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Gojong
Emperor of Korea
Emperor Gwangmu of the Korean Empire
Reign 13 December 1863 – 21 January 1907
Coronation 13 December 1863
Predecessor Cheoljong of Joseon
Successor Sunjong of Korea
Issue
Sunjong of Korea,
Prince Imperial Ui,
Crown Prince Euimin,
Deokhye, Princess of Korea
Father Heungseon Daewongun
Mother Lady Yeoheung
Born 8 September 1852(1852-09-08)
Unhyeon Palace
Died 21 January 1919 (aged 66)
Deoksu Palace
Burial Hongneung
Korean name
Hangul 고종 광무제 (short 고종)
Hanja 高宗光武帝 (short 高宗)
Revised Romanization Gojong Gwangmuje (short Gojong)
McCune–Reischauer Kojong Kwangmuje (short Kojong)
Birth name
Hangul 이명복
Hanja 李命福
Revised Romanization I Myeong-bok
McCune–Reischauer Yi Myŏng-bok

Gojong (Hangul: 고종; Hanja: 高宗; RR: Gojong; MR: Kojong), the Gwangmu Emperor (Hangul: 광무제; Hanja: 光武帝; RR: Gwangmuje; MR: Kwangmuje; 8 September 1852–21 January 1919) was the twenty-sixth king of the Korean Joseon Dynasty and the first emperor of the Korean Empire.

Contents

Reign

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King of the Joseon

The great emperor Gojong took the throne in 1863 when he was still a child. His father, Regent Heungseon Daewongun, ruled for him until Gojong reached adulthood.

During the mid 1860s Heungseon Daewongun was the main proponent of isolationism and the instrument of the persecution of native and foreign Catholics, a policy that led directly to the French Campaign against Korea, 1866, United States expedition to Korea in 1871. The early years of Heungseon Daewongun's rule also witnessed a large effort to restore the largely dilapidated Gyeongbok Palace, the seat of royal authority. During Heungseon Daewongun's reign, faction politics, Seowon and power wielded by the Andong Kim clan completely disappeared.

In 1873, He announce the direct royal rule. With the retirement of Heungseon Daewongun, the to-be Queen Min(Later called Empress Myeongseong) gained complete control over her court, placing her family in high court positions.

External pressure and Unequal Treaty

In the 19th century tensions mounted between Qing China and Japan, culminating in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895). Much of this war was fought on the Korean peninsula. Japan, after the Meiji Restoration, acquired Western military technology, had forced Joseon to sign the Treaty of Ganghwa in 1876. Japan encroached upon Korean territory in search of fish, iron ore, and natural resources. It also established a strong economic presence in the peninsula, heralding the beginning of Japanese imperial expansion in East Asia.

The French campaign against Korea of 1866, United States expedition to Korea in 1871 and the Incident of Japanese gunboat Unyo was pressure many Joseon's officer including King Gojong.

The Treaty of Ganghwa became the first unequal treaty signed by Korea; it gave extraterritorial rights to Japanese citizens in Korea, forced the Korean government to open three ports to Japanese and foreign trade, specifically Busan, Incheon and Wonsan, and made Korea establish its independence in foreign relations from China.

Imo Rebellion and Gapsin Coup

King Gojong began to rely on newer, rifle-using armies. They were paid well and the old army who used spears and old matchlocks lost much of their pay. The old army revolted after receiving mediocre wages. Heungseon Daewongun was restored to power, But the Qing general, Yuan Shikai soon had the Daewongun abducted by Chinese troops and taken to China, thus foiling his return to power. Four years later the Daewongun returned to Korea.

On 4 December 1884, 5 revolutionaries led a small anti-old minister army to Empress Myeongseong's brother's house and initiated a coup d'etat. It failed in 3 days. Some Coup leaders, including Kim Okgyun, fled to Japan, and others were executed.

Donghak Peasant Revolution

The Donghak Peasant Revolution was an anti-government, anti-yangban and anti-foreign campaign. In the end, revolution failed, but many grievances of the peasants would later be addressed through the Gabo Reform.

Assassination of Empress Myeongseong

In 1895, Empress Myeongseong was assassinated by Japanese agents. The Japanese minister to Korea, Miura Goro orchestrated the plot against her. A group of Japanese agents entered the Imperial palace in Seoul, which was under Japanese guard, and Empress Myeongseong (referred to as "Queen Min" by the Japanese) was killed and her body desecrated in the North wing of the palace. The empress had attempted to counter Japanese interference in Korea and was considering turning to Russia or China for support.

