation length is approximately 150 days. Twins are the usual result, with single and triplet births also common. Less frequent are litters of quadruplet, quintuplet, and even sextuplet kids. Birthing, known as kidding, generally occurs uneventfully. Right before kidding the doe will have a sunken area around the tail and hip. Also she will have heavy breathing, a worried look, become restless and show great display of affection for her keeper. The mother often eats the placenta, which gives her much needed nutrients, helps stanch her bleeding, and parallels the behavior of wild herbivores such as deer to reduce the lure of the birth scent for predators.[11][12]

Freshening (coming into milk production) occurs at kidding. Milk production varies with the breed, age, quality, and diet of the doe; dairy goats generally produce between 660 to 1,800 L (1,500 and 4,000 lb) of milk per 305 day lactation. On average, a good quality dairy doe will give at least 6 lb (2.7 l) of milk per day while she is in milk. A first time milker may produce less, or as much as 16 lb (7.3 l), or more of milk in exceptional cases. After the 305 day lactation, the doe will "dry off", typically after she has been bred. Occasionally, goats that have not been bred and are continuously milked will continue lactation beyond the typical 305 days.[13] Meat, fibre, and pet breeds are not usually milked and simply produce enough for the kids until weaning.

Male lactation is also known to occur in goats.[14]

Diet

Goats are reputed to be willing to eat almost anything, except tin cans and cardboard boxes. While goats will not actually eat inedible material, they are browsing animals, not grazers like cattle and sheep, and (coupled with their natural curiosity) will chew on and taste just about anything resembling plant matter in order to decide whether it is good to eat, including cardboard and paper labels from tin cans. [15] Another possibility is that the goats are curious about the unusual smells of leftover food in discarded cans or boxes.

File:Domestic goat feeding on
A domestic goat feeding in a field of capeweed, a weed which is toxic to most stock animals

Aside from sampling many things, goats are quite particular in what they actually consume, preferring to browse on the tips of woody shrubs and trees, as well as the occasional broad-leaved plant. However, it can fairly be said that their plant diet is extremely varied, and includes some species which are otherwise toxic.[16] They will seldom consume soiled food or contaminated water unless facing starvation. This is one reason goat rearing is most often free ranging, since stall-fed goat rearing involves extensive upkeep and is seldom commercially viable.

Goats prefer to browse on shrubbery and weeds, more like deer than sheep, preferring them to grasses. Nightshade is poisonous; wilted fruit tree leaves can also kill goats. Silage (corn stalks) is not good for goats, but haylage can be used if consumed immediately after opening. Alfalfa is their favorite hay; fescue is the least palatable and least nutritious. Mold in a goat's feed can make it sick and possibly kill it. Goats should not be fed grass showing any signs of mold.

The digestive physiology of a very young kid (like the young of other ruminants) is essentially the same as that of a monogastric animal. Milk digestion begins in the abomasum, the milk having bypassed the rumen via closure of the reticular/esophageal groove during suckling. At birth, the rumen is undeveloped, but as the kid begins to consume solid feed, the rumen soon increases in size and in its capacity to absorb nutrients.

Behavior

File:Goats butting heads in
Goats establish a dominance hierarchy in flocks, sometimes through head butting

Goats are extremely curious and intelligent. They are easily trained to pull carts and walk on leads. Ches McCartney, nicknamed "the goat man", toured the United States for over three decades in a wagon pulled by a herd of pet goats. They are also known for escaping their pens. Goats will test fences, either intentionally or simply because they are handy to climb on. If any of the fencing can be spread, pushed over or down, or otherwise be overcome, the goats will escape. Being very intelligent, once a weakness in the fence has been discovered, it will be exploited repeatedly. Goats are very coordinated and can climb and hold their balance in the most precarious places. Goats are also widely known for their ability to climb trees, although the tree generally has to be on somewhat of an angle. The vocalization goats make is called bleating.

Goats have an intensely inquisitive and intelligent nature: they will explore anything new or unfamiliar in their surroundings. They do so primarily with their prehensile upper lip and tongue. This is why they investigate items such as buttons, camera cases or clothing (and many other things besides) by nibbling at them, occasionally even eating them.

Life expectancy

Life expectancy for goats is between 15[17] and 18 years.[18] An instance of a goat reaching the age of 24 has been reported.[19]

Several factors can reduce this average expectancy, however; problems during kidding can lower a doe's expected life span to 10 or 11, and stresses of going into rut can lower a buck's expected life span to 8 or 10.[19]

Goats in agriculture

[[File:|thumb|right|250px|Goat husbandry is common through the Norte Chico region in Chile, but also produces severe erosion and desertification. Image from upper Limarí River]] A goat is useful to humans either living or dead, first as a renewable provider of milk and fiber, and then as meat and hide. Some charities provide goats to impoverished people in poor countries, because goats are easier and cheaper to manage than cattle, and have multiple uses. In addition, goats are used for driving and packing purposes.

For instance, the intestine is used to make "catgut", which is still in use as a material for internal human surgical sutures and strings for musical instruments. The horn of the goat, which signifies wellbeing (Cornucopia), is also used to make spoons.[20] [[File:|thumb|left|The Boer goat - in this case a buck - is a widely-kept meat breed.]]

Meat

The taste of goat kid meat is similar to that of spring lamb meat[21]; in fact, in the English-speaking islands of the Caribbean, and in some parts of Asia, particularly Pakistan and India, the word “mutton” is used to describe both goat and lamb meat. However, some compare the taste of goat meat to veal or venison, depending on the age and condition of the goat. Its flavor is said to be primarily linked to the presence of 4-methyloctanoic and 4-methylnonanoic acid [22]. It can be prepared in a variety of ways including stewed, baked, grilled, barbecued, minced, canned, fried, curried, or made into sausage. Due to its low fat content, the meat can toughen at high temperatures without additional moisture. One of the most popular goats grown for meat is the South African Boer, introduced into the United States in the early 1990s. The New Zealand Kiko is also considered a meat breed, as is the myotonic or "fainting goat", a breed originating in Tennessee.

Milk, butter and cheese

Goats produce approximately 2% of the world's total annual milk supply.[23] Some goats are bred specifically for milk. If the strong-smelling buck is not separated from the does, his scent will affect the milk.

Doe milk naturally has small, well-emulsified fat globules, which means the cream remains suspended in the milk, instead of rising to the top, as in raw cow milk; therefore, it does not need to be homogenized. Indeed, if the milk is going to be used to make cheese it is recommended that it is not homogenized as this changes the structure of the milk impacting the culture's ability to coagulate the milk and the final quality and yield of cheese.[24]

Dairy goats in their prime, which is generally around the third or fourth lactation cycle, average 6 to 8 pounds (2.7 to 3.6 kg) of milk production daily (roughly 3 to 4 US quarts (2.7 to 3.6 liters)) during a ten-month lactation, producing more just after freshening and gradually dropping in production toward the end of their lactation. The milk generally averages 3.5 percent butterfat. A doe may be expected to reach her heaviest production during her third or fourth lactation.[25]

Doe milk is commonly processed into cheese, butter, ice cream, yoghurt, cajeta and other products. Goat cheese is known as chèvre in France, after the French word for "goat". Some varieties include Rocamadour and Montrachet.[26] Goat butter is white because goats produce milk with the yellow beta-carotene converted to a colorless form of vitamin A.

Nutrition

The American Academy of Pediatrics discourages feeding infants milk derived from goats. An April 2010 case report [27] summarizes their recommendation and presents "a comprehensive review of the consequences associated with this dangerous practice," also stating, "Many infants are exclusively fed unmodified goat's milk as a result of cultural beliefs as well as exposure to false online information. Anecdotal reports have described a host of morbidities associated with that practice, including severe electrolyte abnormalities, metabolic acidosis, megaloblastic anemia, allergic reactions including life-threatening anaphylactic shock, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and infections." Untreated caprine brucellosis results in a 2% case fatality rate. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), doe milk is not recommended for human infants because it contains "inadequate quantities of iron, folate, vitamins C and D, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, and pantothenic acid to meet an infant’s nutritional needs" and may cause harm to an infant's kidneys and could cause metabolic damage.[28]

The Department of Health in the United Kingdom has repeatedly released statements stating on various occasions that [29] "Goats' milk is not suitable for babies, and infant formulas and follow-on formulas based on goats' milk protein have not been approved for use in Europe," and "infant milks based on goats' milk protein are not suitable as a source of nutrition for infants."[30].

On the other hand, some farming groups promote the practice. For example Small Farm Today in 2005 claimed beneficial use in invalid and convalescent diets, proposing that glycerol ethers, possibly important in nutrition for nursing infants, are much higher in doe milk than in cow milk.[31]. A 1970 book on animal breeding claimed that doe milk differs from cow or human milk by having higher digestibility, distinct alkalinity, higher buffering capacity, and certain therapeutic values in human medicine and nutrition[32]. George Mateljan suggested that doe milk can replace ewe milk or cow milk in diets of those who are allergic to certain mammals' milk.[33] However, like cow milk, doe milk has lactose (sugar), and may cause gastrointestinal problems for individuals with lactose intolerance.[33]. In fact, the level of lactose is similar to that of bovine milk. [34]

Basic composition of various milks (mean values per 100g)[35]
Constituent Doe (Goat) Cow Human
Fat (g) 3.8 3.6 4.0
Protein (g) 3.5 3.3 1.2
Lactose (g) 4.1 4.6 6.9
Ash (g) 0.8 0.7 0.2
Total solids (g) 12.2 12.3 12.3
Calories 70 69 68
Milk composition analysis, per 100 grams [36]
Constituents unit Cow Doe
(Goat)
Ewe
(Sheep)
Water
buffalo
Water g 87.8 88.9 83.0 81.1
Protein g 3.2 3.1 5.4 4.5
Fat g 3.9 3.5 6.0 8.0
Carbohydrate g 4.8 4.4 5.1 4.9
Energy kcal 66 60 95 110
Energy kJ 275 253 396 463
Sugars (lactose) g 4.8 4.4 5.1 4.9
Cholesterol mg 14 10 11 8
Calcium IU 120 100 170 195
Saturated fatty acids g 2.4 2.3 3.8 4.2
Monounsaturated fatty acids g 1.1 0.8 1.5 1.7
Polyunsaturated fatty acids g 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2

These compositions vary by breed, animal, and point in the lactation period.

