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platinumgoldmercury
Ag

Au

Rg
Appearance
metallic yellow
General properties
Name, symbol, number gold, Au, 79
Element category transition metal
Group, period, block 116, d
Standard atomic weight 196.966569(4)g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1 (Image)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 19.30 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 17.31 g·cm−3
Melting point 1337.33 K, 1064.18 °C, 1947.52 °F
Boiling point 3129 K, 2856 °C, 5173 °F
Heat of fusion 12.55 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 324 kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) 25.418 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 1646 1814 2021 2281 2620 3078
Atomic properties
Oxidation states -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 2.54 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 890.1 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1980 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 144 pm
Covalent radius 136±6 pm
Van der Waals radius 166 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure Lattice face centered cubic
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 22.14 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 318 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 14.2 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (r.t.) 2030 m·s−1
Tensile strength 120 MPa
Shear modulus 27 GPa
Bulk modulus 180 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.44
Mohs hardness 2.5
Vickers hardness 216 MPa
Brinell hardness 25 HB MPa
CAS registry number 7440-57-5
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of gold
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
195Au syn 186.10 d ε 0.227 195Pt
196Au syn 6.183 d ε 1.506 196Pt
β 0.686 196Hg
197Au 100% 197Au is stable with 118 neutrons
198Au syn 2.69517 d β 1.372 198Hg
199Au syn 3.169 d β 0.453 199Hg
.Gold (pronounced /ˈɡoʊld/) is a chemical element with the symbol Au (Latin: aurum, "shining dawn") and an atomic number of 79. It has been a highly sought-after precious metal for coinage, jewelry, and other arts since the beginning of recorded history.^ All media elements have an associated error status, which records the last error the element encountered since its resource selection algorithm was last invoked.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Since I'm a running shoes and beer type barfly, I felt a bit out of my element the other night on King West.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

The metal occurs as nuggets or grains in rocks, in veins and in alluvial deposits. Gold is dense, soft, shiny and the most malleable and ductile pure metal known. Pure gold has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive, which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. Gold is one of the coinage metals and has served as a symbol of wealth and a store of value throughout history. Gold standards have provided a basis for monetary policies. It also has been linked to a variety of symbolisms and ideologies.
.A total of 161,000 tonnes of gold have been mined in human history, as of 2009.[1] This is roughly equivalent to 5.175 billion troy ounces or, in terms of volume, about 8,333 cubic metres, and could be valued at just under six trillion United States dollars at early March 2010 prices.^ This could be an actual variable in a mathematical expression or programming context, or it could just be a term used as a placeholder in prose.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If you’re a wealthy U.S. citizen or a Canadian who owns property in the United States, 2010 may be the ideal year to die.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ For example, the back button could have a drop down showing just the pages in the session history, and not showing any of the states.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Although primarily used as a store of value, gold has many modern industrial uses including dentistry and electronics.^ It is used to treat many conditions, including inflammation, allergies, and some cancers.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A button (and its value) is only included in the form submission if the button itself was used to initiate the form submission.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Gold has traditionally found use because of its good resistance to oxidative corrosion and excellent quality as a conductor of electricity.
.Chemically, gold is a transition metal and can form trivalent and univalent cations in solutions.^ A procedure that uses gold salts (a salt form of the metal element gold) to treat diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Compared with other metals, pure gold is chemically least reactive, but it is attacked by aqua regia (a mixture of acids), forming chloroauric acid, but not by the individual acids, and by alkaline solutions of cyanide.^ A procedure that uses gold salts (a salt form of the metal element gold) to treat diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys, but does not react with it. Gold is insoluble in nitric acid, which dissolves silver and base metals. .This property is exploited in the gold refining technique known as "inquartation and parting". Nitric acid has long been used to confirm the presence of gold in items, and this is the origin of the colloquial term "acid test", referring to a gold standard test for genuine value.^ The term MIME type is used to refer to what is sometimes called an Internet media type in protocol literature.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This specification uses the term document to refer to any use of HTML, ranging from short static documents to long essays or reports with rich multimedia, as well as to fully-fledged interactive applications.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The term "HTML5 validator" can be used to refer to a conformance checker that itself conforms to the applicable requirements of this specification.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Contents

Characteristics

Native gold nuggets
Gold nuggets found in Arizona
Gold is the most malleable and ductile of all metals; a single gram can be beaten into a sheet of 1 square meter, or an ounce into 300 square feet. Gold leaf can be beaten thin enough to become translucent. The transmitted light appears greenish blue, because gold strongly reflects yellow and red.[2] .Such semi-transparent sheets also strongly reflect infrared light, making them useful as infrared (radiant heat) shields in visors of heat-resistant suits, and in sun-visors for spacesuits.^ A system in which medical doctors and other healthcare professionals (such as nurses, pharmacists, and therapists) treat symptoms and diseases using drugs, radiation, or surgery.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, while it is possible to track users without this feature, authors are encouraged to use the ping attribute so that the user agent can make the user experience more transparent.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A type of external radiation therapy that uses a special machine to make invisible, high-energy particles (protons or helium ions) that kill cancer cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[3]
.Gold readily creates alloys with many other metals.^ Used as bulk metal and in lightweight alloys with magnesium for engines, also as a sacrificial electrode to protect other metals.
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Mg Magnesium 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: Reference]

.These alloys can be produced to modify the hardness and other metallurgical properties, to control melting point or to create exotic colors (see below).^ Once a gradient has been created (see below), stops are placed along it to define how the colors are distributed along the gradient.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The other arguments are specific to the type, and control the way that the image is generated, as given in the table below.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Here we see an item with two properties, "favorite-color" and "favorite-fruit", both set to the value "orange": .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Gold is a good conductor of heat and electricity and reflects infrared radiation strongly.^ Infrared Radiant Heating Elements .
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
  • Aluminum Suppliers Information and Resources 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC www.aluminumsuppliers.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Electric Infrared Radiant Heaters .
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
  • Aluminum Suppliers Information and Resources 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC www.aluminumsuppliers.net [Source type: Reference]

.Chemically, it is unaffected by air, moisture and most corrosive reagents, and is therefore well-suited for use in coins and jewelry and as a protective coating on other, more reactive, metals.^ Used as bulk metal and in lightweight alloys with magnesium for engines, also as a sacrificial electrode to protect other metals.
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Mg Magnesium 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The b element should be used as a last resort when no other element is more appropriate.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The lang attribute in the XML namespace may be used on HTML elements in XML documents , as well as elements in other namespaces if the relevant specifications allow it (in particular, MathML and SVG allow lang attributes in the XML namespace to be specified on their elements).
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

However, it is not chemically inert.
Common oxidation states of gold include +1 (gold(I) or aurous compounds) and +3 (gold(III) or auric compounds). .Gold ions in solution are readily reduced and precipitated out as gold metal by adding any other metal as the reducing agent.^ The use of drugs, vitamins, or other agents to try to reduce the risk of, or delay the development or recurrence of, cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

The added metal is oxidized and dissolves allowing the gold to be displaced from solution and be recovered as a solid precipitate.
High quality pure metallic gold is tasteless; in keeping with its resistance to corrosion (it is metal ions which confer taste to metals).
In addition, gold is very dense, a cubic meter weighing 19,300 kg. By comparison, the density of lead is 11,340 kg/m3, and that of the densest element, osmium, is 22,610 kg/m3.

Color

Different colors of Ag-Au-Cu alloys
Whereas most other pure metals are gray or silvery white, gold is yellow. .This color is determined by the density of loosely bound (valence) electrons; those electrons oscillate as a collective "plasma" medium described in terms of a quasiparticle called plasmon.^ Status: Last call for comments The a , area , and link elements can, in certain situations described in the definitions of those elements, represent hyperlinks .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The frequency of these oscillations lies in the ultraviolet range for most metals, but it falls into the visible range for gold due to subtle relativistic effects that affect the orbitals around gold atoms.[4][5]
.Common colored gold alloys such as rose gold can be created by the addition of various amounts of copper and silver, as indicated in the triangular diagram on the right.^ Three constructors are provided for creating HTMLImageElement objects (in addition to the factory methods from DOM Core such as createElement() ): Image() , Image( width ) , and Image( width , height ) .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Two constructors are provided for creating HTMLAudioElement objects (in addition to the factory methods from DOM Core such as createElement() ): Audio() and Audio( src ) .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Several constructors are provided for creating HTMLOptionElement objects (in addition to the factory methods from DOM Core such as createElement() ): Option() , Option( text ) , Option( text , value ) , Option( text , value , defaultSelected ) , and Option( text , value , defaultSelected , selected ) .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Alloys containing palladium or nickel are also important in commercial jewelry as these produce white gold alloys.^ We also distribute stainless steel, aluminum and nickel alloys in these forms.
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]

.Less commonly, addition of manganese, aluminium, iron, indium and other elements can produce more unusual colors of gold for various applications.^ Glass blowers Didymium Safety Glasses may be used to block out this emission to observe the less intense colors from other elements.
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Na Sodium 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]

Isotopes

.Gold has only one stable isotope, 197Au, which is also its only naturally occurring isotope.^ Naturally Occurring Isotopes .
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Na Sodium 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

36 radioisotopes have been synthesized ranging in atomic mass from 169 to 205. The most stable of these is 195Au with a half-life of 186.1 days. 195Au is also the only gold isotope to decay by electron capture. The least stable is 171Au, which decays by proton emission with a half-life of 30 µs. Most of gold's radioisotopes with atomic masses below 197 decay by some combination of proton emission, α decay, and β+ decay. The exceptions are 195Au, which decays by electron capture, and 196Au, which has a minor β- decay path. All of gold's radioisotopes with atomic masses above 197 decay by β- decay.[7]
At least 32 nuclear isomers have also been characterized, ranging in atomic mass from 170 to 200. Within that range, only 178Au, 180Au, 181Au, 182Au, and 188Au do not have isomers. Gold's most stable isomer is 198 m2Au with a half-life of 2.27 days. Gold's least stable isomer is 177 m2Au with a half-life of only 7 ns. 184 m1Au has three decay paths: β+ decay, isomeric transition, and alpha decay. No other isomer or isotope of gold has three decay paths.[7]

Use and applications

Monetary exchange

.Gold has been widely used throughout the world as a vehicle for monetary exchange, either by issuance and recognition of gold coins or other bare metal quantities, or through gold-convertible paper instruments by establishing gold standards in which the total value of issued money is represented in a store of gold reserves.^ Used as bulk metal and in lightweight alloys with magnesium for engines, also as a sacrificial electrode to protect other metals.
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Mg Magnesium 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: Reference]

^ On setting, the given value must be converted to the shortest possible string representing the number as a valid non-negative integer and then that string must be used as the new content attribute value.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The World Wide Web's markup language has always been HTML. HTML was primarily designed as a language for semantically describing scientific documents, although its general design and adaptations over the years have enabled it to be used to describe a number of other types of documents.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

However, the amount of gold in the world is finite and production has not grown in relation to the world's economies. Today, gold mining output is declining.[8] .With the sharp growth of economies in the 20th century, and increasing foreign exchange, the world's gold reserves and their trading market have become a small fraction of all markets and fixed exchange rates of currencies to gold became unsustainable.^ This is complicated by the manner in which the Gregorian calendar was phased in, which occurred at different times in different countries, ranging from partway through the 16th century all the way to early in the 20th.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

At the beginning of World War I the warring nations moved to a fractional gold standard, inflating their currencies to finance the war effort. After World War II gold was replaced by a system of convertible currency following the Bretton Woods system. Gold standards and the direct convertibility of currencies to gold have been abandoned by world governments, being replaced by fiat currency in their stead. .Switzerland was the last country to tie its currency to gold; it backed 40% of its value until the Swiss joined the International Monetary Fund in 1999.^ The input element's type attribute is changed back to the Image Button state, and the src attribute is present, and its value has changed since the last time the type attribute was in the Image Button state.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

[9]
.Pure gold is too soft for day-to-day monetary use and is typically hardened by alloying with copper, silver or other base metals.^ The integrity of this API is based on the inability for scripts of one origin to post arbitrary events (using dispatchEvent() or otherwise) to objects in other origins (those that are not the same ).
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Contexts in which this element may be used: In a head element containing no other base elements.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Each unit of related similar-origin browsing contexts can have a first script which is used to obtain, amongst other things, the script's base URL to resolve relative URLs used in scripts running in that unit of related similar-origin browsing contexts .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The gold content of alloys is measured in carats (k). Pure gold is designated as 24k. Gold coins intended for circulation from 1526 into the 1930s were typically a standard 22k alloy called crown gold, for hardness.

Investment

Many holders of gold store it in form of bullion coins or bars as a hedge against inflation or other economic disruptions. However, some economists do not believe gold serves as a hedge against inflation or currency depreciation.[10]
The ISO 4217 currency code of gold is XAU.
.Modern bullion coins for investment or collector purposes do not require good mechanical wear properties; they are typically fine gold at 24k, although the American Gold Eagle, the British gold sovereign, and the South African Krugerrand continue to be minted in 22k metal in historical tradition.^ The JavaScript specification requires that the ToBoolean() operator convert all objects to the true value, and does not have provisions for objects acting as if they were undefined for the purposes of certain operators.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The special issue Canadian Gold Maple Leaf coin contains the highest purity gold of any bullion coin, at 99.999% or .99999 finess, while the popular issue Canadian Gold Maple Leaf coin has a purity of 99.99%. Several other 99.99% pure gold coins are available. The Australian Gold Kangaroos was first coined in 1986 as the Australian Gold Nugget. .Its kangaroo theme appeared in 1989. In addition, there are several coins of the Australian Lunar Calendar series, and the Austrian Philharmonic.^ In addition, there are some restrictions on how character encoding declarations are to be serialized, as discussed in the section on that topic.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.In 2006, the United States Mint began production of the American Buffalo gold bullion coin with a purity of 99.99%.^ The products that are available in the United States may not contain the same amount or mixture of ingredients and may not be effective.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Jewelry

Moche gold necklace depicting feline heads. Larco Museum Collection. Lima-Peru
.Because of the softness of pure (24k) gold, it is usually alloyed with base metals for use in jewelry, altering its hardness and ductility, melting point, color and other properties.^ Used as bulk metal and in lightweight alloys with magnesium for engines, also as a sacrificial electrode to protect other metals.
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Mg Magnesium 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Each unit of related similar-origin browsing contexts can have a first script which is used to obtain, amongst other things, the script's base URL to resolve relative URLs used in scripts running in that unit of related similar-origin browsing contexts .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The integrity of this API is based on the inability for scripts of one origin to post arbitrary events (using dispatchEvent() or otherwise) to objects in other origins (those that are not the same ).
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Alloys with lower caratage, typically 22k, 18k, 14k or 10k, contain higher percentages of copper, or other base metals or silver or palladium in the alloy.^ A series of x-ray pictures of the esophagus taken after a patient drinks a liquid containing barium sulfate (a form of the silver-white metallic element barium).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Copper is the most commonly used base metal, yielding a redder color.^ Similarly, the MIME type used to refer to JavaScript in this specification is text/javascript , since that is the most commonly used type, despite it being an officially obsoleted type according to RFC 4329.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Eighteen carat gold containing 25% copper is found in antique and Russian jewelry and has a distinct, though not dominant, copper cast, creating rose gold. .Fourteen carat gold-copper alloy is nearly identical in color to certain bronze alloys, and both may be used to produce police, as well as other, badges.^ Glass blowers Didymium Safety Glasses may be used to block out this emission to observe the less intense colors from other elements.
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Na Sodium 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Contrast material may be used with x-rays, CT scans, MRI, or other imaging tests.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This process may be used to kill certain types of small tumors or to seal off blood vessels to stop bleeding.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Blue gold can be made by alloying with iron and purple gold can be made by alloying with aluminium, although rarely done except in specialized jewelry. .Blue gold is more brittle and therefore more difficult to work with when making jewelry.^ However, with other alternative text, this might not work, and putting all the alternative text into one image in each case might make more sense: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Not providing replacement text makes the document more difficult to use for people who are unable to view images, e.g.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Fourteen and eighteen carat gold alloys with silver alone appear greenish-yellow and are referred to as green gold. White gold alloys can be made with palladium or nickel. .White 18 carat gold containing 17.3% nickel, 5.5% zinc and 2.2% copper is silver in appearance.^ We offer aluminum alloys with zinc, copper, magnesium, nickel, iron and more.

Nickel is toxic, however, and its release from nickel white gold is controlled by legislation in Europe. .Alternative white gold alloys are available based on palladium, silver and other white metals (World Gold Council), but the palladium alloys are more expensive than those using nickel.^ Their futures, and those of their families, have been forever altered — almost uniformly for the worse — for nothing more criminal than being a Nortel employee and believing in a company pension .
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ We offer aluminum alloys with zinc, copper, magnesium, nickel, iron and more.

^ A spokesperson at the CES released a press preview event on Tuesday night and explained that by using lasers for the source of the light Microvision can guarantee better focus and more brilliant colors than other technologies.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.High-carat white gold alloys are far more resistant to corrosion than are either pure silver or sterling silver.^ The following, however, is incorrect usage, as the cite element here is containing far more than the title of the work: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the navigation algorithm has so far contacted more than one origin If there is no source browsing context The value must be the string " null ".
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The Japanese craft of Mokume-gane exploits the color contrasts between laminated colored gold alloys to produce decorative wood-grain effects.

Medicine

  • In medieval times, gold was often seen as beneficial for the health, in the belief that something that rare and beautiful could not be anything but healthy. .Even some modern esotericists and forms of alternative medicine assign metallic gold a healing power.^ A procedure that uses gold salts (a salt form of the metal element gold) to treat diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    [11] .Some gold salts do have anti-inflammatory properties and are used as pharmaceuticals in the treatment of arthritis and other similar conditions.^ Its extract is used with other treatments in some cultures to treat cancer and other conditions.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer and other conditions.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It is also used to treat metastatic breast cancer that has not improved after treatment with certain other anticancer drugs.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    [12] .However, only salts and radioisotopes of gold are of pharmacological value, as elemental (metallic) gold is inert to all chemicals it encounters inside the body.
  • In modern times, injectable gold has been proven to help to reduce the pain and swelling of rheumatoid arthritis and tuberculosis.^ If the element is a time element with a datetime attribute The value is the value of the element's datetime attribute.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ When the element is suffering from a step mismatch , the user agent may round the element's value to the nearest local date and time for which the element would not suffer from a step mismatch .
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    ^ The classes that an HTML element has assigned to it consists of all the classes returned when the value of the class attribute is split on spaces .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    [12][13]
  • .
  • Dentistry. Gold alloys are used in restorative dentistry, especially in tooth restorations, such as crowns and permanent bridges.^ A procedure that uses gold salts (a salt form of the metal element gold) to treat diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .The gold alloys' slight malleability facilitates the creation of a superior molar mating surface with other teeth and produces results that are generally more satisfactory than those produced by the creation of porcelain crowns.^ Their futures, and those of their families, have been forever altered — almost uniformly for the worse — for nothing more criminal than being a Nortel employee and believing in a company pension .
    • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Starbucks) by visiting it more often than other Foursquare users.
    • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Constraint validation : When the element has a maximum , and the result of applying the algorithm to convert a string to a number to the string given by the element's value is a number, and the number obtained from that algorithm is more than the maximum , the element is suffering from an overflow .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .The use of gold crowns in more prominent teeth such as incisors is favored in some cultures and discouraged in others.
  • Colloidal gold preparations (suspensions of gold nanoparticles) in water are intensely red-colored, and can be made with tightly controlled particle sizes up to a few tens of nanometers across by reduction of gold chloride with citrate or ascorbate ions.^ A spokesperson at the CES released a press preview event on Tuesday night and explained that by using lasers for the source of the light Microvision can guarantee better focus and more brilliant colors than other technologies.
    • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ A drug used to treat acute leukemias and some other types of cancer.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A substance made in the muscle and liver tissue and found in certain foods, such as meat, poultry, fish, and some dairy products.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    Colloidal gold is used in research applications in medicine, biology and materials science. .The technique of immunogold labeling exploits the ability of the gold particles to adsorb protein molecules onto their surfaces.^ Colloidal gold-bound tumor necrosis factor is made in the laboratory by binding a cancer-killing protein called tumor necrosis factor (TNF) to the surface of very tiny particles of gold.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    Colloidal gold particles coated with specific antibodies can be used as probes for the presence and position of antigens on the surfaces of cells (Faulk and Taylor 1979). In ultrathin sections of tissues viewed by electron microscopy, the immunogold labels appear as extremely dense round spots at the position of the antigen (Roth et al. 1980). .Colloidal gold is also the form of gold used as gold paint on ceramics prior to firing.
  • Gold, or alloys of gold and palladium, are applied as conductive coating to biological specimens and other non-conducting materials such as plastics and glass to be viewed in a scanning electron microscope.^ Otherwise, apply the rules for choosing a browsing context given a browsing context name using target as the name and the browsing context of form as the context in which the algorithm is executed; the resulting browsing context is the target browsing context.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The microdata becomes even more useful when scripts can use it to expose information to the user, for example offering it in a form that can be used by other applications.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ When such restrictions are defined, the tokens must all fit within those restrictions; other values are non-conforming.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    The coating, which is usually applied by sputtering with an argon plasma, has a triple role in this application. Gold's very high electrical conductivity drains electrical charge to earth, and its very high density provides stopping power for electrons in the electron beam, helping to limit the depth to which the electron beam penetrates the specimen. This improves definition of the position and topography of the specimen surface and increases the spatial resolution of the image. .Gold also produces a high output of secondary electrons when irradiated by an electron beam, and these low-energy electrons are the most commonly used signal source used in the scanning electron microscope.
  • The isotope gold-198, (half-life: 2.7 days) is used in some cancer treatments and for treating other diseases.^ A drug used to treat cancer.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A quality of some drugs used in cancer treatment.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A drug used to treat acute leukemias and some other types of cancer.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    [14]

Food and drink

.
  • Gold can be used in food and has the E Number 175.[15]
  • Gold leaf, flake or dust is used on and in some gourmet foods, notably sweets and drinks as decorative ingredient.^ It can also be made in the laboratory, and is added to some soft drinks, foods, and medicines.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ However, a decorative image that isn't discussed by the surrounding text still has some relevance can be included in a page using the img element.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Some states define an algorithm to convert a string to a number , an algorithm to convert a number to a string , an algorithm to convert a string to a Date object , and an algorithm to convert a Date object to a string , which are used by max , min , step , valueAsDate , valueAsNumber , stepDown() , and stepUp() .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    [16] .Gold flake was used by the nobility in Medieval Europe as a decoration in food and drinks, in the form of leaf, flakes or dust, either to demonstrate the host's wealth or in the belief that something that valuable and rare must be beneficial for one's health.^ The value of the fn property must be a name in one of the following forms: .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The value must be text with one of the following values: .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ On setting, the given value must be converted to the shortest possible string representing the number as a valid non-negative integer and then that string must be used as the new content attribute value.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    Gold foil along with silver is sometimes used on the South Asian sweets including Burfi.[17]
  • Goldwasser (English: Goldwater) is a traditional herbal liqueur produced in Gdańsk, Poland, and Schwabach, Germany, and contains flakes of gold leaf. There are also some expensive (~$1000) cocktails which contain flakes of gold leaf.[18] .However, since metallic gold is inert to all body chemistry, it adds no taste nor has it any other nutritional effect and leaves the body unaltered.^ Since they are not all spaces, they are handled as per the "anything else" rules in the " in table " insertion mode, which defer to the " in body " insertion mode but with foster parenting .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ This has the effect of reopening all the formatting elements that were opened in the current body, cell, or caption (whichever is youngest) that haven't been explicitly closed.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ This can cause, amongst other strange effects, content to be appended to nodes that are no longer in the DOM. .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    [19]

Industry

The 220 kg gold brick displayed in Chinkuashi Gold Museum, Taiwan, Republic of China
The world's largest gold bar weighs 250 kg. Toi museum, Japan.
.
A gold nugget of 5 mm in diameter (bottom) can be expanded through hammering into a gold foil of about 0.5 square meter.
^ Melanoma that has spread down through the papillary dermis (the thin top layer of the dermis) but not into the reticular dermis (the thick bottom layer of the dermis).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Toi museum, Japan.
  • Gold solder is used for joining the components of gold jewelry by high-temperature hard soldering or brazing. .If the work is to be of hallmarking quality, gold solder must match the carat weight of the work, and alloy formulas are manufactured in most industry-standard carat weights to color match yellow and white gold.^ Where the output format allows it, the color of pixels in resources created by toDataURL() must match those returned by the getImageData() method.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ If multiple application caches match, the user agent must use the fallback of the most appropriate application cache of those that match.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ If so, then the user agent must then get the resource from the most appropriate application cache of those that match.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .Gold solder is usually made in at least three melting-point ranges referred to as Easy, Medium and Hard.^ The other three attributes can be used to segment the gauge's range into "low", "medium", and "high" parts, and to indicate which part of the gauge is the "optimum" part.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .By using the hard, high-melting point solder first, followed by solders with progressively lower melting points, goldsmiths can assemble complex items with several separate soldered joints.
  • Gold can be made into thread and used in embroidery.
  • Gold is ductile and malleable, meaning it can be drawn into very thin wire and can be beaten into very thin sheets known as gold leaf.
  • Gold produces a deep, intense red color when used as a coloring agent in cranberry glass.
  • In photography, gold toners are used to shift the color of silver bromide black and white prints towards brown or blue tones, or to increase their stability.^ However, a PDF viewer application that launches separate from the user agent (as opposed to using the same interface) is not a plugin by this definition.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ When a user agent has to split a string on commas , it must use the following algorithm: .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ When the steps above require the user agent to obtain the result of collecting the first vCard subproperty named subname in subitem , the user agent must run the following steps: .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    Used on sepia-toned prints, gold toners produce red tones. .Kodak published formulas for several types of gold toners, which use gold as the chloride (Kodak, 2006).
  • As gold is a good reflector of electromagnetic radiation such as infrared and visible light as well as radio waves, it is used for the protective coatings on many artificial satellites, in infrared protective faceplates in thermal protection suits and astronauts' helmets and in electronic warfare planes like the EA-6B Prowler.
  • Gold is used as the reflective layer on some high-end CDs.
  • Automobiles may use gold for heat dissipation.^ Some tumors have high levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and blocking its activity may reduce tumor growth.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A system in which medical doctors and other healthcare professionals (such as nurses, pharmacists, and therapists) treat symptoms and diseases using drugs, radiation, or surgery.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It is used to treat many conditions, including inflammation, allergies, and some cancers.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    McLaren uses gold foil in the engine compartment of its F1 model.[20]
  • Gold can be manufactured so thin that it appears transparent. .It is used in some aircraft cockpit windows for de-icing or anti-icing by passing electricity through it.^ A gas or a liquid is used to pass the mixture through a column, paper, or special plate that contains absorbing materials.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    The heat produced by the resistance of the gold is enough to deter ice from forming.[21]

Electronics

  • The concentration of free electrons in gold metal is 5.90×1022 cm−3. .Gold is highly conductive to electricity, and has been used for electrical wiring in some high-energy applications (silver is even more conductive per volume, but gold has the advantage of corrosion resistance).^ Some obsolete legacy attributes parse colors in a more complicated manner, using the rules for parsing a legacy color value , which are given in the following algorithm.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Here are some more examples showing the same picture used in different contexts, with different appropriate alternate texts each time.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The microdata becomes even more useful when scripts can use it to expose information to the user, for example offering it in a form that can be used by other applications.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .For example, gold electrical wires were used during some of the Manhattan Project's atomic experiments, but large high current silver wires were used in the calutron isotope separator magnets in the project.
  • Though gold is attacked by free chlorine, its good conductivity and general resistance to oxidation and corrosion in other environments (including resistance to non-chlorinated acids) has led to its widespread industrial use in the electronic era as a thin layer coating electrical connectors of all kinds, thereby ensuring good connection.^ When an authoring tool is used to edit a non-conforming document, it may preserve the conformance errors in sections of the document that were not edited during the editing session (i.e.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Columns : If the current column col element has a span attribute, then parse its value using the rules for parsing non-negative integers .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ (For example, MathML, or SVG.) Some embedded content elements can have fallback content : content that is to be used when the external resource cannot be used (e.g.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .For example, gold is used in the connectors of the more expensive electronics cables, such as audio, video and USB cables.^ Here are some more examples showing the same picture used in different contexts, with different appropriate alternate texts each time.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The microdata becomes even more useful when scripts can use it to expose information to the user, for example offering it in a form that can be used by other applications.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Such information is already potentially problematic, but in practice the same information can more or less be obtained using the img element, and so it has been deemed acceptable.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .The benefit of using gold over other connector metals such as tin in these applications is highly debated.^ Used as bulk metal and in lightweight alloys with magnesium for engines, also as a sacrificial electrode to protect other metals.
    • Mineral Species sorted by the element Mg Magnesium 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ These requirements, however, are outdated; UTF-8 is now widely used, such that supporting other encodings is no longer necessary, and use of CR, LF, and CRLF line breaks is commonly supported and indeed sometimes CRLF is not supported by text editors.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ A system in which medical doctors and other healthcare professionals (such as nurses, pharmacists, and therapists) treat symptoms and diseases using drugs, radiation, or surgery.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    Gold connectors are often criticized by audio-visual experts as unnecessary for most consumers and seen as simply a marketing ploy. .However, the use of gold in other applications in electronic sliding contacts in highly humid or corrosive atmospheres, and in use for contacts with a very high failure cost (certain computers, communications equipment, spacecraft, jet aircraft engines) remains very common, and is unlikely to be replaced in the near future by any other metal.
  • Besides sliding electrical contacts, gold is also used in electrical contacts because of its resistance to corrosion, electrical conductivity, ductility and lack of toxicity.^ However, a PDF viewer application that launches separate from the user agent (as opposed to using the same interface) is not a plugin by this definition.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Exposure to high levels of cadmium may cause certain cancers and other health problems.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It would be inappropriate, however, for the user to use generic software not associated with that music site to search for tracks of a certain length by looking at this data.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    [22] Switch contacts are generally subjected to more intense corrosion stress than are sliding contacts.
  • Fine gold wires are used to connect semiconductor devices to their packages through a process known as wire bonding.

