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Domestic Goat
Conservation status
Domesticated
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Bovidae
Subfamily: Caprinae
Genus: Capra
Species: C. aegagrus
Subspecies: C. a. hircus
Trinomial name
Capra aegagrus hircus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Synonyms
Capra hircus
.The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.^ There are six species and numerous subspecies of sheep distributed throughout Asia and North America, but the domestic sheep now occurs worldwide.
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.The goat is a member of the Bovidae family and is closely related to the sheep: both are in the goat-antelope subfamily Caprinae.^ Feeding: The animals are herded during the day by family members, usually with sheep.
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^ Subtypes, races and related types: Related to both the Short- and Long-eared Somali goat types.
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^ Subtypes, races and related types: Most closely related to the Central and Western Highland goats.
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.There are over three hundred distinct breeds of goat.^ Today, there are some 200 different breeds of goats that produce a variety of products, including milk, meat, and fiber (mohair and cashmere).
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[1]
.Goats are one of the oldest domesticated species.^ The goat was one of the first animals to be domesticated by humans, about 9,000 years ago.
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.Goats have been used for their milk, meat, hair, and skins over much of the world.^ Some goat keepers feed TWICE as much milk as I outline here.

^ To a lesser extent goat skins are needed for various home uses among the Guji people in Borena and Sidamo (carrying rugs, reinforcements to utensils etc).
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^ Skins: Skins of Nubian goats are used as water containers, and some are sold.
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[2] In the twentieth century they also gained in popularity as pets.[3]
.Female goats are referred to as does or nannies, intact males as bucks or billies; their offspring are kids.^ If you want a goat primarily for milk, be sure to get a dairy type doe (female goat).

^ Working goats milkers, pack goats, breeding buck, heavily pregnant does, etc can be fed several pounds of grain a day.

^ The presence of a buck (uncastrated male goat) stimulates the reproductive cycle (estrous) and the behaviors of the does that indicate that they are in the fertile part of their cycle (in heat).
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.Note that many goat breeders prefer the terms "buck" and "doe" to "billy" and "nanny". Castrated males are wethers.^ Male goats, not destined to stand stud as bucks should be castrated (making them wethers).

^ The effect of short-term consumption of a forage containing condensed tannins on gastro-intestinal nematode parasite infections in grazing wether goats.
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^ Working goats milkers, pack goats, breeding buck, heavily pregnant does, etc can be fed several pounds of grain a day.

.Goat meat from younger animals is called kid or cabrito, and from older animals is sometimes called chevon, or in some areas “mutton”.^ CL can be picked up in bedding or by touching some other area that has been contaminated by goats with abscesses, and the infectious organism persists in the environment for several months.
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^ Meat: Goat meat is preferred to mutton in most areas where the Long-eared Somali goat is kept.
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^ North Carolina State University – Extension Animal Husbandry (see Meat Goat) www.cals.ncsu.edu/an_sci/extension/animal/eahmain.html .
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Contents

Etymology

The Modern English word goat comes from the Old English gat which meant "she-goat", and this in turn derived from Proto-Germanic *gaitaz (cf. Old Norse and Dutch geit "goat", German Geiß "she-goat", and Gothic gaits "goat"), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *ghaidos meaning "young goat" but also "jump" (cf. Latin haedus "kid", Old Church Slavonic zajęcǐ "hare", Sanskrit jihīte "he jumps").[4] .To refer to the male of the species, Old English used bucca (which survives as "buck") until a shift to he-goat (and she-goat) occurred in the late 12th century.^ Straight horns, occur on 71% of the males, curved on 26%, with polled goats forming 3% of the population.
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^ Referring to the example we used above to calculate cost ( Feeding Meat Goats section), it is easy to see the impact of a winter hay bill of $35 per doe.
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^ The presence of a buck (uncastrated male goat) stimulates the reproductive cycle (estrous) and the behaviors of the does that indicate that they are in the fertile part of their cycle (in heat).
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"Nanny goat" originated in the 18th century and "billy goat" in the 19th.
Amalthée et la chèvre de Jupiter (Amalthea and Jupiter's goat) Commissioned by the Queen of France in 1787 for the royal dairy at Rambouillet

History

.The most recent genetic analysis[5] confirms the archaeological evidence that the Anatolian Zagros are the likely origin of almost all domestic goats today.^ Origins: Most likely derived from the Somali goat type.
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^ Certainly all pet and dairy goats should not be allowed to carry horns and there is little evidence that they are of much value to the domesticated goat in any application.

^ Most people keep their goats in the pen all the time, though some are never penned at all.

.Neolithic farmers began to keep them for easy access to milk and meat, primarily, also for their dung, which was used as fuel and their bones, hair, and sinew for clothing, building, and tools.^ Referring to the example we used above to calculate cost ( Feeding Meat Goats section), it is easy to see the impact of a winter hay bill of $35 per doe.
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^ Highland farmers in North Omo use part of the family home to keep the small flocks during the night and early hours of the morning.
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^ Goats are used widely all around the globe for meat, fiber production, brush clearing, pack & draught work, showing, pets, and, of course, milk.

[1] .The earliest remnants of domesticated goats dating 10,000 before present are found in Ganj Dareh in Iranian Kurdistan.^ The goat was one of the first animals to be domesticated by humans, about 9,000 years ago.
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.Domestic goats were generally kept in herds that wandered on hills or other grazing areas, often tended by goatherds who were frequently children or adolescents, similar to the more widely known shepherd.^ Around urban areas Nubian goats may be supplemented with crop residues and other feeds.
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^ Goat producers who are really conscientious about ridding a herd of CAE will not allow infected goats to have any contact with non-infected goats.
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^ CL can be picked up in bedding or by touching some other area that has been contaminated by goats with abscesses, and the infectious organism persists in the environment for several months.
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These methods of herding are still used today.
.Historically, goat hide has been used for water and wine bottles in both traveling and transporting wine for sale.^ Skins: Skins of Nubian goats are used as water containers, and some are sold.
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^ These goats are well adapted to arid environments, infrequent watering (every 3-4 days) and travelling long distances.
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^ The Somali make water containers (karbit) and use goat skins to churn butter.
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It has also been used to produce parchment.

Anatomy

.Most goats naturally have two horns, of various shapes and sizes depending on the breed.^ Most are horned; color and size are variable.
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^ However, even after selection, most Tennessee Meat Goats grow more slowly and mature to a smaller size than Boer, Kiko, or dairy goats.
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^ Several meat-goat breeds are available in the U.S. The most widely available and the breed best suited to extensive range is the Spanish meat goat, also known as the “brush” goat.
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.While horns are a predominantly male feature, some breeds of goat have horned females.^ Polled goats are found in 5% of males and 7% of females.
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^ The goats in Sidamo are horned with only 1.7% of females and 1.8% of males being polled.
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^ Deficiency of Zn increased Cu contents, especially in the brain, liver and uterus of female and male goats (Gruen et al.