Fiber

The Angora breed of goats produces long, curling, lustrous locks of mohair. The entire body of the goat is covered with mohair and there are no guard hairs. The locks constantly grow and can be four inches or more in length. Angora crossbreeds, such as the pygora and the nigora, have been created to produce mohair and/or cashgora on a smaller, easier-to-manage animal. The wool is shorn (cut from the body) twice a year, with an average yield of about 10 pounds.

Most goats have softer insulating hairs nearer the skin, and longer guard hairs on the surface. The desirable fiber for the textile industry is the former, and it goes by several names (down, cashmere and pashmina). The coarse guard hairs are of little value as they are too coarse, difficult to spin and difficult to dye. The cashmere goat produces a commercial quantity of cashmere wool, which is one of the most expensive natural fibers commercially produced; cashmere is very fine and soft. The cashmere goat fiber is harvested once a year, yielding around 9 ounces (200 grammes) of down.

In South Asia, cashmere is called "pashmina" (from Persian pashmina, "fine wool"). In the 18th and early 19th century, Kashmir (then called Cashmere by the English), had a thriving industry producing shawls from goat down imported from Tibet and Tartary through Ladakh. The shawls were introduced into Western Europe when the General in Chief of the French campaign in Egypt (1799-1802) sent one to Paris. Since these shawls were produced in the upper Kashmir and Ladakh region, the wool came to be known as "cashmere".

Goat breeds

Goat breeds fall into overlapping, general categories. They are generally distributed in to those used for dairy, fiber, meat, skins, and as companion animals. Some breeds are also particularly noted as pack goats.

Showing

[[File:|thumb| left|A Nigerian Dwarf milker in show clip. This doe is angular and dairy with a capacious and well supported mammary system.]] Goat breeders' clubs frequently hold shows, where goats are judged on traits relating to conformation, udder quality, evidence of high production, longevity, build and muscling (meat goats and pet goats) and fiber production and the fiber itself (fiber goats). People who show their goats usually keep registered stock and the offspring of award-winning animals command a higher price. Registered goats, in general, are usually higher-priced if for no other reason than that records have been kept proving their ancestry and the production and other data of their sires, dams, and other ancestors. A registered doe is usually less of a gamble than buying a doe at random (as at an auction or sale barn) because of these records and the reputation of the breeder. Children's clubs such as 4-H also allow goats to be shown. Children's shows often include a showmanship class, where the cleanliness and presentation of both the animal and the exhibitor as well as the handler's ability and skill in handling the goat are scored. In a showmanship class, conformation is irrelevant since this is not what is being judged.

Various "Dairy Goat Scorecards" (milking does) are systems used for judging shows in the US. The American Dairy Goat Association (ADGA) scorecard for an adult doe includes a point system of a hundred total with major categories that include general appearance, the dairy character of a doe (physical traits that aid and increase milk production), body capacity, and specifically for the mammary system. Young stock and bucks are judged by different scorecards which place more emphasis on the other three categories; general appearance, body capacity, and dairy character.

The American Goat Society (AGS) has a similar, but not identical scorecard that is used in their shows. The miniature dairy goats may be judged by either of the two scorecards. The "Angora Goat scorecard" used by the Colored Angora Goat Breeder's Association CAGBA (which covers the white and the colored goats) includes evaluation of an animal's fleece color, density, uniformity, fineness, and general body confirmation. Disqualifications include: a deformed mouth, broken down pasterns, deformed feet, crooked legs, abnormalities of testicles, missing testicles, more than 3 inch split in scrotum, and close-set or distorted horns.

Religion, mythology, and folklore

File:Heiðrún by Lorenz Frø
The goat Heiðrún consumes the foliage of the tree Læraðr, while her udders produce mead, collected in a pot bellow (1895) by Lorenz Frølich.

According to Norse mythology, the god of thunder, Thor, has a chariot that is pulled by the goats Tanngrisnir and Tanngnjóstr. At night when he sets up camp, Thor eats the meat of the goats, but take care that all bones remain whole. Then he wraps the remains up, and in the morning, the goats always come back to life to pull the chariot. When a farmer's son who is invited to share the meal breaks one of the goats' leg bones to suck the marrow, the animal's leg remains broken in the morning, and the boy is forced to serve Thor as a servant to compensate for the damage.

Possibly related, the Yule Goat is one of the oldest Scandinavian and Northern European Yule and Christmas symbols and traditions. Yule Goat originally denoted the goat that was slaughtered around Yule, but it may also indicate a goat figure made out of straw. It is also used about the custom of going door-to-door singing carols and getting food and drinks in return, often fruit, cakes and sweets. "Going Yule Goat" is similar to the British custom wassailing, both with heathen roots. The Gävle Goat is a giant version of the Yule Goat, erected every year in the Swedish city of Gävle.

The Greek god, Pan, is said to have the upper body of a man and the horns and lower body of a goat. Pan was a very lustful god, nearly all of the myths involving him had to do with him chasing nymphs. He is also credited with creating the pan flute.

The goat is one of the twelve-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. Each animal is associated with certain personality traits; those born in a year of the goat are predicted to be shy, introverted, creative, and perfectionist. See Goat (zodiac).

Several mythological hybrid creatures are believed to consist of parts of the goat, including the Chimera. The Capricorn sign in the Western zodiac is usually depicted as a goat with a fish's tail. Fauns and satyrs are mythological creatures that are part goat and part human. The mineral bromine is named from the Greek word "brόmos," which means "stench of he-goats."

Goats are mentioned many times in the Bible. A goat is considered a "clean" animal by Jewish dietary laws and was slaughtered for an honored guest. It was also acceptable for some kinds of sacrifices. Goat-hair curtains were used in the tent that contained the tabernacle (Exodus 25:4). On Yom Kippur, the festival of the Day of Atonement, two goats were chosen and lots were drawn for them. One was sacrificed and the other allowed to escape into the wilderness, symbolically carrying with it the sins of the community. From this comes the word "scapegoat". A leader or king was sometimes compared to a male goat leading the flock. In the New Testament, Jesus told a parable of The Sheep and the Goats. (Gospel of Matthew 25)

Popular Christian folk tradition in Europe associated Satan with imagery of goats (see Pan (mythology)). A common superstition in the Middle Ages was that goats whispered lewd sentences in the ears of the saints. The origin of this belief was probably the behavior of the buck in rut, the very epitome of lust. The common medieval depiction of the Devil was that of a goat-like face with horns and small beard (a goatee). The Black Mass, a probably-mythological "Satanic mass," was said to involve a black goat[who?], the form in which Satan supposedly manifested himself for worship.

The goat has had a lingering connection with Satanism and pagan religions, even into modern times. The inverted pentagram, a symbol used in Satanism, is said to be shaped like a goat's head. The "Baphomet of Mendes" refers to a satanic goat-like figure from 19th century occultism.