Chemistry

.Gold is attacked by and dissolves in alkaline solutions of potassium or sodium cyanide, and gold cyanide is the electrolyte used in commercial electroplating of gold onto base metals and electroforming.^ A procedure that uses gold salts (a salt form of the metal element gold) to treat diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Gold chloride (chloroauric acid) solutions are used to make colloidal gold by reduction with citrate or ascorbate ions.^ Carbolic acid is used to make plastics, nylon, epoxy, medicines, and to kill germs.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is used by many cells in the body to make energy from fatty acids.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A type of external radiation therapy that uses a special machine to make invisible, high-energy particles (protons or helium ions) that kill cancer cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Gold chloride and gold oxide are used to make highly valued cranberry or red-colored glass, which, like colloidal gold suspensions, contains evenly sized spherical gold nanoparticles.^ Glass blowers Didymium Safety Glasses may be used to block out this emission to observe the less intense colors from other elements.
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Na Sodium 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some obsolete legacy attributes parse colors in a more complicated manner, using the rules for parsing a legacy color value , which are given in the following algorithm.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This might in certain extreme cases mean limiting the use of flow elements to just a few elements, like div , b , i , and span and making liberal use of the style attribute.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

[23]

History

Jason returns with the golden fleece on an Apulian red-figure calyx krater, ca. 340–330 BC.
.Gold has been known and used by artisans since the Chalcolithic.^ The term "JavaScript" is used to refer to ECMA262, rather than the official term ECMAScript, since the term JavaScript is more widely known.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Gold artifacts in the Balkans appear from the 4th millennium BC, such as that found in the Varna Necropolis. Gold artifacts such as the golden hats and the Nebra disk appeared in Central Europe from the 2nd millennium BC Bronze Age.
.Egyptian hieroglyphs from as early as 2600 BC describe gold, which king Tushratta of the Mitanni claimed was "more plentiful than dirt" in Egypt.^ While the formats described here are intended to be subsets of the corresponding ISO8601 formats, this specification defines parsing rules in much more detail than ISO8601.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

[24] Egypt and especially Nubia had the resources to make them major gold-producing areas for much of history. The earliest known map is known as the Turin Papyrus Map and shows the plan of a gold mine in Nubia together with indications of the local geology. The primitive working methods are described by Strabo and included fire-setting. Large mines also were present across the Red Sea in what is now Saudi Arabia.
The legend of the golden fleece may refer to the use of fleeces to trap gold dust from placer deposits in the ancient world. Gold is mentioned frequently in the Old Testament, starting with Genesis 2:11 (at Havilah) and is included with the gifts of the magi in the first chapters of Matthew New Testament. The Book of Revelation 21:21 describes the city of New Jerusalem as having streets "made of pure gold, clear as crystal". The south-east corner of the Black Sea was famed for its gold. .Exploitation is said to date from the time of Midas, and this gold was important in the establishment of what is probably the world's earliest coinage in Lydia around 610 BC.[25] From the 6th or 5th century BC, the Chu (state) circulated the Ying Yuan, one kind of square gold coin.^ Local Date and Time state .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Date and Time state .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A string is a valid date string with optional time if it is also one of the following: A valid date string .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The Romans developed new methods for extracting gold on a large scale using hydraulic mining methods, especially in Spain from 25 BC onwards and in Romania from 150 AD onwards. One of their largest mines was at Las Medulas in León (Spain), where seven long aqueducts enabled them to sluice most of a large alluvial deposit. The mines at Roşia Montană in Transylvania were also very large, and until very recently, still mined by opencast methods. They also exploited smaller deposits in Britain, such as placer and hard-rock deposits at Dolaucothi. The various methods they used are well described by Pliny the Elder in his encyclopedia Naturalis Historia written towards the end of the first century AD.
The Mali Empire in Africa was famed throughout the old world for its large amounts of gold. Mansa Musa, ruler of the empire (1312–1337) became famous throughout the old world for his great hajj to Mecca in 1324. When he passed through Cairo in July 1324, he was reportedly accompanied by a camel train that included thousands of people and nearly a hundred camels. He gave away so much gold that it depressed the price in Egypt for over a decade.[26] A contemporary Arab historian remarked:
Gold was at a high price in Egypt until they came in that year. The mithqal did not go below 25 dirhams and was generally above, but from that time its value fell and it cheapened in price and has remained cheap till now. The mithqal does not exceed 22 dirhams or less. This has been the state of affairs for about twelve years until this day by reason of the large amount of gold which they brought into Egypt and spent there [...]

Chihab Al-Umari[27]

The European exploration of the Americas was fueled in no small part by reports of the gold ornaments displayed in great profusion by Native American peoples, especially in Central America, Peru, Ecuador and Colombia. The Aztecs regarded gold as literally the product of the gods, calling it "god excrement" (teocuitlatl in Nahuatl).[28]
.Although the price of some platinum group metals can be much higher, gold has long been considered the most desirable of precious metals, and its value has been used as the standard for many currencies (known as the gold standard) in history.^ It is used to treat many conditions, including inflammation, allergies, and some cancers.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Authors may use any value in the class attribute, but are encouraged to use the values that describe the nature of the content, rather than values that describe the desired presentation of the content.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Some obsolete legacy attributes parse colors in a more complicated manner, using the rules for parsing a legacy color value , which are given in the following algorithm.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Gold has been used as a symbol for purity, value, royalty, and particularly roles that combine these properties.^ When the 'font-weight' component is set to the relative values 'bolder' and 'lighter', these must be interpreted relative to the computed value of the 'font-weight' property of the corresponding canvas element at the time that the attribute is set.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When the Window object is indexed for property retrieval using a name name , then the user agent must return the value obtained using the following steps: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These values are all case-sensitive — they must be used exactly as shown.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Gold as a sign of wealth and prestige was made fun of by Thomas More in his treatise Utopia. On that imaginary island, gold is so abundant that it is used to make chains for slaves, tableware and lavatory-seats. .When ambassadors from other countries arrive, dressed in ostentatious gold jewels and badges, the Utopians mistake them for menial servants, paying homage instead to the most modestly dressed of their party.^ This ensures that, if the script is external, any document.write() calls in the script will execute in-line, instead of blowing the document away, as would happen in most other cases.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

There is an age-old tradition of biting gold in order to test its authenticity. .Although this is certainly not a professional way of examining gold, the bite test should score the gold because gold is a soft metal, as indicated by its score on the Mohs' scale of mineral hardness.^ Although there is no formal way to indicate the language of computer code being marked up, authors who wish to mark code elements with the language used, e.g.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The purer the gold the easier it should be to mark it. Painted lead can cheat this test because lead is softer than gold (and may invite a small risk of lead poisoning if sufficient lead is absorbed by the biting).
.Gold in antiquity was relatively easy to obtain geologically; however, 75% of all gold ever produced has been extracted since 1910.[29] It has been estimated that all gold ever refined would form a single cube 20 m (66 ft) on a side (equivalent to 8000 m3).^ XBL2) to match local conventions, while the year is not marked up at all, since marking it up would not be particularly useful.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In such cases, the XML parser must act as it would have if faced with a single string consisting of the concatenation of all those characters.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ However, the user agent would not expose those times; it would instead expose the times as 00:15..00:29 and 00:29..01:02, as a single video.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

[29]
.One main goal of the alchemists was to produce gold from other substances, such as lead — presumably by the interaction with a mythical substance called the philosopher's stone.^ Carcinoid tumors may spread to the liver or other sites in the body, and they may secrete substances such as serotonin or prostaglandins, causing carcinoid syndrome.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In other words, the ranges in such an object are ordered, don't overlap, aren't empty, and don't touch (adjacent ranges are folded into one bigger range).
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, one group may have been exposed to a particular substance that the other was not.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Although they never succeeded in this attempt, the alchemists promoted an interest in what can be done with substances, and this laid a foundation for today's chemistry. Their symbol for gold was the circle with a point at its center (☉), which was also the astrological symbol and the ancient Chinese character for the Sun. For modern creation of artificial gold by neutron capture, see gold synthesis.
During the 19th century, gold rushes occurred whenever large gold deposits were discovered. .The first documented discovery of gold in the United States was at the Reed Gold Mine near Georgeville, North Carolina in 1803.[30] The first major gold strike in the United States occurred in a small north Georgia town called Dahlonega.^ When this method is invoked, the user agent must remove from the session history all the entries from the first state object entry for that Document object up to the last entry that references that same Document object, if any.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When fetching resources in response to a call to an API The active document of the browsing context of the first script .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the specified entry is a state object or the first entry for a Document , the user agent must activate that entry .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

[31] Further gold rushes occurred in California, Colorado, the Black Hills, Otago, Australia, Witwatersrand, and the Klondike.
.Because of its historically high value, much of the gold mined throughout history is still in circulation in one form or another.^ The action of an element is the value of the element's formaction attribute, if the element is a submit button and has such an attribute, or the value of its form owner 's action attribute, if it has one, or else the empty string.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Mutating the CSSStyleDeclaration object must create a style attribute on the element (if there isn't one already) and then change its value to be a value representing the serialized form of the CSSStyleDeclaration object.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Exactly one property with the name value must be present within the item that forms the value of a label property of an item with the type vcard .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Occurrence

Gold ore
This 156-ounce (4.85 kg) nugget was found by an individual prospector in the Southern California Desert using a metal detector.
.Gold's atomic number of 79 makes it one of the higher atomic number elements which occur naturally.^ If the value attribute is not specified but the max attribute is specified and the result of processing the textContent of the element was one number with no associated denominator punctuation character, then that number is the actual value.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If there is exactly one number in the contents of the element, then value is that number; otherwise, value is the value of the value attribute.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A metallic element that occurs naturally in tiny amounts in air, water, soil, and food.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Like all elements with atomic numbers larger than iron, gold is thought to have been formed from a supernova nucleosynthesis process.^ If index is less than −1 or greater than the number of elements in rows collection: The method must raise an INDEX_SIZE_ERR exception.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If applying the rules for parsing non-negative integers to the attribute's value results in a number greater than zero, then the element's character height is that value; otherwise, it is 2.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When the element is suffering from an overflow , if the maximum is not less than the minimum , the user agent must set the element's value to a valid floating point number that represents the maximum .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Their explosions scattered metal-containing dusts (including heavy elements like gold) into the region of space in which they later condensed into our solar system and the Earth.^ User agents should allow users to insert new paragraphs into elements that contains only content other than paragraphs.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Space characters before the root html element, and space characters at the start of the html element and before the head element, will be dropped when the document is parsed; space characters after the root html element will be parsed as if they were at the end of the body element.
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^ HTML, SVG, and MathML elements define which classes they are in by having an attribute with no namespace with the name class containing a space-separated list of classes to which the element belongs.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

On Earth, whenever elemental gold occurs, it appears most often as a metal solid solution of gold with silver, i.e. a gold silver alloy. Such alloys usually have a silver content of 8–10%. .Electrum is elemental gold with more than 20% silver.^ Some elements, most notably area , can correspond to more than one distinct focusable area.
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^ If applying the rules for parsing non-negative integers to the attribute's value results in a number greater than zero, then the element's character width is that value; otherwise, it is 20.
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^ The following, however, is incorrect usage, as the cite element here is containing far more than the title of the work: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Electrum's color runs from golden silvery to silvery, dependent upon the silver content. The more silver, the lower the specific gravity.
Relative sizes of a an 860kg rock ore, and the 30g of gold that can be extracted from it. Toi gold mine, Japan.
Gold left behind after pyrite cube dissolved away.
Gold is found in ores made up of rock with very small or microscopic particles of gold. This gold ore is often found together with quartz or sulfide minerals such as Fool's Gold, which is a pyrite.[32] These are called "lode" deposits. .Native gold is also found in the form of free flakes, grains or larger nuggets that have been eroded from rocks and end up in alluvial deposits (called placer deposits).^ A type of mole formed by groups of nevus cells found in the epidermis and dermis (the two main layers of tissue that make up the skin).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Such free gold is always richer at the surface of gold-bearing veins owing to the oxidation of accompanying minerals followed by weathering, and washing of the dust into streams and rivers, where it collects and can be welded by water action to form nuggets.^ The action of an element is the value of the element's formaction attribute, if the element is a submit button and has such an attribute, or the value of its form owner 's action attribute, if it has one, or else the empty string.
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^ When forms are submitted, the data in the form is converted into the form specified by the enctype , and then sent to the destination specified by the action using the given method .
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^ A procedure that uses gold salts (a salt form of the metal element gold) to treat diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Gold sometimes occurs combined with tellurium as the minerals calaverite, krennerite, nagyagite, petzite and sylvanite, and as the rare bismuthide maldonite (Au2Bi) and antimonide aurostibite (AuSb2). Gold also occurs in rare alloys with copper, lead, and mercury: the minerals auricupride (Cu3Au), novodneprite (AuPb3) and weishanite ((Au,Ag)3Hg2).
Recent research suggests that microbes can sometimes play an important role in forming gold deposits, transporting and precipitating gold to form grains and nuggets that collect in alluvial deposits.[33]

Production

World gold production trend
Gold output in 2005
The entrance to an underground gold mine in Victoria, Australia
Pure gold precipitate produced by the aqua regia refining process
Gold extraction is most economical in large, easily mined deposits. Ore grades as little as 0.5 g/1000 kg (0.5 parts per million, ppm) can be economical. Typical ore grades in open-pit mines are 1–5 g/1000 kg (1–5 ppm); ore grades in underground or hard rock mines are usually at least 3 g/1000 kg (3 ppm). Because ore grades of 30 g/1000 kg (30 ppm) are usually needed before gold is visible to the naked eye, in most gold mines the gold is invisible.
Since the 1880s, South Africa has been the source for a large proportion of the world’s gold supply, with about 50% of all gold ever produced having come from South Africa. Production in 1970 accounted for 79% of the world supply, producing about 1,000 tonnes. However by 2007 production was just 272 tonnes. This sharp decline was due to the increasing difficulty of extraction, changing economic factors affecting the industry, and tightened safety auditing. In 2007 China (with 276 tonnes) overtook South Africa as the world's largest gold producer, the first time since 1905 that South Africa has not been the largest.[34]
The city of Johannesburg located in South Africa was founded as a result of the Witwatersrand Gold Rush which resulted in the discovery of some of the largest gold deposits the world has ever seen. .Gold fields located within the basin in the Free State and Gauteng provinces are extensive in strike and dip requiring some of the world's deepest mines, with the Savuka and TauTona mines being currently the world's deepest gold mine at 3,777 m.^ In the descriptions below, the source image, A , is the shape or image being rendered, and the destination image, B , is the current state of the bitmap.
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The Second Boer War of 1899–1901 between the British Empire and the Afrikaner Boers was at least partly over the rights of miners and possession of the gold wealth in South Africa.
Other major producers are the United States, Australia, Russia and Peru. .Mines in South Dakota and Nevada supply two-thirds of gold used in the United States.^ If the shape attribute represents the rectangle state , and the first number in the list is numerically less than the third number in the list, then swap those two numbers around.
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In South America, the controversial project Pascua Lama aims at exploitation of rich fields in the high mountains of Atacama Desert, at the border between Chile and Argentina. Today about one-quarter of the world gold output is estimated to originate from artisanal or small scale mining.[35]
After initial production, gold is often subsequently refined industrially by the Wohlwill process or the Miller process. Other methods of assaying and purifying smaller amounts of gold include parting and inquartation as well as cuppelation, or refining methods based on the dissolution of gold in aqua regia.
The world's oceans hold a vast amount of gold, but in very low concentrations (perhaps 1–2 parts per 10 billion, e.g. every cubic kilometer of water could contain 10 to 20 kg of gold). But more realistic estimates put the amount of gold on average at 13 parts per trillion[36]; concentrations of 1 ppb seem to have been identified in the discharge of rivers that run though placer deposits. .A number of people have claimed to be able to economically recover gold from sea water, but so far they have all been either mistaken or crooks.^ They may occur in people of all ages, but are most common in the elderly.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

A so-called reverend, Prescott Jernegan ran a gold-from-seawater swindle in the United States in the 1890s. A British fraudster ran the same scam in England in the early 1900s.[37] Fritz Haber (the German inventor of the Haber process) did research on the extraction of gold from sea water in an effort to help pay Germany's reparations following World War I.[38] Based on the published values of 2 to 64 ppb of gold in seawater a commercially successful extraction seemed possible. After analysis of 4000 water samples yielding an average of 0.004 ppb it became clear that the extraction would not be possible and he stopped the project.[39] No commercially viable mechanism for performing gold extraction from sea water has yet been identified. Gold synthesis is not economically viable and is unlikely to become so in the foreseeable future
At the end of 2006, it was estimated that all the gold ever mined totaled 158,000 tonnes[40] and its January 2009 issue, National Geographic magazine writes: "In all of history, only 161,000 tons of gold have been mined, barely enough to fill two Olympic-size swimming pools."[1] This can be represented by a cube with an edge length of about 20.28 meters.
.The average gold mining and extraction costs were about US$317/oz in 2007, but these can vary widely depending on mining type and ore quality; global mine production amounted to 2,471.1 tonnes.^ These controls are all expected to be about one line high, and about as wide as necessary to show the widest possible value.
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[41]
Gold is so stable and so valuable that it is always recovered and recycled. .There is no true consumption of gold in the economic sense; the stock of gold remains essentially constant while ownership shifts from one party to another.^ Split fn on spaces , and let part one be the first resulting token, and part two be the second, if any, or the empty string if there is no second token.
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^ Within each item with the type vcard , there must be no more than one label property item with a type property whose value is pref .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If there is no selection, then, where in the description above refers to the selection, the user agent must act as if the selection was an empty range (with just one position) at the caret position.
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[42]

Consumption

India is the world’s largest consumer of gold, as Indians buy about 25% of the world’s gold,[43] purchasing approximately 800 tonnes of gold every year. India is also the largest importer of the yellow metal; in 2008 India imported around 400 tonnes of gold.[44]

Chemistry

.Although gold is a noble metal, it forms many and diverse compounds.^ A procedure that uses gold salts (a salt form of the metal element gold) to treat diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

The oxidation state of gold in its compounds ranges from −1 to +5, but Au(I) and Au(III) dominate its chemistry. Au(I), referred to as the aurous ion, is the most common oxidation state with soft ligands such as thioethers, thiolates, and tertiary phosphines. Au(I) compounds are typically linear. A good example is Au(CN)2, which is the soluble form of gold encountered in mining. Curiously, aurous complexes of water are rare. .The binary gold halides, such as AuCl, form zig-zag polymeric chains, again featuring linear coordination at Au.^ A procedure that uses gold salts (a salt form of the metal element gold) to treat diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Most drugs based on gold are Au(I) derivatives.[45]
Au(III) (auric) is a common oxidation state and is illustrated by gold(III) chloride, AuCl3. Au(III) complexes, like other d8 compounds, are typically square planar.
Aqua regia (Royal Water), a 1:3 mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, dissolves it. .Nitric acid oxidizes the metal to +3 ions, but only in minute amounts, typically undetectable in the pure acid because of the chemical equilibrium of the reaction.^ A chemical compound that binds tightly to metal ions.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

However, the ions are removed from the equilibrium by hydrochloric acid, forming AuCl4 ions, or chloroauric acid, thereby enabling further oxidation.
Some free halogens react with gold[46]. Gold also reacts in alkaline solutions of potassium cyanide. With mercury, it forms an amalgam.

Less common oxidation states

Less common oxidation states of gold include −1, +2, and +5.
The −1 oxidation state occurs in compounds containing the Au anion, called aurides. Caesium auride (CsAu), for example, crystallizes in the caesium chloride motif.[47] Other aurides include those of Rb+, K+, and tetramethylammonium (CH3)4N+.[48]
Gold(II) compounds are usually diamagnetic with Au–Au bonds such as [Au(CH2)2P(C6H5)2]2Cl2. The evaporation of a solution of Au(OH)3 in concentrated H2SO4 produces red crystals of gold(II) sulfate, AuSO4. Originally thought to be a mixed-valence compound, it has been shown to contain Au4+2 cations.[49][50] A noteworthy, legitimate gold(II) complex is the tetraxenonogold(II) cation, which contains xenon as a ligand, found in [AuXe4](Sb2F11)2.[51]
Gold pentafluoride and its derivative anion, AuF6, is the sole example of gold(V), the highest verified oxidation state.[52]
Some gold compounds exhibit aurophilic bonding, which describes the tendency of gold ions to interact at distances that are too long to be a conventional Au–Au bond but shorter that van der Waals bonding. The interaction is estimated to be comparable in strength to that of a hydrogen bond.

Mixed valence compounds

Well-defined cluster compounds are numerous.[48] In such cases, gold has a fractional oxidation state. A representative example is the octahedral species {Au(P(C6H5)3)}62+. Gold chalcogenides, such as gold sulfide, feature equal amounts of Au(I) and Au(III).