.Polled (hornless) goats are not uncommon and there have been incidents of polycerate goats (having as many as eight horns), although this is a genetic rarity thought to be inherited.^ There were no polled goats recorded.
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^ Straight horns, occur on 71% of the males, curved on 26%, with polled goats forming 3% of the population.
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^ The goats in Sidamo are horned with only 1.7% of females and 1.8% of males being polled.
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.Their horns are made of living bone surrounded by keratin and other proteins, and are used for defense, dominance, and territoriality.^ Skins and other products: The horn is used as a musical instrument (zoombara) in Assosa.
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[6]
Goats are ruminants. .They have a four-chambered stomach consisting of the rumen, the reticulum, the omasum, and the abomasum.^ Goats are ruminants; that is, they have a four-compartment stomach designed to digest large quantities of forages.
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Goats have horizontal slit-shaped pupils, an adaptation which increases peripheral depth perception.[7] .Because goats' irises are usually pale, the pupils are much more visible than in animals with horizontal pupils, but very dark irises, such as cattle, deer, most horses and many sheep.^ The MIG systems have been used more extensively with cattle than with sheep or goats.
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^ Goats need more copper than sheep do.
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^ Mineral contents in feed resources, their strengths and weaknesses are nevertheless important to know, especially for goats, where browse, forbs and weeds, which have not been studied analytically very much, play such a vital feeding role (Devendra, 1990).

.Both male and female goats have beards, and many types of goat (most commonly dairy goats, dairy-cross boers, and pygmy goats) may have wattles, one dangling from each side of the neck.^ Beards were observed in 66% of males and 7% of the females.
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^ Polled goats are found in 5% of males and 7% of females.
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^ Wattles were observed in 6% of males and 3% of females.
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[8]
.Some breeds of sheep and goats look similar, but they can usually be told apart because goat tails are short and point up, whereas sheep tails hang down and are usually longer and bigger – though some (like those of Northern European short-tailed sheep) are short, and longer ones are often docked.^ Wild sheep look a little bit goat-like.
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^ The Gedeo in Sidamo do not use goat milk, but they do not seem to like cow milk either.
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^ Though you’d have to come up with some creative use for your snow boots… .
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Reproduction

A 2 month old goat kid in a field of capeweed.
.In some climates, goats are able to breed at any time of the year.^ In addition to pasture or browse, it may be necessary at some times of the year to supplement goats with extra protein and/or energy.
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^ Today, there are some 200 different breeds of goats that produce a variety of products, including milk, meat, and fiber (mohair and cashmere).
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^ Some goat milk markets demand year-round production.
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.In temperate climates and among the Swiss breeds, the breeding season commences as the day length shortens, and ends in early spring.^ Most goats are seasonal breeders, reacting to shorter days as a cue for breeding.
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.Does of any breed come into heat every 21 days for 2 to 48 hours.^ They will continue to cycle (unless they are bred) every 21 days or so, until days lengthen in late January or February.
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^ After Christmas, all bucks are taken from their groups, all does are put back together, and a “clean-up” buck is given one to two additional weeks to catch any does that still come into heat.
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^ In the dry season most owners are able to water their goats every day, 25% water every other day, while 21% water every third day.
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.A doe in heat typically flags her tail often, stays near the buck if one is present, becomes more vocal, and may also show a decrease in appetite and milk production for the duration of the heat.^ Does in heat (estrus) are at the proper stage for breeding; at this time, they will be receptive to the buck.
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^ The presence of a buck (uncastrated male goat) stimulates the reproductive cycle (estrous) and the behaviors of the does that indicate that they are in the fertile part of their cycle (in heat).
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^ Under MIG, legumes and native grasses may reappear in the pasture, and producers often report that the pasture plant community becomes more diverse.
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.Bucks (intact males) of Swiss and northern breeds come into rut in the fall as with the doe's heat cycles.^ Does in heat (estrus) are at the proper stage for breeding; at this time, they will be receptive to the buck.
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^ The presence of a buck (uncastrated male goat) stimulates the reproductive cycle (estrous) and the behaviors of the does that indicate that they are in the fertile part of their cycle (in heat).
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^ After Christmas, all bucks are taken from their groups, all does are put back together, and a “clean-up” buck is given one to two additional weeks to catch any does that still come into heat.
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Rut is characterized by a decrease in appetite and obsessive interest in the does.
.In addition to natural mating, artificial insemination has gained popularity among goat breeders, as it allows easy access to a wide variety of bloodlines.^ Some goat producers (especially those who raise dairy goats) use artificial insemination (A.I.) for breeding.
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Gestation length is approximately 150 days. .Twins are the usual result, with single and triplet births also common.^ Of all births reported 83% were single, 16% were twin and 1% were triplet births.
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^ Single births were 62% of all births while twins were 36% and triplets 2%.
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^ Single births account for 83% of all births while twins account for 17%.
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Less frequent are litters of quadruplet, quintuplet, and even sextuplet kids. Birthing, known as kidding, generally occurs uneventfully. Right before kidding the doe will have a sunken area around the tail and hip. Also she will have heavy breathing, a worried look, become restless and show great display of affection for her keeper. The mother often eats the placenta, which gives her much needed nutrients, helps stanch her bleeding, and parallels the behavior of wild herbivores such as deer to reduce the lure of the birth scent for predators.[9][10]
.Freshening (coming into milk production) occurs at kidding.^ However, for dairy production, it may be more economical to separate the kids from the mothers, feed kids with a milk replacer, and sell the extra goat milk.
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^ However, milk production is less for a doe that kids in the fall than when she kids in the spring.
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.Milk production varies with the breed, age, quality, and diet of the doe; dairy goats generally produce between 660 to 1,800 L (1,500 and 4,000 lb) of milk per 305 day lactation.^ We’re crossbreeding the Boer breed of meat goat, developed in South Africa, with the Spanish does to add carcass quality, but production remains the key.
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^ Please refer to Goats: Sustainable Production Overview for general information on pasturing goats.
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^ Referring to the example we used above to calculate cost ( Feeding Meat Goats section), it is easy to see the impact of a winter hay bill of $35 per doe.
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.On average, a good quality dairy doe will give at least 6 lb (2.7 l) of milk per day while she is in milk.^ Because they have been selected for milk production rather than carcass qualities, dairy breeds will not normally produce a meaty carcass (with the exception of Nubians).
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.A first time milker may produce less, or as much as 16 lb (7.3 l), or more of milk in exceptional cases.^ For milk-producing goats, it is necessary to consider the withdrawal period that a chemical dewormer may require (in order for the goat to be free of residues) before the milk can be sold for consumption.
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^ Because they have been selected for milk production rather than carcass qualities, dairy breeds will not normally produce a meaty carcass (with the exception of Nubians).
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^ Under MIG, legumes and native grasses may reappear in the pasture, and producers often report that the pasture plant community becomes more diverse.
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After the 305 day lactation, the doe will "dry off", typically after she has been bred. .Occasionally, goats that have not been bred and are continuously milked will continue lactation beyond the typical 305 days.^ Milk yield was not affected by F deficiency in goats (Anke and Groppel, 1989), but they had significantly higher fat and protein contents after 35 days in lactation.

^ They will continue to cycle (unless they are bred) every 21 days or so, until days lengthen in late January or February.
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^ For normal milk yields, goats should be given 1.74 g Na/kg ration DM/day, while levels of 0.31 g Na/kg DM/day are inadequate.