Feral goats

Goats readily revert to the wild (become feral) if given the opportunity. The only domestic animal known to return to feral life as swiftly is the cat.[5] Feral goats have established themselves in many areas: they occur in Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain, the Galapagos and in many other places. When feral goats reach large populations in habitats which are not adapted to them, they may have serious negative effects, such as removing native scrub, trees and other vegetation. Feral goats are a severe problem in Australia.[37] However, in other circumstances they may become a natural component of the habitat.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Hirst, K. Kris. "The History of the Domestication of Goats". About.com. Accessed August 18, 2008.
  2. ^ Coffey, Linda, Margo Hale, and Ann Wells; "Goats: Sustainable Production Overview.
  3. ^ McLeod, Lianne; "Goats as Pets" at About.com.
  4. ^ Watkins, Calvert, et alii; The American Heritage Dictionary (1975, edited by William Morris).
  5. ^ a b c d [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Breeds of Livestock; Goats: (Capra hircus)]. Oklahoma State University Board of Regents 
  6. ^ Naderi et al.; Rezaei, HR; Pompanon, F; Blum, MG; Negrini, R; Naghash, HR; Balkiz, O; Mashkour, M et al. (November 18, 2008). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The goat domestication process inferred from large-scale mitochondrial DNA analysis of wild and domestic individuals"]. PNAS 105 (46): 17659–17664. doi:10.1073/pnas.0804782105. PMID 19004765. 
  7. ^ American Goat Society:Polled Genetics, americangoatsociety.com.
  8. ^ Goat Medicine: Horns, books.google.com
  9. ^ "Experiments On The Function Of Slit-Form Pupils", Toronto Univ. Studies in Psychology v. 2
  10. ^ Frequently Asked Questions - Triple I Goats, tripleigoats.com
  11. ^ Feichtenberger, Klaus, Jill Clarke, Elyse Eisenberg, and Otmar Penker (Writers and Directors). (2008). Prince of the Alps. [Television Production]. ORF/Nature. Event occurs at Shortly after birth. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/episodes/prince-of-the-alps/introduction/523/. Retrieved 2009-05-05. "'The mother eats the placenta to prevent predators from getting the sent.'" 
  12. ^ Roe III, Leonard Lee (2004). The Deer of North America. Globe Pequot. pp. 224. ISBN 9781592284658. http://books.google.com/?id=ni6Hbqm04vIC&pg=PA244&lpg=PA244&dq=deer+eating+placenta. "Almost all wild animals and most domestic ones eat the afterbirth as soon as they can. The primary reason, I think, is to get rid of it so that it will not attract predators. . .Canine scavengers throughout the world are attracted to herd animals when they give birth, for the placental sacs provide an easily scavenged feast." 
  13. ^ Dairygoatjournal.com
  14. ^ Kumar, Dr. Davendra; S. Saha, O.H. Chaturvedi, Sushil Kumar, J.S. Mann, J.P. Mittal and V.K. Singh. "Lactation in Males". ISSGPU - Indian Society for Sheep and Goat Production and Utilization Newsletter (Avikanagar, Rajasthan: Central Sheep & Wool Research Institute) (2). http://www.issgpu.org/newsletter-2.htm#3. Retrieved 31-12-2009. 
  15. ^ "Learning About Goats". Texas Department of Agriculture. http://www.tsgra.com/PDF-files/secogoats.pdf. 
  16. ^ "War on Weeds," Rails to Trails Magazine, Spring 2004, p. 3
  17. ^ "What is the Life Expectancy of Pets?". http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-life-expectancy-of-pets.htm. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  18. ^ William S. Spector, ed (1956). Handbook of Biological Data. Saunders. 
  19. ^ a b "Teeth, Life Expectancy & How to estimate a goat's age". fiascofarm.com. 16 Match 2009. http://fiascofarm.com/goats/age.htm. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  20. ^ anonymous; Goat-Horn Spoon.
  21. ^ "Milk Goats". Life. Jun 18, 1945. http://books.google.com/?id=dUgEAAAAMBAJ&lpg=PA57&dq=goat%20tastes%20like%20lamb&pg=PA57#v=onepage&q=goat%20tastes%20like%20lamb. Retrieved 2010-07-06 
  22. ^ Cramer, D.A. (1983) Chemical compounds implicated in lamb flavor. Food Technonogy. flavor.. 37:249-257 and Wong, E., Nixon, L.N. and Johnson, B.C. (1975) The contribution of 4-methyloctanoic (hircinoic) acid to mutton and goat meat flavor. New Zealand j. Agr. Res. 18:261-266. Both cited in K. Intarapichet K., Sihaboot W. and Chungsiriwat P. (date?) Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Emulsion Goat Meat Sausages Containing Pork Fat or Shortening available as a PDF from- [1]
  23. ^ FAO. 1997. 1996 Production Yearbook. Food Agr. Organ., UN. Rome, Italy.
  24. ^ Amrein-Boyes, D. (2009). 200 Easy Homemade Cheese Recipes. Robert Rose Inc.: Toronto
  25. ^ American Dairy Goat Association, adga.org
  26. ^ Chèvre cheese, foodnetwork.com
  27. ^ "Fresh Goat's Milk for Infants: Myths and Realities—A Review". American Academy of Pediatrics. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/125/4/e973. Retrieved 14 July 2010. 
  28. ^ "Infant Formula Feeding". USDA. http://www.nal.usda.gov/wicworks/Topics/FG/Chapter4_InfantFormulaFeeding.pdf. Retrieved 17 June 2010. 
  29. ^ "Fresh Goat's Milk for Infants: Myths and Realities—A Review". Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1492334/Goats-milk-formula-not-suitable-for-infants-Government-warns.html. Retrieved 14 July 2010. 
  30. ^ Professor Martin Marshall - Deputy Chief Medical Officer - Department of Health (22 August 2006). "Withdrawal From Sale of Infants Milks Based on Goats' Milk on 17 September 2006". non-urgent memo. Department of Health. http://www.info.doh.gov.uk/doh/embroadcast.nsf/vwDiscussionAll/1BDFD19113CFC28C802571D20051E715. Retrieved 2007-08-12. 
  31. ^ Small farm today. 22-24. Missouri Farm Pub.. 2005. ISBN 9781580171618. http://books.google.com/?id=ljNHAAAAYAAJ&q=LaMancha+goat&dq=LaMancha+goat. 
  32. ^ Devendra, C., and M. Burns. 1970. Goat production in the tropics. Commonwealth Bur. Anim. Breeding and Genetics,Tech. Commun. No. 19.
  33. ^ a b The World's Healthiest Foods. "Milk, goat", whfoods.org
  34. ^ Professor Martin Marshall - Deputy Chief Medical Officer - Department of Health (22 August 2006). "Withdrawal From Sale of Infants Milks Based on Goats' Milk on 17 September 2006". non-urgent memo. Department of Health. http://www.info.doh.gov.uk/doh/embroadcast.nsf/vwDiscussionAll/1BDFD19113CFC28C802571D20051E715. Retrieved 2007-08-12. 
  35. ^ Park,W.Y.,G.F.W. Haenlein.ed. 2006. Handbook of Milk of Non-Bovine Mammals. Blackwell Publishing.
  36. ^ "Milk analysis". North Wales Buffalo. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. http://web.archive.org/web/20070929071651/http://www.northwalesbuffalo.co.uk/milk_analysis.htm. Retrieved 3 August 2009.  (Citing McCane, Widdowson, Scherz, Kloos, International Laboratory Services.)
  37. ^ it is believed that there are over 50,000 feral goats in the Australian Outback."The feral goat (Capra hircus) - Invasive species fact sheet"., environment.gov.au

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Goats article)

From Wikiquote

For the Jonathan Rosenberg webcomic, see Goats (webcomic).
A goat is a bovine famous for its ability to forage on plants unpalatable, and in habitats inaccessible, to other browsers. Figuratively, a male human displaying an overt and indiscriminate interest in sex can also be referred to as a goat.

Unsourced

  • Unfortunately, I was dealing with a goat that was trying to eat an oil truck's fuel line, goats having this optimistic "Well, maybe it has become edible since they last time I tried this" worldview, and I missed seeing the explosions.

External links

Wikipedia
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Look up goat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

GOAT (a common Teut. word; 0. Eng. gat, Goth. gaits, Mod. Ger. Geiss, cognate with Lat. .haedus, a kid), properly the name of the well-known domesticated European ruminant (Capra hircus), which has for all time been regarded as the emblem of everything that is evil, in contradistinction to the sheep, which is the symbol of excellence and purity.^ Goats Of all the animals at Kids' Farm, the ancestors of the goats ( Capra hircus ) were among the first to be domesticated.
  • Farming, from Ancient to Zoo - National Zoo| FONZ 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC nationalzoo.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The domestic goat, Capra hircus, is believed to be the first ruminant ever domesticated.
  • Discussion and conclusions 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.ilri.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The scientific name for goat is Capra hircus .
  • Goat Milk Benefits 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC www.abundalife.com [Source type: Academic]
  • WHFoods: Milk, goat 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.whfoods.org [Source type: Academic]

.Although the more typical goats are markedly distinct from sheep, there is, both as regards wild and domesticated forms, an almost complete gradation from goats to sheep, so that it is exceedingly difficult to define either group.^ Wild Goats There are several species of wild goats.

^ These are the requirements for domestic sheep and goats.
  • Import Requirements for Sheep and Goats - Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.datcp.state.wi.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The goat is a member of the Bovidae family and is closely related to the sheep, both being in the goat antelope subfamily Caprinae.
  • About Goats from Dairy Goat Journal. Presenting information, ideas, and insights for everyone who raises, manages, or just loves goats. 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.dairygoatjournal.com [Source type: General]
  • Goat, Animal - News - Evri 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: General]

.The position of the genus Capra (to all the members of which, as well as some allied species, the name "goat" in its wider sense is applicable) in the family Bovidae is indicated in the article Bovidae, and some of the distinctions between goats and sheep are mentioned in the article Sheep.^ In all senses also called Goat .
  • Goat Definition | Definition of Goat at Dictionary.com 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ All members of the Capra genus are bovids (members of the family Bovidae A bovid is any of almost 140 species of cloven-hoofed mammals belonging to the family Bovidae.
  • Goat History 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.thebfcranch.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Goats belong to the family Bovidae.

.Here then it will suffice to mention that goats are characterized by the strong and offensive odour of the males, which are furnished with a beard on the chin; while as a general rule glands are present between the middle toes of the fore feet only.^ In the male mountain goat, glands are present on the underside of the tail.
  • Colorado Mountain Goat Hunting Guides and Outfitters 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.huntingtripsrus.com [Source type: General]

^ Both male and female goats can have beards.

^ Are male goats the ones with beards?
  • British Goat Society - FAQ 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC www.allgoats.com [Source type: Original source]

.Goats, in the wild state, are an exclusively old-world group, of which the more typical forms are confined to Europe and south-western and central Asia, although there are two outlying species in northern Africa.^ Wild Goats There are several species of wild goats.