Anti-Japanese sentiments in Korea

Meanwhile, Japan won the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895), gaining much more influence on the Korean government. Also the Gabo reforms and Assassination of Empress Myeongseong also stirred controversy in Korea along with anti-Japanese sentiments.

Some Confucian scholars, as well as farmers, formed over 60 successive righteous armies to fight for Korean freedom. These armies were preceded by the Donghak movement and succeeded by various Korean independence movements.

Korea royal refuge at the Russian legation

On 11 February 1896, King Gojong and his crown prince fled from the Gyeongbokgung palace to the Russian legation in Seoul, from which they governed for about one year, an event known as Korea royal refuge at the Russian legation.

Proclamation of Empire

In 1897, King Gojong, yielding to rising pressure from both overseas and the demands of the Independence Association-led public opinion, returned to Gyeongungung (modern-day Deoksugung). There, he proclaimed the founding of the Empire of Korea, officially redesignated the national title as such, and declared the new era name Gwangmu (Hangul: 광무, Hanja: 光武) (meaning shining warrior), effectively severing Korea's historic ties to the Qing Chinese tradition which Korea had adhered to since the fall of the Ming Dynasty, and turning King Gojong into the Gwangmu Emperor, the first imperial head of state and hereditary sovereign of the Empire of Korea. This marked the complete end of the old world order and traditional Chinese tributary system in the Far East, where the status of empire meant independence from Qing dynasty China as with all of its predecessors, and also, at least nominally, implemented the "full and complete" independence of Korea as recognized in 1895.

Emperor of the Korean Empire

Gojong proclaimed the Korean Empire in 1897 to justify its independence from tributary status of China. He tried to promote the Gwangmu Reform, but it was failure because of unenlightened popular and Japanese.

The Japanese military consistently attained victory in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). Following the Protectorate Treaty of 1905 between Korea and Japan, which stripped Korea of its rights as an independent nation, he sent representatives to the Hague Peace Convention of 1907 in order to try and re-assert his sovereignty over Korea. Although the Korean representatives were blocked by the Japanese delegates, they did not give up, and later held interviews with newspapers.

One representative warned forebodingly of Japanese ambitions in Asia: "The United States does not realize what Japan's policy in the Far East is and what it portends for the American people. The Japanese adopted a policy that in the end will give her complete control over commerce and industry in the Far East. Japan is bitter against the United States and against Great Britain. If the United States does not watch Japan closely she will force the Americans and the English out of the Far East."

As a result, Gojong was forced to abdicate by the Japanese and Gojong's son, Sunjong succeed to the throne.

After abdication

After abdicating, Emperor Gojong was put in the Deoksu Palace confinement by the Japanese. On 22 August 1910, the Empire of Korea was annexed by Japan with the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty.

He died on 21 January 1919 in Deoksugung. There is much speculation that he was killed by poison that was administered by Japanese officials. He is buried with his wife at the imperial tomb of Hongneung (홍릉, 洪陵) in the city of Namyangju.