[11] .Meat, fibre, and pet breeds are not usually milked and simply produce enough for the kids until weaning.^ When kids are bottle-raised on non-pasteurized milk, the milk is usually pooled for all kids, so that one positive doe can have a disastrous effect on a goat herd’s CAE status.
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^ Today, there are some 200 different breeds of goats that produce a variety of products, including milk, meat, and fiber (mohair and cashmere).
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^ Some CAE-positive goats never show any symptoms of CAE; a good kid producer or a heavy-milking doe that is CAE-positive may still have a place within the herd.
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Male lactation is also known to occur in goats.[12]

Diet

.Goats are reputed to be willing to eat almost anything, except tin cans, and cardboard boxes.^ Contrary to the popular image of goats thriving on tin cans, goats actually require a more nutritious diet than do other ruminants.
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.While goats will not actually eat inedible material, they are browsing animals, not grazers like cattle and sheep, and (coupled with their natural curiosity) will chew on and taste just about anything resembling plant matter in order to decide whether it is good to eat, including cardboard and paper labels from tin cans.^ Wild sheep look a little bit goat-like.
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^ You should try to have your animals in good body condition before winter, so they can tolerate the cold and still have adequate reserves at kidding season.
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^ Goats can be incorporated into existing grazing operations with sheep and cattle, and they can also be used to control weeds and brush to help make use of a pasture’s diversity.
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[13] Another possibility is that the goats are curious about the unusual smells of leftover food in discarded cans or boxes.
A domestic goat feeding in a field of capeweed, a weed which is toxic to most stock animals
.Aside from sampling many things, goats are quite particular in what they actually consume, preferring to browse on the tips of woody shrubs and trees, as well as the occasional broad-leaved plant.^ In addition, they sell many of the books available on general goat production and specialty books on dairy, meat, and fiber goats.
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^ Many suppliers of sheep and goat equipment also offer books in their catalogs, and copies are available from the publishers as well.
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^ Since goats, cattle, and sheep prefer different forages, in many pasture situations these species do not compete for the same food.
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.However, it can fairly be said that their plant diet is extremely varied, and includes some species which are otherwise toxic.^ Levels of requirements as well as thresholds of deficiency and toxicity vary with age, sex, production level, activity level, species and genetic strain of the animal.

[14] They will seldom consume soiled food or contaminated water unless facing starvation. .This is one of the reasons why goat rearing is most often free ranging, since stall-fed goat rearing involves extensive upkeep and is seldom commercially viable.^ Grain is the concentrate most often fed to goats; cereal grains such as oats, corn, barley, and wheat are high in energy (carbohydrate/fat).
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^ Several meat-goat breeds are available in the U.S. The most widely available and the breed best suited to extensive range is the Spanish meat goat, also known as the “brush” goat.
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^ Male slaughter goats are often castrated, since the meat can have a strong flavor in intact males more than four months old.
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.Goats prefer to browse on shrubbery and weeds, more like deer than sheep, preferring them to grasses.^ We also have deer, goats, sheep and pigs.
  • Austin Zoo & Animal Sanctuary - Meet the Animals 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.austinzoo.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Grain should never be more than 50% of the total diet, except for heavily-producing dairy goats.
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^ In case of Mo, goats will tolerate more than 300 mg Mo/kg DM in feed intake, while sheep tolerate only 30 mg/kg DM and cattle will already suffer from diarrhea at 10 mg Mo/kg DM (Falke and Anke, 1987).

Nightshade is poisonous; wilted fruit tree leaves can also kill goats. Silage (corn stalks) is not good for goats, but haylage can be used if consumed immediately after opening. Alfalfa is their favorite hay; fescue is the least palatable and least nutritious. Mold in a goat's feed can make it sick and possibly kill it. .Goats should not be fed grass with any signs of mold.^ Adult meat goats should be fed a maximum of 1% of bodyweight in supplemental grain, with lactating does reaching a maximum of 1.5%.
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.The digestive physiology of a very young kid (like the young of other ruminants) is essentially the same as that of a monogastric animal.^ Like other ruminant animals, goats convert plant material that is unsuitable for human consumption into high-quality animal products.
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Milk digestion begins in the abomasum, the milk having bypassed the rumen via closure of the reticular/esophageal groove during suckling. .At birth, the rumen is undeveloped, but as the kid begins to consume solid feed, the rumen soon increases in size and in its capacity to absorb nutrients.^ It is crucial that kids receive colostrum (the first milk, which contains antibodies to protect the kid from disease) soon after birth.
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^ In some areas, land and feed costs will be higher, increasing the cost of production; in some areas, lack of demand for meat or kids will make marketing more difficult.
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Behavior

Goats establish a dominance hierarchy in flocks, sometimes through head butting
Goats are extremely curious and intelligent. They are easily trained to pull carts and walk on leads. .Ches McCartney, nicknamed "the goat man", toured the United States for over three decades in a wagon pulled by a herd of pet goats.^ Dairy goat industry of the United States.

They are also known for escaping their pens. .Goats will test fences, either intentionally or simply because they are handy to climb on.^ The Gedeo in Sidamo do not use goat milk, but they do not seem to like cow milk either.
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^ Goats may have to be trained to electric fences by placing them in a small paddock to "test" the wire.
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^ Once they have been trained to an electric fence, goats can usually be controlled with two strands of wire in a cross-fence.
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.If any of the fencing can be spread, pushed over or down, or otherwise be overcome, the goats will escape.^ Fences must be tight, and attention must be paid to areas with uneven terrain, as gaps can allow goats to squeeze underneath and escape.
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Being very intelligent, once a weakness in the fence has been discovered, it will be exploited repeatedly. Goats are very coordinated and can climb and hold their balance in the most precarious places. .Goats are also widely known for their ability to climb trees, although the tree generally has to be on somewhat of an angle.^ Several meat-goat breeds are available in the U.S. The most widely available and the breed best suited to extensive range is the Spanish meat goat, also known as the “brush” goat.
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^ Much work has been done recently with goats using MIG, although it is not yet widely published.
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^ Sweet potato vines are fed as dry season supplement and leftover chat (Catha edulis) known as geraba is widely fed to semi-urban goats.
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The vocalization goats make is called bleating.
.Goats have an intensely inquisitive and intelligent nature: they will explore anything new or unfamiliar in their surroundings.^ Reply sss says: August 14, 2009 at 5:14 am I saw this on the news; they interviewed the guy who owned the goat.
  • Mountain Goat Fail - FAIL Blog: Epic Fail Pictures and Videos of Owned, Pwnd and Fail Moments 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC failblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Goats can be picky eaters, and they may not immediately accept new feeds.
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They do so primarily with their prehensile upper lip and tongue. .This is why they investigate items such as buttons, camera cases or clothing (and many other things besides) by nibbling at them, occasionally even eating them.^ Because of these extensive domestic uses 19.5% of the respondents in the pastoral areas said they never sell goat skins and many others said they seldom sell.
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Life expectancy

.Life expectancy for goats is between 15[15] and 18 years.^ The influence of arsenic deficiency on growth, reproductiveness, life expectancy and health of goats.