^ It is thought that the ancient origins of this goat breed are in Central-South Asia.
  • Worlds Most Amazing-Looking Goats | Funster 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC funster.us [Source type: General]

^ The domestic goat is a subspecies of the wild goat of Southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
  • ANIMAL LIFE | Antigua & Barbuda's Environment Division 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.environmentdivision.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The wild goat, or pasang, is represented in Europe in the Cyclades and Crete by rather small races, xi'. 6 more or less mingled with domesticated breeds, the Cretan animal being distinguished as Capra hircus creticus; but the large typical race C. h.^ Goats were among the earliest animals to be domesticated.
  • Mass Agriculture in the Classroom 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.umass.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Capra hircus, complete unassembled skeleton of a female domestic goat.
  • Domestic Goat Skeleton (Capra hircus) | Skulls Unlimited 1-800-659-SKULL 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.skullsunlimited.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
  • About Goats from Dairy Goat Journal. Presenting information, ideas, and insights for everyone who raises, manages, or just loves goats. 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.dairygoatjournal.com [Source type: General]
  • Goat, Animal - News - Evri 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: General]

aegagrus
is met with in the mountains of .Asia Minor and Persia, whence it extends to Sind, where it is represented by a somewhat different race known as C. h.^ The major contributor of modern goats is the Bezoar goat (C apra aegagrus ) which is distributed from the mountains of Asia Minor across the Middle East to Sind.

blythi.
.The horns of the old bucks are of great length and beauty, and characterized by their bold scimitar-like backward sweep and sharp front edge, interrupted at irregular intervals by knots or bosses.^ Kids have 8 small, sharp teeth in their lower front jaw, and like children, when their baby teeth fall out they are replaced by permanent teeth.

^ In addition, they have curved horns that sweep backwards in a twist.
  • What are 'Rare Breed' Goats? | Odds Farm Park 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.oddsfarm.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Bucks have long, hollow horns that are directed upward, backward, and outward.

.Domesticated goats have run wild in many islands, such as the Hebrides, Shetland, Canaries, Azores, Ascension and Juan Fernandez.^ The domestic goat is a domesticated subspecies of the Wild Goat.

^ Unfortunately, goats ( Capra hircus ) have been established on many such islands.
  • issg Database: Ecology of Capra hircus 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.issg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Domestic goat — The domestic goat is a domesticated subspecies of the Wild Goat.

.Some of these reverted breeds have developed horns of considerable size, although not showing that regularity of curve distinctive of the wild race.^ Some local forms of wild goats on Mediterranean islands are probably domestic strains that have reverted to the wild state.
  • Colorado Mountain Goat Hunting Guides and Outfitters 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.huntingtripsrus.com [Source type: General]

^ Although West says it doesn't matter which breed of goats he uses, he says, "Those with horns get stuck in the fencing."
  • Goats: Living Weed Eaters 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC www.pesticide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not all breeds of goats are good grazers, but some, such as Angoras and Boers graze well, although selectively.
  • British Goat Society - FAQ 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC www.allgoats.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the Azores the horns are remarkably upright and straight, whence the name of "antelopegoat" which has been given to these animals.^ Further south in the higher hill ranges of N.W.F.P and Baluchistan are found the Kabul and Sulaiman Markhor.Both these subspecies have straight spiral horns.

^ Yet as tough as they are, these remarkable animals are disappearing in parts of their historic range.
  • Clinging to Existence 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC fwp.mt.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The concretions known as bezoar-stones, formerly much used in medicine and as antidotes of poison, are obtained from the stomach of the wild goat.^ The use of the goat takes up a large part of the book, naturally, but almost as much space is reserved for the goat in religion, mythology, folklore, science and art.
  • Goat Gifts from Wood & Stream Creations: Books 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC goatgifts.com [Source type: General]

^ The wild or bezoar goat (Capra aegagrus), of Asia Minor, noted for the bezoar stones found in its stomach, is supposed to be one of the ancestral species ofthe domestic goat.
  • goat@Everything2.com 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bezoar Goat - Capra aegagrus Bezoar Goat Common Names: wild goat Genus: Capra Species: aegagrus Capra aegagrus, or Bezoar goats, are found on Creta, and other Greek islands, in Turkey, Iran, Turkmenia, Pakistan.
  • Mountain Goats - Sciences, Life Sciences, Animals Pets, Wildlife, Hoofed Ruminants, Mountain Goats, 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.studysphere.com [Source type: News]

.Although there have in all probability been more or less important local crosses with other wild species, there can be no doubt that domesticated goats generally are descended from the wild goat.^ Wild Goats There are several species of wild goats.

^ Domestic goats are one of the oldest domesticated species.
  • Goat-Colostrum | Informations about goats and colostrum 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC goat-colostrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Goat History 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.thebfcranch.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • About Goats from Dairy Goat Journal. Presenting information, ideas, and insights for everyone who raises, manages, or just loves goats. 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.dairygoatjournal.com [Source type: General]
  • Goat, Animal - News - Evri 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: General]

^ The Angora is generally smaller than other domestic goats and sheep.
  • Angora goat (breed of goat) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is true that many tame goats show spirally twisted horns recalling those of the under-mentioned Asiatic markhor; but in nearly all such instances it will be found that the spiral twists in the opposite direction.^ Horns are found on all males, and 89% are spiral while 11% are straight.
  • Results: description of goat types 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC agtr.ilri.cgiar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The spiral-horned markhor is found in the mountains of India and Afghanistan.

^ Boer goats can be found in goat shows internationally.

.Among the domesticated breeds the following are some of the more important.^ This is for safety simply because many people do not hand raise their goats, and some breeds of goats tend to be more aggressive than others.

^ There are now some 210 breeds of domesticated goats and more than 200 breeds of domestic sheep, many bred to provide milk, fibers such as cashmere, mohair, and wool, and meat.
  • San Diego Zoo's Animal Bytes: Goat & Sheep 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC www.sandiegozoo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When selecting good meat goats, it is more important to evaluate the actual animal rather than to choose an animal sight unseen based on its breed.

.Firstly, we have the common or European goats, of which there are several more or less well-marked breeds, differing from each other in length of hair, in colour and slightly in the configuration of the horns.^ The Pashmina goats appear to have had a different demographic history from the other breeds.
  • Phylogeography and Origin of Indian Domestic Goats -- Joshi et al. 21 (3): 454 -- Molecular Biology and Evolution 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC mbe.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There are different breeds of goats across the world.
  • Different breeds of goats 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.keeping-goats.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Different breeds of goats Different breeds of goats .
  • The Best Ebook About Keeping Goats In the World 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC www.keeping-goats.com [Source type: General]

.The ears are more or less upright, sometimes horizontal, but never actually pendent, as in some Asiatic breeds.^ Goat meat from younger animals is called kid, and from older animals is sometimes called chevon, or in some areas mutton.     Read more general information about goats.
  • About Goats from Dairy Goat Journal. Presenting information, ideas, and insights for everyone who raises, manages, or just loves goats. 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.dairygoatjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Goat meat absorbs more liquid than other meats and therefore less actual meat is required in manufactured goods.
  • Goat Notes A3: Introduction To Boars 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC acga.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is for safety simply because many people do not hand raise their goats, and some breeds of goats tend to be more aggressive than others.

.The horns are rather flat at the base and not unfrequently corrugated; they rise vertically from the head, curving to the rear, and are more or less laterally inclined.^ The Punjab urial often has horns which are more massive at their base than the Afghan population but these never vurve round in more than a complete arc.

^ In a mature ram, the horns curve outwards describing more than a complete arc, their distal quarter or third, forming another turn.

^ The horns turn markedly inwards at their tips and often the wrinkles or corrugations are rather shallow and indistinct.

.The colour varies from dirty white to dark-brown, but when pure-bred is never black, which indicates eastern blood.^ It varies in colour from brown to light grey to white and its diameter ranges between 11 and 20 microns.
  • The goat industry | Goat Industry Council of Australia 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.gica.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nigerian Dwarves have three different color lines -- black and white, brown,...
  • Submit Article | Keeping Goats | Goatkeeping & Breeding resources 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.keeping-goats.com [Source type: General]

^ SAANEN – white in colour, short hair TOGGENBURG – light fawn to chocolate colour, short hair BRITISH ALPINE – black with white markings ANGLO NUBIAN – varied colours, often brown with long floppy ears .

.Most European countries possess more than one description of the common goat.^ Why do I need more than one goat?
  • Goat Rescue - FAQ 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.goatsave.org [Source type: General]

^ More than one if you can.
  • Fias Co Farm: Goat Information: goats, goat managment, health care, natural & holistic health care, kidding, breeding, milking and much more, 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC fiascofarm.com [Source type: General]

^ Visit a goat producer who uses more than one breed of goat for meat or go to a meat goat show, and describe which goat breed or crossbreed you like best and why.

.In the British Isles there are two distinct types, one short and the other long haired.^ In the U.S. there are three distinct types of goats: .
  • USDA Promotes the Eating of Horse & Goat Meat 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.igha.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They have heavy arched noses and long, pendulous ears, spiral horns (when horns are present), and short hair.
  • Understanding Dairy Goat Production @ AgriPinoy.net 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.agripinoy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Old Irish goat, along with the other old varieties of the British Isles just mentioned, was in reality a small animal with a deep body that stood firmly on short legs.

.In the former the hair is thick and close, with frequently an under-coat resembling wool.^ Keeping out the cold is a double coat of white fur, with a fine, dense undercoat covered by a thick layer of hollow, 7-inch-long guard hairs.
  • Clinging to Existence 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC fwp.mt.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The skin of pigs is thick, sparsely haired and is very sensitive to the sun and to prevent sunburn they coat their skin with mud.
  • Ardastra gardens, zoo & conservation center | Nassau, Bahamas 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.ardastra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The horns are large in the male, and of moderate size in the female, flat at the base and inclining outwards.^ While horns are a predominantly male feature, some breeds of goats have horned females.
  • Goat-Colostrum | Informations about goats and colostrum 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC goat-colostrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Horn size and mass exhibited by the males are much less than traditionally found on Angora or Spanish goats.
  • Boer Influence on the Meat Goat Industry - Fad or Future? 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC uvalde.tamu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The horns of the female gazelle often do not have the sharp hooks of the males.