Family

  • Father: Heungseon, Prince of the Great Court (흥선대원군)
  • Mother: Yeoheung, Princess Consort to the Prince of the Great Court, of the Yeoheung Min clan (여흥부대부인 민씨)
  • Consorts:
  1. Empress Myeongseong of the Yeoheung Min clan (명성황후 민씨[1], 19 October 1851 – 08 October 1895)
  2. Honorable Princess Consort of the Eom clan[2][3] (귀비 엄씨, 05 January 1854 – 20 July 1911)
  3. Lee Gwi-in of the Yeongbo Hall (영보당귀인 이씨, 1843-?)
  4. Jang Gwi-in (귀인 장씨)
  5. Lee Gwi-in[4] of the Gwanghwa Hall (광화당귀인 이씨, 1887-1970)
  6. Jeong Gwi-in of the Bohyeon Hall (보현당귀인 정씨)
  7. Yang Gwi-in of the Boknyeong Hall (복녕당귀인 양씨, 1882-1929)
  8. Lee Gwi-in of the Naean Hall (내안당귀인 이씨)
  9. Lady Kim[5] of the Samchuk Hall (삼축당상궁 김씨, 1890-1972) - No Issue
  10. Lady Kim of the Jeonghwa Hall (정화당상궁 김씨, 1871-?) - No Issue
  11. Lady Yeom (상궁 염씨)
  12. Lady Seo (상궁 서씨) - No Issue
  13. Lady Kim[6] (상궁 김씨) - No Issue
  • Issue:
  1. Unnamed Prince (1871[7]), 1st Son of Empress Myeongseong of the Yeoheung Min clan.
  2. Crown Prince of the Empire, (황태자 25 March 1874–24 April 1926), 2nd Son of Empress Myeongseong of the Yeoheung Min clan. - Gojong's 3rd son.
  3. Unnamed Prince (1875[8]), 3rd Son of Empress Myeongseong of the Yeoheung Min clan.
  4. Unnamed Prince (1878[9]), 4th Son of Empress Myeongseong of the Yeoheung Min clan.
  5. Crown Prince Euimin (의민태자[10], 20 October 1897 – 01 May 1970), Only Son of Honorable Princess Consort of the Eom clan. - Gojong's seventh son. He married Princess Masako Nashimotonomiya of Japan, a daughter of Prince Morimasa Nashimotonomiya of Japan.
  6. Prince Wanhwa (완화군[11], 16 April 1868 – 12 January 1880), Only Son of Lee Gwi-in of the Yeongbo Hall. - Gojong's first son.
  7. Prince Euihwa (의화군[12], 30 March 1877-August 1955), Only Son of Jang Gwi-in. - Gojong's 5th son. He married Kim Su-deok (who became Princess Deogin), daughter of Baron Kim Sa-jun.
  8. Yi Yook, Prince of the Empire (이육, 1914-1915[13]), Only Son of Lee Gwi-in of the Gwanghwa Hall.
  9. Yi Woo, Prince of the Empire (이우, 1915-1916), Only Son of Jeong Gwi-in of the Bohyeon Hall.
  10. Unnamed Princess (1873[14]), Only Daughter of Empress Myeongseong of the Yeoheung Min clan.
  11. Unnamed Princess, Only Daughter of Lee Gwi-in of the Yeongbo Hall.
  12. Princess Deokhye (덕혜옹주, 25 May 1912 – 11 April 1989), Only Daughter of Yang Gwi-in of the Boknyeong Hall. - Gojong's 4th daughter. She married Count Takeyuki Sō, a Japanese nobleman of Tsushima.
  13. Unnamed Princess, Only Daughter of Lee Gwi-in of the Naean Hall.
  14. Yi Mun-yong, Princess of the Empire (이문용, 1900-1987), Only Daughter of Lady Yeom.

Titles

  • The Lord Yi Myeong-bok (Jaehwang) (李命福 이명복 Yi Myeong-bok), the second son of Prince Heungseon, a great-great-grandson of Yeongjo (1852–1863)
  • His Majesty King Gojong of Korea (1863–1897)
  • His Imperial Majesty Emperor Gwangmu of Korea (大韓帝國光武大皇帝陛下 대한제국광무대황제폐하 Daehan Jeguk Gwangmu Daehwangje Pyeha) (1897–1907)
  • His Imperial Majesty The Emperor Emeritus of Korea (大韓帝國太皇帝陛下 대한제국태황제폐하 Daehan Jeguk Taehwangje Pyeha) (1907–1910), after his abdication by force of the Japanese government.
    • His Majesty The King Emeritus Yi of Korea (德壽宮李太王殿下 덕수궁이태왕전하 Deoksugung Yi Taewang Jeonha) (1910–1919), a demoted title given by the Japanese government on the annexation of Korea, ignored in Korea

His era name

During the Joseon

  1. Gaeguk (開國, 개국 : used for the reign of King Gojong 1894 - 1895)
  2. Geonyang (建陽, 건양 : used for the reign of King Gojong 1896 - 1897)

During the Korean Empire

  1. Gwangmu (광무; 光武; "Bright Valour") - used for the reign of Emperor Gojong, 1897-1907

His full posthumous name

  • His Imperial Majesty Emperor Gojong Tongcheon Yung-un Jogeuk Donyun Jeongseong Gwang-ui Myeonggong Daedeok Yojun Sunhwi Umo Tanggyeong Eungmyeong Ripgi Jihwa Sinryeol Oehun Hong-eop Gyegi Seonryeok Geonhaeng Gonjeong Yeong-ui Honghyu Sugang Munheon Mujang Inik Jeonghyo of Korea
  • 대한제국고종통천융운조극돈윤정성광의명공대덕요준순휘우모탕경응명립기지화신렬외훈홍업계기선력건행곤정영의홍휴수강문헌무장인익정효황제폐하
  • 大韓帝國高宗統天隆運肇極敦倫正聖光義明功大德堯峻舜徽禹謨湯敬應命立紀至化神烈巍勳洪業啓基宣曆乾行坤定英毅弘休壽康文憲武章仁翼貞孝皇帝陛下