[16] .An instance of a goat reaching the age of 24 has been reported.^ Male goats (bucks) reach puberty earlier than females and must either be separated from them by the age of four months or be castrated to prevent unwanted breedings.
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[17]
Several factors can reduce this average expectancy, however; problems during kidding can lower a doe's expected life span to 10 or 11, and stresses of going into rut can lower a buck's expected life span to 8 or 10.[17]

Goats in agriculture

.
Goat husbandry is common through the Norte Chico region in Chile, but also produces severe erosion and desertification.
^ This goat type is more prolific than other goat types in the region and is potentially a desirable meat producer in the highlands.
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^ Electric netting is also an option for temporary or permanent fencing in management intensive grazing systems; however, several goat producers have lost animals that tangled their horns in the netting.
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Image from upper Limarí River
.A goat is useful to humans either living or dead, first as a renewable provider of milk and fiber, and then as meat and hide.^ Meat and fiber goats are particularly useful for brush control.
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^ Covers milk, meat, and fiber.
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^ For the poorest families in Wolayta and Konso the goat provides the only milk to feed to children.
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.Some charities provide goats to impoverished people in poor countries, because goats are easier and cheaper to manage than cattle, and have multiple uses.^ To a lesser extent goat skins are needed for various home uses among the Guji people in Borena and Sidamo (carrying rugs, reinforcements to utensils etc).
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^ Skins: Skins of Nubian goats are used as water containers, and some are sold.
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^ Some individual goats have a higher natural immunity than others, and those are the animals that you should select.
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.In addition, goats are used for driving and packing purposes.^ Goat skins in Tigray are used for a multitude of purposes.
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^ Skins: Goat skins in Tigray are used for a multitude of purposes.
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.For instance, the intestine is used to make "catgut", which is still in use as a material for internal human surgical sutures and strings for musical instruments.^ Skins and other products: The horn is used as a musical instrument (zoombara) in Assosa.
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.The horn of the goat, which signifies wellbeing (Cornucopia), is also used to make spoons.^ Goats can be incorporated into existing grazing operations with sheep and cattle, and they can also be used to control weeds and brush to help make use of a pasture’s diversity.
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^ The Somali make water containers (karbit) and use goat skins to churn butter.
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^ Skins: Almost all pastoral groups in South Omo use goat skins to make traditional leather garments for women.
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[18]
The Boer goat - in this case a buck - is a widely-kept meat breed.

Meat

.The taste of goat meat is similar to that of lamb meat[citation needed]; in fact, in the English-speaking islands of the Caribbean, and in some parts of Asia, particularly Pakistan and India, the word “mutton” is used to describe both goat and lamb meat.^ Meat and fiber goats are particularly useful for brush control.
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^ Ad describing use of Domestic machine in both family and factory settings.
  • Sewing Machines | Historical Trade Literature in Smithsonian Collections 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.sil.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ To a lesser extent goat skins are needed for various home uses among the Guji people in Borena and Sidamo (carrying rugs, reinforcements to utensils etc).
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However, some feel that it has a similar taste to veal or venison, depending on the age and condition of the goat. .The flavor of goat meat is said to be primarily linked to the presence of 4-methyloctanoic and 4-methylnonanoic acid [19].^ Male slaughter goats are often castrated, since the meat can have a strong flavor in intact males more than four months old.
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^ Because of these extensive domestic uses 19.5% of the respondents in the pastoral areas said they never sell goat skins and many others said they seldom sell.
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It can be prepared in a variety of ways including stewed, baked, grilled, barbecued, minced, canned, fried, curried, or made into sausage. Due to its low fat content, the meat can toughen at high temperatures without additional moisture. .One of the most popular goats grown for meat is the South African Boer, introduced into the United States in the early 1990s.^ The Boer goat originated in South Africa, and was imported to the United States in 1993.
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^ We’re crossbreeding the Boer breed of meat goat, developed in South Africa, with the Spanish does to add carcass quality, but production remains the key.
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^ Meat: Goat meat is preferred to mutton in most areas where the Long-eared Somali goat is kept.
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.The New Zealand Kiko is also considered a meat breed, as is the myotonic or "fainting goat", a breed originating in Tennessee.^ Tennessee Meat Goats originated from the “Fainting Goat,” but have been selected for heavier muscling and larger size.
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^ The Kiko is a New Zealand breed selected for survival and growth rate.
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^ Tennessee Woodenleg goats, also known as “Fainting Goats” and “Tennessee Stifflegs,” are myotonic – their muscles become extremely stiff when they are frightened.
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Milk, butter and cheese

A goat being milked on an organic farm.
.Goats produce approximately 2% of the world's total annual milk supply[20].^ Grain should never be more than 50% of the total diet, except for heavily-producing dairy goats.
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^ Caprine Supply and Hoegger Supply Company both sell goat equipment, including veterinary supplies and equipment for disbudding and tattooing, insemination, and milking and dairy equipment, and more.
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^ For milk-producing goats, it is necessary to consider the withdrawal period that a chemical dewormer may require (in order for the goat to be free of residues) before the milk can be sold for consumption.
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.Goat milk differs from cow or human milk by having higher digestibility, distinct alkalinity, higher buffering capacity, and certain therapeutic values in human medicine and nutrition[21].^ Goat milk is believed to have medicinal value.
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^ Milk: Afar goats are extensively milked (hadore hana) for food, medicine and sale.
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^ The Gedeo in Sidamo do not use goat milk, but they do not seem to like cow milk either.
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Basic composition of various milks (mean values per 100g)[22]
Constituent Goat Cow Human
Fat (g) 3.8 3.6 4.0
Protein (g) 3.5 3.3 1.2
Lactose (g) 4.1 4.6 6.9
Ash (g) 0.8 0.7 0.2
Total solids (g) 12.2 12.3 12.3
Calories 70 69 68
.Some goats are bred for milk, which can be drunk raw, although some people recommend pasteurization to reduce bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.^ Many ethnic groups – including Hispanic, Muslim, and Caribbean peoples – enjoy goat meat, called “chevon” by some and “cabrito” by others.
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^ When kids are bottle-raised on non-pasteurized milk, the milk is usually pooled for all kids, so that one positive doe can have a disastrous effect on a goat herd’s CAE status.
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^ Today, there are some 200 different breeds of goats that produce a variety of products, including milk, meat, and fiber (mohair and cashmere).
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[23] If the strong-smelling buck is not separated from the does, his scent will affect the milk. .Goat's milk is commonly processed into cheese, goat butter, ice cream, cajeta and other products.^ It discusses the five major considerations to be addressed in planning for dairy goat production: labor, sales and marketing, processing, regulations, and budgeting and economics.
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^ Called “cabrito” or “chevon,” goat meat is considered a gourmet or health food by some, is popular in areas with certain ethnic populations, and is often processed into products such as sausage or jerky.
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^ Value-added Dairy Options This presents considerations for those who want to increase their profitability by bottling milk, making cheese or yogurt, or doing some other processing of their milk.
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.Goat's milk can replace sheep's milk or cow's milk in diets of those who are allergic.^ Some goat producers (especially those who raise dairy goats) use artificial insemination (A.I.) for breeding.
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^ However, for dairy production, it may be more economical to separate the kids from the mothers, feed kids with a milk replacer, and sell the extra goat milk.
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[24] .However, like cow's milk, goat's milk has lactose (sugar), and may cause gastrointestinal problems for individuals with lactose intolerance.^ For milk-producing goats, it is necessary to consider the withdrawal period that a chemical dewormer may require (in order for the goat to be free of residues) before the milk can be sold for consumption.
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^ However, the larger udders of the dairy breeds will cause problems in brushy areas.
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^ However, for dairy production, it may be more economical to separate the kids from the mothers, feed kids with a milk replacer, and sell the extra goat milk.
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[24]
.Goat's milk naturally has small fat globules, which means the cream remains suspended in the milk, instead of rising to the top, as in raw cow's milk; therefore, it does not need to be homogenized.^ Reed and his wife, Randy Jane, run 100 beef cows and 500 meat goat does on their place today.
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^ When kids are bottle-raised on non-pasteurized milk, the milk is usually pooled for all kids, so that one positive doe can have a disastrous effect on a goat herd’s CAE status.
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^ Mitchell, 1991 ) Dairy goats’ nutritional requirements during lactation are very high, and therefore more supplemental feed will be needed to maintain milk production.
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.Many dairy goats, in their prime, average 6 to 8 pounds (2.7 to 3.6 kg) of milk daily (roughly 3 to 4 US quarts (2.7 to 3.6 liters)) during a ten-month lactation, producing more after freshening and gradually dropping in production toward the end of their lactation.^ It includes production information specific to dairy goats, including choosing breeds and selecting stock.
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^ More information on supplemental feeding of dairy goats is available in ATTRA’s Dairy Goats: Sustainable Production .
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^ Grain should never be more than 50% of the total diet, except for heavily-producing dairy goats.
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The milk generally averages 3.5 percent butterfat. .A doe may be expected to reach her heaviest production during her third or fourth lactation.^ Mitchell, 1991 ) Dairy goats’ nutritional requirements during lactation are very high, and therefore more supplemental feed will be needed to maintain milk production.
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[25] It is also said that "formula derived from goat's milk is unsuitable for babies who are lactose intolerant as it contains levels of lactose similar to cow's-milk-based infant formulae."[26]
.Goat butter is white because goats produce milk with the yellow beta-carotene converted to a colorless form of vitamin A.^ For milk-producing goats, it is necessary to consider the withdrawal period that a chemical dewormer may require (in order for the goat to be free of residues) before the milk can be sold for consumption.
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^ Because they have been selected for milk production rather than carcass qualities, dairy breeds will not normally produce a meaty carcass (with the exception of Nubians).
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^ When breeding begins in the fall, producer Sue Drummond feeds her angora goats not only hay, grain, and salt but also vitamins (A, D, and E) and di-calcium phosphate.
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.Goat cheese is known as chèvre in France, after the French word for "goat". Some varieties include Rocamadour and Montrachet.^ Today, there are some 200 different breeds of goats that produce a variety of products, including milk, meat, and fiber (mohair and cashmere).
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[27]