.The head is short and tapering, the forehead flat and wide, and the nose small; while the legs are strong, thick and well covered with hair.^ Keeping out the cold is a double coat of white fur, with a fine, dense undercoat covered by a thick layer of hollow, 7-inch-long guard hairs.
  • Clinging to Existence 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC fwp.mt.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most valuable Angora are covered, except for the face and the legs below the knees, with long, fine, silky hair called mohair.

^ In the Eastern Cape Region by the early 1800's the distinct characteristics of the common Boer Goat were evolving as a compact, well-proportioned and short haired meat animal.
  • Goat Notes A3: Introduction To Boars 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC acga.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The colour varies from white or grey to black, but is frequently fawn, with a dark line down the spine and another across the shoulders.^ It varies in colour from brown to light grey to white and its diameter ranges between 11 and 20 microns.
  • The goat industry | Goat Industry Council of Australia 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.gica.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has been documented that white coats provide maximum protection against radiant heat and black coats give minimum protection, with variations falling in between.
  • Goat-Link.com - Heat Stress Goats 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC goat-link.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SAANEN – white in colour, short hair TOGGENBURG – light fawn to chocolate colour, short hair BRITISH ALPINE – black with white markings ANGLO NUBIAN – varied colours, often brown with long floppy ears .

.The other variety has a shaggy coat, generally reddish-black, though sometimes grey or pied and occasionally white.^ The goats of Palestine and Syria are usually black ( Song of Solomon 4:1 ), though sometimes partly or entirely white or brown.
  • Goat - International Standard Bible Encyclopedia 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.studylight.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has been documented that white coats provide maximum protection against radiant heat and black coats give minimum protection, with variations falling in between.
  • Goat-Link.com - Heat Stress Goats 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC goat-link.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oberhaslis have distinctive coloration, and are usually hay (reddish brown) with black markings or sometimes completely black.

.The head is long, heavy and ugly, the nose coarse and prominent, with the horns situated close together, often continuing parallel almost to the extremities, being also large, corrugated and pointed.^ The goat is closely related to the sheep, but differs slightly in the its tail is shorter and their horns are long and directed upward, back ward and outward while those of the sheep are spirally twisted.
  • Ardastra gardens, zoo & conservation center | Nassau, Bahamas 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.ardastra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They have heavy arched noses and long, pendulous ears, spiral horns (when horns are present), and short hair.
  • Understanding Dairy Goat Production @ AgriPinoy.net 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.agripinoy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their colouration is an obvious adaptation for the sandy desert habitat they favour, the only contrast being their soft black nose and mouth and large black eyes.

.The legs are long and the sides flat, the animal itself being generally gaunt and thin.^ There is probably no more adorable baby in the animal world than the little donkey with its long ears and long legs and sweet face and fuzzy coat.
  • Wynola Junction - Goats For Sale! 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.wynolajunction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The face is generally greyish, the long slender legs and belly are creamy-white and the body fur is a reddis-grey colour.

^ Though painless, this generally results in the animal collapsing on its side.
  • Nigerian Dwarf Goats - Cute and Friendly Miniature Goats 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Are the videos with fainting goats real, or were they staged? 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tennesee Fainting Goats 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This breed is peculiar to Ireland, the Welsh being of a similar type, but more often white.^ The Breed Group was formerly the only breed type of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, England, Iceland, The Netherlands.

^ For more on different types and breeds of goats see the following reference material: .

^ The coat colour varies between any of the seven types (white, black, brown, fawn, grey, roan and red), with the first three being most dominant.
  • Results: description of goat types 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC agtr.ilri.cgiar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The shorthaired goat is the English goat proper. .Both British breeds, as well as those from abroad, are frequently ornamented with two tassel-like appendages, hanging near together under the throat.^ Well under two hours, it nonetheless plays like a protracted one-act, and the animal-love hook harkens back to such "radical" 1960s experiments as "Futz!"

^ From PCA analysis the breeds appear well differentiated with 52% of the variance explained by the first two principal components.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Geographical patterning of sixteen goat breeds from Italy, Albania and Greece assessed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The earliest English descriptions of the Old Irish goat confirm that the breed was almost exactly like the Old Welsh goat, Old Scotch goat and Old English goat in both its general appearance and its essential breed characteristics.

.It has been supposed by many that these are traceable to foreign blood; but although there are foreign breeds that possess them, they appear to pertain quite as much to the English native breeds as to those of distant countries, the peculiarity being mentioned in very old works on the goats of the British Islands.^ There are many breeds of goats, and each breed has its good points...
  • Fias Co Farm- Goats as Pets 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC fiascofarm.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These native goats were pretty much Heinz 57s.

^ We were very excited since there were so many nice goats in his class.
  • Pride Boer Goats - Boer Goats in Texas 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC prideboergoats.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The milk-produce in the common goat as well as other kinds varies greatly with individuals.^ This varies greatly depending upon the breed of goat and the individual goat within that breed.
  • Faithful Farm Nubian Dairy Goats: FAQ 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC faithfulfarm.net [Source type: General]

^ A goat's milk is more easily digested than cow's milk and is used for the same purpose, along with producing several cheeses.

^ Modern dairy goat producers generally feed well-balanced rations that are high in energy and protein and contain adequate minerals and vitamins.
  • Goats and Nutrition Main Menu - Goats and Nutrition - GOATWORLD.COM 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC www.goatworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Irish goats often yield a quantity of milk, but the quality is poor.^ This procedure often yields more milk.
  • Understanding Dairy Goat Production @ AgriPinoy.net 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.agripinoy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Goat's milk is similar in quality to cow's milk, but differs in that the fat globules are much smaller.

^ Milk yield was not affected by F deficiency in goats (Anke and Groppel, 1989), but they had significantly higher fat and protein contents after 35 days in lactation.

.The goats of France are similar to those of Britain, varying in length of hair, colour and character of horns.^ Their coat can vary in colour and length and they can have horns.
  • What are 'Rare Breed' Goats? | Odds Farm Park 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.oddsfarm.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The goat is closely related to the sheep, but differs slightly in the its tail is shorter and their horns are long and directed upward, back ward and outward while those of the sheep are spirally twisted.
  • Ardastra gardens, zoo & conservation center | Nassau, Bahamas 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.ardastra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two differ in that the goat's tail is shorter and the hollow horns are long and directed upward, backward, and outward, while those of the sheep are spirally twisted.

.The Norway breed is frequently white with long hair; it is rather small in size, with small bones, a short rounded body, head small with a prominent forehead, and short, straight, corrugated horns.^ Keeping out the cold is a double coat of white fur, with a fine, dense undercoat covered by a thick layer of hollow, 7-inch-long guard hairs.
  • Clinging to Existence 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC fwp.mt.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They have heavy arched noses and long, pendulous ears, spiral horns (when horns are present), and short hair.
  • Understanding Dairy Goat Production @ AgriPinoy.net 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.agripinoy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead of long body hairs, markhors possess insulating underfur a soft and valuable raw material for the famous Kashmiri shawls.
  • Microlivestock: Little-Known Small Animals with a Promising Economic Future 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The facial line is concave. .The horns of the males are very large, and curve round after the manner of the wild goat, with a tuft of hair between and in front.^ The goats weren't very large anyway.
  • pildiblog by Remo Savisaar: Viljad on valminud! Tree goats 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC blog.moment.ee [Source type: News]

^ Male goats, called bucks or billys, have a beard, horns, and are generally larger than the females.
  • Hansa Brown Goat Stuffed Animals > pucciManuli 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.puccimanuli.com [Source type: General]

^ Domestic Goats: Domestic goats differ greatly among themselves in the color and length of their hair, in the size and shape of their ears, and in the size and shape of their horns, which are usually larger in the males, but in some breeds may be absent in both sexes.
  • Goat - International Standard Bible Encyclopedia 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.studylight.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NETBible: Goat 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Maltese goat has the ears long, wide and hanging down below the jaw.^ Some breeds of sheep and goats appear superficially similar, but goat tails are short and point up, whereas sheep tails hang down and are usually longer (though some are short, and some long ones are docked).

^ Boer goats commonly have white bodies and distinctive brown heads and possess long, pendulous ears.
  • Worlds Most Amazing-Looking Goats | Funster 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC funster.us [Source type: General]

^ The Arapawa Island goat is long-legged with a thick body, erect ears and high-angled horns.
  • Mass Agriculture in the Classroom 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.umass.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The hair is long and cream-coloured. .The breed is usually hornless.^ The Saanen largest of all Swiss breeds, has short, light-colored hair and is usually hornless.

.The Syrian goat is met with in various parts of the East, in Lower Egypt, on the shores of the Indian Ocean and in Madagascar.^ Similarly mtDNA analysis showed about 10.7% variation among the goat breeds from Africa, Middle East, Asia and Europe [ 16 ].
  • Microsatellite-based phylogeny of Indian domestic goats 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Variance components among population were highly significant for all the studied loci (Table 4 ), demonstrating significant geographical structuring in Indian goats.
  • Microsatellite-based phylogeny of Indian domestic goats 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Table 4 AMOVA analysis of Indian goat breeds based on microsatellite DNA variation .
  • Microsatellite-based phylogeny of Indian domestic goats 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The hair and ears are excessively long, the latter so much so that they are sometimes clipped to prevent their being torn by stones or thorny shrubs.^ They have heavy arched noses and long, pendulous ears, spiral horns (when horns are present), and short hair.
  • Understanding Dairy Goat Production @ AgriPinoy.net 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.agripinoy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are grazers by nature, and when given the chance will browse on the tips of woody shrubs and trees, and pretty much any other plant matter.