See also

Emperor Gojong of the Korean Empire
Born: 25 July 1852 Died: 21 January 1919
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Cheoljong
King of Korea
1863-1897
became Emperor
Title dissolved
New title
Empire declared
Emperor of Korea
1897-1907
Abdication forced by Japan
Succeeded by
Yunghui Emperor

References

  1. ^ She is given the posthumous title of 태황후 Taehwanghu
  2. ^ She is given the posthumous title of 순헌황귀비 (Sunheon Hwang-Gwi-bi "Sunheon, Imperial Concubine of the Highest Rank")
  3. ^ Her whole name is Eom Seon-yeong (엄선영), daughter of Eom Jin-sam (엄진삼) and Jeung Chan-jeong (증찬정)
  4. ^ Her whole name is Lee Wan-heung (이완흥)
  5. ^ Her whole name is Kim Ok-gi (김옥기)
  6. ^ Her whole name is Kim Chung-yeon (김충연)
  7. ^ He only lived for 4 days)
  8. ^ He only lived for 14 days (about 2 weeks)
  9. ^ He only lived for 105 days (about 3 months, 2 weeks, 1 day)
  10. ^ During the Korean Empire, he is named "Prince Yeong of the Empire" (영친왕)
  11. ^ During the Korean Empire, he is posthumously named as "Prince Wan of the Empire" (완친왕)
  12. ^ During the Korean Empire, he is named "Prince Ui of the Empire" (의친왕)
  13. ^ Others say that he lived 1906-1908
  14. ^ She only lived for 222 days (about 7 months, 1 week, 5 days)

Gojong
Emperor of Korea

File:Korea-Portrait of Emperor
Reign December 13, 1863 - January 21, 1907
Coronation December 13, 1863
Predecessor Cheoljong of Joseon
Successor Sunjong of Korea
Issue
Sunjong of Korea,
Prince Imperial Ui,
Crown Prince Euimin,
Deokhye, Princess of Korea
Father Heungseon Daewongun
Mother Lady Yeoheung
Born September 8, 1852(1852-09-08)
Unhyeon Palace
Died January 21, 1919 (aged 66)
Deoksu Palace
Burial Hongneung
Korean name
Hangul 고종 광무제 (short 고종)
Hanja 高宗光武帝 (short 高宗)
Revised
Romanization
Gojong Gwangmuje (short Gojong)
McCune-
Reischauer
Kojong Kwangmuje (short Kojong)
Birth name
Hangul 이명복
Hanja 李命福
Revised
Romanization
I Myeong-bok
McCune-
Reischauer
Yi Myŏng-bok

Gojong (Hangul: 고종; Hanja: 高宗; RR: Gojong; MR: Kojong), the Gwangmu Emperor (Hangul: 광무제; Hanja: 光武帝; RR: Gwangmuje; MR: Kwangmuje; September 8 1852January 21 1919) was the twenty-sixth king of the Korean Joseon Dynasty and the first emperor of the Korean Empire.

Contents

Reign

King of the Joseon

The great emperor Gojong took the throne in 1863 when he was still a child. His father, Regent Heungseon Daewongun, ruled for him until Gojong reached adulthood.

During the mid 1860s Heungseon Daewongun was the main proponent of isolationism and the instrument of the persecution of native and foreign Catholics, a policy that led directly to the French Campaign against Korea, 1866, United States expedition to Korea in 1871. The early years of Heungseon Daewongun's rule also witnessed a large effort to restore the largely dilapidated Gyeongbok Palace, the seat of royal authority. During Heungseon Daewongun's reign, faction politics, Seowon and power wielded by the Andong Kim clan completely disappeared.

In 1873, He announce the direct royal rule. With the retirement of Heungseon Daewongun, the to-be Queen Min(Later called Empress Myeongseong) gained complete control over her court, placing her family in high court positions.