Toxicity

.Pure metallic (elemental) gold is non-toxic and non-irritating when ingested[53] and is sometimes used as a food decoration in the form of gold leaf.^ The form attribute is used to explicitly associate the object element with its form owner .
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^ Submittable elements Denotes elements that can be used for constructing the form data set when a form element is submitted .
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^ Columns : If the current column col element has a span attribute, then parse its value using the rules for parsing non-negative integers .
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Metallic gold is also a component of the alcoholic drinks Goldschläger, Gold Strike, and Goldwasser. Metallic gold is approved as a food additive in the EU (E175 in the Codex Alimentarius). .Although gold ion is toxic, the acceptance of metallic gold as a food additive is due to its relative chemical inertness, and resistance to being corroded or transformed into soluble salts (gold compounds) by any known chemical process which would be encountered in the human body.^ A chemical compound that binds tightly to metal ions.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The gold salts stop cells from releasing chemicals that can harm tissues.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The process by which normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Soluble compounds (gold salts) such as gold chloride are toxic to the liver and kidneys.^ A procedure that uses gold salts (a salt form of the metal element gold) to treat diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Common cyanide salts of gold such as potassium gold cyanide, used in gold electroplating, are toxic both by virtue of their cyanide and gold content.^ A procedure that uses gold salts (a salt form of the metal element gold) to treat diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

There are rare cases of lethal gold poisoning from potassium gold cyanide.[54][55] .Gold toxicity can be ameliorated with chelation therapy with an agent such as Dimercaprol.^ In medicine, chelating agents are used to remove toxic metals from the body.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Gold metal was voted Allergen of the Year in 2001 by the American Contact Dermatitis Society. Gold contact allergies affect mostly women.[56] Despite this, gold is a relatively non-potent contact allergen, in comparison with metals like nickel.[57]

Price

Gold price per troy ounce in USD since 1960, in nominal US$ and inflation adjusted in 2008 US$.
Like other precious metals, gold is measured by troy weight and by grams. .When it is alloyed with other metals the term carat or karat is used to indicate the amount of gold present, with 24 carats being pure gold and lower ratings proportionally less.^ A procedure that uses gold salts (a salt form of the metal element gold) to treat diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Instead, the term "expected" is used to indicate behavior that will lead to this experience.
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^ If the data attribute is absent but the type attribute is present, plugins aren't being sandboxed , and the user agent can find a plugin suitable according to the value of the type attribute, then that plugin should be used .
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The purity of a gold bar or coin can also be expressed as a decimal figure ranging from 0 to 1, known as the millesimal fineness, such as 0.995 being very pure.
The price of gold is determined through trading in the gold and derivatives markets, but a procedure known as the Gold Fixing in London, originating in September 1919, provides a daily benchmark price to the industry. The afternoon fixing was introduced in 1968 to provide a price when US markets are open.
Historically gold coinage was widely used as currency; When paper money was introduced, it typically was a receipt redeemable for gold coin or bullion. In an economic system known as the gold standard, a certain weight of gold was given the name of a unit of currency. .For a long period, the United States government set the value of the US dollar so that one troy ounce was equal to $20.67 ($664.56/kg), but in 1934 the dollar was devalued to $35.00 per troy ounce ($1125.27/kg).^ State is newly equal to or greater than HAVE_FUTURE_DATA , paused is false, seeking is false, or the current playback position is contained in one of the ranges in buffered .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ On setting, the value attribute must set the selectedness of all the option elements in the list of options to false, and then first the option element in the list of options , in tree order , whose value is equal to the given new value, if any, must have its selectedness set to true.
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^ Otherwise, for each entry in input list whose unit is percentage , set the corresponding value in output list to the number of the entry in input list multiplied by the input dimension and divided by 100.
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By 1961 it was becoming hard to maintain this price, and a pool of US and European banks agreed to manipulate the market to prevent further currency devaluation against increased gold demand.
Swiss-cast 1 kg gold bar
.On March 17, 1968, economic circumstances caused the collapse of the gold pool, and a two-tiered pricing scheme was established whereby gold was still used to settle international accounts at the old $35.00 per troy ounce ($1.13/g) but the price of gold on the private market was allowed to fluctuate; this two-tiered pricing system was abandoned in 1975 when the price of gold was left to find its free-market level.^ First, it can be used to allow content from the same site to be sandboxed to disable scripting, while still allowing access to the DOM of the sandboxed content.
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Central banks still hold historical gold reserves as a store of value although the level has generally been declining. The largest gold depository in the world is that of the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank in New York, which holds about 3%[citation needed] of the gold ever mined, as does the similarly laden U.S. Bullion Depository at Fort Knox.
In 2005 the World Gold Council estimated total global gold supply to be 3,859 tonnes and demand to be 3,754 tonnes, giving a surplus of 105 tonnes.[58]
.Since 1968 the price of gold has ranged widely, from a high of $850/oz ($27,300/kg) on January 21, 1980, to a low of $252.90/oz ($8,131/kg) on June 21, 1999 (London Gold Fixing).^ The low attribute specifies the range that is considered to be the "low" part, and the high attribute specifies the range that is considered to be the "high" part.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The other three attributes can be used to segment the gauge's range into "low", "medium", and "high" parts, and to indicate which part of the gauge is the "optimum" part.
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[59] The period from 1999 to 2001 marked the "Brown Bottom" after a 20-year bear market.[60] Prices increased rapidly from 1991, but the 1980 high was not exceeded until January 3, 2008 when a new maximum of $865.35 per troy ounce was set (a.m. London Gold Fixing).[61] Another record price was set on March 17, 2008 at $1023.50/oz ($32,900/kg)(am. London Gold Fixing).[61] In the fall of 2009, gold markets experience renewed momentum upwards due to increased demand and a weakening US dollar. On December 2nd 2009, Gold passed the important barrier of US$1200 per ounce to close at $1215.[62]
.Since April 2001 the gold price has more than tripled in value against the US dollar,[63] prompting speculation that this long secular bear market has ended and a bull market has returned.^ End [ = value ] Returns the offset to the end of the selection.
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^ If an element has a maximum that is less than its minimum , then so long as the element has a value , it will either be suffering from an underflow or suffering from an overflow .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Within each item with the type vcard , there must be no more than one label property item with a type property whose value is pref .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

[64]

Symbolism

Gold bars at the Emperor Casino in Macau
Gold has been highly valued in many societies throughout the ages. In keeping with this it has often had a strongly positive symbolic meaning closely connected to the values held in the highest esteem in the society in question. Gold may symbolize power, strength, wealth, warmth, happiness, love, hope, optimism, intelligence, justice, balance, perfection, summer, harvest and the sun.
Great human achievements are frequently rewarded with gold, in the form of gold medals, golden trophies and other decorations. Winners of athletic events and other graded competitions are usually awarded a gold medal (e.g., the Olympic Games). Many awards such as the Nobel Prize are made from gold as well. Other award statues and prizes are depicted in gold or are gold plated (such as the Academy Awards, the Golden Globe Awards, the Emmy Awards, the Palme d'Or, and the British Academy Film Awards).
Aristotle in his ethics used gold symbolism when referring to what is now commonly known as the "golden mean". Similarly, gold is associated with perfect or divine principles, such as in the case of Phi, which is sometimes called the "golden ratio".
Gold represents great value. Respected people are treated with the most valued rule, the "golden rule". A company may give its most valued customers "gold cards" or make them "gold members". We value moments of peace and therefore we say: "silence is golden". In Greek mythology there was the the "golden fleece".
Gold is further associated with the wisdom of aging and fruition. The fiftieth wedding anniversary is golden. Our precious latter years are sometimes considered "golden years". The height of a civilization is referred to as a "golden age".
In Christianity gold has sometimes been associated with the extremities of utmost evil and the greatest sanctity. In the Book of Exodus, the Golden Calf is a symbol of idolatry. In the Book of Genesis, Abraham was said to be rich in gold and silver, and Moses was instructed to cover the Mercy Seat of the Ark of the Covenant with pure gold. In Christian art the halos of Christ, Mary and the Christian saints are golden.
Medieval kings were inaugurated under the signs of sacred oil and a golden crown, the latter symbolizing the eternal shining light of heaven and thus a Christian king's divinely inspired authority. Wedding rings have long been made of gold. .It is long-lasting and unaffected by the passage of time and may aid in the ring symbolism of eternal vows before god and/or the sun and moon and the perfection the marriage signifies.^ A condition lasting for more than 6 months in which a person feels tired most of the time and may have trouble concentrating and carrying out daily activities.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

In Orthodox Christianity, the wedded couple is adorned with a golden crown during the ceremony, an amalgamation of symbolic rites.
.In popular culture gold holds many connotations but is most generally connected to terms such as good or great, such as in the phrases: "has a heart of gold", "that's golden!", "golden moment", "then you're golden!"^ In general, user agents are expected to support CSS, and many of the suggestions in this section are expressed in CSS terms.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

and "golden boy". Gold also still holds its place as a symbol of wealth and through that, in many societies, success.

State emblem

In 1965 the California Legislature designated gold “the State Mineral and mineralogical emblem.” [65]
In 1968 the Alaska Legislature named gold “the official state mineral.”[66]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b National Geographic: "The Real Price of Gold" by Brook Larmer
  2. ^ "Gold: causes of color". http://www.webexhibits.org/causesofcolor/9.html. Retrieved 2009-06-06. 
  3. ^ Mallan, Lloyd (1971). Suiting up for space: the evolution of the space suit. John Day Co. p. 216. ISBN 978-0381981501. 
  4. ^ "Relativity in Chemistry". Math.ucr.edu. http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/Relativity/SR/gold_color.html. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  5. ^ Schmidbaur, Hubert; Cronje, Stephanie; Djordjevic, Bratislav; Schuster, Oliver (2005). "Understanding gold chemistry through relativity". Chemical Physics 311: 151–161. doi:10.1016/j.chemphys.2004.09.023. 
  6. ^ "Gold Jewellery Alloys > Utilise Gold. Scientific, industrial and medical applications, products ,suppliers from the World Gold Council". Utilisegold.com. 2000-01-20. http://www.utilisegold.com/jewellery_technology/colours/colour_alloys/. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  7. ^ a b Audi, G. (2003). "The NUBASE Evaluation of Nuclear and Decay Properties". Nuclear Physics A (Atomic Mass Data Center) 729: 3–128. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001. 
  8. ^ Byron King (2009-07-20). "Gold mining decline". BullionVault.com. http://goldnews.bullionvault.com/gold_mine_production_072020092. Retrieved 2009-11-23. 
  9. ^ "Gold Backed Currency - MoneyTec.com Traders Community Forum". Moneytec.com. http://www.moneytec.com/forums/f33/gold-backed-currency-14196/. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  10. ^ Martin Feldstein (2009-12-26). "Is Gold a Good Hedge?". Project Syndicate. http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/feldstein18. Retrieved 2009-12-29. 
  11. ^ "The healing power of precious metals". http://health.ninemsn.com.au/article.aspx?id=694367. Retrieved 2009-06-06. 
  12. ^ a b Messori, L.; Marcon, G. (2004). "Gold Complexes in the treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis". in Sigel, Astrid. Metal ions and their complexes in medication. CRC Press. pp. 280–301. ISBN 9780824753511. http://books.google.de/books?id=wgifUs8dFbgC&pg=PA279. 
  13. ^ "BMJ: ''login required''". Besthealth.bmj.com. http://besthealth.bmj.com/btuk/conditions/14212.html. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  14. ^ Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in Nanomedicine: Hybrid Nanoparticles In Imaging and Therapy of Prostate Cancer - Radiopharmaceutical Sciences Institute, University of Missouri-Columbia
  15. ^ "Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers". Food Standards Agency, UK. 27 July 2007. http://www.food.gov.uk/safereating/chemsafe/additivesbranch/enumberlist. 
  16. ^ "The Food Dictionary: Varak". Barron's Educational Services, Inc. 1995. http://www.epicurious.com/cooking/how_to/food_dictionary/entry?id=5061. Retrieved 2007-05-27. 
  17. ^ Indian Recipes
  18. ^ Guiness Book of World Records 2008
  19. ^ "The Many Uses of Gold". http://geology.com/minerals/gold/uses-of-gold.shtml. Retrieved 2009-06-06. 
  20. ^ Super cars.net. 1994 McLaren F1
  21. ^ "The Demand for Gold by Industry". Gold bulletin. http://www.goldbulletin.org/assets/file/goldbulletin/downloads/Cooke_2_15.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-06. 
  22. ^ "General Electric Contact Materials". Electrical Contact Catalog (Material Catalog). Tanaka Precious Metals. 2005. http://www.tanaka-precious.com/catalog/material.html. Retrieved 2007-02-21. 
  23. ^ "Colored glass chemistry". http://chemistry.about.com/cs/inorganic/a/aa032503a.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-06. 
  24. ^ Nicholas Reeves, Egypt's False Prophet: Akhenaten, Thames & Hudson, p.69
  25. ^ "A Case for the World's First Coin: The Lydian Lion". http://rg.ancients.info/lion/article.html. Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  26. ^ Mansa Musa - Black History Pages
  27. ^ "Kingdom of Mali - Primary Source Documents". African studies Center. Boston University. http://www.bu.edu/africa/outreach/materials/handouts/k_o_mali.html. Retrieved 2008-08-05. 
  28. ^ Berdan, Frances; Anawalt, Patricia Rieff (1992). The Codex Mendoza. 2. University of California Press. p. 151. ISBN 9780520062344. 
  29. ^ Moore, Mark A. (2006). "Reed Gold Mine State Historic Site". North Carolina Office of Archives and History. http://www.nchistoricsites.org/Reed/reed.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-13. 
  30. ^ Garvey, Jane A. (2006). "Road to adventure". Georgia Magazine. http://www.georgiamagazine.org/archives_view.asp?mon=7&yr=2006&ID=1344. Retrieved 2007-01-23. 
  31. ^ "Formation of Lode Gold Deposits". arizonagoldprospectors.com. http://arizonagoldprospectors.com/formation.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-23. 
  32. ^ "Environment & Nature News - Bugs grow gold that looks like coral - 28/01/2004". http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/enviro/EnviroRepublish_1032376.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-22.  This is doctoral research undertaken by Frank Reith at the Australian National University, published 2004.
  33. ^ Mandaro, Laura (2008-01-17). "China now world's largest gold producer; foreign miners at door - MarketWatch". MarketWatch. http://www.marketwatch.com/news/story/china-now-worlds-largest-gold/story.aspx?guid=%7B8C528CE8%2D0262%2D485D%2DACEB%2D2247D18282CB%7D. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  34. ^ Beinhoff, Christian. Removal of Barriers to the Abatement of Global Mercury Pollution from Artisanal Gold Mining. http://www.unido.org/fileadmin/import/10644_CHRISTIANtext.3.pdf. 
  35. ^ Gold from the Sea Timothy McNulty Copyright 1994
  36. ^ Dan Plazak, A Hole in the Ground with a Liar at the Top (Salt Lake: Univ. of Utah Press, 2006) (contains a chapter on gold-from seawater swindles)
  37. ^ Haber, F. (1927). "Das Gold im Meerwasser". Zeitschrift für Angewandte Chemie 40 (11): 303–314. doi:10.1002/ange.19270401103. 
  38. ^ McHugh, J.B. (1988). "Concentration of gold in natural waters". Journal of Geochemical Exploration 30: 85–94. doi:10.1016/0375-6742(88)90051-9. 
  39. ^ "World Gold Council". http://www.invest.gold.org/sites/en/why_gold/demand_and_supply/. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  40. ^ O’Connell, Rhona (13 Apr 2007). "Gold mine production costs up by 17% in 2006 while output fell". http://www.mineweb.net/mineweb/view/mineweb/en/page33?oid=19485&sn=Detail. 
  41. ^ "The Myth of the Gold Supply Deficit". http://www.lewrockwell.com/blumen/blumen14.html. Retrieved 2009-03-30. 
  42. ^ "India's love affair with gold tarnishing". March 27, 2008. http://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2008/03/indias-love-affair-with-gold-tarnishing.html. 
  43. ^ "Gold: Why China outbeats India in gold reserves". Commodity online. 2009-04-26. http://www.commodityonline.com/news/Gold-Why-China-outbeats-India-in-gold-reserves-17196-3-1.html. 
  44. ^ Shaw III, C. F. (1999). "Gold-Based Medicinal Agents". Chemical Reviews 99 (9): 2589–2600. doi:10.1021/cr980431o. PMID 11749494. 
  45. ^ Holleman , Wiberg (2001), Inorganic Chemistry (101 ed.), Academic Press, pp. 1286, ISBN 0123526515 
  46. ^ Jansen, Martin (2005). "Effects of relativistic motion of electrons on the chemistry of gold and platinum". Solid State Sciences 7 (12): 1464–1474. doi:10.1016/j.solidstatesciences.2005.06.015. 
  47. ^ a b Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
  48. ^ Mathias S. Wickleder (2001). "AuSO4: A True Gold(II) Sulfate with an Au4+2 Ion". Journal of Inorganic and General Chemistry 627 (9): 2112–2114. doi:10.1002/1521-3749(200109)627:9<2112::AID-ZAAC2112>3.0.CO;2-2.  edit
  49. ^ Mathias S. Wickleder (2007). Francesco A. Devillanova. ed. Handbook of chalcogen chemistry: new perspectives in sulfur, selenium and tellurium. Royal Society of Chemistry. pp. 359–361. ISBN 0854043667. 
  50. ^ Seidel, S.; Seppelt, K. (2000). "Xenon as a Complex Ligand: The Tetra Xenono Gold(II) Cation in AuXe42+(Sb2F11)2". Science 290 (5489): 117–118. doi:10.1126/science.290.5489.117. PMID 11021792. 
  51. ^ Riedel, S.; Kaupp, M. (2006). "Revising the Highest Oxidation States of the 5d Elements: The Case of Iridium(+VII)". Angewandte Chemie International Edition 45 (22): 3708–3711. doi:10.1002/anie.200600274. 
  52. ^ S Dierks (May 2005). "Gold MSDS". Electronic Space Products International. http://www.espi-metals.com/msds's/gold.htm. 
  53. ^ I. H. Wright, C. J. Vesey (1986). "Acute poisoning with gold cyanide". Anaesthesia 41 (79): 936–939. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2044.1986.tb12920.x. 
  54. ^ Wu, Ming-Ling; Tsai, Wei-Jen; Ger, Jiin; Deng, Jou-Fang; Tsay, Shyh-Haw; Yang, Mo-Hsiung. (2001). "Cholestatic Hepatitis Caused by Acute Gold Potassium Cyanide Poisoning". Clinical toxicology 39 (7): 739–743. doi:10.1081/CLT-100108516. PMID 11778673. 
  55. ^ Henna tattoo ingredient is Allergen of the Year.(Clinical Rounds). Retrieved Sept 17, 2009.
  56. ^ Brunk, Doug (February 15, 2008). "Ubiquitous nickel wins skin contact allergy award for 2008". http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-176478357.html. 
  57. ^ "World Gold Council > value > research & statistics > statistics > supply and demand statistics". http://www.gold.org/value/stats/statistics/gold_demand/index.html. Retrieved 2006-07-22. 
  58. ^ Kitco.com, Gold - London PM Fix 1975 - present (GIF), Retrieved 2006-07-22.
  59. ^ Goldfinger Brown's £2 billion blunder in the bullion market, The Times, 15 April 2007
  60. ^ a b "LBMA statistics". Lbma.org.uk. 2008-12-31. http://www.lbma.org.uk/2008dailygold.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  61. ^ "Gold hits yet another record high". BBC News. 2009-12-02. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/8390779.stm. Retrieved 2009-12-06. 
  62. ^ Kitco.com
  63. ^ "Gold starts 2006 well, but this is not a 25-year high! | Financial Planning". Ameinfo.com. http://www.ameinfo.com/75511.html. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  64. ^ California Government Code selection 420-429.8 (see § 425.1)
  65. ^ Alaska Statutes (see§ 44.09.110)

Bibliography

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  • Kodak (2006) Toning black-and-white materials. Technical Data/Reference sheet G-23, May 2006.
  • Roth J, Bendayan M, Orci L (1980) FITC-Protein A-Gold Complex for Light and Electron Microscopic Immunocytochemistry. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 28, 55–57.
  • World Gold Council, Jewellery Technology, Jewellery Alloys

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.GOLD [[[symbol]] Au, atomic weight 1 95.7(11 = I),197 2(O =16)], a metallic chemical element, valued from the earliest ages on account of the permanency of its colour and lustre.^ The corresponding figures in 1900 were - wheat,16, 844, 6 50 bushels,value, $11,995,488, and flour, 768,162 bushels, value, $2,791,885.

^ When the 'font-weight' component is set to the relative values 'bolder' and 'lighter', these must be interpreted relative to the computed value of the 'font-weight' property of the corresponding canvas element at the time that the attribute is set.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The acute toxicity of 11 chemicals to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) fry (average weight 1 g) that had been reared for about 8 wk on 1 of 5 diets.

.Gold ornaments of great variety and elaborate workmanship have been discovered on sites belonging to the earliest known civilizations, Minoan, Egyptian, Assyrian, Etruscan (see Jewelry, Plate, Egypt, Crete, Aegean Civilization, Numismatics), and in ancient literature gold is the universal symbol of the highest purity and value (cf.^ They also hold great ornamental value.

^ Its ornamental value and symbolism makes koi keeping a very popular tradition especially in certain parts of the world.

^ Silver, gold… or even platinum or palladium… minted coins can develop numismatic value.

passages in the Old Testament, e.g. Ps. xix. .10 " More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold ").^ He now believes the company is in much better shape after it announced a US$50-million gold stream transaction on Friday Click here to read more...

^ On December 31st, they reported that the U.S. Treasury sold more than $2.1 Trillion in Treasury notes and bonds this year.

^ It takes much more effort to explain the system than it does to use it -- because using it is push-button easy.
  • Lead Supreme 3.0 14 January 2010 19:52 UTC leadsupreme.com [Source type: General]

.With regard to the history of the metallurgy of gold, it may be mentioned that, according to Pliny, mercury was employed in his time both as a means of separating the precious metals and for the purposes of gilding.^ Raising koi fry may require a pretty amount of space and time, but the beauty and deeper meaning of keeping kois make the hobby very rewarding.

^ So, it is fairly clear from that history that the Constitution integrated market and state with respect to official money — silver and gold coinage — and it separated bank and state with respect to everything else .
  • How to restore Constitutional money 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This means that it is best to take your multivitamin and mineral pill at a separate time from your calcium supplement.
  • Calcium | ThirdAge Articles 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.thirdage.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Disease, Condition, & Injury Fact Sheets | NYU Langone Medical Center 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Vitruvius also gives a detailed account of the means of recovering gold, by amalgamation, from cloth into which it had been woven.
Table of contents

Physical Properties

.Gold has a characteristic yellow colour, which is, however, notably affected by small quantities of other metals; thus the tint is sensibly lowered by small quantities of silver, and heightened by copper.^ It’s not great for small transactions where silver will do, but for a compact and portable store of wealth, gold fits the bill perfectly.

^ Gold or silver coins are often mixed with 10% copper to improve durability, and coins are made with ridges around the rim to prevent coin shaving or debasement.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Penicillamine • mechanism: The role of penicillamine is to bind metals and iron is among the metals thus affected.

.When the gold is finely divided, as in " purple of Cassius," or when it is precipitated from solutions, the colour is ruby-red, while in very thin leaves it transmits a greenish light.^ The numerous cultivated varieties are distinguished mainly by the colour of the internodes, whether yellow, red or purple, or striped, and by the height.

^ Carbon black in very finely divided form is the most common reinforcing ingredient; it is relatively cheap and is one of the most effective known.
  • Your Document-Electric Library 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.slac.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It leaves a red streak on unglazed porcelain, and in its usually finely-divided condition is a characteristic bright earthy red.
  • Iron 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is nearly as soft as lead and softer than silver. .When pure, it is the most malleable of all metals (see Goldbeating).^ Pure calcium really is a metal, lustrous, malleable, the works.
  • Pictures, stories, and facts about the element Calcium in the Periodic Table 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC periodictable.com [Source type: General]

^ Can you see crystal grains in most or all of the rock without using a magnifier?

.It is also extremely ductile; a single grain may be drawn into a wire 500 ft.^ Graining does not make the shea butter bad or harmful, it simply is an appearance issue which may also turn into an unpleasant application issue.
  • MMS - Fixed Oil 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.thesage.com [Source type: General]

in length, and an .ounce of gold covering a silver wire is capable of being extended more than 1300 m.^ Their futures, and those of their families, have been forever altered — almost uniformly for the worse — for nothing more criminal than being a Nortel employee and believing in a company pension .
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ These foreign elements have been assimilated more slowly than in the United States, but the process is being hastened by the growth of a national consciousness.

^ Indicated coal is projected to extend as an mile wide belt that lies more than mile from the outcrop or points of observation or measurement.

.The presence of minute quantities of cadmium, lead, bismuth, antimony, arsenic, tin, tellurium and zinc renders gold brittle, 2 ' 0 15th part of one of the three metals first named being sufficient to produce that quality.^ Thus, laboratory tests are just one part of the picture in lead poisoning cases.

^ Also known as: Blood lead test; Blood lead level; BLL Formal name: Lead, blood Related tests: Zinc protoporphyrin ; Heavy Metals At a Glance Test Sample The Test Common Questions Ask Us Links The Test .

^ Split fn on spaces , and let part one be the first resulting token, and part two be the second, if any, or the empty string if there is no second token.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Gold can be readily welded cold; the finely divided metal, in the state in which it is precipitated from solution, may be compressed between dies into disks or medals.^ This hopper was divided into two parts by vertical division plates, against the bottom edge of which the knives in the disk forced the roots and sliced and pulped them.

^ TEMPERATURES AND TESTS FOR SUGAR SYRUP 215°F. Thread: The sugar may be pulled into brittle threads between the fingers.

^ State and federal policymakers may be digging coal into a hole.

.The specific gravity of gold obtained by precipitation from solution by ferrous sulphate is from 19.55 to 20.72. The specific gravity of cast gold varies from 18.29 to 19.37, and by compression between dies the specific gravity may be raised from 19.37 to 19.41; by annealing, however, the previous density is to some extent recovered, as it is then found to be 19.40. The melting-point has been variously given, the early values ranging from 1425° C. to 1035° C. Using improved methods, C. T. Heycock and F. H. Neville determined it to be 1061 7° C.; Daniel Berthelot gives 1064° C., while Jaquerod and Perrot give 1066.1-1067.4° C. At still higher temperatures it volatilizes, forming a reddish vapour.^ J Antimicrob Chemother 1996 May;37 Suppl A:41-55.

^ To some extent, this requirement is driven by Gold’s point 6.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It may then be adjusted using the transformation methods.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Macquer and Lavoisier showed that when gold is strongly heated, fumes arise which gild a piece of silver held in them. .Its volatility has also been studied by L. Elsner, and, in the presence of other metals, by Napier and others.^ Although it is not a specific iron transporter and although it is capable of transporting other divalent metals, recent studies suggest that it may play a primary role in the delivery of iron to the cell.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The volatility is barely appreciable at 1075°; at 1250° it is four times as much as at 1 roo°.^ In some states and counties you can earn four times as much money!

.Copper and zinc increase the volatility far more than lead, while the greatest volatility is induced, according to T. Kirke Rose, by tellurium.^ She was far more skillful than Lafitte had been.
  • Fiction Liberation Front--Gold 27 January 2010 23:57 UTC www.lewisshiner.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Copper cathodes Lead ingots Zinc ingots .
  • 1955 RUBLE-DOLLAR PRICE RATIOS FOR INTERMEDIATE PRODUCTS AND SERVICES IN THE US - CIA document 15 September 2009 2:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The benefits of reducing dietary sodium and increasing potassium may be additive, as the dietary ratio seems to be more important than the total dietary content of either [1].
  • Potassium Supplementation by David Tolson 13 January 2010 21:34 UTC www.1fast400.com [Source type: Academic]

It has also been shown that gold volatilizes when a gold-amalgam is distilled. .Gold is dissipated by sending a powerful charge of electricity through it when in the form of leaf or thin wire.^ A thin, stretched tungsten wire nibbles slowly away at the titanium by means of an electric current running from the wire to the titanium.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The5 rate for utility sales in the category "Large Light and Power" as defined by the Edison Electric Institute has been used to represent the power rate charged industrial consumers in the .
  • 1955 RUBLE-DOLLAR PRICE RATIOS FOR INTERMEDIATE PRODUCTS AND SERVICES IN THE US - CIA document 15 September 2009 2:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The electric conductivity is given by A. Matthiessen as 73 at 0° C., pure silver being 100; the value of this coefficient depends greatly on the purity of the metal, the presence of a few thousandths of silver lowering it by 10%.^ The technical value of caoutchouc chiefly depends on the extent to which it is capable of being stretched without breaking, and the extent to which it at once returns to its original dimensions.