Fiber

.The Angora breed of goats produces long, curling, lustrous locks of mohair.^ When breeding begins in the fall, producer Sue Drummond feeds her angora goats not only hay, grain, and salt but also vitamins (A, D, and E) and di-calcium phosphate.
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^ Today, there are some 200 different breeds of goats that produce a variety of products, including milk, meat, and fiber (mohair and cashmere).
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.The entire body of the goat is covered with mohair and there are no guard hairs.^ There were no polled goats recorded.
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^ Today, there are some 200 different breeds of goats that produce a variety of products, including milk, meat, and fiber (mohair and cashmere).
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^ If there are no adult worms in any goats in your herd, this infestation cannot occur.
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The locks constantly grow and can be four inches or more in length. .Angora crossbreeds, such as the pygora and the nigora, have been created to produce mohair and/or cashgora on a smaller, easier-to-manage animal.^ Intensively managed livestock become calmer and tamer, and handling them calmly makes them easier to work with when things such as loading, vaccinating, or other tasks need to be done.
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^ Electric netting is also an option for temporary or permanent fencing in management intensive grazing systems; however, several goat producers have lost animals that tangled their horns in the netting.
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.The wool is shorn (cut from the body) twice a year, with an average yield of about 10 pounds.^ Goats are notoriously wasteful; add on about 20 percent to allow for waste, which brings the total amount of hay needed to approximately 20,800 pounds, or 10 tons.
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Most goats have softer insulating hairs nearer the skin, and longer guard hairs on the surface. The desirable fiber for the textile industry is the former, and it goes by several names (down, cashmere and pashmina). The coarse guard hairs are of little value as they are too coarse, difficult to spin and difficult to dye. .The cashmere goat produces a commercial quantity of cashmere wool, which is one of the most expensive natural fibers commercially produced; cashmere is very fine and soft.^ Chapter 1 (Fundamentals of Goat Practice) is very helpful to producers as well as veterinarians.
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^ Very good general book for producers of dairy goats.
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^ Today, there are some 200 different breeds of goats that produce a variety of products, including milk, meat, and fiber (mohair and cashmere).
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.The cashmere goat fiber is harvested once a year, yielding around 9 ounces (200 grammes) of down.^ Today, there are some 200 different breeds of goats that produce a variety of products, including milk, meat, and fiber (mohair and cashmere).
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In South Asia, cashmere is called "pashmina" (from Persian pashmina, "fine wool"). In the 18th and early 19th century, Kashmir (then called Cashmere by the English), had a thriving industry producing shawls from goat down imported from Tibet and Tartary through Ladakh. .The shawls were introduced into Western Europe when the General in Chief of the French campaign in Egypt (1799-1802) sent one to Paris.^ This disease is usually introduced into a herd from a purchased animal or one returning from a show.
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Since these shawls were produced in the upper Kashmir and Ladakh region, the wool came to be known as "cashmere".

Goat breeds

.Goat breeds fall into overlapping, general categories.^ Away on weed-control projects for the majority of the summer and into the fall if possible, the goats are brought back to Smoke Ridge’s 220 acres by mid-October.
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.They are generally distributed in to those used for dairy, fiber, meat, skins, and as companion animals.^ Meat goats can be raised with very little supplemental grain and with minimal shelter, and are generally an easy-care animal.
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^ Some goat producers (especially those who raise dairy goats) use artificial insemination (A.I.) for breeding.
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^ In addition, they sell many of the books available on general goat production and specialty books on dairy, meat, and fiber goats.
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.Some breeds are also particularly noted as pack goats.^ In some operations—particularly dairies—goats are raised in confinement, and all their feed is brought to them.
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^ Breed Notes Whatever breed is chosen for the meat goat operation, strict culling will be necessary to maintain a productive and profitable herd.
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^ Today, there are some 200 different breeds of goats that produce a variety of products, including milk, meat, and fiber (mohair and cashmere).
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Showing