External pressure and Unequal Treaty

In the 19th century tensions mounted between Qing China and Japan, culminating in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895). Much of this war was fought on the Korean peninsula. Japan, after the Meiji Restoration, acquired Western military technology, had forced Joseon to sign the Treaty of Ganghwa in 1876. Japan encroached upon Korean territory in search of fish, iron ore, and natural resources. It also established a strong economic presence in the peninsula, heralding the beginning of Japanese imperial expansion in East Asia.

The French campaign against Korea of 1866, United States expedition to Korea in 1871 and the Incident of Japanese gunboat Unyo was pressure many Joseon's officer including King Gojong.

The Treaty of Ganghwa became the first unequal treaty signed by Korea; it gave extraterritorial rights to Japanese citizens in Korea, forced the Korean government to open three ports to Japanese and foreign trade, specifically Busan, Incheon and Wonsan, and made Korea establish its independence in foreign relations from China.

Imo Rebellion and Gapsin Coup

King Gojong began to rely on newer, rifle-using armies. They were paid well and the old army who used spears and old matchlocks lost much of their pay. The old army revolted after receiving mediocre wages. Heungseon Daewongun was restored to power, But the Qing general, Yuan Shikai soon had the Daewongun abducted by Chinese troops and taken to China, thus foiling his return to power. Four years later the Daewongun returned to Korea.

On December 4, 1884, 5 revolutionaries led a small anti-old minister army to Empress Myeongseong's brother's house and initiated a coup d'etat. It failed in 3 days. Some Coup leaders, including Kim Okgyun, fled to Japan, and others were executed.

Donghak Peasant Revolution

The Donghak Peasant Revolution was an anti-government, anti-yangban and anti-foreign campaign. In the end, revolution failed, but many grievances of the peasants would later be addressed through the Gabo Reform.

Assassination of Empress Myeongseong

In 1895, Empress Myeongseong was assassinated by Japanese agents. The Japanese minister to Korea, Miura Goro orchestrated the plot against her. A group of Japanese agents entered the Imperial palace in Seoul, which was under Japanese guard, and Empress Myeongseong (referred to as "Queen Min" by the Japanese) was killed and her body desecrated in the North wing of the palace. The empress had attempted to counter Japanese interference in Korea and was considering turning to Russia or China for support. After the assassination of his consort.

Reach a climax of Anti-Japanese sentiment in Korea

Meanwhile, Japanese was victory in the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895). They put pressure on the Korean government. Also the Gabo reforms and Assassination of Queen Min aimed at modernizing Korean society soon attracted controversy within Korea. This was because of anti-Japanese sentiment.

Some Confucian scholars, as well as farmers, formed over 60 successive righteous armies to fight for Korean freedom on the Korean peninsula. These were called the Righteous army, who were preceded by the Donghak movement, and succeeded by various Korean independence movements.

Korea royal refuge at the Russian legation

On February 11 1896, King Gojong and his crown prince fled from the Gyeongbokgung palace to the Russian legation in Seoul, from which they governed for about one year, an event known as Korea royal refuge at the Russian legation.

Proclamation of Empire

In 1897, King Gojong, yielding to rising pressure from both overseas and the demands of the Independence Association-led public opinion, returned to Gyeongungung (modern-day Deoksugung). There, he proclaimed the founding of the Empire of Korea, officially redesignated the national title as such, and declared the new era name Gwangmu (Hangul: 광무, Hanja: 光武) (meaning shining warrior), effectively severing Korea's historic ties to the Qing Chinese tradition which Korea had adhered to since the fall of the Ming Dynasty, and turning King Gojong into the Gwangmu Emperor, the first imperial head of state and hereditary sovereign of the Empire of Korea. This marked the complete end of the old world order and traditional Chinese tributary system in the Far East, where the status of empire meant independence from Qing dynasty China as with all of its predecessors, and also, at least nominally, implemented the "full and complete" independence of Korea as recognized in 1895.

Emperor of the Korean Empire

Gojong proclaimed the Korean Empire in 1897 to justify its independence from tributary status of China. He tried to promote the Gwangmu Reform, but it was failure because of unenlightened popular and Japanese.

The Japanese military consistently attained victory in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). Following the Protectorate Treaty of 1905 between Korea and Japan, which stripped Korea of its rights as an independent nation, he sent representatives to the Hague Peace Convention of 1907 in order to try and re-assert his sovereignty over Korea. Although the Korean representatives were blocked by the Japanese delegates, they did not give up, and later held interviews with newspapers.