^ Oz 10 Oz 100 Oz 1000 Oz Silver Bars Sunshine Minting 100 Oz Silver Bars .
  • GOLD, PLATINUM, PALLADIUM AND SILVER BULLION COINS FOR SALE 27 January 2010 23:57 UTC www.tulving.com [Source type: General]

^ Ferrites are spontaneously magnetized, like a ferromagnetic material, but have no metallic binding and low electrical conductivity.
  • Iron 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Its conductivity for heat has been variously given as 103 (C. M. Despretz), 98 (F. Crace-Calvert and R. Johnson), and 60 (G. H. Wiedemann and R. Franz), pure silver being loo. Its specific heat is between 0.0298 (Dulong and Petit) and 0.03244 (Regnault). Its coefficient of expansion for each degree between o° and Ioo C. is 0.000014661, or for gold which has been annealed 0.000015136 (Laplace and Lavoisier). .The spark spectrum of gold has been mapped by A. Kirchhoff, R. Thaler', Sir William Huggins and H. Kriiss; the brightest lines are 6277, 59 60, 5955 and 5836 in the orange and yellow, and 5230 and 4792 in the green and blue.^ A substance found in yellow and orange fruits and vegetables and in dark green, leafy vegetables.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Sir William Rees-Mogg The monetary managers are fond of telling us that they have substituted 'responsible money management' for the gold standard.
  • Money, Banking, and Credit 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.famguardian.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The recall includes two types -- the green, yellow and orange-colored Carnotaurus (Model No.
  • Lead Paint Toy Recalls - Latest Lead Toy Recalls - Toxic Childrens Products - thedailygreen.com 14 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.thedailygreen.com [Source type: General]

Chemical Properties

.Gold is permanent in both dry and moist air at ordinary or high temperatures.^ It is especially used for drying hops and malt , and in blast furnaces where a high temperature is required, but it is not suited for reverberatory furnaces.

^ Coke – A hard, dry carbon substance produced by heating coal to a very high temperature in the absence of air.

^ Drying is completed in circulating air ovens which are sometimes augmented by high-frequency heating to shorten the drying time.
  • Your Document-Electric Library 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.slac.com [Source type: Reference]

.It is insoluble in hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acids, but dissolves in aqua regia - a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids - and when very finely divided in a heated mixture of strong sulphuric acid and a little nitric acid; dilution with water, however, precipitates the metal as a violet or brown powder from this solution.^ We want to insure you that we are all fine and that we sustained very little damage to our property; however, thousands of people in South Florida are dealing with considerable hardship and we are doing all we can to help them cope in their time of need.
  • Sugar Bush Squirrel - International Superstar - Supermodel & Military Hero 13 January 2010 17:21 UTC www.sugarbushsquirrel.com [Source type: General]

^ In some districts the collected milk is heated alone or diluted with water, to coagulate the rubber, but if heated alone an inferior rubber is apt to result owing to overheating.

^ The metal is highly resistant to corrosion by many agents including concentrated nitric acid, 5% sulfuric acid, and sea water.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.The metal is soluble in solutions of chlorine, bromine, thiosulphates and cyanides; and also in solutions which generate chlorine, such as mixtures of hydrochloric acid with nitric acid, chromic acid, antimonious acid, peroxides and nitrates, and of nitric acid with a chloride.^ The metal is highly resistant to corrosion by many agents including concentrated nitric acid, 5% sulfuric acid, and sea water.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When rubber is heated with sulfuric acid, sulfonic acids, or certain metal salts such as stannic chloride, it undergoes a transformation into a tough, gutta-percha-like product.
  • Your Document-Electric Library 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.slac.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Oxidizing agents such as nitric acid, potassium permanganate, and hydrogen peroxide oxidize the rubber.
  • Your Document-Electric Library 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.slac.com [Source type: Reference]

Gold is also attacked when strong sulphuric acid is submitted to electrolysis with a gold positive pole. .W. Skey showed that in substances which contain small quantities of gold the precious metal may be removed by the solvent action of iodine or bromine in water.^ It shows the greatest quantity of juice that may be expressed from canes, according to the different proportions of fibre they contain, but without employing maceration or imbibition, to which processes reference is made hereafter.

^ F. Firm ball: Syrup dropped into ice water may be formed into a firm ball which does not flatten on removal from the water.

^ Coins were a further improvement -- substituting small standard weights and trademarks for assays greatly reduced the costs of small transactions using precious metals.
  • Shelling Out -- The Origins of Money 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC szabo.best.vwh.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Filter paper soaked with the clear solution is burnt, and the presence of gold is indicated by the purple colour of the ash.^ An indication of the character of the ash of a coal is afforded by its colour, white ash coals being generally freer from sulphur than those containing iron pyrites, which yield a red ash.

.In solution minute quantities of gold may be detected by the formation of " purple of Cassius," a bluish-purple precipitate thrown down by a mixture of ferric and stannous chlorides.^ The present study was designed to detect the protonation in solutions and the formation of the complex species at the pH levels typical of the gastrointestinal tract.

.The atomic weight of gold was first determined with accuracy by Berzelius, who deduced the value 195.7 (H= i) from the amount of mercury necessary to precipitate it from the chloride, and 195.2 from the ratio between gold and potassium chloride in potassium aurichloride, KAuC1 4. Later determinations were made by Sir T. E. Thorpe and A. P. Laurie, Kriiss and J. W. Mallet.^ They first made ceramic marbles and later switched to glass marbles.
  • Akron Marbles: Glossary of Marble Terminology 2 February 2010 15:40 UTC www.akronmarbles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Relationship between urinary calcium and net acid excretion as determined by dietary protein and potassium: A review.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate 13 January 2010 21:34 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Humans evolved from ancestors who habitually consumed large amounts of uncultivated plant foods that provided substantial amounts of potassium.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate 13 January 2010 21:34 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Thorpe and Laurie converted potassium auribromide into a mixture of metallic gold and potassium bromide by careful heating.^ Phenyl magnesium bromide converts methyl fluoroacetate and fluoroacetyl chloride into 1:2:2-triphenylethanol.
  • Sodium Fluoroacetate (1080) Abstracts. CAS No. 62-74-8. Fluoride Action Network Pesticide Project. 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.fluoridealert.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When l-gulonic acid is heated with pyridine, it is converted into l-idonic acid, and vice versa; and d-gulonic acid may in a similar manner be converted into d-idonic acid, from which it is possible to prepare d-idose.

^ BCE The heated metal would be poured into the mold; when it had partially hardened the resulting flans would be used for stiking coins.
  • McManus Images Index Roman Coins: Republic and Principate 6 February 2010 10:56 UTC www.vroma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The relation of the gold to the potassium bromide, as well as the amounts of silver and silver bromide which are equivalent to the potassium bromide, were determined.^ The ethanol solution is aspirated directly into the flame, and iron equivalent to a known amount of cyanide is then determined.

^ Monetary value means value calculated on the basis of $1 for an amount of silver or gold equal to the amount at the time contained in the standard silver dollar or gold dollar.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

The mean value thus adduced was 195.86. Kriiss worked with the same salt, and obtained the value 195.65; while Mallet, by analyses of gold chloride and bromide, and potassium auribromide, obtained the value 195.77.

Occlusion of Gas by Gold

.T. Graham showed that gold is capable of occluding by volume 0.48% of hydrogen, 0.20% of nitrogen, 0.29% of carbon monoxide, and 0.16% of carbon dioxide.^ There are also many Russian dry gas reservoirs which not only contain 20% nitrogen, but also 30% hydrogen (Smith et al 2005).
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They all contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen , forming the carbonaceous or combustible portion, and some quantity of mineral matter, which remains after combustion as a residue or " ash ."

^ PEER REVIEWED** Cyanide may react with carbon dioxide in ordinary air to form toxic hydrogen cyanide gas.

Varrentrapp pointed out that " cornets " from the assay of gold may retain gas if they are not strongly heated.

Occurrence and Distribution

.Gold is found in nature chiefly in the metallic state, i.e. as " native gold," and less frequently in combination with tellurium, lead and silver.^ And it’s this industrial use that causes silver to get used up and destroyed… Whereas its sister metal, gold, seems nearly indestructible.

^ No state shall make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debt .
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Prospectors had found ores of iron and copper so rich that the waste was less than the metal in them.
  • This is the IRON Web page 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bisque.com [Source type: General]

.These are the only certain examples of natural combinations of the metal, the minute, though economically valuable, quantity often found in pyrites and other sulphides being probably only present in mechanical suspension.^ Rarely (probably less often than once in every thousand pregnancies), no alternative to an angiotensin II receptor antagonist will be found.
  • Cozaar (Losartan Potassium) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 13 January 2010 21:34 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Measured either in quantity or value, aluminum's use exceeds that of any other metal except iron, and it is important in virtually all segments of the world economy.
  • Aluminum Prices, London Metal Exchange (LME) Aluminum Alloy Prices, COMEX and Shanghai Aluminum Prices 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC metalprices.com [Source type: General]

^ Check out these other pages and photos and keep watching for new shots of the one and only .
  • Sugar Bush Squirrel - International Superstar - Supermodel & Military Hero 13 January 2010 17:21 UTC www.sugarbushsquirrel.com [Source type: General]

.The native metal crystallizes in the cubic system, the octahedron being the commonest form, but other and complex combinations have been observed.^ Uranium in groundwater leads to health hazards.” “Normal functioning of kidney, brain, liver, heart and other systems can be affected by uranium exposure, because, in addition to being weakly radioactive, uranium is a toxic metal.

^ The halogens combine with metals to form compounds called halides.

^ If the cyanide ion is present in excess, complex metallocyanides may form; however, if metals are prevalent, simple metal cyanides may form.

.Owing to the softness of the metal, large crystals are rarely well defined, the points being commonly rounded.^ Is there a point to using an expensive light metal to make something that is defined and sold by weight?
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The points of observation and measurement are so closely spaced and the thickness and extent of coals are so well defined that the tonnage is judged to be accurate within 20 percent of true tonnage.

^ If the two points are the same, or if the radius is zero, then the arc is defined as being of zero length in both directions.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.In the irregular crystalline aggregates branching and moss-like forms are most common, and in Transylvania thin plates or sheets with diagonal structures are found.^ Carbon black in very finely divided form is the most common reinforcing ingredient; it is relatively cheap and is one of the most effective known.
  • Your Document-Electric Library 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.slac.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Uranyl acetate is the most common “staining” chemical used for imaging of organic structures with an electron microscope.
  • Depleted Cranium » Blog Archive » Depleted Uranium: It’s all around you! 8 January 2010 5:05 UTC depletedcranium.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the most common coal found in the United States and is used to generate electricity and to make coke for the steel industry.

.More characteristic, however, than the crystallized are the irregular forms,which, when large, are known as "nuggets" or " pepites," and when in pieces below - to z oz.^ A design which is below the level of the coin's surface rather than standing out above it, which would be much more usual.

^ The following, however, is incorrect usage, as the cite element here is containing far more than the title of the work: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The Mackenzie forms a large but little-known delta in lat.

weight as gold .dust, the larger sizes being distinguished as coarse or nuggety gold, and the smaller as gold dust proper.^ This is one of the most compact forms of machine, the smaller size being only 20 in.

^ Grain Size: Grain size in rocks can mean the size of crystal grains or of fragments: Coarse Grained: most of the rock is made of grains as largeas rice, or larger.

^ Loose coal - Coal fragments larger in size than coal dust.

.Except in the larger nuggets, which may be more or less angular, or at times even masses of crystals, with or without associated quartz or other rock, gold is generally found bean-shaped or in some other flattened form, the smallest particles being scales of scarcely appreciable thickness, which, from their small bulk as compared with their surface, subside very slowly when suspended in water, and are therefore readily carried away by a rapid current.^ Water is more than a carrier of other materials.

^ Altered forms of this receptor may be associated with some types of cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Over the weekend, I found some more.
  • NOVA Geoblog 1 February 2010 1:13 UTC nvcc.edu [Source type: General]

.These form the " float gold " of the miner.^ There are deadly consequences of these free-floating minerals.
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When you use the non-biologically active forms you put these people at risk as the minerals will neutralize the stomach acid and damage the digestive process.
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These types of foods have been shown to contain not only minerals in natural food forms, but also important protein chaperones such as ATX1 and ceruplasmin [39,40].
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The physical properties of native gold are generally similar to that of the melted metal.^ PEER REVIEWED** Other Chemical/Physical Properties: Soln readily dissolves gold and silver in presence of air [Budavari, S. (ed.

.Of the minerals containing gold the most important are sylvanite or graphic tellurium (Ag, Au) Tee, with 24 to 26%; calaverite, AuTe2, with 42%; nagyagite or foliate tellurium (Pb, Au)16 Sba(S, Te)24, with 5 to 9% of gold; petzite, (Ag, Au) 2 Te, and white tellurium.^ These types of foods have been shown to contain not only minerals in natural food forms, but also important protein chaperones such as ATX1 and ceruplasmin [39,40].
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Xiaoqinling gold belt Jindongcha (Jingtongcha) Au-Ag-Cu deposit .
  • Iron: Iron mineral information and data. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.mindat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Calcium is the most abundant and the most important mineral in the body, yet it is the most difficult to get absorbed and utilized by the cells.
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These are confined to a few localities, the oldest and best known being those of Nagyag and Offenbanya in Transylvania; they have also been found at Red Cloud, Colorado, in Calaveras county, California, and at Perth and Boulder, West Australia.^ Halibut are distinctively cold-water fish, being caught in water at from 32° to 45° F. They are found in the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans, where they are nearly identical.
  • XI. FISH. Farmer, Fannie Merritt. 1918. The Boston Cooking-School Cook Book. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC bartleby.com [Source type: General]

^ Hydrocarbons within the cap rock (shales and saltseals) are a consequence, not of local generation of the hydrocarbons or of diffusion (there is not enough time), but of hydrocarbons being intimately mixed with the cap-rock material while those materials are being deposited, and before they are sufficiently compacted to be impermeable.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though they could get along easily with many other species, guppies are most comfortable being around with those of their own.

The minerals of the second class, usually spoken of as " auriferous," are comparatively numerous. .Prominent among these are galena and iron pyrites, the former being almost invariably gold-bearing.^ These tax collectors almost literally hit a gold mine, and the wealth of Lydian kings Midas, Croesus, and Giges is famous to this day.
  • Shelling Out -- The Origins of Money 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC szabo.best.vwh.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also called iron pyrites, fool's gold, sulfur balls.

^ The divisional planes often contain small films of other minerals, the commonest being calcite , gypsum and iron pyrites , but in some cases zeolitic minerals and galena have been observed.

.Iron pyrites, however, is of greater practical importance, being in some districts exceedingly rich, and, next to the native metal, is the most prolific source of gold.^ However, most of them find a local outlet or do a search on the Internet and come up with another source to purchase their product from.
  • The Motor Oil Bible eBook 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC motoroilbible.com [Source type: General]

^ Prospectors had found ores of iron and copper so rich that the waste was less than the metal in them.
  • This is the IRON Web page 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.bisque.com [Source type: General]

^ As most of the Canadian rivers have waterfalls on their course, they must become of more and more importance as sources of power.

.Magnetic pyrites, copper pyrites, zinc blende and arsenical pyrites are other and less important examples, the last constituting the gold ore formerly worked in Silesia.^ Metalliferous ores of various kinds occur both in Nova Scotia and in this province, but with the exception of the gold already mentioned, have not yet become the objects of important industries.

^ Seriously though if you work hard to live a low impact lifestyle at the individual level and if your example is taken up by others then you have solved the problem.
  • The Oil Drum | Iraqi Oil: Black Gold or Black Hole? 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because calcium competes with zinc, manganese, magnesium, copper, and iron for absorption in the intestine, a high intake of one mineral can reduce the absorption of others.
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A native gold amalgam is found as a rarity in California, and bismuth from South America is sometimes rich in gold.^ Fluoroacetate is also a toxic component of poisonous plants found in Australia, South Africa, South America, and India.
  • Sodium Fluoroacetate (1080) Abstracts. CAS No. 62-74-8. Fluoride Action Network Pesticide Project. 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.fluoridealert.org [Source type: Academic]

.Native arsenic and antimony are also very frequently found to contain gold and silver.^ Another NRDC study found that, out of 103 brands of bottled water, one-third contained traces of arsenic and E. coli.

^ Worse, the New England natives used neither silver nor gold.
  • Shelling Out -- The Origins of Money 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC szabo.best.vwh.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Monetary value means value calculated on the basis of $1 for an amount of silver or gold equal to the amount at the time contained in the standard silver dollar or gold dollar.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

The association and distribution of gold may be considered under two different heads, namely, as it occurs in mineral veins - " reef gold," and in alluvial or other superficial deposits which are derived from the waste of the former - " alluvial gold." Four distinct types of reef gold deposits may be distinguished: (I) Gold may occur disseminated through metalliferous veins, generally with sulphides and more particularly with pyrites. These deposits seem to be the primary sources of native gold. .(2) More common are the auriferous quartz-reefs - veins or masses of quartz containing gold in flakes visible to the naked eye, or so finely divided as to be invisible.^ Carbon black in very finely divided form is the most common reinforcing ingredient; it is relatively cheap and is one of the most effective known.
  • Your Document-Electric Library 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.slac.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Arkose contains more than 25% feldspar with quartz.

^ To keep this in context we need to remember that the weapons we shoot in a war contain a lot of lead, which far more common that uranium.
  • Depleted Cranium » Blog Archive » Depleted Uranium: It’s all around you! 8 January 2010 5:05 UTC depletedcranium.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(3) The " banket " formation, which characterizes the goldfields of South Africa, consists of a quartzite conglomerate throughout which gold is very finely disseminated. (4) The siliceous sinter at XII. 7 Mount Morgan, Queensland, which is obviously associated with hydrothermal action, is also gold-bearing. .The genesis of the last three types of deposit is generally assigned to the simultaneous percolation of solutions of gold and silica, the auriferous solution being formed during the disintegration of the gold-bearing metalliferous veins.^ In a young-earth framework, the oil reservoirs that we now find were either deposited during the Noachian Flood (Flood geology for short) or formed after the Flood (Recolonization geology).
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yesterday I hinted about the three best reasons to invest in gold, but it bears repeating.

^ There are three different types of rock: Igneous Rock is formed when a magma cools underground and crystallizes or when it erupts unto the surface of the ground, cools and crystallizes.

.But there is much uncertainty as to the mechanism of the process; some authors hold that the soluble chloride is first formed, while others postulate the intervention of a soluble aurate.^ It is found also that some monosaccharoses behave as aldehydes whilst others contain a keto group; those having the first character are called aldoses, and the others ketoses.

^ It is already in the ionic form, therefore it is 100% bioavailable and does not have to undergo the digestive, ionizing process to which the other calcium and some coral calcium supplements must be subjected.
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Again, I don't think that there's any other person out there that stands by there business opportunity so much so that they're willing to travel to their client's home town to help!

.In the alluvial deposits the associated minerals are chiefly those of great density and hardness, such as platinum, osmiridium and other metals of the platinum group, tinstone, chromic, magnetic and brown iron ores, diamond, ruby and sapphire, zircon, topaz, garnet, &c.^ Measured either in quantity or value, aluminum's use exceeds that of any other metal except iron, and it is important in virtually all segments of the world economy.
  • Aluminum Prices, London Metal Exchange (LME) Aluminum Alloy Prices, COMEX and Shanghai Aluminum Prices 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC metalprices.com [Source type: General]

^ On Crandor Island, there are three adamantite ore rocks that are almost never mined as well and are great and almost always open for a miner.
  • Money Making - ::Sal's Realm of RuneScape:: 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC runescape.salmoneus.net [Source type: General]

^ It is found also that some monosaccharoses behave as aldehydes whilst others contain a keto group; those having the first character are called aldoses, and the others ketoses.

which represent the more durable original constituents of the rocks whose distintegration has furnished the detritus.

Statistics of Gold Production

.The supply of gold, and also its relation to the supply of silver, has, among civilized nations, always been of paramount importance in the economic questions concerning money (see Money and Bimetallism); in this article a summary of the modern gold-producing areas will be given, and for further details reference should be made to the articles on the localities named.^ See the section on headings and sections for further details.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For further details, see Bradley (1984).
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gold or silver coins are often mixed with 10% copper to improve durability, and coins are made with ridges around the rim to prevent coin shaving or debasement.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

.The chief sources of the European supply during the middle ages were the mines of Saxony and Austria, while Spain also contributed.^ The sugar-cane was introduced by the Arabs in the middle ages into Egypt , Sicily and the south of Spain where it flourished until the abundance of sugar in the colonies caused its cultivation to be abandoned.

^ Self-contained breathing apparatus - A self-contained supply of oxygen used during rescue work from coal mine fires and explosions; same as SCSR (self-contained self rescuer).

^ In German Silesia there is a third rich field, which extends into Austria (Austrian Silesia and Galicia ), for which country it forms the chief home source of supply (apart from lignite).

.The supplies from Mexico and Brazil were important during the 16th and 17th centuries.^ When costliness becomes forgeable -- Glass trade beads, manufactured in Venice in the 16th or 17th century, excavated from Mali, Africa.
  • Shelling Out -- The Origins of Money 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC szabo.best.vwh.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Russia became prominent in 1823, and for fourteen years contributed the bulk of the supply. .The United States (California) after 1848, and Australia after 1851, were responsible for enormous increases in the total production, which has been subsequently enhanced by discoveries in Canada, South Africa, India, China and other countries.^ We have locations in the United states, Ireland, and Australia.
  • Buy WoW Gold | World of Warcraft Gold Shop™ | Cheap WoW Gold 27 January 2010 23:57 UTC mymmoshop.com [Source type: General]

^ The United States Census Bureau estimates that the state population was 4,753,377 in 2006, a 10.49% increase since U.S. Census 2000.
  • BASALT, CO - Retirement Communities on the Retirement Net 1 February 2010 1:13 UTC www.retirenet.com [Source type: General]

^ It is accredited for hours/units for licensed/accredited applicators in 7 U.S. Cotton Belt states (Florida, Georgia, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, South Carolina an d Tennessee.
  • Ug99 � threat to world�s wheat 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The average annual world's production for certain periods from 1801 to 1880 in ounces is given in Table I. The average TABLE I.
Period.
Oz.
Period.
Oz.
1801-1810
590,750
1856-1860
6,350,180
1811-1820
380,300
1861-1865
5,951,770
1821-1830
472,400
1866-1870
6,169,660
1831-1840
674,200
1871-1875
5,487,400
1841-1850
1,819,600
1876-1880
5,729,300
1851-1855
6 ,35 0, 180
-
-
production of the five years .1881-1885 was the smallest since the Australian and Californian mines began to be worked in 1848-1849; the minimum 4,614,588 oz., occurred in 1882. It was not until after 1885 that the annual output of the world began to expand.^ In the United States, interest in synthetic rubber remained dormant until 1921, when Ostromislensky and Maximoff began work on synthetic rubber for the United States Rubber Company.
  • Your Document-Electric Library 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.slac.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The IWSF Tournament Council has decided to expand the entry qualifications for the World Championships to a 2 year basis since the Championships are held every two years.
  • International Waterski & Wakeboard Federation 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.iwsf.com [Source type: News]

.Of the total production in 1876, 5,016,488 oz., almost the whole was derived from the United States, Australasia and Russia.^ World primary aluminum production continued to increase as capacity expansions outside the United States were brought onstream.
  • Aluminum Prices, London Metal Exchange (LME) Aluminum Alloy Prices, COMEX and Shanghai Aluminum Prices 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC metalprices.com [Source type: General]

^ One article on the web goes so far as to say that that almost everyone is the United States is at least marginally deficient in magnesium.
  • Magnesium Oil Therapy - It's Impact on Health and Vitality 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PEER REVIEWED** Hawesville, KY 42348, (502) 927-6921; Production site: Hawesville, KY 42348 [SRI. 1992 Directory of Chemical Producers-United States of America.

.Since then the proportion furnished by these countries has been greatly lowered by the supplies from South Africa, Canada, India and China.^ The BGRI executive committee includes leaders of agriculture research in the United States, Canada, Australia, Turkey, Kenya, Ethiopia, India and China.
  • Ug99 � threat to world�s wheat 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These cannot be compelled to serve outside the Dominion, though special corps may be enlisted for this purpose, as was done during the war in South Africa (1899-1902).

^ We formed working collaborations with our peers from around the world, including China, Canada, Kenya, Denmark, India, Latin… .
  • Alltop - Top Water News 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC water.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.The increase of production has not been uniform, the greater part having occurred most notably since 1895. Among the regions not previously important as gold-producers which now contribute to the annual output, the most remarkable are the goldfields of South Africa (Transvaal and Rhodesia, the former of which were discovered in 1885).^ NowHeres the most important part .

^ Apart from getting started and keeping going, the most important part of LeadGen is working out how much profit you can make from each potential deal.

^ The only aggressor nation at the moment is the US, hence why Russia and China (and their weapons) are now welcomed in oil producing regions.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Why Dick changed his mind 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.India likewise has been added to the list, its active production having begun at about the same time as that of South Africa.^ The first evidence of crystal sugar production appears at about 500 B.C. in Sanskrit texts that indicate it took place in northern India.
  • The Cambridge World History of Food - Sugar 13 January 2010 17:21 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Let entry be the last (most recently added) entry in the list of active formatting elements .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ While maximum plasma concentrations of losartan and its active metabolite are approximately equal, the AUC of the metabolite is about 4 times as great as that of losartan.
  • Cozaar (Losartan Potassium) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 13 January 2010 21:34 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

.The average annual product of India for the period 1886 to 1899 inclusive was £698,208, and its present annual product averages about 550,000 oz., or about £2,200,000, obtained almost wholly from the free-milling quartz veins of the Colar goldfields in Mysore, southern India.^ The first evidence of crystal sugar production appears at about 500 B.C. in Sanskrit texts that indicate it took place in northern India.
  • The Cambridge World History of Food - Sugar 13 January 2010 17:21 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The annual average oat crop in all Canada is estimated at about 248 million bushels.

^ The annual aggregate output of cane and date sugar in India was short of 4,000,000 tons.

.In 1900 the output was valued at £1,891,804, in 1905 at £2,450,536, and in 1908 at £2,270,000. Canada, too, assumed an important rank, having contributed in 1900 £5,583,300; but the output has since steadily declined to £1,973,000 in 1908. The great increase during the few years preceding 1899 was due to the development of the goldfields of the North-Western Territory, especially British Columbia.^ Southwest British Columbia, north of Vancouver.
  • Ethnologue report for Canada 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ British Columbia coast north of Vancouver.
  • Ethnologue report for Canada 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ North coast British Columbia.
  • Ethnologue report for Canada 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

From the district of Yukon (Klondike, &c.) £2,800,000 was obtained in .1899, wholly from alluvial workings, but the progress made since has been slower than was expected by sanguine people.^ More than 1.5 million Iraqi people have died of unnatural causes since the 1991 Gulf War, over one-third of them children under the age of five.
  • A Treatise on Military Weapons Containing the Radioactive Material: Depleted Uranium | TamaraJournal.com pre-publication 8 January 2010 5:05 UTC web.nmsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The progress is either indeterminate, indicating that progress is being made but that it is not clear how much more work remains to be done before the task is complete (e.g.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Since W3C launched the new HTML Working Group in March, over 450 people have joined.
  • HTML - W3C Q&A Weblog - Category Archives 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: General]

.It is, however, probable that the North-Western Territory will continue to yield gold in important quantities for some time to come.^ View some important indices for the Polk County Water Atlas that are kept up-to-date in real-time.