A Nigerian Dwarf milker in show clip. This doe is angular and dairy with a capacious and well supported mammary system.
.Goat breeders' clubs frequently hold shows, where goats are judged on traits relating to conformation, udder quality, evidence of high production, longevity, build and muscling (meat goats and pet goats) and fiber production and the fiber itself (fiber goats).^ The health and productivity of the goat (as with all ruminants) depends on the rumen function; microorganisms in the rumen digest fiber and carbohydrates and protein to supply the animal with nutrients.
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^ In parts of Sidamo and Arsi the long legs, ears and body suggest a lowland-type conformation, but at high altitudes in Bale, Arsi and Sidamo goats have a hairy coat.
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^ In addition, they sell many of the books available on general goat production and specialty books on dairy, meat, and fiber goats.
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.People who show their goats usually keep registered stock and the offspring of award-winning animals command a higher price.^ Animals on highly-stocked pastures will usually carry a heavier parasite load, due to the increased amount of fecal matter on the pasture.
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^ Some individual goats have a higher natural immunity than others, and those are the animals that you should select.
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^ Goats are usually milked before and after grazing; herdsboys may milk the animals while out grazing.
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.Registered goats, in general, are usually higher-priced if for no other reason than that records have been kept proving their ancestry and the production and other data of their sires, dams, and other ancestors.^ Worldwide, goat meat production is higher than meat production from cattle or hogs.
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^ Please refer to Goats: Sustainable Production Overview for general information on pasturing goats.
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^ Some individual goats have a higher natural immunity than others, and those are the animals that you should select.
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.A registered doe is usually less of a gamble than buying a doe at random (as at an auction or sale barn) because of these records and the reputation of the breeder.^ However, milk production is less for a doe that kids in the fall than when she kids in the spring.
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^ For example, the teats of milking does are usually dipped in disinfectant after milking, while the teat opening is dilated, because bacteria entering the teat can cause mastitis.
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Children's clubs such as 4-H also allow goats to be shown. Children's shows often include a showmanship class, where the cleanliness and presentation of both the animal and the exhibitor as well as the handler's ability and skill in handling the goat are scored. In a showmanship class, conformation is irrelevant since this is not what is being judged.
.Various "Dairy Goat Scorecards" (milking does) are systems used for judging shows in the US. The American Dairy Goat Association (ADGA) scorecard for an adult doe includes a point system of a hundred total with major categories that include general appearance, the dairy character of a doe (physical traits that aid and increase milk production), body capacity, and specifically for the mammary system.^ It includes production information specific to dairy goats, including choosing breeds and selecting stock.
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^ To a lesser extent goat skins are needed for various home uses among the Guji people in Borena and Sidamo (carrying rugs, reinforcements to utensils etc).
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^ The animal’s stage of production also influences body condition; for example, a doe in early lactation will almost always lose condition.
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Young stock and bucks are judged by different scorecards which place more emphasis on the other three categories; general appearance, body capacity, and dairy character.
The American Goat Society (AGS) has a similar, but not identical scorecard that is used in their shows. .The miniature dairy goats may be judged by either of the two scorecards.^ However, for dairy production, it may be more economical to separate the kids from the mothers, feed kids with a milk replacer, and sell the extra goat milk.
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^ Goat meat, which is 50 to 65% leaner than beef, will be either the primary product or, in the case of dairy or fiber enterprises, an important secondary one.
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^ Dairy breeds may be crossed with Spanish goats to produce a larger kid, and the resulting cross will produce more milk.
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.The "Angora Goat scorecard" used by the Colored Angora Goat Breeder's Association CAGBA (which covers the white and the colored goats) includes evaluation of an animal's fleece color, density, uniformity, fineness, and general body confirmation.^ Meat goats can be raised with very little supplemental grain and with minimal shelter, and are generally an easy-care animal.
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^ The Rare Bare Somali clan associate particular parts of the goat's body with specific parts of the human body.
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^ The ATTRA publication Small Ruminant Resources includes a list of books, Web sites, and ATTRA publications that are useful to producers of goats and sheep.
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.Disqualifications include: a deformed mouth, broken down pasterns, deformed feet, crooked legs, abnormalities of testicles, missing testicles, more than 3 inch split in scrotum, and close-set or distorted horns.^ To prevent overgrazing, farmers should be careful to understock rather than overstock land and always remove animals from a pasture when the pasture is grazed down to about 3 to 4 inches.
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^ The power lines were close to the ground on the top of the hill, and the goat’s horns got stuck in them, and he zipped down the power lines.
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Religion, mythology, and folklore

The goat Heiðrún consumes the foliage of the tree Læraðr, while her udders produce mead, collected in a pot bellow (1895) by Lorenz Frølich.
The Scapegoat by William Holman Hunt (1854).
According to Norse mythology, the god of thunder, Thor, has a chariot that is pulled by the goats Tanngrisnir and Tanngnjóstr. .At night when he sets up camp, Thor eats the meat of the goats, but take care that all bones remain whole.^ All Big Cats are categorized as mammals as well as carnivores, which means that they eat meat.
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^ This is a goat research program with specialists who are willing to answer questions about all types of goats—dairy, meat, mohair, and cashmere.
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^ A dairy operation will usually have extensive barn and pen set-ups, while a large meat goat operation may use only trees in the pasture as shelter.
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Then he wraps the remains up, and in the morning, the goats always come back to life to pull the chariot. .When a farmer's son who is invited to share the meal breaks one of the goats' leg bones to suck the marrow, the animal's leg remains broken in the morning, and the boy is forced to serve Thor as a servant to compensate for the damage.^ Cause when he is, he satnd on his two back legs and try to show off… The farmer who owned the goat assumed he’d been trying to show off – and that was how he got his horns around the wire and slided down… Some german turist got him down after half an hour.
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^ The goat was one of the first animals to be domesticated by humans, about 9,000 years ago.
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.Possibly related, the Yule Goat is one of the oldest Scandinavian and Northern European Yule and Christmas symbols and traditions.^ Noxious weeds are a significant and increasing problem for cattle graziers in the Northern states, and the goats offer one solution to the ecological challenge.
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.Yule Goat originally denoted the goat that was slaughtered around Yule, but it may also indicate a goat figure made out of straw.^ Around urban areas Nubian goats may be supplemented with crop residues and other feeds.
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^ Social functions: Young Boran boys of the same age group may slaughter a goat to celebrate their birthdays.
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^ A cream-coloured goat should be slaughtered and the mother made to drink the rumen contents while the child is wrapped in the skin.
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It is also used about the custom of going door-to-door singing carols and getting food and drinks in return, often fruit, cakes and sweets. "Going Yule Goat" is similar to the British custom wassailing, both with heathen roots. The Gävle Goat is a giant version of the Yule Goat, erected every year in the Swedish city of Gävle.
The Greek god, Pan, is said to have the upper body of a man and the horns and lower body of a goat. Pan was a very lustful god, nearly all of the myths involving him had to do with him chasing nymphs. He is also credited with creating the pan flute.
.The goat is one of the twelve-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar.^ The goat was one of the first animals to be domesticated by humans, about 9,000 years ago.
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^ Goats eat the forages, the goats’ manure replaces some purchased fertilizers, and the life cycles of various crop and animal pests are interrupted.
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.Each animal is associated with certain personality traits; those born in a year of the goat are predicted to be shy, introverted, creative, and perfectionist.^ Some individual goats have a higher natural immunity than others, and those are the animals that you should select.
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^ The goat was one of the first animals to be domesticated by humans, about 9,000 years ago.
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See Goat (zodiac).
Several mythological hybrid creatures are believed to consist of parts of the goat, including the Chimera . The Capricorn sign in the Western zodiac is usually depicted as a goat with a fish's tail. .Fauns and satyrs are mythological creatures that are part goat and part human.^ The Rare Bare Somali clan associate particular parts of the goat's body with specific parts of the human body.
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^ The Rare Bare Somali clan associates particular parts of the goat's body with specific parts of the human body and uses.
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The mineral bromine is named from the Greek word "brόmos," which means "stench of he-goats."
Goats are mentioned many times in the Bible. .A goat is considered a "clean" animal by Jewish dietary laws and was slaughtered for an honored guest.^ Pastures are considered “clean” if goats or sheep have not been grazed on them for 12 months, or if they have been hayed or rotated with row crops.
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It was also acceptable for some kinds of sacrifices. Goat-hair curtains were used in the tent that contained the tabernacle (Exodus 25:4). On Yom Kippur, the festival of the Day of Atonement, two goats were chosen and lots were drawn for them. One was sacrificed and the other allowed to escape into the wilderness, symbolically carrying with it the sins of the community. From this comes the word "scapegoat". A leader or king was sometimes compared to a male goat leading the flock. In the New Testament, Jesus told a parable of The Sheep and the Goats. (Gospel of Matthew 25)
Christianity has associated Satan with imagery of goats (see Pan (mythology)). A common superstition in the Middle Ages was that goats whispered lewd sentences in the ears of the saints. The origin of this belief was probably the behavior of the buck in rut, the very epitome of lust. .The common medieval depiction of the Devil was that of a goat-like face with horns and small beard (a goatee).^ Somehow the goat got it’s horn stuck on the wire, and the goat slided down like you would on a zip-line.
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The Black Mass, a probably-mythological "Satanic mass," was said to involve a black goat, the form in which Satan supposedly manifested himself for worship.
The goat has had a lingering connection with Satanism and pagan religions, even into modern times. .The inverted pentagram, a symbol used in Satanism, is said to be shaped like a goat's head.^ Reply If I had a real life says: August 13, 2009 at 8:03 am Looks like a giant goat is humping the ‘M’ shaped duplex.
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The "Baphomet of Mendes" refers to a satanic goat-like figure from 19th century occultism.