One representative warned forebodingly of Japanese ambitions in Asia: "The United States does not realize what Japan's policy in the Far East is and what it portends for the American people. The Japanese adopted a policy that in the end will give her complete control over commerce and industry in the Far East. Japan is bitter against the United States and against Great Britain. If the United States does not watch Japan closely she will force the Americans and the English out of the Far East."

As a result, Gojong was forced to abdicate by the Japanese and Gojong's son, Sunjong succeed to the throne.

After abdication

After abdicating, Emperor Gojong was put in the Deoksu Palace confinement by the Japanese. On August 22, 1910, the Empire of Korea was annexed by Japan with the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty.

He died on January 21, 1919 in Deoksugung. There is much speculation that he was killed by poison that was administered by Japanese officials. He is buried with his wife at the imperial tomb of Hongneung (홍릉, 洪陵) in the city of Namyangju.

Family

  • Father: Heungseon, Prince of the Great Court (흥선대원군)
  • Mother: Yeoheung, Princess Consort to the Prince of the Great Court, of the Yeoheung Min clan (여흥부대부인 민씨)
  • Consorts:
  1. Empress Myeongseong of the Yeoheung Min clan (명성황후 민씨[1], October 19, 1851-October 08, 1895)
  2. Honorable Princess Consort of the Eom clan[2][3] (귀비 엄씨, January 05, 1854-July 20, 1911)
  3. Lee Gwi-in of the Yeongbo Hall (영보당귀인 이씨, 1843-?)
  4. Jang Gwi-in (귀인 장씨)
  5. Lee Gwi-in[4] of the Gwanghwa Hall (광화당귀인 이씨, 1887-1970)
  6. Jeong Gwi-in of the Bohyeon Hall (보현당귀인 정씨)
  7. Yang Gwi-in of the Boknyeong Hall (복녕당귀인 양씨, 1882-1929)
  8. Lee Gwi-in of the Naean Hall (내안당귀인 이씨)
  9. Lady Kim[5] of the Samchuk Hall (삼축당상궁 김씨, 1890-1972) - No Issue
  10. Lady Kim of the Jeonghwa Hall (정화당상궁 김씨, 1871-?) - No Issue
  11. Lady Yeom (상궁 염씨)
  12. Lady Seo (상궁 서씨) - No Issue
  13. Lady Kim[6] (상궁 김씨) - No Issue
  • Issue:
  1. Unnamed Prince (1871[7]), 1st Son of Empress Myeongseong of the Yeoheung Min clan.
  2. Crown Prince of the Empire, (황태자 March 25, 1874April 24, 1926), 2nd Son of Empress Myeongseong of the Yeoheung Min clan. - Gojong's 3rd son.
  3. Unnamed Prince (1875[8]), 3rd Son of Empress Myeongseong of the Yeoheung Min clan.
  4. Unnamed Prince (1878[9]), 4th Son of Empress Myeongseong of the Yeoheung Min clan.
  5. Crown Prince Euimin (의민태자[10], October 20, 1897-May 01, 1970), Only Son of Honorable Princess Consort of the Eom clan. - Gojong's seventh son. He married Princess Masako Nashimotonomiya of Japan, a daughter of Prince Morimasa Nashimotonomiya of Japan.
  6. Prince Wanhwa (완화군[11], April 16, 1868-January 12, 1880), Only Son of Lee Gwi-in of the Yeongbo Hall. - Gojong's first son.
  7. Prince Euihwa (의화군[12], March 30, 1877-August 1955), Only Son of Jang Gwi-in. - Gojong's 5th son. He married Kim Su-deok (who became Princess Deogin), daughter of Baron Kim Sa-jun.
  8. Yi Yook, Prince of the Empire (이육, 1914-1915[13]), Only Son of Lee Gwi-in of the Gwanghwa Hall.
  9. Yi Woo, Prince of the Empire (이우, 1915-1916), Only Son of Jeong Gwi-in of the Bohyeon Hall.
  10. Unnamed Princess (1873[14]), Only Daughter of Empress Myeongseong of the Yeoheung Min clan.
  11. Unnamed Princess, Only Daughter of Lee Gwi-in of the Yeongbo Hall.
  12. Princess Deokhye (덕혜옹주, May 25, 1912-April 11, 1989), Only Daughter of Yang Gwi-in of the Boknyeong Hall. - Gojong's 4th daughter. She married Count Takeyuki Sō, a Japanese nobleman of Tsushima.
  13. Unnamed Princess, Only Daughter of Lee Gwi-in of the Naean Hall.
  14. Yi Mun-yong, Princess of the Empire (이문용, 1900-1987), Only Daughter of Lady Yeom.