^ View some important indices for the Sarasota County Water Atlas that are kept up-to-date in real-time.

^ At one time small lobsters were taken in such quantities that it was feared, if the practice was long continued, they would be exterminated.
  • XI. FISH. Farmer, Fannie Merritt. 1918. The Boston Cooking-School Cook Book. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC bartleby.com [Source type: General]

.The output of the United States increased from £7,050,000 in 1881 to £16,085,567 in 1900, £17,916,000 in 1905, and to £20,065,000 in 1908. This increase was chiefly due to the exploitation of new goldfields.^ It is accredited for hours/units for licensed/accredited applicators in 7 U.S. Cotton Belt states (Florida, Georgia, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, South Carolina an d Tennessee.
  • Ug99 � threat to world�s wheat 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The oyster industry of the world is chiefly in the United States and France, and on account of its increase many artificial beds have been prepared for oyster culture.
  • XI. FISH. Farmer, Fannie Merritt. 1918. The Boston Cooking-School Cook Book. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC bartleby.com [Source type: General]

^ World primary aluminum production continued to increase as capacity expansions outside the United States were brought onstream.
  • Aluminum Prices, London Metal Exchange (LME) Aluminum Alloy Prices, COMEX and Shanghai Aluminum Prices 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC metalprices.com [Source type: General]

.The fall in the price of silver stimulated the discovery and development of gold deposits, and many states formerly regarded as characteristically silver districts have become important as gold producers.^ Gold & Silver Data and prices .
  • Buy and sell Silver Coins - United States 8 January 2010 3:31 UTC www.24hgold.com [Source type: General]

^ Metalliferous ores of various kinds occur both in Nova Scotia and in this province, but with the exception of the gold already mentioned, have not yet become the objects of important industries.

^ Eastern-Siberian Region Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e) Irkutskaya Oblast' Bodaibo Lena Gold District Kropotkinsky ore cluster Sukhoi Log deposit .
  • Iron: Iron mineral information and data. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.mindat.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Lead: Lead mineral information and data. 14 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.mindat.org [Source type: Academic]

.Colorado is a case in point, its output having increased from about £600,000 in 1880 to £6,065,000 in 1900; it was £5,139,800 in 1905. Somewhat more than one-half of the Colorado gold is obtained from the Cripple Creek district.^ If at any point along the way you need any help related to buying World of Warcraft Gold or WoW Gold simply click our Contact Us button and we will be more than happy to assist you!
  • Buy WoW Gold | World of Warcraft Gold Shop™ | Cheap WoW Gold 27 January 2010 23:57 UTC mymmoshop.com [Source type: General]

^ These small business people had no more reason to believe asbestos was dangerous than did their employees and customers: No one imagined it.
  • Pictures, stories, and facts about the element Calcium in the Periodic Table 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC periodictable.com [Source type: General]

^ From an activity point of view, the reduction of U234 in the process of going from natural uranium (Unat) to depleted uranium is more important than the reduction of U235.
  • Depleted Cranium » Blog Archive » Depleted Uranium: It’s all around you! 8 January 2010 5:05 UTC depletedcranium.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other states also showed a largely augmented product.^ Gold, silver, copper and other minerals are largely exported, chiefly in an unrefined state and almost entirely to the United States.

^ I'm partial to it not only because standardized laboratory testing and technical specifications show it to be at the top of the heap, but also because years of consulting with a large base of customers has shown me that it consistently outperforms other products on the market.
  • The Motor Oil Bible eBook 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC motoroilbible.com [Source type: General]

^ While the new machinery of state was thus being put in operation other large questions presented themselves.

.On the other hand, the output of California, which was producing over £3,000,000 per annum in 1876, has fallen off, the average annual output from 1876 to 1900 being £2,800,000; in 1905 the yield was £3,839,000. This decrease was largely caused by the practical suspension for many years of the hydraulic mining operations, in preparation for which millions of dollars had been expended in deep tunnels, flumes, &c., and the active continuance of which might have been expected to yield some £2,000,000 of gold annually.^ And if some large companies had internal documents suggesting there was cause for concern, they certainly didn't share those with the local plumbing contractor!
  • Pictures, stories, and facts about the element Calcium in the Periodic Table 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC periodictable.com [Source type: General]

^ Many people although not your readers, I suspect believe there are years worth of wheat and other commodities in storage.
  • Ug99 � threat to world�s wheat 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using one (1) vehicle, if you average transporting ONLY eight (8) people round-trip to and from local medical appointments, Monday - Friday, for 50 weeks out of the year, and you get an average of thirty five dollars ($35) for each one-way trip [that's sixteen (16) one-way trips] you'll generate $140,000 per year.

.This interruption, due to the practical prohibition of the industry by the United States courts, on the ground that it was injuring, through the deposit of tailings, agricultural lands and navigable streams, was lessened, though not entirely removed, by compromises and regulations which permit, under certain restrictions, the renewed exploitation of the ancient river-beds by the hydraulic method.^ The industry is overwhelmingly located in the United States.
  • The Cambridge World History of Food - Sugar 13 January 2010 17:21 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The oyster industry of the world is chiefly in the United States and France, and on account of its increase many artificial beds have been prepared for oyster culture.
  • XI. FISH. Farmer, Fannie Merritt. 1918. The Boston Cooking-School Cook Book. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC bartleby.com [Source type: General]

^ One is situated at Lethbridge, southern Alberta, where problems will be investigated concerning agriculture upon irrigated land and dry farming under conditions of a scanty rainfall.

.On the other hand, the progressive reduction of mining and metallurgical costs effected by improved transportation and machinery, and the use of high explosives, compressed air, electric-power transmission, &c., resulted in California (as elsewhere) in a notable revival of deep mining.^ The power so developed is generally utilized in the production of electricity, for which there is an abundant use about large collieries.

^ Where the load has to be hauled up a rising gradient, underground engines, driven by steam or compressed air or electric motors, are used.

^ Another kind of application of machinery to coal mining is that of Messrs Bidder & Jones, which is intended to replace the use of blasting for bringing down the coal.

.This was especially the case on the " Mother Lode,".where highly promising results were obtained.^ Other studies done in the post-war period have shown increases in skeletal malformation especially limb abnormalities as compared to results obtained from the pre-war period.
  • A Treatise on Military Weapons Containing the Radioactive Material: Depleted Uranium | TamaraJournal.com pre-publication 8 January 2010 5:05 UTC web.nmsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Not only is vein-material formerly regarded as unremunerative now extracted at a profit, but in many instances increased gold-values have been encountered below zones of relative barrenness, and operators have been encouraged to make costly preparations for really deep mining - more than 3000 ft.^ And the Internet makes it easier and more profitable than ever before.
  • How To Make A Great Living | Million Dollar Publisher 9 February 2010 13:35 UTC milliondollarpublisher.com [Source type: General]

^ Beneficiation - The treatment of mined material, making it more concentrated or richer.

^ We continue to consume more than we mine.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

below the surface. .The gold product of California, therefore, may be fairly expected to maintain itself, and, indeed, to show an advance.^ The products were sold at Daiso stores in California from March 2008 through May 2009 for between $1 and $4.
  • Lead Paint Toy Recalls - Latest Lead Toy Recalls - Toxic Childrens Products - thedailygreen.com 14 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.thedailygreen.com [Source type: General]

^ Therefore, it appears that hypokalemia is a primary event and that excessive PGE 2 production may be a secondary event.
  • Potassium Disorders 13 January 2010 21:34 UTC www.sonny2.com [Source type: Academic]

.Alaska appeared in the list of gold-producing countries in 1886, and gradually increased its annual output until 1897, when the country attracted much attention with a production valued at over £500,000; the opening up of new workings has increased this figure immensely, from about £1,400,000 in 1901 to £3,006,500 in 1905. The Alaska gold was derived almost wholly from the large low-grade quartz mines of Douglas Island prior to 1899, but in that year an important district was discovered at Cape Nome, on the north-western coast.^ Support - The all-important function of keeping the mine workings open.

^ Sign up for Notification of New Listings!
  • National Dexter Cattle for Sale List 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC dextercattle4sale.net [Source type: General]

^ About 500,000 sq.

.The result of a few months' working during that year was more than £500,000 of gold, and a very much larger annual output may reasonably be anticipated in the future; in 1905 it was about £900,000. The gold occurs in alluvial deposits designated as gulch-, bar-, beach-, tundraand bench-placers.^ More than is produced each year.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have been vegitarian for more than six years.

^ Some products do a lot more than $1,000 a month and some a lot less.
  • How To Make A Great Living | Million Dollar Publisher 9 February 2010 13:35 UTC milliondollarpublisher.com [Source type: General]

The tundra is a coastal plain, swampy and covered with undergrowth and underlaid by gravel. .The most interesting and, thus far, the most productive are the beach deposits, similar to those on the coast of Northern California.^ Thus the most efficient vacuum pans of the present day are those which have their coils so arranged that no portion of them exceeds 50 or 60 ft.

^ The introduction of the euro has decreased the interest rates of most members countries, in particular those with a weak currency.
  • Euro @ Top40-Charts.info 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Farm products are the most important export, and with the extension of this industry in the north-west provinces and in northern Ontario will probably continue to be so.

These occur in a strip of comparatively fine gravel and sand, 150 yds. wide, extending along the shore. The gold is found in stratified layers, with " ruby " and black sand. .The " ruby " sand consists chiefly of fine garnets and magnetites, with a few rose-quartz grains.^ Sandstone - A sedimentary rock consisting of quartz sand united by some cementing material, such as iron oxide or calcium carbonate.

Further exploration of the interior will probably result in the discovery of additional gold districts.
.Mexico, from a gold production of £200,000 in 1891, advanced to about £1,881,800 in 1900 and to about £3,221,000 in 1905. Of this increase, a considerable part was derived from gold-quartz mining, though much was also obtained as a by-product in the working of the ores of other metals.^ It's not about selling other people's product.
  • How To Make A Great Living | Million Dollar Publisher 9 February 2010 13:35 UTC milliondollarpublisher.com [Source type: General]

^ The availability and other information about products on stock you may find on the other pages of this site .

^ Lewis Carroll, 1832-98 In this example, which could be part of a much larger work discussing a castle, the figure has three images in it.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The product of Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador amounted in 1900 to £2,481,000 and to £2,046,000 in 1905.
.In 1876 Australasia produced £7,364,000, of which Victoria contributed £3,984,000. The annual output of Victoria declined until the year 1892, when it began to increase rapidly, but not to its former level, the values for 1900 and 1905 being £3,142,000 and £3,138,000. There has been an important increase in Queensland, which advanced from £1,696,000 in 1876 to £2,843,000 in 1900, and subsequently declined to £2,489,000 in 1905. There has been no increase, and, indeed, no large fluctuation until quite recently in the output of New Zealand, which averaged £1,054,000 per annum from 1876 to 1898, but the production of the two years 190oand 1905 rose to £1,425,459 and £2,070,407 respectively.^ If there is no head element , the new value is ignored.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Split fn on spaces , and let part one be the first resulting token, and part two be the second, if any, or the empty string if there is no second token.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ There is the catagenesis, which, even if we accept works at low temperatures (~100°C), does not deliver the oil volume within 10,000 years.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By far the most important addition to the Australasian product has come fromWestAustralia,which began its production in 1887 - about the time of the inception of mining at Witwatersrand ("the Rand") in South Africa-and by continuous increase, which assumed large proportions towards the close of the 19th century, was £6,426,000 in 1899, £6,179,000 in 1900, and L8,212,000 in 1905. The total Australasian production in 1908 was valued at £14,708,000.
Undoubtedly the greatest of the gold discoveries made in the latter half of the 19th century was that of the Witwatersrand district in the Transvaal. .By reason of its unusual geological character and great economic importance this district deserves a more extended description.^ Even though the importance of water pricing has been previously discussed by these super bloggers, I still thought it deserved more than a retweet.
  • Alltop - Top Water News 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC water.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Coal Measures proper, while the others are of small economic value in Great Britain, though more productive in workable coals on the continent of Europe.

^ Underneath our great economic institutions are far more ancient institutions that also involved wealth transfer in prehistoric times, the main kinds of wealth transfer.
  • Shelling Out -- The Origins of Money 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC szabo.best.vwh.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The gold occurs in conglomerate beds, locally known as "banket." .There are several series of parallel beds, interstratified with quartzite and schist, the most important being the "main reef" series.^ There are several main types of cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ There are several important agricultural colleges for the practical education of young men in farming, foremost amongst them being the Ontario Agricultural College at Guelph.

^ In Great Britain in 1910 the cultivation of beet for sugar was being seriously undertaken in Essex , as the result of careful consideration during several years.

The gold in this conglomerate reef is partly of detrital origin and partly of the genetic character of ordinary vein-gold. .The formation is noted for its regularity as regards both the thickness and the gold-tenor of the ore-bearing reefs, in which respect it is unparalleled in the geology of the auriferous formations.^ Metalliferous ores of various kinds occur both in Nova Scotia and in this province, but with the exception of the gold already mentioned, have not yet become the objects of important industries.

^ Nothing is consideration for a note that is not regarded as such by both parties.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Be sure to note that when using the quest mine, the dwarf will bank it for you at a cost of one gold ore every five you send him.
  • Money Making - ::Sal's Realm of RuneScape:: 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC runescape.salmoneus.net [Source type: General]

.The gold carries, on an average, £2 per ton, and is worked by ordinary methods of goldmining, stamp-milling and cyaniding.^ These cakes, sold as food for cattle, fetch as much as £4 per ton in Rumania , where four or five beetroot factories are now at work.

^ Another method of enabling more work to be done in a given time in a given cistern is the use of a bag twice the ordinary length, open at both ends.

^ The total saving effected is stated to be equivalent to 3 francs per ton of beetroot worked up.

.In 18 99, 57 62 stamps were in operation, crushing 7,331,446 tons of ore, and yielding £15,134,000, equivalent to 25.5% of the world's production.^ Australia produced 77% of the total known world production (359 000 tonnes) of rutile.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Of this, 80% came from within 12 m. of Johannesburg. .After September 1899 operations were suspended, almost entirely owing to the Boer War, but on the 2nd of May 1901 they were started again.^ They are in season from May 1st to September 1st.
  • XI. FISH. Farmer, Fannie Merritt. 1918. The Boston Cooking-School Cook Book. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC bartleby.com [Source type: General]

^ They consist almost entirely of marsh gas, with only a small quantity of carbonic acid, usually under 1%, and from i to 4% of nitrogen.

^ These cannot be compelled to serve outside the Dominion, though special corps may be enlisted for this purpose, as was done during the war in South Africa (1899-1902).

.In 1905 the yield was valued at £20,802,074, and in 1909 at £30,925,788. So certain is the ore-bearing formation that engineers in estimating its auriferous contents feel justified in assuming, as a factor in their calculations, a vertical extension limited only by the lowest depths at which mining is feasible.^ Angle of draw - In coal mine subsidence, this angle is assumed to bisect the angle between the vertical and the angle of repose of the material and is 20 for flat seams.

^ The dir IDL attribute on an element must reflect the dir content attribute of that element, limited to only known values .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The IDL attribute shape must reflect the shape content attribute, limited to only known values .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.On such a basis they arrived at more than £600,000,000 as the available gold contained in the Witwatersrand conglomerates.^ If people want more of the item than what's available, or if there's more product than people want to buy, you'll have a tough time either buying or selling.
  • Money Making - ::Sal's Realm of RuneScape:: 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC runescape.salmoneus.net [Source type: General]

^ (Suggests that Freud's views on religion deserve more study than they tend to receive.
  • Nielsen's Psyc of Religion: Resources 10 February 2010 11:30 UTC www.psywww.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ionized Microwater makes more oxygen available to our cells than distilled, reverse osmosis, filtered only, bottled or tap water.

.This was a conservative estimate, and was made before the full extent of the reefs was known; in 1904 Lionel Phillips stated that the main reef series had been proved for 61 m., and he estimated the gold remaining to be mined to be worth £2,500,000,000. Deposits similar to the Witwatersrand banket occur in Zululand, and also on the Gold Coast of Africa.^ The estimates are based on an assumed continuity or repletion of which there is geologic evidence; this evidence may include comparison with deposits of similar type.

^ The progress is either indeterminate, indicating that progress is being made but that it is not clear how much more work remains to be done before the task is complete (e.g.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If you want “Entourage” on HBO, you may get an idea of this agent as this HBO series and main character Ari Gold is thought to be based on his life.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.In Rhodesia, the country lying north of the Transvaal, where gold occurs in well-defined quartzveins, there is unquestionable evidence of extensive ancient workings.^ As evidenced by the results obtained in the cerebral resuscitation research at CCR, such an outcome driven approach does not only make theoretical sense, it works as well.
  • Future Directions in Human Cryopreservation Combinational Pharmacotherapy 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.alcor.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Justice is well administered throughout the country, and even in the remotest mining camps there has been little of the lawlessness seen in similar districts of Australia and the United States.

^ There is experimental evidence that the toxic action of phenytoin lies at the cellular level, predominantly in the cerebellum.

The economic importance of the region generally has been fully proved. Rhodesia produced £386,148 in 1900 and £722,656 in 1901, in spite of the South African War; the product for 1905 was valued at £1,480,449, and for 1908 at L2,526,000.
.The gold production of Russia has been remarkably constant, averaging £4,899,262 per annum; the gold is derived chiefly from placer workings in Siberia.^ For the last thirty years the average increase in the output has been 22% per annum, and that in the exports (including bunkers) 42% per annum.

^ Over three-quarters of this production was of fall or winter wheat, the average yield of which in Ontario over a series of years since 1883 had been about 20 bushels per acre.

The gold production of China was estimated for 1899 at £1,328,238 and for 1900 at £860,00o; it increased in 1901 to about £1,700,000, to fall to £340,000 in 1905; in 1906 and 1907 it recovered to about £1,000,000.
Production of Certain Countries, 1881-Ig08 (in oz.). .Alloys.-Gold forms alloys with most metals, and of these many are of great importance in the arts.^ Had these patents actually worked theyd have been the most valuable patents in the world glass industry earning many hundreds of millions of dollars in royalty fees.
  • Akron Marbles: Glossary of Marble Terminology 2 February 2010 15:40 UTC www.akronmarbles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most famous of the lakes are those of the St Lawrence system, which form part of the southern boundary of Canada and are shared with the United States; but many others have the right to be called " Great Lakes " from their magnitude.

^ If you hunt many of these, they can be a great source of income.
  • Money Making - ::Sal's Realm of RuneScape:: 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC runescape.salmoneus.net [Source type: General]

.The alloy with mercury-gold amalgam-is so readily formed that mercury is one of the most powerful agents for extracting the precious metal.^ Carbon black in very finely divided form is the most common reinforcing ingredient; it is relatively cheap and is one of the most effective known.
  • Your Document-Electric Library 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.slac.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Given a list of nodes nodes in a Document , a user agent must run the following algorithm to extract the microdata from those nodes into a JSON form : .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ There must be at least one event loop per user agent, and at most one event loop per unit of related similar-origin browsing contexts .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.With 10% of gold present the amalgam is fluid, and with 12.5% pasty, while with 13% it consists of yellowish-white crystals.^ Posted by pennyman23 ( 1300 ) on Feb-04-10 at 12:13:26 PST .
  • eBay Chat: Coins & Paper Money 6 February 2010 10:56 UTC chatboards.ebay.com [Source type: General]

^ Momma Mindy November 17, 2009 at 12:13 am I am desperately trying to eliminate white flour and sugar from our diet.
  • Moist Whole Wheat Banana Bread 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.breadtopia.com [Source type: General]

^ Posted by *smedley* ( 688 ) on Feb-04-10 at 12:13:45 PST .
  • eBay Chat: Coins & Paper Money 6 February 2010 10:56 UTC chatboards.ebay.com [Source type: General]

.Gold readily alloys with silver and copper to form substances in use from remote times for money, jewelry and plate.^ What your government thinks about using gold and silver as money.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Throughout history, Silver has been used as money in more times in more places than gold.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gold or silver coins are often mixed with 10% copper to improve durability, and coins are made with ridges around the rim to prevent coin shaving or debasement.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

.Other metals which find application in the metallurgy of gold by virtue of their property of extracting the gold as an alloy are lead, which combines very readily when molten, and which can afterwards be separated by cupellation, and copper, which is separated from the gold by solution in acids or by electrolysis; molten lead also extracts gold from the copper-gold alloys.^ Measured either in quantity or value, aluminum's use exceeds that of any other metal except iron, and it is important in virtually all segments of the world economy.
  • Aluminum Prices, London Metal Exchange (LME) Aluminum Alloy Prices, COMEX and Shanghai Aluminum Prices 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC metalprices.com [Source type: General]

^ PEER REVIEWED** Other Chemical/Physical Properties: Soln readily dissolves gold and silver in presence of air [Budavari, S. (ed.

^ Platinized titanium anodes are used in electroplating with gold, platinum, copper, silver, and other metals of high purity.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

The relative amount of gold in an alloy is expressed in two ways: (1) as " fineness," i.e. the amount of gold in 1000 parts of alloy; (2) as " carats," i.e. the amount of gold in 24 parts of alloy. Thus, pure gold is woo " fine " or 24 carat. .In England the following standards are used for plate and jewelry: 375, 500, 62 5, 75 0 and 916.6, corresponding to 9, 12, 15, 18 and 22 carats, the alloying metals being silver and copper in varying proportions.^ In the following example, objects in a text adventure are highlighted as being special by use of the b element.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The following shows a hypothetical way of encoding an event using a variant on hCalendar that uses the time element: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Coins were a further improvement -- substituting small standard weights and trademarks for assays greatly reduced the costs of small transactions using precious metals.
  • Shelling Out -- The Origins of Money 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC szabo.best.vwh.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In France three alloys of the following standards are used for jewelry, 920, 840 and 750. A greenish alloy used by goldsmiths contains 70% of silver and 30% of gold.^ Only three mints use these marks: Belgium, France and Netherlands.
  • The Euro- FAQ 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like ferrochrome, ferrotitanium is a master alloy used in creating iron/titanium alloys that contain a much smaller percentage of titanium.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other alloys used widely include those containing either, 8% aluminium, 1% each of molybdenum, and vanadium, or 5% aluminium and 2.5% tin.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

." Blue gold " is stated to contain 75% of gold and 25% of iron.^ A 75-kg adult man contains about 4 grams of iron (50 mg/kg) while a .
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Agave Syrup: Containing 23 to 25 percent water is a golden or a neutral syrup, produced from organically grown blue agave cactus.

^ A readily mobilizable iron store contains another 25 percent.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The Japanese use for ornament an alloy of gold and silver, the standard of which varies from 350 to 500, the colour of the precious metal being developed by " pickling " in a mixture of plum-juice, vinegar and copper sulphate.^ Gold, silver, precious gems.
  • Fiction Liberation Front--Gold 27 January 2010 23:57 UTC www.lewisshiner.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Silver Must Confirm Gold Rally Eric Roseman Jan 06, 2010 If there's an ounce of doubt still apparent in the nine-year bull market for the precious metals it's silver's failure to confirm the primary trend in gold prices.
  • Silver Strategies - Information Source About Silver Investment 8 January 2010 3:31 UTC www.silverstrategies.com [Source type: General]

^ Gold or silver coins are often mixed with 10% copper to improve durability, and coins are made with ridges around the rim to prevent coin shaving or debasement.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

.They may be said to possess a series of bronzes, in which gold and silver replace tin and zinc, all these alloys being characterized by patina having a wonderful range of tint.^ While the antoninianus (double denarius) had been around since 214 AD the coins we are likely to find in these lots are the silver-coated bronze antoninianii of the late Empire.
  • Roman Coin Attribution Toolkit 6 February 2010 10:56 UTC romancoin.info [Source type: Reference]

^ Peter wrote: “So what do they do with all the carbon dioxide, just store it up in tin cans?” .
  • Coal-into-Hydrogen Project Wins $1.6M Grant | Autopia | Wired.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ So what do they do with all the carbon dioxide, just store it up in tin cans?
  • Coal-into-Hydrogen Project Wins $1.6M Grant | Autopia | Wired.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

.The common alloy, Shi-ya-ku-Do, contains 70% of copper and 30% of gold; when exposed to air it becomes coated with a fine black patina, and is much used in Japan for sword ornaments.^ Much of the valley is now cultivated for the growth of crops, and the various types of agricultural chemicals used in conjunction with farming often permeate the air and water.
  • Sodium Fluoroacetate (1080) Abstracts. CAS No. 62-74-8. Fluoride Action Network Pesticide Project. 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.fluoridealert.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The length of time a self-rescuer can be used is governed mainly by the humidity in the mine air, usually between 30 minutes and one hour.

^ The air was continually returned and circulated until it was too much contaminated with carbonic acid to be further used, a condition which limited the use of the apparatus to a very short period.

Gold wire may be drawn of any quality, but it is usual to add 5 to 9 dwts. of copper to the pound. .The " solders " used for red gold contain 1 part of copper and 5 of gold; for light gold, 1 part of copper, I of silver and 4 of gold.^ Gold or silver coins are often mixed with 10% copper to improve durability, and coins are made with ridges around the rim to prevent coin shaving or debasement.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The money in circulation consists of a limited number of notes issued by the federal government, and the notes of the chartered banks , together with gold, silver and copper coin .

^ When gold becomes too expensive, and when paper money fails, silver is the only thing left to use as money.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

Gold and Silver.-Electrum is a natural alloy of gold and silver. .Matthiessen observed that the density of alloys, the composition of which varies from AuAg 6 to Au 6 Ag, is greater than that calculated from the densities of the constituent metals.^ The larger CV value obtained for stored samples is attributed more to greater sample variability than to less precision of the analytical method.
  • Sodium Fluoroacetate (1080) Abstracts. CAS No. 62-74-8. Fluoride Action Network Pesticide Project. 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.fluoridealert.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Serum K + levels greater than 5 mEq/L were observed in 50% of patients studied.
  • Potassium Disorders 13 January 2010 21:34 UTC www.sonny2.com [Source type: Academic]

^ On the contrary, these animals demonstrated biochemical and behavioral dopamine D2 receptor supersensitivity that is relatively greater than that observed with control, haloperidol-treated animals.