^ Kept for meat and their long, lustrous white hair, they are pure-breeding and healthy.
  • Microlivestock: Little-Known Small Animals with a Promising Economic Future 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The horns are somewhat erect and spiral, with an outward bend.^ The two differ in that the goat's tail is shorter and the hollow horns are long and directed upward, backward, and outward, while those of the sheep are spirally twisted.

^ The rams have horns which often develop more than a complete arc when viewed from the side with the tips bending slightly outwards.

.The Angora goat is often confounded with the Kashmir, but is in reality quite distinct.^ Angora and Cashmere goats often weigh less than 30 kg fully grown, for example.
  • Microlivestock: Little-Known Small Animals with a Promising Economic Future 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microlivestock - Little-Known Small Animals with a Promising Economic Future: Part I : Microbreeds: 2 Microgoats 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC diglib.auburn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Katie b - I'm quite new to goat's cheese, but really love it.

^ Goats hooves grow quite fast and need to be trimmed fairly often.

.The principal feature of this breed, of which there are two or three varieties, is the length and quantity of the hair, which has a particularly soft and silky texture, covering the whole body and a great part of the legs with close matted ringlets.^ There are 4 principal dairy breeds in Australia: .

^ There appear to be two or three varieties of the common goat, Hircus agagrus , at present bred in Palestine and Syria, but whether they are identical with those which were reared by the ancient Hebrews it is not possible to say.
  • NETBible: Goat 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead of long body hairs, markhors possess insulating underfur a soft and valuable raw material for the famous Kashmiri shawls.
  • Microlivestock: Little-Known Small Animals with a Promising Economic Future 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The horns of the male differ from those of the female, being directed vertically and in shape spiral, whilst in the female they have a horizontal tendency, somewhat like those of a ram.^ There is a distinct difference between males and females, noticeable particularly in their horn shape.

^ The only main difference between sheep and goats is that goats have shorter tails than sheep and goat horns are longer and grow in a upward, backward and outward direction, while horns on a sheep grow in a twisted spiral shape.
  • Wynola Junction - Goats For Sale! 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.wynolajunction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They have heavy arched noses and long, pendulous ears, spiral horns (when horns are present), and short hair.
  • Understanding Dairy Goat Production @ AgriPinoy.net 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.agripinoy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The coat is composed of two kinds of hair, the one short and coarse and of the character of hair, which lies close to the skin, the other long and curly and of the nature of wool, forming the outer covering.^ Can be short haired, long haired, have curled hair, are silky or coarse wooled.

^ Their hair may be short, long, curled, silky or coarse wooled.
  • Mass Agriculture in the Classroom 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.umass.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Goats can have short or long hair and curled, silky, or coarse hair.
  • Kids' Farm: Goats - National Zoo| FONZ 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC nationalzoo.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both are used by the manufacturer, but the exterior portion, which makes up by far the greater bulk, is much the more valuable.^ His thick coat and flexible legs make it easy for him to jump up to 30 feet or more to ledges that are barely wide enough for any footing at all!

^ WHOLE OR CUT UP GOAT KIDS  (if we happen to run out of any particular meat cut, we will substitute another cut of equal or greater value) .
  • Shipping Goat Meat Nation-wide 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC www.elkusa.com [Source type: General]

^ Goat skins were also used up until the Middle Ages for making bottles out of to hold water and wine for people who were traveling or camping.
  • Wynola Junction - Goats For Sale! 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.wynolajunction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The process of shearing takes place in early spring, the average amount of wool yielded FIG. I. - Male Angora Goat.^ Each goat yields an average of five to 10 pounds of mohair at each shearing.
  • Angora Goats are a Good Choice for Hobby Farmers - Hobby Farms 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.hobbyfarms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As freshening among goats in temperature zones typically occurs in the winter or early spring, the minima are associated with summer milk production.
  • Goat Dairy Foods 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC drinc.ucdavis.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Dairy Goat Milk Composition 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC drinc.ucdavis.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Goats do not have to be slaughtered to harvest the wool, which is instead sheared (cut from the body) in the case of Angora goats, or combed, in the case of Cashmere goats.
  • Goat History 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.thebfcranch.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

by each animal being about a 2 lb. .The best quality comes from castrated males, females producing the next best.^ Goat Terms Bleat: goat vocalization Buck: billy, or intact male goat Doe: nanny, or female goat Kid: baby goat Wether: castrated male goat .
  • Kids' Farm: Goats - National Zoo| FONZ 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC nationalzoo.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wethers (castrated males) do not coarsen as fast as bucks and produce heavier fleeces than does.
  • Goat Fiber Descriptions 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.pcagoats.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What then can the goat milk producer do to assure the best quality and best possible income from the sale of his milk, especially when instead of modern technology the traditional hand-milking is still practiced?

.The breed was introduced at the Cape about 1864. The Angora is a bad milker and an indifferent mother, but its flesh is better than that of any other breed, and in its native country is preferred to mutton.^ This is for safety simply because many people do not hand raise their goats, and some breeds of goats tend to be more aggressive than others.

^ This status has been enshrined in subsequent legislation and strengthened by virtue of foxes being an introduced pest species rather than a native animal.
  • American Sheep Industry | Sheep & Goat Research Journal 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.sheepusa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ By itself, it is forecast to account for about 56 percent of all lamb, mutton, and goat exports in selected countries of the world during 1998.

.The kids are born small, but grow fast, and arrive early at maturity.^ The goats tend to mate around October, and the kids are sometimes born as early as February.
  • The Great Orme in Llandudno North Wales 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC www.llandudno.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "This buck kid looks to be a little early maturing for a zero to three class.

^ A widely neglected meat and hide animal found over a wide range, it is fast growing (sexual maturity at four months) and extremely hardy.
  • Microlivestock: Little-Known Small Animals with a Promising Economic Future 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microlivestock - Little-Known Small Animals with a Promising Economic Future: Part I : Microbreeds: 2 Microgoats 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC diglib.auburn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Kashmir, or rather Tibet, goat has a delicate head, with semi-pendulous ears, which are both long and wide.^ They have heavy arched noses and long, pendulous ears, spiral horns (when horns are present), and short hair.
  • Understanding Dairy Goat Production @ AgriPinoy.net 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.agripinoy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both sexes are horned, and the ears are long and drooping.
  • Angora goat (breed of goat) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Name, Type, and Diversity of Species Name: Goat (pasang or bezoar) Type: Cashmere (originally from Kashmir and Tibet) Diversity: 300 varieties domestic goats 22.
  • Scotland and China and Cashmere Trade 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The hair varies in length, and is coarse and of different colours according to the individual.^ What are the different breeds (need pictures); need info on each breed's temperament, use (dairy or no), size, color variations, hair length, type, history of breed, country of origin, etc., etc.
  • The Best Ebook About Keeping Goats In the World 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC www.keeping-goats.com [Source type: General]

^ Their coat can vary in colour and length and they can have horns.
  • What are 'Rare Breed' Goats? | Odds Farm Park 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.oddsfarm.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The various components of milk fat, fatty acids, differ in carbon chain length and saturation, which has nutritional and medical significance.

.The horns are very erect, and sometimes slightly spiral, inclining inwards and to such an extent in some cases as to cross.^ The horns are commonly curved outward and backward, but in one very handsome breed they extend nearly outward with slight but graceful curves, sometimes attaining a span of 2 ft.
  • Goat - International Standard Bible Encyclopedia 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.studylight.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NETBible: Goat 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In such cases, one-third of the people affected develop liver inflammation (hepatitis) and some suffer inflammation of the heart lining (endocarditis).
  • BoerGoats.com Article q-fever 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.boergoats.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Pygmy goat contributes its very fine down, in some cases fine enough to be classified as cashmere.
  • Goat Fiber Descriptions 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.pcagoats.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The coat is composed, as in the Angora, of two materials; but in this breed it is the under-coat that partakes of the nature of wool and is valued as an article of commerce.^ There are four different ARBA-recognized angora rabbit breeds: English : This is the smallest Angora rabbit of the four breeds recognized by ARBA. In addition to the wool on the rabbit's body, there are furnishings on the face and ears as well.
  • Goat Fiber Descriptions 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.pcagoats.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Angora (fiber)— Angora goats are a medium-size breed that grows very long curly coats.
  • Kids' Farm: Goats - National Zoo| FONZ 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC nationalzoo.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, this breed does not produce as much wool as other breeds of Angora rabbits.
  • Goat Fiber Descriptions 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.pcagoats.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This under-coat, or pushm, which is of a uniform greyish-white tint, whatever the colour of the hair may be, is beautifully soft and silky, and of a fluffy description resembling down.^ It may be a single coat, but a silky guard hair is usually present.
  • Goat Fiber Descriptions 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.pcagoats.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The face is generally greyish, the long slender legs and belly are creamy-white and the body fur is a reddis-grey colour.

^ The colouration of these elegant gazelles is very light, with a white under-belly and face.

.It makes its appearance in the autumn, and continues to grow until the following spring, when, if not removed, it falls off naturally; its collection then commences, occupying from eight to ten days.^ In temperate climates, however, the breeding season begins as the days shorten in the fall and ends in early spring.