Feral goats

Feral goat in Aruba
Goats readily revert to the wild if given the opportunity. .They have established themselves in many areas: feral goats occur in Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain, the Galapagos and in many other places.^ Around urban areas Nubian goats may be supplemented with crop residues and other feeds.
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^ CL can be picked up in bedding or by touching some other area that has been contaminated by goats with abscesses, and the infectious organism persists in the environment for several months.
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^ Vestigial ears, which are not found in other goat types, occurred concentrated in one site, Dollo, in Borana.
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.When feral goats reach large populations in habitats which are not adapted to them, they may have serious negative effects, such as removing native scrub, trees and other vegetation.^ Goats may shelter under large trees.
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^ To consume that amount, however, goats must be pastured in an area with a large quantity of available vegetative forage.
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^ Goats can be picky eaters, and they may not immediately accept new feeds.
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Feral goats are a severe problem in Australia.[28] .However, in other circumstances they may become a natural component of the habitat.^ However, there are other organisms that may be the culprit, and treatment depends on knowing the infectious agent.
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See also

References

  1. ^ a b Hirst, K. Kris. "The History of the Domestication of Goats". About.com. Accessed August 18, 2008.
  2. ^ Coffey, Linda, Margo Hale, and Ann Wells; "Goats: Sustainable Production Overview.
  3. ^ McLeod, Lianne; "Goats as Pets" at About.com.
  4. ^ Watkins, Calvert, et alii; The American Heritage Dictionary (1975, edited by William Morris).
  5. ^ Naderi et al. (November 18, 2008). "The goat domestication process inferred from large-scale mitochondrial DNA analysis of wild and domestic individuals". PNAS 105 (46): 17659–17664. doi:10.1073/pnas.0804782105. 
  6. ^ Goat Medicine: Horns, books.google.com
  7. ^ "Experiments On The Function Of Slit-Form Pupils", Toronto Univ. Studies in Psychology v. 2
  8. ^ Frequently Asked Questions - Triple I Goats, tripleigoats.com
  9. ^ Feichtenberger, Klaus, Jill Clarke, Elyse Eisenberg, and Otmar Penker (Writers and Directors). (2008). Prince of the Alps. [Television Production]. ORF/Nature. Event occurs at Shortly after birth. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/episodes/prince-of-the-alps/introduction/523/. Retrieved 2009-05-05. "'The mother eats the placenta to prevent predators from getting the sent.'" 
  10. ^ Roe III, Leonard Lee (2004). The Deer of North America. Globe Pequot. pp. 224. ISBN 9781592284658. http://books.google.com/books?id=ni6Hbqm04vIC&pg=PA244&lpg=PA244&dq=deer+eating+placenta&source=bl&ots=7mszZUL9MJ&sig=TnjcKgmY7Le4PEYCwnx4JFg4SEE&hl=en&ei=SqUASquzO5q0NbHexNsH&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7#PPA244,M1. "Almost all wild animals and most domestic ones eat the afterbirth as soon as they can. The primary reason, I think, is to get rid of it so that it will not attract predators. . .Canine scavengers throughout the world are attracted to herd animals when they give birth, for the placental sacs provide an easily scavenged feast." 
  11. ^ Dairygoatjournal.com
  12. ^ Kumar, Dr. Davendra; S. Saha, O.H. Chaturvedi, Sushil Kumar, J.S. Mann, J.P. Mittal and V.K. Singh. "Lactation in Males". ISSGPU - Indian Society for Sheep and Goat Production and Utilization Newsletter (Avikanagar, Rajasthan: Central Sheep & Wool Research Institute) (2). http://www.issgpu.org/newsletter-2.htm#3. Retrieved 31-12-2009. 
  13. ^ "Learning About Goats". Texas Department of Agriculture. http://www.tsgra.com/PDF-files/secogoats.pdf. 
  14. ^ "War on Weeds," Rails to Trails Magazine, Spring 2004, p. 3
  15. ^ "What is the Life Expectancy of Pets?". http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-life-expectancy-of-pets.htm. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  16. ^ William S. Spector, ed (1956). Handbook of Biological Data. Saunders. 
  17. ^ a b "Teeth, Life Expectancy & How to estimate a goat's age". fiascofarm.com. 16 Match 2009. http://fiascofarm.com/goats/age.htm. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  18. ^ anonymous; Goat-Horn Spoon.
  19. ^ Cramer, D.A. (1983) Chemical compounds implicated in lamb flavor. Food Technonogy. flavor.. 37:249-257 and Wong, E., Nixon, L.N. and Johnson, B.C. (1975) The contribution of 4-methyloctanoic (hircinoic) acid to mutton and goat meat flavor. New Zealand j. Agr. Res. 18:261-266. Both cited in K. Intarapichet K., Sihaboot W. and Chungsiriwat P. (date?) Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Emulsion Goat Meat Sausages Containing Pork Fat or Shortening available as a PDF from- [1]
  20. ^ FAO. 1997. 1996 Production Yearbook. Food Agr. Organ., UN. Rome, Italy.
  21. ^ Devendra, C., and M. Burns. 1970. Goat production in the tropics. Commonwealth Bur. Anim. Breeding and Genetics,Tech. Commun. No. 19.
  22. ^ Park,W.Y.,G.F.W. Haenlein.ed. 2006. Handbook of Milk of Non-Bovine Mammals. Blackwell Publishing.
  23. ^ Ekici, K, &alii; "Isolation of Some Pathogens from Raw Milk of Different Milch [sic] Animals", Pakistan Journal of Nutrition v 3 (2004) #3, pp 161-162.
  24. ^ a b The World's Healthiest Foods. "Milk, goat", whfoods.org
  25. ^ American Dairy Goat Association, adga.org
  26. ^ Professor Martin Marshall - Deputy Chief Medical Officer - Department of Health (22 August 2006). "Withdrawal From Sale of Infants Milks Based on Goats' Milk on 17 September 2006". non-urgent memo. Department of Health. http://www.info.doh.gov.uk/doh/embroadcast.nsf/vwDiscussionAll/1BDFD19113CFC28C802571D20051E715. Retrieved 2007-08-12. 
  27. ^ Chèvre cheese, foodnetwork.com
  28. ^ it is believed that there are over 50,000 feral goats in the Australian Outback."The feral goat (Capra hircus) - Invasive species fact sheet"., environment.gov.au