.These alloys are harder, more fusible and more sonorous than pure gold.^ These small business people had no more reason to believe asbestos was dangerous than did their employees and customers: No one imagined it.
  • Pictures, stories, and facts about the element Calcium in the Periodic Table 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC periodictable.com [Source type: General]

^ These foreign elements have been assimilated more slowly than in the United States, but the process is being hastened by the growth of a national consciousness.

^ The main difference was an extremely high magnesium intake of 2.5 to 3 g in these cancer-free populations, ten times more than in most western countries.
  • Magnesium Oil Therapy - It's Impact on Health and Vitality 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The alloys of the formulae AuAg, AuAg 2, AuAg 4 and AuAg 2 o are perfectly homogeneous, and have been studied by Levol. .Molten alloys containing more than 80% of silver deposit on cooling the alloy AuAgs, little gold remaining in the mother liquor.^ Food chromium has been shown to be 2.80 times more effective in reducing blood glucose levels than inorganic chromium [29,30].
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That's an extra 12.6 billion plastic bottles for the landfills; bottles that contained water that was no more - and often less - healthy than tap water.

^ The calcium contained in leafy green vegetables is more easily absorbed than the calcium in milk, and plant proteins do not result in calcium loss the same way as do animal proteins.
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Year.
Australasia.
Africa.
Canada.
India.
Mexico.
Russia.
United
States.
Totals.
1881
1,475, 161
..
52,483
41,545
1,181,853
1,678,612
4,976,980
1882
1,438,067
..
52,000
..
45,289
1,154,613
1,572,187
4,825,794
1883
1 ,333, 8 49
..
46,150
..
46,229
1,132,219
1,451,250
4,614,588
1884
1 ,35 2 ,7 61
..
46,000
..
57,227
1, 0 55, 6 4 2
1 ,4 8 9,95 0
4,902,889
1885
1 ,3 0 9, 80 4
53,987
46,941
1, 22 5,73 8
1 ,53 8 ,3 2 5
5,002,584
1886
1,257,67
66,061
..
29,702
922,226
1, 6 93, 12 5
5,044,363
1887
1,290,202
28,754
59,884
1 5,4 0 3
39,861
97 1, 6 5 6
1 ,59 6 ,375
5,061,490
1888
1,344,002
240,266
53,150
35, 0 34
47,117
1,030,151
1, 60 4, 8 4 1
5,175,623
1889
1,540,607
366,023
62,658
7 8, 6 49
33,862
1,154,076
1,587,000
5,611,245
1890
1 ,453, 1 7 2
497,817
55,625
10 7, 2 73
37,104
1,134,590
1,588,880
5,726,966
1891
1,518,690
729,268
45,022
1 3 1 ,77 6
48,375
1,168,764
1,604,840
6,287,591
1892
1,638,238
1,210,869
43,905
16 4, 1 4 1
54,625
1, 1 99, 80 9
1 ,597, 0 9 8
7,102,172
1893
1,711,892
1 ,47 8 ,477
44,853
20 7, 1 5 2
63,144
1 ,345, 22 4
1 ,739,3 2 3
7,772,585
1894
2,020,180
2,024,164
50,411
210,412
217, 688
1,167,455
1,910,813
8,813,848
1895
2, 1 7 0 ,5 0 5
2, 2 77, 6 4 0
92,440
257,830
290,250
1 ,397,7 6 7
2, 2 54,7 60
9,814,505
1896
2,185,872
2,280,892
1 3 6, 2 74
3 2 3,5 01
3 1 4,437
1, 0 4 1 ,794
2 ,5 68, 1 3 2
9,950,861
1897
2 ,547,7 0 4
2, 8 3 2 ,77 6
2 94,5 82
35 0 ,5 8 5
362,812
1,124,511
2,774,935
11,420,068
18 9 8
3, 1 37, 6 44
3,876,216
66 9,445
37 6 ,43 1
411,187
1, 2 3 1 ,79 1
3, 118 ,39 8
13,877,806
18 99
3, 8 37, 181
3,53 2 ,4 88
1, 0 3 1 ,5 6 3
418,869
411,187
1, 0 7 2 ,333
3,437, 210
14,837,775
1900
3,555,5 06
419,503
1 ,34 8 ,7 20
45 6 ,444
435,375
974,537
3, 82 9, 8 97
12,315,135
1901
3,719,080
439,704
1,167,216
454,5 2 7
497,5 2 7
1, 10 5,4 12
3,805,500
12,698,089
1902
3,94 6 ,374
1, 88 7,773
1, 00 3,355
4 6 3, 82 4
491,156
1,090,053
3,870,000
14,313,660
1903
4,3 1 5,53 8
3, 28 9,4 0 9
911,118
55 2, 8 73
516,524
1, 1 9 1 ,5 82
3,560,000
15,852,620
1904
4, 2 45,744
4, 1 5 6, 08 4
793,35 0
55 6, 0 97
60 9,7 81
1, 1 99, 8 57
3, 8 9 2 ,4 80
16,790,351
1905
4, 1 59, 220
5,477, 8 4 1
700,863
57 6, 88 9
779, 181
1,063,883
4, 26 5,74 2
18,360,945
1906
3,9 8 4,53 8
6 ,449,749
5 $1 ,7 0 9
525,527
896,615
1, 08 7, 0 5 6
4,5 6 5,333
19,620,272
1907
3, 6 59, 6 93
7, 2 7 0 ,4 6 4
399, 8 44
495,9 6 5
903,672
1,282,635
4,374, 82 7
19,988,144
1908
3,557,7 0 5
7,9 8 3,34 8
4 62 ,4 6 7
5 0 4,3 0 9
1, 182 ,445
1 ,497, 0 7 6
4,659,360
21,529,300
.Gold and Zinc.-When present in small quantities zinc renders gold TABLE II.-Gold brittle, but it may be added to gold in larger quantities without destroying the ductility of the precious metal; Peligot proved that a triple alloy of gold, copper and zinc, which contains 5.8% of the lastnamed, is perfectly ductile.^ We offer aluminum alloys with zinc, copper, magnesium, nickel, iron and more.

^ In Wilson's disease, this may be a result of adding the effects of the low copper diet, which is probably also low in iron, and the penicillamine to the effects of blood loss or growth.

^ It shows the greatest quantity of juice that may be expressed from canes, according to the different proportions of fibre they contain, but without employing maceration or imbibition, to which processes reference is made hereafter.

.The alloy of II parts gold and i part of zinc is, however, stated to be brittle.^ However, the United States is becoming increasingly dependent on Middle East oil and that growing dependency is part of the problem.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Why Dick changed his mind 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, it is unconstitutional and void as an attempt by the state to make a class of debts payable at the option of the debtor in something other than gold and silver coin.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

Gold and Tin. - .Alchorne showed that gold alloyed with th part of tin is sufficiently ductile to be rolled and stamped into coin, provided the metal is not annealed at a high temperature.^ Elements in titanium alloys fall into two categories, i.e., those that strengthen and stabilize the alpha or room temperature modification, and those that strengthen the beta or high temperature modification.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Platinized titanium anodes are used in electroplating with gold, platinum, copper, silver, and other metals of high purity.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Metallic titanium is mainly used in the aircraft industry and in the production of high-strength, corrosion-resistant alloys.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.The alloys of tin and gold are hard and brittle, and the combination of the metals is attended with contraction; thus the alloy SnAu has a density 14.243, instead of 14.828 indicated by calculation.^ This is not an indication of the density in settled parts; as in Quebec, Ontario and the western provinces there are large unpopulated districts, the area of which enters into the calculation.

Matthiessen and Bose obtained large crystals of the alloy Au 2 Sn 5, having the colour of tin, which changed to a bronze tint by oxidation.
Gold and Iron. - .Hatchett found that the alloy of i i parts gold and i part of iron is easily rolled without annealing.^ Most of the iron is found in the red blood cells, where it forms part of that very complex protein known as hemoglobin.

.In these proportions the density of the alloy is less than the mean of its constituent metals.^ Residues in these coyote kidneys and livers ranged from less than 10 ppb to 95 ppb fluoroacetate.
  • Sodium Fluoroacetate (1080) Abstracts. CAS No. 62-74-8. Fluoride Action Network Pesticide Project. 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.fluoridealert.org [Source type: Academic]

^ D.F. gave a mean urinary iron excretion of 28-1 mg with a 12 h infusion, which was significantly less than the mean iron excretion of 39-6 mg with 24 h infusion.

^ There was a significant (p less than 0.01) increase in both lymphocyte potassium and magnesium levels after 3 months' treatment with captopril and frusemide in these patients.

Gold and Palladium

.These metals are stated to alloy in all proportions.^ In all these algorithms, unless otherwise stated, operations that iterate over a series of elements (whether items, properties, or otherwise) must do so in tree order .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.According to Chenevix, the alloy composed of equal parts of the two metals is grey, is less ductile than its constituent metals and has the specific gravity i i.^ Since the specific gravity of hot liquor is less than that of cold liquor, and since the specific gravity of the scum and particles of.

^ If the textarea element has a maximum allowed value length , then the element's children must be such that the code-point length of the value of the element's textContent IDL attribute is equal to or less than the element's maximum allowed value length .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It's titanium rather than nickel super-alloy like the turbine blades I have under nickel because it is part of the intake system, not the combustion or exhaust systems.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

08. The alloy of 4 parts of gold and i part of palladium is white, hard and ductile. Graham showed that a wire of palladium alloyed with from 24 to 25 parts of gold does not exhibit the remarkable retraction which, in pure palladium, attends its loss of occluded hydrogen.
Gold and Platinum. - .Clarke states that the alloy of equal parts of the two metals is ductile, and has almost the colour of gold.^ Gold, silver, copper and other minerals are largely exported, chiefly in an unrefined state and almost entirely to the United States.

Gold and Rhodium. - Gold alloyed with 4th or 1th of rhodium is, according to Wollaston,very ductile,infusible and of the colour of gold. Gold and Iridium. - .Small quantities of iridium do not destroy the ductility of gold, but this is probably because the metal is only disseminated through the mass, and not alloyed, as it falls to the bottom of the crucible in which the gold is fused.^ In the absence of bleeding (including menstruation) or pregnancy, only a small quantity is lost each day (Bothwell et al., 1979).
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ They consist almost entirely of marsh gas, with only a small quantity of carbonic acid, usually under 1%, and from i to 4% of nitrogen.

^ Since they deal only with the highest purity metals I'm listing this as four-nines purity: That's probably conservative.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gold and Nickel

.Eleven parts of gold and i of nickel yield an alloy resembling brass.^ It's titanium rather than nickel super-alloy like the turbine blades I have under nickel because it is part of the intake system, not the combustion or exhaust systems.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gold and Cobalt

Eleven parts of gold and i of cobalt form a brittle alloy of a dull yellow colour.

Compounds

Aurous oxide, Au 2 0, is obtained by cautiously adding potash to a solution of aurous bromide, or by boiling mixed solutions of auric chloride and mercurous nitrate. .It forms a dark-violet precipitate which dries to a greyish-violet powder.^ Sometimes it is almost pasty, and crumbles to powder when dried, so as to be susceptible of use as a pigment, forming the colour known as Cologne earth, which resembles umber or sepia .

.When freshly prepared it dissolves in cold water to form an indigocoloured solution with a brownish fluorescence of colloidal aurous oxide; it is insoluble in hot water.^ Cold water is capable of holding double its weight in sugar, but by heating it more sugar can dissolve in the same amount of water.

^ A sugar solution begins with sugar, partially dissolved in at least one-third its weight of cold water.

^ A supersaturated sugar solution contains more sugar than the water can dissolve at room temperature.

This oxide is slightly basic. .Auric oxide, Au203, is a brown powder, decomposed into its elements when heated to about 250° or on exposure to light.^ In this procedure, the oxides are converted, under heating, into water-soluble sulfates by fumes of sulfuric acid, after which the corresponding sulfates are identified by staining reactions.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Standard Test Method for Rubber Deterioration-Discoloration from Ultraviolet (UV) and Heat Exposure of Light-Colored Surfaces .
  • Rubber Standards 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.astm.org [Source type: Academic]

.When a concentrated solution of auric chloride is treated with caustic potash, a brown precipitate of auric hydrate, Au(OH) 3, is obtained, which, on heating, loses water to form auryl hydrate, AuO(OH), and auric oxide, Au 2 0 3. It functions chiefly as an acidic oxide, 'being less basic than aluminium oxide, and forming no stable oxy-salts.^ Water is no longer water and salt is not salt anymore.

^ It was based on this folk use that Hartly Anderson set up a company to extract the exceptionally pure and concentrated form of sea water and to market it for health purposes.

^ There's no better feeling than being able to go to your mailbox each month and find a check for tens of thousands of dollars – not to mention checks from other customers.

.It dissolves in alkalis to form well-defined crystalline salts; potassium aurate, KAu0 2.3H 2 O, is very soluble in water, and is used in electrogilding.^ Very soluble in water and in ethanol (95%) .
  • Ammonium Chloride Zinc Chloride Calcium Chloride Potassium Chloride Sodium Acetate 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC sodium-bromide.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These also will be useful for drafting letters to the editor, op-eds, blog postings and the like--all of which will be very helpful as well.

^ It was based on this folk use that Hartly Anderson set up a company to extract the exceptionally pure and concentrated form of sea water and to market it for health purposes.

.With concentrated ammonia auric oxide forms a black, highly explosive compound of the composition AuN2H3.3H20, named " fulminating gold "; this substance is generally considered to be Au(NH 2)NH. 3H20, but it may be an ammine of the formula [Au(NH 3) 2 (OH) 2 ]OH. Other oxides, e.g. Au 2 0 2, have been described.^ This emphasizes the importance of considering titanium dioxide dusts of different composition and mineralogical structure separately, always stating clearly the characteristics of a tested compound.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Oh, yes, and blotting hte name and memory of Jesus from the face of the earth, as your beloved “holy book” the Talmud says when it refers to Jesus as “May his name be forever blotted from the earth.” .
  • Israel Forced Workers to Drink Uranium 8 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gold then lists the reasons why oil should be considered to be of an abiogenic origin (meaning that the precursors are not biological in any shape or form).
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Aurous chloride, AuCl, is obtained as a lemon-yellow, amorphous powder, insoluble in water, by heating auric chloride to 185°.^ Matter Insoluble in water in Ammonium chloride .
  • Ammonium Chloride Zinc Chloride Calcium Chloride Potassium Chloride Sodium Acetate 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC sodium-bromide.com [Source type: Reference]

.It begins to decompose into gold and chlorine at 185°, the decomposition being complete at 230°; water decomposes it into gold and auric chloride.^ Liquid chlorine is mixed into drinking water and swimming pools to destroy bacteria.

^ After all, our elected public officials keep assuring us that chlorinated city tap water is completely safe for human consumption.

.Auric chloride, or gold trichloride, AuC1 3, is a dark rubyred or reddish-brown, crystalline, deliquescent powder obtained by dissolving the metal in aqua regia. It is also obtained by carefully evaporating a solution of the metal in chlorine water.^ White Crystalline Powder Ammonium chloride .
  • Ammonium Chloride Zinc Chloride Calcium Chloride Potassium Chloride Sodium Acetate 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC sodium-bromide.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Saline infusions contain salt, sodium chloride, and for magnesium the isotonic solution is 20g to 2 litres of water or 10g to 1 litre, instead of 9g for sodium chloride.
  • Magnesium Oil Therapy - It's Impact on Health and Vitality 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the water evaporates, the temperature of the solution rises and the density increases.

.The gold chloride of commerce, which is used in photography, is really a hydrochloride, chlorauric or aurichloric acid, HAuC1 4.3H 2 O, and is obtained in long yellow needles by crystallizing the acid solution.^ Using high-speed photography, he found that crystals formed in frozen water reveal changes when specific, concentrated thoughts are directed toward it.

^ C Zane 05/07/2006 02:30 PM Do the bakeries really use non-melting confectioner's sugar on the long johns and stuff?

^ Dextrose: Is crystallized and powdered corn sugar (glucose) obtained by hydrolyzing cornstarch with acid.

Corresponding to this acid, a series of salts, named chloraurates or aurichlorides, are known. .The potassium salt is obtained by crystallizing equivalent quantities of potassium and auric chlorides.^ Potassium chloride is used in food processing , as a sodium-free substitute for table salt ( Sod.
  • Ammonium Chloride Zinc Chloride Calcium Chloride Potassium Chloride Sodium Acetate 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC sodium-bromide.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Potassium salts are rare items and most potassium salts are made from potassium chloride or potassium hydroxide.
  • Ammonium Chloride Zinc Chloride Calcium Chloride Potassium Chloride Sodium Acetate 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC sodium-bromide.com [Source type: Reference]

Light-yellow monoclinic needles of 2KAuC1 4 H 2 O are deposited from warm, strongly acid solutions, and transparent rhombic tables of KAuCl 4.2H 2 O from neutral solutions. By crystallizing an aqueous solution, red crystals of AuC1 3.2H 2 O are obtained. Auric chloride combines with the hydrochlorides of many organic bases - amines, alkaloids, &c. - to form characteristic compounds. Gold dichloride, probably Au 2 C1 4, =Au.AuC1 4, aurous chloraurate, is said to be obtained as a dark-red mass by heating finely divided gold to 140°- 170° in chlorine. Water decomposes it into gold and auric chloride. The bromides and iodides resemble the chlorides. .Aurous bromide, AuBr, is a yellowish-green powder obtained by heating the tribromide to 140°; auric bromide, AuBr 3, forms reddish-black or scarlet-red leafy crystals, which dissolve in water to form a reddishbrown solution,and combines with bromides to form bromaurates corresponding to the chloraurates.^ This sodium acetate solution is capable of supercooling to room temperature, well below its melting point, without forming crystals.
  • Ammonium Chloride Zinc Chloride Calcium Chloride Potassium Chloride Sodium Acetate 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC sodium-bromide.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The bond-forming process of crystallization is exothermic , hence heat is emitted.
  • Ammonium Chloride Zinc Chloride Calcium Chloride Potassium Chloride Sodium Acetate 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC sodium-bromide.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A white crystalline powder or colorless crystals, freely soluble in water; odourless .
  • Ammonium Chloride Zinc Chloride Calcium Chloride Potassium Chloride Sodium Acetate 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC sodium-bromide.com [Source type: Reference]

.Aurous iodide, Aul, is a light-yellow, sparingly soluble powder obtained, together with free iodine, by adding potassium iodide to auric chloride; auric iodide, Au13, is formed as a dark-green powder at the same time, but it readily decomposes to aurous iodide and iodine.^ In foods to which potassium is added in processing and in supplements, the form of potassium is potassium chloride.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate 13 January 2010 21:34 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Solubility Potassium chloride (KCl) .
  • Ammonium Chloride Zinc Chloride Calcium Chloride Potassium Chloride Sodium Acetate 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC sodium-bromide.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A substance found in yellow and orange fruits and vegetables and in dark green, leafy vegetables.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Aurous iodide is also obtained as a green solid by acting upon gold with iodine. The iodaurates, correspond to the chlorand bromaurates; the potassium salt, KAuI 4, forms highly lustrous, intensely black, four-sided prisms.
.Aurous cyanide, AuCN, forms yellow, microscopic, hexagonal tables, insoluble in water, and is obtained by the addition of hydrochloric acid to a solution of potassium aurocyanide, KAu(CN)2. This salt is prepared by precipitating a solution of gold in aqua regia by ammonia, and then introducing the well-washed precipitate into a boiling solution of potassium cyanide.^ I'm not clear on what they were meant to be used for, but it sounds like the idea was to drop the calcium chunks into water or perhaps an acid solution, at which point they will generate a steady stream of hydrogen gas until consumed.
  • Pictures, stories, and facts about the element Calcium in the Periodic Table 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC periodictable.com [Source type: General]

^ PEER REVIEWED** Cyanide salts as solids or solutions must be ...

^ The ethanol solution is aspirated directly into the flame, and iron equivalent to a known amount of cyanide is then determined.

The solution is filtered and allowed to cool, when colourless rhombic pyramids of the aurocyanide separate. .It is also obtained in the action of potassium cyanide on gold in the presence of air, a reaction utilized in the MacArthur-Forrest process of gold extraction (see below).^ See below for a more detailed explanation of World 16 Air running.
  • Money Making - ::Sal's Realm of RuneScape:: 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC runescape.salmoneus.net [Source type: General]

^ PEER REVIEWED** Other Chemical/Physical Properties: Soln readily dissolves gold and silver in presence of air [Budavari, S. (ed.

^ Recovery of the post-synaptic action potential following block by cyanide was obtained within 40 min.

Auric cyanide, Au(CN) 3, is not certainly known; its double salts, however, have been frequently described. .Potassium auricyanide, 2KAu(CN) 4.3H 2 O, is obtained as large, colourless, efflorescent tablets by crystallizing concentrated solutions of auric chloride and potassium cyanide.^ Clear & colourless solution (10% Potassium Chloride).
  • Ammonium Chloride Zinc Chloride Calcium Chloride Potassium Chloride Sodium Acetate 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC sodium-bromide.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Ulceration and stricture of the esophagus due to oral potassium chloride (slow release tablet) therapy.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate 13 January 2010 21:34 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Clear & colourless solution (10% Ammonium chloride.
  • Ammonium Chloride Zinc Chloride Calcium Chloride Potassium Chloride Sodium Acetate 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC sodium-bromide.com [Source type: Reference]

.The acid, auricyanic acid, 2HAu (CN) 4.3H20, is obtained by treating the silver salt (obtained by precipitating the potassium salt with silver nitrate) with hydrochloric acid; it forms tabular crystals, readily soluble in water, alcohol and ether.^ OCR for page 188 Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate increased risk because excess potassium is readily excreted in the urine.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate 13 January 2010 21:34 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Breeding mice of the Charles Rivers CD strain and rats of the Long-Evans BLUE: (LE) strain were exposed in separate studies to titanium in the form of a soluble salt in the drinking-water (concentration 5 mg Ti/litre).
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A procedure that uses gold salts (a salt form of the metal element gold) to treat diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Gold forms three sulphides corresponding to the oxides; they readily decompose on heating.^ Titanium tetrachloride is a liquid, which is stable in dry air, but decomposes in cold water to form titanium oxide and hydrochloric acid.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In this procedure, the oxides are converted, under heating, into water-soluble sulfates by fumes of sulfuric acid, after which the corresponding sulfates are identified by staining reactions.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During ischemia three isoforms of nitric oxide are expressed: endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS), neuronal nitric oxide (nNOS) and an immunologically induced form (iNOS).
  • Future Directions in Human Cryopreservation Combinational Pharmacotherapy 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.alcor.org [Source type: Academic]

.Aurous sulphide, Au 2 S, is a brownishblack powder formed by passing sulphuretted hydrogen into a solution of potassium aurocyanide and then acidifying.^ PEER REVIEWED** Acute systemic toxicity of hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide, and potassium cyanide by instillation into the inferior conjunctival sac was investigated in rabbits.

^ By clicking on a metal disc in the heating pad, a nucleation center is formed which causes the solution to crystallize into solid Sodium acetate trihydrate again.
  • Ammonium Chloride Zinc Chloride Calcium Chloride Potassium Chloride Sodium Acetate 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC sodium-bromide.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The cyanide, as hydrocyanic acid, is released by refluxing the sample with strong acid and distillation of the hydrogen cyanide into an absorber-scrubber containing sodium hydroxide solution.

.Sodium aurosulphide, NaAuS 4H 2 O, is prepared by fusing gold with sodium sulphide and sulphur, the melt being extracted with water, filtered in an atmosphere of nitrogen, and evaporated in a vacuum over sulphuric acid.^ The composition of the ash of true coal approximates to that of a fire- clay , allowance being made for lime , which may be present either as carbonate or sulphate, and for sulphuric acid .

^ V7 766]**PEER REVIEWED** When heated in a dry carbon dioxide atmosphere, sodium cyanide fuses without much decomposition.

^ PEER REVIEWED** Methods of Manufacturing: Sodium cyanide can be prepared by heating sodium amide with carbon, by melting sodium chloride and calcium cyanamide together in an electric furnace ...

.It forms colourless, monoclinic prisms, which turn brown on exposure to air.^ These days its main applications are in mortar (it turns into limestone on exposure to air and water), and in disposing of bodies.
  • Pictures, stories, and facts about the element Calcium in the Periodic Table 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC periodictable.com [Source type: General]

This method of bringing gold into solution is mentioned by Stahl in his Observationes ChymicoPhysico-Medicae; he there remarks that Moses probably destroyed the golden calf by burning it with sulphur and alkali (Ex. xxxii. 20). .Auric sulphide, Au 2 S 31 is an amorphous powder formed when lithium aurichloride is treated with dry sulphuretted hydrogen at - 10°.^ Sometimes it is almost pasty, and crumbles to powder when dried, so as to be susceptible of use as a pigment, forming the colour known as Cologne earth, which resembles umber or sepia .

It is very unstable, decomposing into gold and sulphur at 200°.
.Oxy-salts of gold are almost unknown, but the sulphite and thiosulphate form double salts.^ A procedure that uses gold salts (a salt form of the metal element gold) to treat diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Thus by adding acid sodium sulphite to, or by passing sulphur dioxide at 50° into, a solution of sodium aurate, the salt, 3Na 2 SO 3 Au 2 SO 3.3H20 is obtained, which, when precipitated from its aqueous solution by alcohol, forms a purple powder, appearing yellow or green by reflected light.^ Solutions of 14C methyldopa alone and with ferrous sulfate or sodium sulfate were injected in vivo into closed duodenal segments.

^ This sodium acetate solution is capable of supercooling to room temperature, well below its melting point, without forming crystals.
  • Ammonium Chloride Zinc Chloride Calcium Chloride Potassium Chloride Sodium Acetate 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC sodium-bromide.com [Source type: Reference]

^ By clicking on a metal disc in the heating pad, a nucleation center is formed which causes the solution to crystallize into solid Sodium acetate trihydrate again.
  • Ammonium Chloride Zinc Chloride Calcium Chloride Potassium Chloride Sodium Acetate 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC sodium-bromide.com [Source type: Reference]

.Sodium aurothiosulphate, 3Na 2 S 2 O 3 Au2S203.4H20, forms colourless needles; it is obtained in the direct action of sodium thiosulphateongoldinthe presence of an oxidizing agent, or by the addition of a dilute solution of auric chloride to a sodium thiosulphate solution.^ Sodium chloride solution for molecular biology, 5 M .

^ Sodium chloride solution 0.1 M .

^ Sodium chloride solution 5 M .

.Mining and Metallurgy. The various deposits of gold may be divided into two classes- " veins " and " placers."^ Patients were divided into two groups, comprising 14 institutionalized and 18 non-institutionalized subjects; they were taking carbamazepine, phenytoin and phenobarbitone, alone or in combination.