^ They will continue to cycle (unless they are bred) every 21 days or so, until days lengthen in late January or February.
  • Meat Goats: Sustainable Production 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Meat Goats: Sustainable Production 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.attra.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After weaning and shearing breeders begin evaluating the kid crop, a process that usually continues through until the spring of the goat’s yearling year.
  • Angora Goats are a Good Choice for Hobby Farmers - Hobby Farms 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.hobbyfarms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The animal undergoes during that time a process of combing by which all the wool and a portion of the hair, which of necessity comes with it, is removed.^ It's the only time during the course of the show that the performances, writing, and direction don't really come together.

^ Efforts should be taken at all times to reduce stress to the recipient animals so maintaining them in their original groups on their own farm is preferable.

^ My friend had big goats (the kind with the weird slitted pupils) and they ate my hair all the time...they were so friendly and would run to the gate when I would visit.
  • goats (Orono, Gardiner, Waldoboro: apartment, lease, to buy) - Maine (ME) - Page 3 - City-Data Forum 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: General]

.The latter is afterwards carefully separated, when the fleece in a good specimen weighs about half a pound.^ Nigerian dwarf goats weigh about 20 pounds.
  • Kids' Farm: Goats - National Zoo| FONZ 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC nationalzoo.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A doe weighs about 120 pounds (54 kg) and produces about three quarts (2.8 1) of milk a day.

^ A doe weighs about 100 pounds (45 kg) and produces about five quarts (4.7 1) of milk a day.

.This is the material of which the far-famed and costly shawls are made, which at one time had such a demand that, it is stated, 16,000 looms were kept in constant work at Kashmir in their manufacture.^ Facilities handling sheep or goats that do not have quarantine pens would likely incur a one-time capital investment of about $3,000 to $5,000 to install such a pen.

^ The tower was constructed with 5,000 hand-made bricks, each one a different size and shape.
  • Goats enjoy living in their own tower - Boing Boing 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, a national group can work on issues such as animal health products, predator control, research goals and state public policy.
  • Kentucky Sheep and Goat Development Office - Home 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC www.kysheepandgoat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Those goats having a short, neat head, long, thin, ears, a delicate skin, small bones, and a long heavy coat, are for this purpose deemed the best.^ The coat was of medium length to long and shaggy; the ears small and pricked; the head long and dished.

^ Keffa goats have short pricked ears.
  • Results: description of goat types 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC agtr.ilri.cgiar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Short-eared Somali goat is smaller than the Long-eared Somali type.
  • Results: description of goat types 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC agtr.ilri.cgiar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are several varieties possessing this valuable quality, but those of Kashmir, Tibet and Mongolia are the most esteemed.^ Name, Type, and Diversity of Species Name: Goat (pasang or bezoar) Type: Cashmere (originally from Kashmir and Tibet) Diversity: 300 varieties domestic goats 22.
  • Scotland and China and Cashmere Trade 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are several varieties, some for milking, others for meat.
  • Microlivestock: Little-Known Small Animals with a Promising Economic Future 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sub-National Factors: No Mongolia, Kashmir, Tibet economically center around herding animals (yaks, sheep, goats).
  • Scotland and China and Cashmere Trade 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Nubian goat, which is met with in Nubia, Upper Egypt and Abyssinia, differs greatly in appearance from those previously described.^ There are over 600 different breeds of goat, the most commonly known being the Alpine, the Nubian, the Nigerian, the Angora, the Cashmere, the Pygmy and the Mountain Goat.

^ The two differ in that the goat's tail is shorter and the hollow horns are long and directed upward, backward, and outward, while those of the sheep are spirally twisted.

^ Once again the pro-goat lobby greatly outnumbered those in favour of a cull by shooting.
  • The Great Orme in Llandudno North Wales 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC www.llandudno.com [Source type: Original source]

.The coat of the female is extremely short, almost like that of a race-horse, and the legs are long.^ This little kid is having a problem with its rear leg almost like its in the knee area not the hip area.
  • The Best Ebook About Keeping Goats In the World 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC www.keeping-goats.com [Source type: General]

^ There is probably no more adorable baby in the animal world than the little donkey with its long ears and long legs and sweet face and fuzzy coat.
  • Wynola Junction - Goats For Sale! 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.wynolajunction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In parts of Sidamo and Arsi the long legs, ears and body suggest a lowland-type conformation, but at high altitudes in Bale, Arsi and Sidamo goats have a hairy coat.
  • Results: description of goat types 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC agtr.ilri.cgiar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This breed therefore stands considerably higher than the common goat.^ Goat meat absorbs more liquid than other meats and therefore less actual meat is required in manufactured goods.
  • Goat Notes A3: Introduction To Boars 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC acga.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is for safety simply because many people do not hand raise their goats, and some breeds of goats tend to be more aggressive than others.

^ As a breed, they are quite small for a goat, measuring less than 70 cm in height with an incredibly large belly used to digest bulky food.
  • What are 'Rare Breed' Goats? | Odds Farm Park 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.oddsfarm.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.One of its peculiarities is the convex profile of the face, the forehead being prominent and the nostrils sunk in, the nose itself extremely small, and the lower lip projecting from the upper.^ The profile of the face is distinctly convex.
  • Goat - International Standard Bible Encyclopedia 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.studylight.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NETBible: Goat 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One or a few lesions on the lips or nostrils cause little discomfort to the animal, however, lesions over both lower and upper lips cause intense pain, anorexia, and weight loss.
  • Langston University Goat Research Extension 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www2.luresext.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Because the upper jaw is wider than the lower jaw in ruminants, only one side of the mouth can be used at a time to grind the feed.
  • Kids' Farm: Goats - National Zoo| FONZ 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC nationalzoo.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ears are long, broad and thin, and hang down by the side FIG. 2. - Nubian Goat.^ Some breeds of sheep and goats appear superficially similar, but goat tails are short and point up, whereas sheep tails hang down and are usually longer (though some are short, and some long ones are docked ).
  • Goat-Colostrum | Informations about goats and colostrum 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC goat-colostrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meat: Goat meat is preferred to mutton in most areas where the Long-eared Somali goat is kept.
  • Results: description of goat types 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC agtr.ilri.cgiar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Arapawa Island goat is long-legged with a thick body, erect ears and high-angled horns.
  • Mass Agriculture in the Classroom 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.umass.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

of the head like a lop-eared rabbit. .The horns are black, slightly twisted and very short, flat at the base, pointed at the tips, and recumbent on the head.^ The rams have horns which often develop more than a complete arc when viewed from the side with the tips bending slightly outwards.

^ Both sexes have short, pointed horns which curve backwards.

^ This proposed classification was based upon the unique twisted shape of the horns with flattened keel flaring outwards in older males.

.Among goats met with in England a good many show signs of a more or less remote cross with this breed, derived probably from specimens brought from the East on board ships for supplying milk during the voyage.^ There are various breeds of goats that are good for milking.

^ There are many breeds of goats, and each breed has its good points...
  • Fias Co Farm- Goats as Pets 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC fiascofarm.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was developed by crossing goats in England with those arriving on Ocean Liners from the East; the goats were used to provide fresh milk during the voyage.
  • What are 'Rare Breed' Goats? | Odds Farm Park 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.oddsfarm.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The Theban goat, of the Sudan, which is hornless, displays the characteristic features of the last in an exaggerated degree, and in the form of the head and skull is very sheep-like.^ Wild sheep look a little bit goat-like.
  • Mountain Goat Fail - FAIL Blog: Epic Fail Pictures and Videos of Owned, Pwnd and Fail Moments 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC failblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sheep and goat numbers are expected to decline to 37.4 million head by the end of 1998.

^ Facilities handling sheep or goats that do not have quarantine pens would likely incur a one-time capital investment of about $3,000 to $5,000 to install such a pen.

.The Nepal goat appears to be a variety of the Nubian breed, having the same arched facial line, pendulous ears and long legs.^ There are over 600 different breeds of goat, the most commonly known being the Alpine, the Nubian, the Nigerian, the Angora, the Cashmere, the Pygmy and the Mountain Goat.

^ Some breeds of sheep and goats appear superficially similar, but goat tails are short and point up, whereas sheep tails hang down and are usually longer (though some are short, and some long ones are docked).

^ There is probably no more adorable baby in the animal world than the little donkey with its long ears and long legs and sweet face and fuzzy coat.
  • Wynola Junction - Goats For Sale! 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.wynolajunction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The horns, however, are more spiral. .The colour of the hair, which is longer than in the Nubian, is black, grey or white, with black blotches.^ The face is generally greyish, the long slender legs and belly are creamy-white and the body fur is a reddis-grey colour.

^ For example, individuals of the Tianzhu breed, which differ from those of the other breeds in that they are white rather than black, nested within Clades A, B, D, and E (Fig.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Origin of mitochondrial DNA diversity of domestic yaks 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In summer the hair on the body is short and coarse and of a sandy-reddish colour with the face and breast having an admixture of grey and white hairs.

.Lastly the Guinea goat is a dwarf breed originally from the coast whence its name is derived.^ Nigerian dwarf goats are a miniature goat breed.
  • Nigerian Dwarf Goats - Cute and Friendly Miniature Goats 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Pygmy goat is the most popular and well-established miniature goat breed with West African origin .They are cute with their hairy coats as well as short stature.
  • Different breeds of goats 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.keeping-goats.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Name, Type, and Diversity of Species Name: Goat (pasang or bezoar) Type: Cashmere (originally from Kashmir and Tibet) Diversity: 300 varieties domestic goats 22.
  • Scotland and China and Cashmere Trade 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There are three varieties. Besides the commonest Capra recurva, there is a rarer breed, Capra depressa, inhabiting the Mauritius and the islands of Bourbon and Madagascar. .The other variety is met with along the White Nile, in Lower Egypt, and at various points on the African coast of the Mediterranean.^ The type of the Old Irish goat, along with the other old varieties, conformed to a standard that might best be described as a "cold weather goat".