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

For the Jonathan Rosenberg webcomic, see Goats (webcomic).
A goat is a bovine famous for its ability to forage on plants unpalatable, and in habitats inaccessible, to other browsers. Figuratively, a male human displaying an overt and indiscriminate interest in sex can also be referred to as a goat.

Unsourced

  • Unfortunately, I was dealing with a goat that was trying to eat an oil truck's fuel line, goats having this optimistic "Well, maybe it has become edible since they last time I tried this" worldview, and I missed seeing the explosions.

External links

Wikipedia
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Look up goat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

This is a book about goats, and caring for goats.

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Goat article)

From BibleWiki

  1. Heb. .'ez, the she-goat (Gen 15:9; Gen 30:35; Gen 31:38).^ This is concordant with previous results showing a very weak phylogeographic structure of goats [13] and sheep [30] , [31] compared to cattle [32] , [33] .
    • PLoS ONE: Large-Scale Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of the Domestic Goat Reveals Six Haplogroups with High Diversity 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    .This Hebrew word is also used for the he-goat (Ex 12:5; Lev 4:23; Num 28:15), and to denote a kid (Gen 38:17, Gen 38:20).^ For Indian goats a shorter fragment of 453 bp has been sequenced [15] and the 28 missing nucleotides were treated as missing data.
    • PLoS ONE: Large-Scale Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of the Domestic Goat Reveals Six Haplogroups with High Diversity 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Here at Black Mesa Ranch, we use our goats milk for our dairy so, even though our kids get fed the pure milk, we dont allow them to nurse.

    Hence it may be regarded as the generic name of the animal as domesticated. .It literally means "strength," and points to the superior strength of the goat as compared with the sheep.
  2. Heb.^ Comparative aspects of digestive physiology and nutrition in goats and sheep.

    .'attud, only in plural; rendered "rams" (Gen 31:10ff); he-goats (Num 7:17ff; Isa 1:11); goats (Deut 32:14; Ps 5013).^ This is concordant with previous results showing a very weak phylogeographic structure of goats [13] and sheep [30] , [31] compared to cattle [32] , [33] .
    • PLoS ONE: Large-Scale Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of the Domestic Goat Reveals Six Haplogroups with High Diversity 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Waseem says: August 13, 2009 at 7:32 am WOW How is the goat get there ?
    • Mountain Goat Fail - FAIL Blog: Epic Fail Pictures and Videos of Owned, Pwnd and Fail Moments 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC failblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Reply Spoon God says: August 13, 2009 at 7:32 am Oh and, by the way… IT’S A GOAT-DAMNED SHEEP! .
    • Mountain Goat Fail - FAIL Blog: Epic Fail Pictures and Videos of Owned, Pwnd and Fail Moments 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC failblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    They were used in sacrifice (Ps 6615). This word is used metaphorically for princes or chiefs in Isa 14:9, and in Zech 10:3 as leaders. (Comp. Jer 50:8.)
  3. Heb. gedi, properly a kid. Its flesh was a delicacy among the Hebrews (Gen 27:9, Gen 27:14, Gen 27:17; Jdg 6:19).
  4. Heb. .sa'ir, meaning the "shaggy," a hairy goat, a he-goat (2Chr 29:23); "a goat" (Lev 4:24); "satyr" (Isa 13:21); "devils" (Lev 17:7).^ Reply Elsa_Mama says: August 13, 2009 at 9:21 am Being a bitch just means that you are tough and do not take any shit.
    • Mountain Goat Fail - FAIL Blog: Epic Fail Pictures and Videos of Owned, Pwnd and Fail Moments 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC failblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Reply Domian says: August 13, 2009 at 8:29 am Bat-Goat always takes the Zipper Line.
    • Mountain Goat Fail - FAIL Blog: Epic Fail Pictures and Videos of Owned, Pwnd and Fail Moments 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC failblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    It is the goat of the sin-offering (Lev 9:3, Lev 9:15; Lev 10:16).
  5. Heb. tsaphir, a he-goat of the goats (2Chr 29:21). In Dan 8:5ff it is used as a symbol of the Macedonian empire.
  6. Heb. tayish, a "striker" or "butter," rendered "he-goat" (Gen 30:35; Gen 32:14).
  7. Heb. .'azazel, the "scapegoat" (Lev 16:8ff).
  8. There are two Hebrew words used to denote the undomesticated goat:, Yael, only in plural mountain goats (1Sam 24:2; Job 39:1; Ps 10418).^ There is therefore a need for standard and easy-to-use criteria in order to assign new goat haplotypes to existing haplogroups or to define new haplogroups.
    • PLoS ONE: Large-Scale Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of the Domestic Goat Reveals Six Haplogroups with High Diversity 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Never use barbed wire not only will it injure your goats, it WONT keep them in!

    ^ Only horned bucks should be used, as naturally polled goats carry a gene for hermaphrodism.
    • Meat Goats: Sustainable Production 25 January 2010 14:18 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Meat Goats: Sustainable Production 30 January 2010 1:55 UTC www.attra.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    It is derived from a word meaning "to climb." It is the ibex, which abounded in the mountainous parts of Moab. And 'akko, only in Deut 14:5, the wild goat.
Goats are mentioned in the New Testament in Mt 25:32f;
Heb 9:12ff; Heb 10:4. They represent oppressors and wicked men (Ezek 34:17; Ezek 39:18; Mt 25:33).
Several varieties of the goat were familiar to the Hebrews. .They had an important place in their rural economy on account of the milk they afforded and the excellency of the flesh of the kid.^ Kids can also be a bit rough on your milkers udder as they bash it to encourage milk let-down.

^ If the kids are left with their high milk producing moms they will be getting too much milk, while the poor owners dont get any!

^ Water availability and quality is especially important for milking goats since water is the main component in the milk they make.

They formed an important part of pastoral wealth (Gen 31:10ff; Gen 32:14; 1Sam 25:2).
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
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Simple English

Redirecting to Domestic goat


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 29, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Goat, which are similar to those in the above article.








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