^ It is convenient to divide the sugars into two main groups: monosaccharoses (formerly glucoses) and disaccharoses (formerly saccharoses).

^ This hopper was divided into two parts by vertical division plates, against the bottom edge of which the knives in the disk forced the roots and sliced and pulped them.

.The vein mining of gold does not greatly differ from that of similar deposits of metals (see Mineral Deposits).^ This results in a mineral that is different from normal mineral salts, but does not turn the substance into a food.
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In early days the placer gold mines of the Columbia, Fraser and Caribou attracted miners from everywhere, but these have declined, and lode mines supply most of the gold as well as the other metals.

^ As you can see from this and the other asbestos samples below, the difference between asbestos and other silicate minerals is that asbestos appears in the form of very fine hair-like fibers.
  • Pictures, stories, and facts about the element Calcium in the Periodic Table 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC periodictable.com [Source type: General]

.In the placer or alluvial deposits, the precious metal is found usually in a water-worn condition imbedded in earthy matter, and the method of working all such deposits is based on the disintegration of the earthy matter by the action of a stream of water, which washes away the lighter portions and leaves the denser gold.^ Calcium Chloride is commonly used as an Electrolyte and has an extremely salty taste, as found in sports drinks and other beverages such as Smartwater and Nestle bottled water.
  • Ammonium Chloride Zinc Chloride Calcium Chloride Potassium Chloride Sodium Acetate 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC sodium-bromide.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Nearly all the sea-birds of Great Britain are found in Canadian waters or are represented by closely allied species.

^ Extinguish fires started by molten material by using appropriate method for the burning material; keep water, halogenated extinguishing agents and foam away from the molten material.

.In alluvial deposits the richest ground is usually found in contact with the "bed rock"; and, when the overlying cover of gravel is very thick, or, as sometimes happens, when the older gravel is covered with a flow of basalt, regular mining by shafts and levels, as in what are known as tunnel-claims, may be required to reach the auriferous ground.^ The working of coal may be conducted either by means of levels or galleries driven from the outcrop in a valley, or by shafts or pits sunk from the surface.

^ If you have a combat level of at least 29, I would recommend mining in the Dwarven Mines, where there are many coal rocks.
  • Money Making - ::Sal's Realm of RuneScape:: 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC runescape.salmoneus.net [Source type: General]

^ When hard ground is reached, a seat is formed for the cast iron tubbing, which is built up in the usual way and concreted at the back, a small quantity of caustic soda being sometimes used in mixing the concrete to prevent freezing.

.The extraction of gold may be effected by several methods; we may distinguish the following leading types: 1. By simple washing, i.e. dressing auriferous sands,gravels,&c.; 2. By amalgamation, i.e. forming a gold amalgam, afterwards removing the mercury by distillation; 3. By chlorination, i.e. forming the soluble gold chloride and then precipitating the metal; 4. By the cyanide process, i.e. dissolving the gold in potassium cyanide solution, and then precipitating the metal; 5. Electrolytically, generally applied to the solutions obtained in processes (3) and (4).^ In foods to which potassium is added in processing and in supplements, the form of potassium is potassium chloride.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate 13 January 2010 21:34 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Solubility Potassium chloride (KCl) .
  • Ammonium Chloride Zinc Chloride Calcium Chloride Potassium Chloride Sodium Acetate 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC sodium-bromide.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The relative advantages of the different methods may be generally stated as follows.

1. Extraction of Gold by Washing. - In the early days of goldwashing in California and Australia, when rich alluvial deposits were common at the surface, the most simple appliances sufficed. The most characteristic is the " pan," a circular dish of sheetiron or " tin," with sloping sides about 13 or 14 in. in diameter. .The pan, about two-thirds filled with the " pay dirt " to be washed, is held in the stream or in a hole filled with water.^ Cover bottom of pan with water, add sprig of parsley, slice of onion, two slices carrot cut in pieces, and bit of bay leaf.
  • XI. FISH. Farmer, Fannie Merritt. 1918. The Boston Cooking-School Cook Book. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC bartleby.com [Source type: General]

^ In addition, the town of Mayodan, N.C., had a discharge of about 82,000 gallons of untreated water and rain water at two areas off Main Street and 9th Avenue.

^ A filled triangle connecting these two opposite corners with a straight line, with the third point of the triangle being the join point, must be rendered at all joins.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The larger stones having been removed by hand, gyratory motion is given to the pan by a combination of shaking and twisting movements so as to keep its contents suspended in the stream of water, which carries away the bulk of the lighter material, leaving the heavy minerals, together with any gold which may have been present.^ The shunt carries excess fluid away from the brain so it may be absorbed elsewhere in the body.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A colostomy provides a new path for waste material to leave the body after part of the colon has been removed.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Extinguish fires started by molten material by using appropriate method for the burning material; keep water, halogenated extinguishing agents and foam away from the molten material.

.The washing is repeated until enough of the enriched sand is collected, when the gold is finally recovered by careful washing or " panning out " in a smaller pan.^ Finally, the sugar is pumped back into vacuum pans where it is heated until it crystallizes.

^ Try out fat salt pork, remove scrap, leaving enough fat in pan to moisten fish and potatoes.
  • XI. FISH. Farmer, Fannie Merritt. 1918. The Boston Cooking-School Cook Book. 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC bartleby.com [Source type: General]

^ Finally, the molecules of petroleum must find their way into the host reservoir and stay there until recovered by human activity.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Mexico and South America, instead of the pan, a wooden dish or trough, known as " batea," is used.^ Most of America's oil comes from Canada, Mexico, the U.S., and South America.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Why Dick changed his mind 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of America's oil comes from Canada, Mexico, the U.S., and South America."
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Why Dick changed his mind 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The " cradle " is a simple appliance for treating somewhat larger quantities, and consists essentially of a box, mounted on rockers, and provided with a perforated bottom of sheet iron in which the " pay dirt " is placed.^ It consists of a hollow sheet iron drum formed by two conoidal tubes, united together FIG. 13.

Water is poured on the dirt, and the rocking motion imparted to the cradle causes the finer particles to pass through the perforated bottom on to a canvas screen, and thence to the base of the cradle, where the auriferous particles accumulate on transverse bars of wood, called " riffles." The " tom " is a sort of cradle with an extended sluice placed on an incline of about I in 12. The upper end contains a perforated riddle plate which is placed directly over the riffle box, and under certain circumstances mercury may be placed behind the riffles. .Copper plates amalgamated with mercury are also used when the gold is very fine, and in some instances amalgamated silver coins have been used for the same purpose.^ Gold or silver coins are often mixed with 10% copper to improve durability, and coins are made with ridges around the rim to prevent coin shaving or debasement.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No state shall make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debt .
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a decree by a court of the U.S. for the payment of money can be made only for the payment of so many dollars of some specie of money that is made lawful money by a statute of the U.S., it follows that a recovery upon such a promissory note or contract must be for some dollars in gold and silver coins.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sometimes the stuff is disintegrated with water in a " puddling machine," which was used, especially in Australia, when the earthy matters are tenacious and water scarce.^ Natural aluminum minerals, especially bentonite and zeolite, are used in water purification, sugar refining, brewing and paper industries.

^ Used Water Jet Cutting Machines .
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
  • Aluminum Suppliers Information and Resources 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC www.aluminumsuppliers.net [Source type: Reference]

.The machine frequently resembles a brickmaker's wash-mill, and is worked by horse or steam power.^ The freezing machines were kept at work for 200 days, and 2191 tons of coal were consumed in supplying steam for the compressors and circulating pumps.

^ Milling Machine Work .
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
  • Aluminum Suppliers Information and Resources 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC www.aluminumsuppliers.net [Source type: Reference]

In workings on a larger scale, where the supply of water is abundant, as in California, sluices were generally employed. They are shallow troughs about 12 ft. long, about 16 to 20 in. wide and I ft. in depth. .The troughs taper slightly so that they can be joined in series, the total length often reaching several hundred feet.^ The edges of the protaxis are in general its highest parts, and the rivers flowing outwards often have a descent of several hundred feet in a few miles towards the Great Lakes, the St Lawrence or the Atlantic, and in some cases they have cut back deep gorges or canyons into the tableland.

.The incline of the sluice varies with the conformation of the ground and the tenacity of the stuff to be washed, from 1 in 16 to I in 8. A rectangular trough of boards, whose dimensions depend chiefly on the size of the planks available, is set up on the higher part of the ground at one side of the claim to be worked, upon trestles or piers of rough stone-work, at such an inclination that the stream may carry off all but the largest stones, which are kept back by a grating of boards about 2 in.^ PEER REVIEWED** Preventive Measures: Showers and double locker accommodations (one locker for work clothing, the other for personal clothing) should be provided and all employees encouraged to wash thoroughly at the end of the shift.

^ At one time, powdered sugar was stone-ground, but now it is ground in a steel magnesium rotary which turns against varying degrees of fine screens, each one determining a different fineness of the grind.

^ All six parts were scheduled in one day over the Christmas break, and I… blogTO .
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

apart. .The gravel is dug by hand and thrown in at the upper end, the stones kept back being removed at intervals by two men with four-pronged steel forks.^ The root element can end up being removed from the Document object, e.g.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It is possible for playback to stop for two other reasons without paused being false, but those two reasons do not fire this event: maybe playback ended , or playback stopped due to errors .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ After reposing some time, the clear juice is carefully decanted by means of a pipe fixed by a swivel joint to an outlet in the bottom of the tank, the upper end of the pipe being always kept at the surface of the liquor by a float attached to it.

The floor of the sluice is laid with riffles made of strips of wood 2 in. square laid parallel to the direction of the current, and at other points with boards having transverse notches filled with mercury. These were known originally as Hungarian riffles.
.In larger plant the upper ends of the sluices are often cut in rock or lined with stone blocks, the grating stopping the larger stones being known as a " grizzly."^ These are not, however, always found together, the Coal Measures being often covered by strata belonging to the Trias or Upper New Red Sandstone series.

^ It is possible for playback to stop for two other reasons without paused being false, but those two reasons do not fire this event: maybe playback ended , or playback stopped due to errors .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.In order to save very fine and especially rusty particles of gold, so-called " under-current sluices " are used; these are shallow wooden tanks, 50 sq.^ Io hours, which could be raised by a single engine at the surface without requiring any very different appliances from those in current use.

^ These also will be useful for drafting letters to the editor, op-eds, blog postings and the like--all of which will be very helpful as well.

^ This section defines a collection of attributes that can be used to determine, from script, the kind of user agent in use, in order to work around these issues.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

yds. and upwards in area, which are placed somewhat below the main sluice, and communicate with it above and below, the entry being protected by a grating so that only the finer material is admitted. .These are paved with stone blocks or lined with mercury riffles, so that from the greatly reduced velocity of flow, due to the sudden increase of surface, the finer particles of gold may collect.^ These TNF-gold particles may kill cancer cells without harming healthy tissue.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Too much cholesterol in the blood may build up in blood vessel walls, block blood flow to tissues and organs, and increase the risk of developing heart disease and stroke.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ These are worked backwards, the coal being taken to a height of 20 ft., the opening being packed up with stone sent down from the surface.

.In order to save finely divided gold, amalgamated copper plates are sometimes placed in a nearly level position, at a considerable distance from the head of the sluice, the gold which is retained in it being removed from time to time.^ This great height is necessary to obtain head-room for the cages, the landing platforms being usually placed at some considerable height above the natural surface.

^ Thus, a time position included within a range of the objects return by the buffered attribute at one time can end up being not included in the range(s) of objects returned by the same attribute at later times.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In time he found that he and Becky could live together with a certain affection and consideration, and it was quite nearly enough.
  • Fiction Liberation Front--Gold 27 January 2010 23:57 UTC www.lewisshiner.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sluices are often made double, and they are usually cleaned up - that is, the deposit rich in gold is removed from them - once a week.^ Gold or silver coins are often mixed with 10% copper to improve durability, and coins are made with ridges around the rim to prevent coin shaving or debasement.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Upon this the tubbing is built up in segments, of which usually from 10 to 12 are required for the entire circumference, the edges being made perfectly true.

^ We are therefore left with the distinct possibility that oil and gas were made by God in the Creation Week, and that they moved into their present positions during the biblical Flood.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The " pan " is now only used by prospectors, while the " cradle " and " tom " are practically confined to the Chinese; the sluice is considered to be the best contrivance for washing gold gravels.^ When gold becomes too expensive, and when paper money fails, silver is the only thing left to use as money.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These deductions may be overstated somewhat, for only rail, and not water, transport was considered- Charges for rail transport are higher than charges for water transport, which also is used to ship petroleum products.
  • 1955 RUBLE-DOLLAR PRICE RATIOS FOR INTERMEDIATE PRODUCTS AND SERVICES IN THE US - CIA document 15 September 2009 2:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In particular, authors are encouraged to consider whether their explanatory text for tables is likely to be useful to the visually impaired: if their text would not be useful, then it is best to not include a summary attribute.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

2. The Amalgamation Process. - .This method is employed to extract gold from both alluvial and reef deposits: in the first case it is combined with " hydraulic mining," i.e. disintegrating auriferous gravels by powerful jets of water, and the sluice system described above; in the second case the vein stuff is prepared by crushing and the amalgamation is carried out in mills.^ On setting, it must act as if the setSelectionRange() method had been called, with the new value as the first argument, and the current value of the selectionEnd attribute as the second argument, unless the current value of the selectionEnd is less than the new value, in which case the second argument must also be the new value.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Spectrographic and photometric methods have been employed for the determination of titanium in food and water.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If the method is invoked with the first argument giving a type corresponding to one of the types given in the first column of the following table, and the user agent supports that type, then the subsequent arguments, if any, must be treated as described in the second cell of that row.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Hydraulic mining has for the most part been confined to the country of its invention, California, and the western territories of America, where the conditions favourable for its use are more fully developed than elsewhere - notably the presence of thick banks of gravel that cannot be utilized by other methods, and abundance of water, even though considerable work may be required at times to make it available.^ Kiushiu) are more fully developed.

^ We use more and have less than any other country in the world.
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Why Dick changed his mind 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We continue to consume more than we mine.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

.The general conditions to be observed in such workings may be briefly stated as follows: (I) The whole of the auriferous gravel, down to the " bed rock," must be removed, - that is, no selection of rich or poor parts is possible; (2) this must be accomplished by the aid of water alone, or at times by water supplemented by blasting; (3) the conglomerate must be mechanically disintegrated without interrupting the whole system; (4) the gold must be saved without interrupting the continuous flow of water; and (5) arrangements must be made for disposing of the vast masses of impoverished gravel.^ If there is no saved state, the method must do nothing.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The relative advantages of the different methods may be generally stated as follows.

^ The areas containing productive coal measures are usually known as coalfields or basins, within which coal occurs in more or less regular beds, also called seams or veins , which can often be followed over a considerable length of country without change of character, although, like all stratified rocks, their continuity may be interrupted by faults or dislocations, also known as slips, hitches, heaves or troubles.

.The water is brought from a ditch on the high ground, and through a line of pipes to the distributing box, whence the branch pipes supplying the jets diverge.^ This may be done by water-carts or hose and jet, but preferably by finely divided water and compressed air distributed from a network of pipes carried through the workings.

^ The second principal method of sinking through water-bearing ground is by compressed air.

^ High Pressure Water Jet Cutting .
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
  • Aluminum Suppliers Information and Resources 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC www.aluminumsuppliers.net [Source type: Reference]

.The stream issues through a nozzle, termed a " monitor " or " giant," which is fitted with a ball and socket joint, so that the direction of the jet may be varied through considerable angles by simply moving a handle.^ They may occur as one large stone or as many small ones, and vary from the size of a golf ball to a grain of sand.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The term "tabbing" refers to moving forward through the focusable elements that can be reached using sequential focus navigation.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The requirements on handling the bdo element for the bidi algorithm may be implemented indirectly through the style layer.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The material of the bank being loosened by blasting and the cutting action of the water, crumbles into holes, and the superincumbent mass, often with large trees and stones, falls into the lower ground.^ These are then removed, and the coal is allowed to fall, wedges or blasting being employed when necessary.

^ They are divisible into three parts, the Lower Coal Measures, the middle or Pennant, a mass of sandstone containing some coals, and the Upper Coal Measures, also containing workable coal.

^ It is customary to have a curved sheet iron roof or bonnet when the cage is used for raising or lowering the miners, to protect them from injury by falling materials.

The stream, laden with stones and gravel, passes into the sluices, where the gold is recovered in the manner already described. .Under the most advantageous conditions the loss of gold may be estimated at 15 or 20%, the amount recovered representing a value of about two shillings per ton of gravel treated.^ Losses of potassium in sweat vary; under conditions in which sweat volume is minimal, the reported values range from 2.3 to 16 mmol (90 to 626 mg)/L (Consolazio et al., 1963).
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate 13 January 2010 21:34 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ They were sold at the Xtreme Toy Zone Web site from May to October 2008 for between $15 and $20.
  • Lead Paint Toy Recalls - Latest Lead Toy Recalls - Toxic Childrens Products - thedailygreen.com 14 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.thedailygreen.com [Source type: General]

^ The estimated detection limit was about 10 -8 g of metallic atoms per cell (Carroll & Tullis, 1968).
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

The loss of mercury is about the same, from 5 to 6 cwt. being in constant use per mile of sluice.
.In working auriferous river-beds, dredges have been used with considerable success in certain parts of New Zealand and on the Pacific slope in America.^ Surgery in which a healthy blood vessel taken from another part of the body is used to make a new path for blood around a blocked artery leading to the heart.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Set the document's character encoding and the encoding used to convert the input stream to the new encoding, set the confidence to certain , and abort these steps.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Even if the resource is then found to have a different type, it is still used as part of a nested browsing context ; this algorithm doesn't restart with the new resource.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The dredges used in California are almost exclusively of the endless-chain bucket or steam-shovel pattern.^ For the endless chain system, which is much used in the Wigan district, a double line of way is necessary, one line for full and the other for empty tubs.

Some dredges have a capacity under favourable conditions of over 2000 cub. yds. of gravel daily. The gravel is excavated as in the ordinary form of endless-chain bucket dredge and dumped on to the deck of the dredge. .It then passes through screens and grizzlies to retain the coarse gravel, the finer material passing on to sluice boxes provided with riffles, supplied with mercury.^ A gas or a liquid is used to pass the mixture through a column, paper, or special plate that contains absorbing materials.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

There are belt conveyers for discharging the gravel and tailings at the end of the vessel remote from the buckets. .The water necessary to the process is pumped from the river; as much as 2000 gallons per minute is used on the larger dredges.^ To secure this marvellous return, with an annual rainfall of 26 in., as much as 52,000,000 gallons of water are pumped per 24 hours from artesian wells on one estate alone.

^ In a heavily-watered mine it is often necessary to establish a special engine-pit, with pumps permanently fixed, or a division of one of the pits may be devoted to this purpose.

^ Others have paid as much as $2000 per seat to attend Joel Davis' sold out Million Dollar Seminars.

.The dressing or mechanical preparation of vein stuff containing gold is generally similar to that of other ores (see ORE-Dressing), except that the precious metal should be removed from the waste substances as quickly as possible, even although other minerals of value that are subsequently recovered may be present.^ The value should not be confusingly similar to any other defined value (e.g.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Other metal cyanides are similar.

^ A single property with the name postal-code may be present within the item that forms the value of an adr property of an item with the type vcard .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.In all cases the quartz or other vein stuff must be reduced to a very fine powder as a preliminary to further operations.^ There must never be two or more attributes on the same start tag whose names are an ASCII case-insensitive match for each other.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Powdered, confectioner's, or icing sugar: While it is possible to achieve a very fine granulation in the food processor, it is not possible to make true powdered sugar.

^ These values are all case-sensitive — they must be used exactly as shown.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.This may be done in several ways, e.g. either (I) by the Mexican crusher or arrastra, in which the grinding is effected upon a bed of stone, over which heavy blocks of stone attached to cross arms are dragged by the rotation of the arms about a central spindle, or (2) by the Chilean mill or trapiche, also known as the edge-runner, where the grinding stones roll upon the floor, at the same time turning about a central upright - contrivances which are mainly used for the preparation of silver ores; but by far the largest proportion of the gold quartz of California, Australia and Africa is reduced by (3) the stamp mill, which is similar in principle to that used in Europe for the preparation of tin and other ores.^ What your government thinks about using gold and silver as money.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This agent has been applied in various ways, in machines which either imitate the action of the collier by cutting with a pick or make a groove by rotating cutters attached to an endless chain or a revolving disk or wheel .

^ At one time, powdered sugar was stone-ground, but now it is ground in a steel magnesium rotary which turns against varying degrees of fine screens, each one determining a different fineness of the grind.

.The stamp mill was first used in California, and its use has since spread over the whole world.^ We can even improve on this whole scenario since our wheat germ oil is expeller pressed without the use of solvents!
  • MMS - Fixed Oil 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.thesage.com [Source type: General]

^ The use of preparing rolls with corrugations, to crush and equalize the feed of canes to the mill, or to the first of a series of mills, has become general.

.In the mills of the Californian type the stamp is a cylindrical iron pestle faced with a chilled cast iron shoe, removable so that it can be renewed when necessary, attached to a round iron rod or lifter, the whole weighing from 600 to 900 lb; stamps weighing 1320 lb are in use in the Transvaal.^ The cage is guided by shoes of wrought iron, a few inches long and bellmouthed at the ends, attached to the horizontal bars of the framing, which pass loosely over the guides on three sides, but in most new pits rail guides of heavy section are used.

^ Flat ropes of steel or iron wire were and are still used to a great extent, but round ones are now generally preferred.

^ Used Cast Iron Butterfly Valves .
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
  • Aluminum Suppliers Information and Resources 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC www.aluminumsuppliers.net [Source type: Reference]

.The lift is effected by cams acting on the under surface of tappets, and formed by cylindrical boxes keyed on to the stems of the lifter about onefourth of their length from the top.^ Wal-Mart is recalling about 39,000 \"Hip Charm\" key chains on top of the 12,000 recalled in April.
  • Lead Paint Toy Recalls - Latest Lead Toy Recalls - Toxic Childrens Products - thedailygreen.com 14 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.thedailygreen.com [Source type: General]

^ In the centre of the defecator an open-topped cylindrical vessel is placed, with its bottom about 6 in.

.As, however, the cams, unlike those of European stamp mills, are placed to one side of the stamp, the latter is not only lifted but turned partly round on its own axis, whereby the shoes are worn down uniformly.^ Round it the Palaeozoic sands and clays, largely derived from its own waste, were deposited as nearly horizontal beds, in many places still almost undisturbed.

^ It is up and running.The down side is that you can only order 32 coupons at a time and the coupons are only good in Canada.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Generally, the European Central Bank has authority over the Euro, however, there is individual national legislation in place which governs the mintage of coins issued from each country.
  • The Euro- FAQ 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The height of lift may be between 4 and 18 in., and the number of blows from 30 to over loo per minute.^ User agents may limit the number of state objects added to the session history per page.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The stamps are usually arranged in batteries of five; the order of working is usually I, 4, 2, 5, 3, but other arrangements, e.g. I, 3, 5, 2, 4, and 1, 5, 2, 4, 3, are common.^ In a young-earth scenario it certainly would not work when timescales have been reduced by around five orders of magnitude.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The stuff, previously broken to about 2-in. lumps in a rock-breaker, is fed in through an .aperture at the back of the " battery box," a constant supply of water is admitted from above, and mercury in a finely divided state is added at frequent intervals.^ This may be done by water-carts or hose and jet, but preferably by finely divided water and compressed air distributed from a network of pipes carried through the workings.

^ This has the effect of putting mercury, a neuro-toxin, into the city’s landfill, and eventually the water supply.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.The discharge of the comminuted material takes place through an aperture, which is covered by a thin steel plate perforated with numerous slits about Ath in.^ Use clean non-sparking tools to collect material and place it into loosely covered plastic containers for later disposal.

^ The study, which is expected to take about 18 months and cost an estimated $1.2 million, will be funded through Virginia Tech, with Virginia Uranium Inc.

^ Stainless Steel Plate Covers .
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]

broad and z in. long, a certain volume being discharged at every blow and carried forward by the flushing water over an apron or table in front, covered by copper plates filled with mercury. .Similar plates are often used to catch any particles of gold that may be thrown back, while the main operation is so conducted that the bulk of the gold may be reduced to the state of amalgam by bringing the two metals into intimate contact under the stamp head, and remain in the battery.^ It is used in sponges, ganache, ice cream, and anything high in fat because it emulsifies the fat by breaking it down into smaller particles.

^ In 1905 these four districts were formed into the two provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, and Keewatin was placed directly under the federal government .

^ These TNF-gold particles may kill cancer cells without harming healthy tissue.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

The tables in front are laid at an incline of about 8° and are about 13 ft. long; they collect from .10 to 15% of the whole gold; a further quantity is recovered by leading the sands through a gutter about 16 in.^ For link elements, the author keyword indicates that the referenced document provides further information about the author for the page as a whole.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The sets were sold at specialty fishing retail stores nationwide from November 2008 through January 2009 for about $15.
  • Lead Paint Toy Recalls - Latest Lead Toy Recalls - Toxic Childrens Products - thedailygreen.com 14 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.thedailygreen.com [Source type: General]

^ The large trepan or cutter weighs about 16 tons, and cuts a hole of from 9 to 15 ft.

broad and 120 ft. long, also lined with amalgamated copper plates, after the pyritic and other heavy minerals have been separated by depositing in catch pits and other similar contrivances.
.When the ore does not contain any considerable amount of free gold mercury is not, as a rule, used during the crushing, but the amalgamation is carried out in a separate plant.^ Use of diludin to reduce the body weight loss in young fattening cattle during transport to the meat-packing plant.
  • Information Resources for Livestock and Poultry Handling and Transport 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The addition of a significant amount of an ingredient, such as nuts, can lower the temperature considerably and this will cause crystallization to occur instantly if no interfering agent was used.

^ The scums separated from the juice by ordinary defecation entangle and carry away with them a certain amount of the juice with its contained saccharine.

Contrivances of the most diverse constructions have been employed. The most primitive is the rubbing together of the concentrated crushings with mercury in iron mortars. .Barrel amalgamation, i.e. mixing the crushings with mercury in rotating barrels, is rarely used, the process being wasteful, since the mercury is specially apt to be " floured " (see below).^ In the following example, objects in a text adventure are highlighted as being special by use of the b element.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In a single laboratory, using mixed industrial and domestic waste samples at concentrations of 0.28 and 0.62 mg cyanide/l, recoveries were 85% and 102%, respectively.