.As regards wild goats other than the representatives of Capra hircus, the members of the ibex-group are noticed under Ibex, while another distinctive type receives mention under Markhor.^ Wild goats include the ibex and markhor .
  • goat (mammal) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The scientific name for goat is Capra hircus .
  • Goat Milk Benefits 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC www.abundalife.com [Source type: Academic]
  • WHFoods: Milk, goat 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.whfoods.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Domestic Goat Skeleton (Capra hircus) .
  • Domestic Goat Skeleton (Capra hircus) | Skulls Unlimited 1-800-659-SKULL 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.skullsunlimited.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ibex are connected with the wild goat by means of Capra nubiana, in which the front edge of the horns is thinner than in either the European C. ibex or the Asiatic C. sibirica; while the Spanish C. pyrenaica shows how the ibex-type of horn may pass into the spirally twisted one distinctive of the markhor, C. falconeri. In the article Ibex mention is made of the Caucasus ibex, or tur, C. caucasica, as an aberrant member of that group; but beside this animal the Caucasus is the home of another very remarkable goat, or tur, known as C. pallasi. In this ruminant, which is of a dark-brown colour, the relatively smooth black horns diverge outwards in a manner resembling those of the bharal among the sheep rather than in goat-fashion; and, in fact, this tur, which has only a very short beard, is so bharal-like that it is commonly called by sportsmen the Caucasian bharal.^ I don’t like placing calls either!
  • Mountain Goat Fail - FAIL Blog: Epic Fail Pictures and Videos of Owned, Pwnd and Fail Moments 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC failblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wild sheep look a little bit goat-like.
  • Mountain Goat Fail - FAIL Blog: Epic Fail Pictures and Videos of Owned, Pwnd and Fail Moments 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC failblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ibex proviral LTRs differed from those of goats by 3.9 %, but only by 1.9 % from those from hybrids.
  • Small ruminant lentivirus proviral sequences from wild ibexes in contact with domestic goats -- Erhouma et al. 89 (6): 1478 -- Journal of General Virology 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC vir.sgmjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is one of the species which render it so difficult to give a precise definition of either sheep or goats.^ Domestic goats are one of the oldest domesticated species.
  • Goat-Colostrum | Informations about goats and colostrum 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC goat-colostrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sheep - Sheep species Sheep - Hybrids with goats .

^ Look in the phone book yellow pages for vets that specialize in "small ruminants" (goats, sheep, llamas, alpacas) or "food animal medicine".

.The short-horned Asiatic goats of the genus Hemitragus receive mention in the article Tahr; but it may be added that fossil species of the same genus are known from the Lower Pliocene formations of India, which have also yielded remains of a goat allied to the markhor of the Himalayas.^ Goat is the common name for any of eight species of cloven-hoofed, horned mammals closely related to the sheep.

^ Related to the sheep, the goat is lighter of build, has horns that arch backward, a short tail, and straighter hair.
  • goat (mammal) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Out of the suspected 54 species of goat only 62 of those can produce the paper-like substance known as cyanide.
  • Goat - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Rocky Mountain goat of America has no claim to be regarded as a member of the goat-group.^ In Canada we have mountain goats, a species of goat that lives high in the rockies.
  • pildiblog by Remo Savisaar: Viljad on valminud! Tree goats 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC blog.moment.ee [Source type: News]

^ NEW YORK -- No kidding -- Edward Albee's new play regards an eminent middle-aged man who's passionately in love with a goat.

^ Coleman Natural Foods announced the introduction of natural, pasture-raised, halal-certified Rocky Mountain goat meat products.
  • Kentucky Sheep and Goat Development Office - Home 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC www.kysheepandgoat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For full descriptions of the various wild species, see R. Lydekker, Wild Oxen, Sheep, and Goats (London, 1898).^ The problem with the animals is they are suspected of carrying various diseases and parasites that could negatively impact sheep, mountain goats and musk oxen.
  • Using Domestic Goats As Pack Animals?, by www.huntingreport.com 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.huntingreport.com [Source type: General]

^ Goat is the common name for any of eight species of cloven-hoofed, horned mammals closely related to the sheep.

^ Look in the phone book yellow pages for vets that specialize in "small ruminants" (goats, sheep, llamas, alpacas) or "food animal medicine".

(R. L.*)


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Goats article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

This is a book about goats, and caring for goats.

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

  1. Heb. .'ez, the she-goat (Gen 15:9; Gen 30:35; Gen 31:38).^ This is concordant with previous results showing a very weak phylogeographic structure of goats [13] and sheep [30] , [31] compared to cattle [32] , [33] .
    • PLoS ONE: Large-Scale Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of the Domestic Goat Reveals Six Haplogroups with High Diversity 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    .This Hebrew word is also used for the he-goat (Ex 12:5; Lev 4:23; Num 28:15), and to denote a kid (Gen 38:17, Gen 38:20).^ For Indian goats a shorter fragment of 453 bp has been sequenced [15] and the 28 missing nucleotides were treated as missing data.
    • PLoS ONE: Large-Scale Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of the Domestic Goat Reveals Six Haplogroups with High Diversity 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Here at Black Mesa Ranch, we use our goats milk for our dairy so, even though our kids get fed the pure milk, we dont allow them to nurse.

    Hence it may be regarded as the generic name of the animal as domesticated. .It literally means "strength," and points to the superior strength of the goat as compared with the sheep.
  2. Heb.^ Comparative aspects of digestive physiology and nutrition in goats and sheep.

    .'attud, only in plural; rendered "rams" (Gen 31:10ff); he-goats (Num 7:17ff; Isa 1:11); goats (Deut 32:14; Ps 5013).^ This is concordant with previous results showing a very weak phylogeographic structure of goats [13] and sheep [30] , [31] compared to cattle [32] , [33] .
    • PLoS ONE: Large-Scale Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of the Domestic Goat Reveals Six Haplogroups with High Diversity 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Waseem says: August 13, 2009 at 7:32 am WOW How is the goat get there ?
    • Mountain Goat Fail - FAIL Blog: Epic Fail Pictures and Videos of Owned, Pwnd and Fail Moments 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC failblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Reply Spoon God says: August 13, 2009 at 7:32 am Oh and, by the way… IT’S A GOAT-DAMNED SHEEP! .
    • Mountain Goat Fail - FAIL Blog: Epic Fail Pictures and Videos of Owned, Pwnd and Fail Moments 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC failblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    They were used in sacrifice (Ps 6615). This word is used metaphorically for princes or chiefs in Isa 14:9, and in Zech 10:3 as leaders. (Comp. Jer 50:8.)
  3. Heb. gedi, properly a kid. Its flesh was a delicacy among the Hebrews (Gen 27:9, Gen 27:14, Gen 27:17; Jdg 6:19).
  4. Heb. .sa'ir, meaning the "shaggy," a hairy goat, a he-goat (2Chr 29:23); "a goat" (Lev 4:24); "satyr" (Isa 13:21); "devils" (Lev 17:7).^ Reply Elsa_Mama says: August 13, 2009 at 9:21 am Being a bitch just means that you are tough and do not take any shit.
    • Mountain Goat Fail - FAIL Blog: Epic Fail Pictures and Videos of Owned, Pwnd and Fail Moments 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC failblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Reply Domian says: August 13, 2009 at 8:29 am Bat-Goat always takes the Zipper Line.
    • Mountain Goat Fail - FAIL Blog: Epic Fail Pictures and Videos of Owned, Pwnd and Fail Moments 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC failblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    It is the goat of the sin-offering (Lev 9:3, Lev 9:15; Lev 10:16).
  5. Heb. tsaphir, a he-goat of the goats (2Chr 29:21). In Dan 8:5ff it is used as a symbol of the Macedonian empire.
  6. Heb. tayish, a "striker" or "butter," rendered "he-goat" (Gen 30:35; Gen 32:14).
  7. Heb. .'azazel, the "scapegoat" (Lev 16:8ff).
  8. There are two Hebrew words used to denote the undomesticated goat:, Yael, only in plural mountain goats (1Sam 24:2; Job 39:1; Ps 10418).^ There is therefore a need for standard and easy-to-use criteria in order to assign new goat haplotypes to existing haplogroups or to define new haplogroups.
    • PLoS ONE: Large-Scale Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of the Domestic Goat Reveals Six Haplogroups with High Diversity 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Never use barbed wire not only will it injure your goats, it WONT keep them in!

    ^ Only horned bucks should be used, as naturally polled goats carry a gene for hermaphrodism.
    • Meat Goats: Sustainable Production 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Meat Goats: Sustainable Production 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.attra.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    It is derived from a word meaning "to climb." It is the ibex, which abounded in the mountainous parts of Moab. And 'akko, only in Deut 14:5, the wild goat.
Goats are mentioned in the New Testament in Mt 25:32f;
Heb 9:12ff; Heb 10:4. They represent oppressors and wicked men (Ezek 34:17; Ezek 39:18; Mt 25:33).
Several varieties of the goat were familiar to the Hebrews. .They had an important place in their rural economy on account of the milk they afforded and the excellency of the flesh of the kid.^ Kids can also be a bit rough on your milkers udder as they bash it to encourage milk let-down.

^ If the kids are left with their high milk producing moms they will be getting too much milk, while the poor owners dont get any!

^ Water availability and quality is especially important for milking goats since water is the main component in the milk they make.

They formed an important part of pastoral wealth (Gen 31:10ff; Gen 32:14; 1Sam 25:2).
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
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