Titles

  • The Lord Yi Myeong-bok (Jaehwang) (李命福 이명복 Yi Myeong-bok), the second son of Prince Heungseon, a great-great-grandson of Yeongjo (1852–1863)
  • His Majesty King Gojong of Korea (1863–1897)
  • His Imperial Majesty Emperor Gwangmu of Korea (大韓帝國光武大皇帝陛下 대한제국광무대황제폐하 Daehan Jeguk Gwangmu Daehwangje Pyeha) (1897–1907)
  • His Imperial Majesty The Emperor Emeritus of Korea (大韓帝國太皇帝陛下 대한제국태황제폐하 Daehan Jeguk Taehwangje Pyeha) (1907–1910), after his abdication by force of the Japanese government.
    • His Majesty The King Emeritus Yi of Korea (德壽宮李太王殿下 덕수궁이태왕전하 Deoksugung Yi Taewang Jeonha) (1910–1919), a demoted title given by the Japanese government on the annexation of Korea, ignored in Korea

His era name

During the Joseon

  1. Gaeguk (開國, 개국 : used for the reign of King Gojong 1894 - 1895)
  2. Geonyang (建陽, 건양 : used for the reign of King Gojong 1896 - 1897)

During the Korean Empire

  1. Gwangmu (광무; 光武; "Bright Valour") - used for the reign of Emperor Gojong, 1897-1907

His full posthumous name

  • His Imperial Majesty Emperor Gojong Tongcheon Yung-un Jogeuk Donyun Jeongseong Gwang-ui Myeonggong Daedeok Yojun Sunhwi Umo Tanggyeong Eungmyeong Ripgi Jihwa Sinryeol Oehun Hong-eop Gyegi Seonryeok Geonhaeng Gonjeong Yeong-ui Honghyu Sugang Munheon Mujang Inik Jeonghyo of Korea
  • 대한제국고종통천융운조극돈윤정성광의명공대덕요준순휘우모탕경응명립기지화신렬외훈홍업계기선력건행곤정영의홍휴수강문헌무장인익정효황제폐하
  • 大韓帝國高宗統天隆運肇極敦倫正聖光義明功大德堯峻舜徽禹謨湯敬應命立紀至化神烈巍勳洪業啓基宣曆乾行坤定英毅弘休壽康文憲武章仁翼貞孝皇帝陛下

See also

Gojong of the Korean Empire
Born: July 25 1852 Died: January 21 1919
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Cheoljong
King of Korea
1863-1897
became Emperor
Title dissolved
New title
Empire declared
Emperor of Korea
1897-1907
Abdication forced by Japan
Succeeded by
Yunghui Emperor

References

  1. ^ She is given the posthumous title of 태황후 Taehwanghu
  2. ^ She is given the posthumous title of 순헌황귀비 (Sunheon Hwang-Gwi-bi "Sunheon, Imperial Concubine of the Highest Rank")
  3. ^ Her whole name is Eom Seon-yeong (엄선영), daughter of Eom Jin-sam (엄진삼) and Jeung Chan-jeong (증찬정)
  4. ^ Her whole name is Lee Wan-heung (이완흥)
  5. ^ Her whole name is Kim Ok-gi (김옥기)
  6. ^ Her whole name is Kim Chung-yeon (김충연)
  7. ^ He only lived for 4 days)
  8. ^ He only lived for 14 days (about 2 weeks)
  9. ^ He only lived for 105 days (about 3 months, 2 weeks, 1 day)
  10. ^ During the Korean Empire, he is named "Prince Yeong of the Empire" (영친왕)
  11. ^ During the Korean Empire, he is posthumously named as "Prince Wan of the Empire" (완친왕)
  12. ^ During the Korean Empire, he is named "Prince Ui of the Empire" (의친왕)
  13. ^ Others say that he lived 1906-1908
  14. ^ She only lived for 222 days (about 7 months, 1 week, 5 days)

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