^ Similarly, the MIME type used to refer to JavaScript in this specification is text/javascript , since that is the most commonly used type, despite it being an officially obsoleted type according to RFC 4329.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

At Schemnitz, Kerpenyes, Kreuzberg and other localities in Hungary, quartz vein stuff containing a little gold, partly free and partly associated with pyrites and galena, is, after stamping in mills, similar to those described above, but without rotating stamps, passed through the so-called " Hungarian gold mill " or " quick-mill." This consists of a cast-iron pan having a shallow cylindrical bottom holding mercury, in which a wooden muller, nearly of the same shape as the inside of the pan, and armed below with several projecting blades, is made to revolve by gearing wheels. .The stuff from the stamps is conveyed to the middle of the muller, and is distributed over the mercury, when the gold subsides, while the quartz and lighter materials are guided by the blades to the circumference and are discharged, usually into a second similar mill, and subsequently pass over blanket tables, i.e. boards covered with canvas or sacking, the gold and heavier particles becoming entangled in the fibres.^ The tail rope, which is of lighter section than the main one, is coiled on the second drum, passes over similar guide sheaves placed near the roof or side of the gallery round a pulley at the bottom of the plane, and is fixed to the end of the train or set of tubs.

^ Grade Passing Next to the table, in the same figure Characteristics with positive and negative sides Characteristics are given in the second column, with the negative side in the left column and the positive side in the right column.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Grade Passing Next to the table, in a figure 's legend Characteristics with positive and negative sides Characteristics are given in the second column, with the negative side in the left column and the positive side in the right column.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The action of this mill is really more nearly analogous to that of a centrifugal pump, as no grinding action takes place in it. .The amalgam is cleaned out periodically - fortnightly or monthly - and after filtering through linen bags to remove the excess of mercury, it is transferred to retorts for distillation (see below).^ The oil continues through the processing and is bleached through clay, deodorized by steam and filtered to remove sediment.
  • MMS - Fixed Oil 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.thesage.com [Source type: General]

^ All liquids go into the bloodstream, is filtered through the liver and the kidneys, and what is not needed is sent to the bladder and urinated out.
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many other forms of pan-amalgamators have been devised. The Laszlo is an improved Hungarian mill, while the Piccard is of the same type. .In the Knox and Boss mills, which are also employed for the amalgamation of silver ores, the grinding is effected between flat horizontal surfaces instead of conical or curved surfaces as in the previously described forms.^ Ordinarily, stearic acid, which chemically combines with aluminum to form aluminum stearate, was used as a lubricant to retard surface oxidation during milling of such flake.

.One of the greatest difficulties in the treatment of gold by amalgamation, and more particularly in the treatment of pyrites, arises from the so-called " sickening " or " flouring " of the mercury; that is, the particles, losing their bright metallic surfaces, are no longer capable of coalescing with or taking up other metals.^ Calcium is a metal, bright and shiny like all other metals.
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "My mother was on dialysis for a number of years and I was taking her to her treatments every other day.

^ There is no order too large or small for Metal Associates to process, so call today.

Of the numerous remedies proposed the most efficacious is perhaps sodium amalgam. .It appears that amalgamation is often impeded by the tarnish found on the surface of the gold when it is associated with sulphur, arsenic, bismuth, antimony or tellurium.^ Oral Contraceptives • research: Various studies have found that the use of oral contraceptives is most often associated with increased absorption of calcium.

Henry Wurtz in America (1864) and Sir William Crookes in England (1865) made independently the discovery that, by the addition of a small quantity of sodium to the mercury, the operation is much facilitated. .It is also stated that sodium prevents both the " sickening " and the " flouring " of the mercury which is produced by certain associated minerals.^ Foods, almost by definition, are not toxic, and as mentioned earlier, can have protective factors to prevent certain potential mineral toxicities [41-43].
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both the Dominion and the provincial governments have set apart certain areas to be preserved, largely in their wild state, as national parks.

^ In cancer prevention, a clinical trial that studies whether taking certain medicines, vitamins, minerals, or food supplements can prevent cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The addition of potassium cyanide has been suggested to assist the amalgamation and to prevent " flouring," but Skey has shown that its use is attended with loss of gold.^ It is used to prevent and treat bone loss.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ On the other hand, the Lilly Cyanide Antidote Kit, which has been approved for use in the USA for the same purpose, has been shown to be toxic and its use requires caution.

Separation of Gold from the Amalgam

The amalgam is first pressed in wetted canvas or buckskin in order to remove excess of mercury. Lumps of the solid amalgam, about 2 in. in diameter, are introduced into an iron vessel provided with an iron tube that leads into a condenser containing water. The distillation is then effected by heating to dull redness. .The amalgam yields about 30 to 40% of gold.^ BethAnn Goldberg 03/30/2007 12:40 PM ...sounds like the way I think about cakes...

.Horizontal cylindrical retorts, holding from 200 to 1200 tb of amalgam, are used in the larger Californian mills, pot retorts being used in the smaller mills.^ In this third snippet, we have a logo being used in an aside, as part of the larger article discussing the acquisition: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The bullion left in the retorts is then melted in black-lead crucibles, with the addition of small quantities of suitable fluxes, e.g. nitre, sodium carbonate, &c.^ They consist almost entirely of marsh gas, with only a small quantity of carbonic acid, usually under 1%, and from i to 4% of nitrogen.

^ PEER REVIEWED** Methods of Manufacturing: Sodium cyanide can be prepared by heating sodium amide with carbon, by melting sodium chloride and calcium cyanamide together in an electric furnace ...

.The extraction of gold from auriferous minerals by fusion, except as an incident in their treatment for other metals, is very rarely practised.^ In the United Kingdom the ownership of coal, like that of other minerals, is in the proprietor of the soil, and passes with it, except when specially reserved in the sale.

^ In early days the placer gold mines of the Columbia, Fraser and Caribou attracted miners from everywhere, but these have declined, and lode mines supply most of the gold as well as the other metals.

^ Platinized titanium anodes are used in electroplating with gold, platinum, copper, silver, and other metals of high purity.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.It was at one time proposed to treat the concentrated black iron obtained in the Ural gold washings, which consists chiefly of magnetite, as an iron ore, by smelting it with charcoal for auriferous pigiron, the latter metal possessing the property of dissolving gold in considerable quantity.^ PEER REVIEWED** Other Chemical/Physical Properties: Soln readily dissolves gold and silver in presence of air [Budavari, S. (ed.

^ Significance of an abnormally low or high hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy: Special consideration of iron nutrition.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Under the stimulus of federal bounties, the production of pig iron and of steel , chiefly from imported ore, is rapidly increasing.

By subsequent treatment with sulphuric acid the gold could be recovered. .Experiments on this point were made by Anossow in 1835, but they have never been followed in practice.^ The following points are made: .
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gold in galena or other lead ores is invariably recovered in the refining or treatment of the lead and silver obtained.^ PEER REVIEWED** Other Chemical/Physical Properties: Soln readily dissolves gold and silver in presence of air [Budavari, S. (ed.

^ Platinized titanium anodes are used in electroplating with gold, platinum, copper, silver, and other metals of high purity.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Gold, silver, copper and other minerals are largely exported, chiefly in an unrefined state and almost entirely to the United States.

.Pyritic ores containing copper are treated by methods analogous to those of the copper smelter.^ An indication of the character of the ash of a coal is afforded by its colour, white ash coals being generally freer from sulphur than those containing iron pyrites, which yield a red ash.

^ The rect( x , y , w , h ) method must create a new subpath containing just the four points ( x , y ), ( x + w , y ), ( x + w , y + h ), ( x , y + h ), with those four points connected by straight lines, and must then mark the subpath as closed.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.In Colorado the pyritic ores containing gold and silver in association with copper are smelted in reverberatory furnaces for regulus, which, when desilverized by Ziervogel's method, leaves a residue containing 20 or 30 oz.^ Gold or silver coins are often mixed with 10% copper to improve durability, and coins are made with ridges around the rim to prevent coin shaving or debasement.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The money in circulation consists of a limited number of notes issued by the federal government, and the notes of the chartered banks , together with gold, silver and copper coin .

^ Platinized titanium anodes are used in electroplating with gold, platinum, copper, silver, and other metals of high purity.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

of gold per ton. .This is smelted with rich gold ores, notably those containing tellurium, for white metal or regulus; and by a following process of partial reduction analogous to that of selecting in copper smelting, " bottoms " of impure copper are obtained in which practically all the gold is concentrated.^ Action : The user agent must remove all a elements that have href attributes and that are partially or completely included in the current selection.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If there are multiple matching items, then a NodeList object containing all those elements is returned.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Each area element in areas must be processed as follows to obtain a shape to layer onto the image: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.By continuing the treatment of these in the ordinary way of refining, poling and granulating, all the foreign matters other than gold, copper and silver are removed, and, by exposing the granulated metal to a high oxidizing heat for a considerable time the copper may be completely oxidized while the precious metals are unaltered.^ Gold, silver, precious gems.
  • Fiction Liberation Front--Gold 27 January 2010 23:57 UTC www.lewisshiner.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In some instances the result has been an additional and unnecessary expenditure of high-pressure steam, and in all the weld-known fact - of the highest importance in this connexion - appears to have been disregarded, that the shorter the time the juice is exposed to heat the less inversion will take place in it, and therefore the less will be the loss of sugar.

^ Gold or silver coins are often mixed with 10% copper to improve durability, and coins are made with ridges around the rim to prevent coin shaving or debasement.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

.Subsequent treatment with sulphuric acid renders the copper soluble in water as sulphate, and the final residue contains only gold and silver, which is parted or refined in the ordinary way.^ Gold or silver coins are often mixed with 10% copper to improve durability, and coins are made with ridges around the rim to prevent coin shaving or debasement.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The composition of the ash of true coal approximates to that of a fire- clay , allowance being made for lime , which may be present either as carbonate or sulphate, and for sulphuric acid .

^ The money in circulation consists of a limited number of notes issued by the federal government, and the notes of the chartered banks , together with gold, silver and copper coin .

.This method of separating gold from copper, by converting the latter into oxide and sulphate, is also used at Oker in the Harz.^ When forms are submitted, the data in the form is converted into the form specified by the enctype , and then sent to the destination specified by the action using the given method .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Systems that need to enforce a particular format are encouraged to use the setCustomValidity() method to hook into the client-side validation mechanism.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This section describes this mechanism and some algorithms that can be used to convert HTML documents into other formats .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Extraction by Means of Aqueous Solutions

.Many processes have been suggested in which the gold of auriferous deposits is converted into products soluble in water, from which solutions the gold may be precipitated.^ Migration of oil in solution of water has been suggested.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ F. Firm ball: Syrup dropped into ice water may be formed into a firm ball which does not flatten on removal from the water.

^ F. Hard ball: Syrup dropped into ice water may be formed into a hard ball which holds its shape on removal but is still plastic.

.Of these processes, two only are of special importance, viz.^ Implementations may support only one of these two formats, although supporting both is encouraged.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These may, however, all be considered as modifications of two systems, viz.

^ Almost every mint uses these marks, only two do not: The Irish Currency Centre and Mnze sterreich.
  • The Euro- FAQ 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

the chlorination or .Plattner process, in which the metal is converted into the chloride, and the cyanide or MacArthur-Forrest process, in which it is converted into potassium aurocyanide.^ PEER REVIEWED** Acute systemic toxicity of hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide, and potassium cyanide by instillation into the inferior conjunctival sac was investigated in rabbits.

^ The biogenic process that supposedly converted organic matter into the full suites of oils and gases is a seriously deficient idea.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oxidative mechanisms contributed significantly, and most of the killing attributable to oxidative mechanisms was inhibited by sodium cyanide, which suggested that the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system participated in the oxidative process.

(3) Chlorination or Plattner Process. - .In this process moistened gold ores are treated with chlorine gas, the resulting gold chloride dissolved out with water, and the gold precipitated with ferrous sulphate, charcoal, sulphuretted hydrogen or otherwise.^ Tried and true – treating water with chlorine .
  • Alltop - Top Water News 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC water.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Contact with water resulted in severe burns due to the exothermic reaction between titanium tetra chloride and water.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ ELIK, E.E. (1969) [The processing of TiO 2 manufacture waste water for obtaining commercial gypsum and a denser precipitate.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.The process originated in 1848 with C. F. Plattner, who suggested that the residues from certain mines at Reichenstein, in Silesia, should be treated with chlorine after the arsenical products had been extracted by roasting.^ Before considering uranium mining and processing here in Virginia , we should await the results of a nonpartisan, scientific study on its potential risks.

.It must be noticed, however, that Percy independently made the same discovery, and stated his results at the meeting of the British Association (at Swansea) in 1849, but the Report was not published until 1852. The process was introduced in 1858 by Deetken at Grass Valley, California, where the waste minerals, principally pyrites from tailings, had been worked for a considerable time by amalgamation.^ This system in many respects resembles the tail rope, but has the advantage of working with one-third less length of rope for the same length of way.

^ When this method is invoked, the user agent must remove from the session history all the entries from the first state object entry for that Document object up to the last entry that references that same Document object, if any.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When a menu element has a type attribute in the tool bar state, then the user agent must build the menu for that menu element, and use the result in the rendering.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The process is rarely applied to ores direct; free-milling ores are generally amalgamated, and the tailings and slimes, after concentration, operated upon.^ User agents are not free to handle non-conformant documents as they please; the processing model described in this specification applies to implementations regardless of the conformity of the input documents.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Three stages in the process are to be distinguished: (i.) calcination, to convert all the metals, except gold and silver, into oxides, which are unacted upon by chlorine; (ii.) chlorinating the gold and lixiviating the product; (iii.) precipitating the gold.
.The calcination, or roasting, is conducted at a low temperature in some form of reverberatory furnace.^ It is especially used for drying hops and malt , and in blast furnaces where a high temperature is required, but it is not suited for reverberatory furnaces.

.Salt is added in the roasting to convert any lime, magnesia or lead which may be present, into the corresponding chlorides.^ The composition of the ash of true coal approximates to that of a fire- clay , allowance being made for lime , which may be present either as carbonate or sulphate, and for sulphuric acid .

The auric chloride is, however, decomposed at the elevated temperature into finely divided metallic gold, which is then readily attacked by the chlorine gas. .The high volatility of gold in the presence of certain metals must also be considered.^ To that end the abiogenic origin must be considered, even if we do not end up with the details as Gold suggested.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This type of allergy must be regarded very rare, considering the common exposure to the metal itself & the use of aluminum chloride hexahydrate in deodorants.

.According to Egleston the loss may be from 40 to 90% of the total gold present in cupriferous ores according to the temperature and duration of calcination.^ The loss of weight by exposure to the atmosphere from drying may be from z to I of the total amount of water contained.

The roasted mineral, slightly moistened, is introduced into a vat made of stoneware or pitched planks, and furnished with a double bottom. .Chlorine, generally prepared by the interaction of pyrolusite, salt and sulphuric acid, is led from a suitable generator beneath the false bottom, and rises through the moistened ore, which rests on a bed of broken quartz; the gold is thus converted into a soluble chloride, which is afterwards removed by washing with water.^ I'm not clear on what they were meant to be used for, but it sounds like the idea was to drop the calcium chunks into water or perhaps an acid solution, at which point they will generate a steady stream of hydrogen gas until consumed.
  • Pictures, stories, and facts about the element Calcium in the Periodic Table 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC periodictable.com [Source type: General]

^ The smaller duff is separated by vibrating or rotating screens into a great number of sizes, which are cleaned by washing in continuous current or pulsating jigging machines, where the lighter coal rises to the surface and is removed by a stream of water, while the heavier waste falls and is discharged at a lower level, or through a valve at the bottom of the machine.

^ Suitable machinery for cleaning the grain is everywhere in general use, so that weed seeds are removed before the wheat is ground.

.Both fixed and rotating vats are employed, the chlorination proceeding more rapidly in the latter case; rotating barrels are sometimes used.^ In many cases a light but air-proof cloth, specially made for the purpose, is used instead of wood for brattices, as being more handy and more easily removed.

^ Using the results of this processing, user agents must determine whether the progress bar is an indeterminate progress bar, or whether it is a determinate progress bar, and in the latter case, what its current and maximum values are, all as follows: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In some cases four guides are used - two to each of the long sides of the cage; but a more general arrangement is to have three - two on one side, and the third in an intermediate position on the opposite side.

.There have also been introduced processes in which the chlorine is generated in the chloridizing vat, the reagents used being dilute solutions of bleaching powder and an acid.^ I'm not clear on what they were meant to be used for, but it sounds like the idea was to drop the calcium chunks into water or perhaps an acid solution, at which point they will generate a steady stream of hydrogen gas until consumed.
  • Pictures, stories, and facts about the element Calcium in the Periodic Table 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC periodictable.com [Source type: General]

^ Coal as raised from the pit is now generally subjected to some final process of classification and cleaning before being despatched to the consumer.

^ If the resource in question is already being downloaded for other reasons then the existing download process can be used for the purposes of this step, as defined by the fetching algorithm.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Munktell's process is of this type. .In the Thies process, used in many districts in the United States, the vats are rotating barrels made, in the later forms, of iron lined with lead, and provided with a filter formed of a finely perforated leaden grating running from one end of the barrel to the other, and rigidly held in place by wooden frames.^ PEER REVIEWED** Preventive Measures: Showers and double locker accommodations (one locker for work clothing, the other for personal clothing) should be provided and all employees encouraged to wash thoroughly at the end of the shift.

^ Of these methods one of the chief is the plan of tubbing, or lining the excavation with an impermeable casing of wood or iron, generally the latter, built up in segments forming rings, which are piled upon each other throughout the whole depth of the water-bearing strata.

^ These foreign elements have been assimilated more slowly than in the United States, but the process is being hastened by the growth of a national consciousness.

Chlorine is generated within the barrel from sulphuric acid and chloride of lime. .After charging, the barrel is rotated, and when the chlorination is complete the contents are emptied on a filter of quartz or some similar material, and the filtrate led to settling tanks.^ In this example, some completely-unknown, potentially hostile, user-provided HTML content is embedded in a page.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the src attribute is set and the alt attribute is set to the empty string The image is either decorative or supplemental to the rest of the content, redundant with some other information in the document.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

After settling the solution is run into the precipitating tanks. .The precipitants in use are: ferrous sulphate, charcoal and sulphuretted hydrogen, either alone or mixed with sulphur dioxide; the use of copper and iron sulphides has been suggested, but apparently these substances have achieved no success.^ Even so, many healthcare provider trained in nutritional therapies s have suggested the need for calcium supplementation by some patients using these drugs.

^ It is only with these last values that, even in the most unprescriptive conditions that have been suggested as part of this biogenic model, enough organic carbon can be found to make useful amounts of an oil-like substance.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No effect of aluminum was observed on tissue levels of the essential metals zinc, copper, and iron, or on hemoglobin and hematocrit values.

.In the case of ferrous sulphate, prepared by dissolving iron in dilute sulphuric acid, the reaction follows the equation AuCl 3 +3FeS04 = FeC13-I-Fe2(S04)3+Au.^ Brain and liver lipid peroxidation was determined by evaluating the production of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in brain and liver homogenates in the presence or absence of 50 uM ferrous iron.

^ The addition of ferrous iron increased 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production in brain homogenates from all 3 dietary groups.

.At the same time any lead, calcium, barium and strontium present are precipitated as sulphates; it is therefore advantageous to remove these metals by the preliminary addition of sulphuric acid, which also serves to keep any basic iron salts in solution.^ Additional studies are needed to determine whether long-term use of calcium citrate leads to aluminum accumulation and toxicity.

^ Studies on titanates suspended in corn oil revealed that the intraperitoneal LD 50 for rats was 3.0 g/kg body weight for barium titanate, 2.2 g/kg body weight for bismuth titanate, 5.3 g/kg for calcium titanate, and 2.0 g/kg for lead titanate.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The composition of the ash of true coal approximates to that of a fire- clay , allowance being made for lime , which may be present either as carbonate or sulphate, and for sulphuric acid .

The precipitation is carried out in tanks or vats made with"wooden sides and a cement bottom. .The solutions are well mixed by stirring with wooden poles, and the gold allowed to settle, the time allowed varying from 12 to 72 hours.^ The time zone associated with that time is two hours and nine minutes ahead of UTC, which is not currently a real time zone, but is nonetheless allowed.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The supernatant liquid is led into settling tanks, where a further amount of "gold is deposited, r and is then filtered through sawdust or sand, the sawdust being afterwards burnt and the gold separated from the ashes and the sand treated in the chloridizing vat. .The precipitated gold is washed, treated with salt and sulphuric acid to remove iron salts, roughly dried by pressing in cloths or on filter paper, and then melted with salt, borax and nitre in graphite crucibles.^ A procedure that uses gold salts (a salt form of the metal element gold) to treat diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Filter Press Cloths .
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]

Thus prepared it has a fineness of 800-960, the chief impurities usually being iron and lead.
Charcoal is used as the precipitant at Mount Morgan, Australia. .Its use was proposed as early as 1818 and 1819 by Hare and Henry; Percy advocated it in 1869, and Davis adopted it on the large scale at a works in Carolina in 1880. The action is not properly understood; it may be due to the reducing gases (hydrogen, hydrocarbons, &c.^ Traditionally it has been difficult to accurately identify hydrocarbon compounds in water unless they are present at very high levels, such as after a large scale industrial spill.
  • Alltop - Top Water News 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC water.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ PEER REVIEWED** Arterial Blood Gases: Arterial blood gases may be useful for monitoring of metabolic acidosis that can occur from cyanide poisoning.

^ When the mine is free from gas, the furnace may be worked by the return air, but it is better to take fresh air directly from the downcast by a scale, or split, from the main current.

) which are invariably present in wood charcoal. .The process consists essentially in running the solution over layers of charcoal, the charcoal being afterwards burned.^ For each tr element that is a child of the element being processed, in tree order, run the algorithm for processing rows .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For each child node of the node , in tree order , run the following steps: Let current node be the child node being processed.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the URL being processed was flagged as an "explicit entry" or a "fallback entry" Run the cache failure steps .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

It has been found that the reaction proceeds faster when the solution is heated.
.Precipitation with sulphur dioxide and sulphuretted hydrogen proceeds much more rapidly, and has been adopted at many works.^ The progress is either indeterminate, indicating that progress is being made but that it is not clear how much more work remains to be done before the task is complete (e.g.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Through hard work and the help of many reliable and responsible employees, I've built a business that allows me more freedom, more flexibility, and more time.

^ He has not been handled much up to now, but next month, after he is weaned, I will be working with him to make him more friendly.
  • National Dexter Cattle for Sale List 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC dextercattle4sale.net [Source type: General]

.Sulphur dioxide, generated by burning sulphur, is forced into the solution under pressure, where it interacts with any free chlorine present to form hydrochloric and sulphuric acids.^ The composition of the ash of true coal approximates to that of a fire- clay , allowance being made for lime , which may be present either as carbonate or sulphate, and for sulphuric acid .

^ In 1905 these four districts were formed into the two provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, and Keewatin was placed directly under the federal government .

^ Fischer applied a method indicated by Pasteur in converting dextro into laevo- tartaric acid ; he found that both d-mannonic and d-gluconic acids (the latter is yielded by glucose on oxidation) were mutually convertible by heating with quinoline under pressure at 140°.

.Sulphuretted hydrogen, obtained by treating iron sulphide or a coarse matte with dilute sulphuric acid, is forced in similarly.^ It is then treated with sulphurous acid gas, for the purpose of decolorization, again limed to neutralize the acid, and then passed through a third saturator wherein all traces of lime and sulphur are removed.

.The gold is precipitated as the sulphide, together with any arsenic, antimony, copper, silver and lead which may be present.^ Copper, lead, silver and all the important metals are mined in the Rocky Mountain district.

^ Gold, silver, copper and other minerals are largely exported, chiefly in an unrefined state and almost entirely to the United States.

^ Summing up the economic features of the Cordilleran belt, it includes many of the best coal-mines and the most extensive deposits of gold, copper, lead and zinc of the Dominion, while in silver, nickel and iron Ontario takes the lead.

.The precipitate is collected in a filter-press, and then roasted in muffle furnaces with nitre, borax and sodium carbonate.^ PEER REVIEWED** Methods of Manufacturing: Sodium cyanide can be prepared by heating sodium amide with carbon, by melting sodium chloride and calcium cyanamide together in an electric furnace ...

The fineness of the gold so obtained is 900 to 950.
4. Cyanide Process. - .This process depends upon the solubility of gold in a dilute solution of potassium cyanide in the presence of air (or some other oxidizing agent), and the subsequent precipitation of the gold by metallic zinc or by.^ The quantity of air required for a large colliery depends upon the number of men employed, as for actual respiration from zoo to 200 cub.

^ Fischer showed that methose was identical with the a-acrose obtained by himself and Tafel in 1887 by decomposing acrolein dibromide with baryta, and subsequently prepared by oxidizing glycerin with bromine in alkaline solution, and treating the product with dilute alkali at o°.

^ PEER REVIEWED** Other Chemical/Physical Properties: Soln readily dissolves gold and silver in presence of air [Budavari, S. (ed.

electrolysis. .The solubility of gold in cyanide solutions was known to K. W. Scheele in 1782; and M. Faraday applied it to the preparation of extremely thin films of the metal.^ The ethanol solution is aspirated directly into the flame, and iron equivalent to a known amount of cyanide is then determined.

.L. Elsner recognized, in 1846, the part played by the atmosphere, and in 1879 Dixon showed that bleaching powder, manganese dioxide, and other oxidizing agents, facilitated the solution.^ When showing option elements in select elements, user agents should show the option elements of such groups as being related to each other and separate from other option elements.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ As part of the counter-attack, the defendant filed a complaint with the Attorney General against the revenue agent, the judge, and others for counterfeiting securities of the United States.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It melts instantly on the tongue because it is powdered and contains no cornstarch or other anti-caking agent to prevent lumping.

S. B. Christy (Trans. A.I.M.E., 1896, vol. .26) has shown that the solution is hastened by many oxidizing agents, especially sodium and manganese dioxides and potassium ferricyanide.^ Titanium and its alloys may react strongly with oxidizing agents, especially when in the form of powdered metal (Mogilevskaja, 1972; ACGIH, 1973).
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

According to G. Bodlander (Zeit. f. angew. Chem., 1896, vol. .19) the rate of solution in potassium cyanide depends upon the subdivision of the gold - the finer the subdivision the quicker the solution, - and on the concentration of the solution - the rate increasing until the solution contains 0.25% of cyanide, and remaining fairly stationary with increasing concentration.^ Five nM sodium cyanide plus hemolytic concentrations of tributyltin stimulates hemolysis rates synergistically compared with either cyanide or tributyltin alone.

^ A significant increase (p less than 0.01) in the serum concentration of 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol was observed in the thiazide group.

^ Pretreatment with p-aminopropiophenone at a dose inducing 7-15% methemoglobinemia, 15-19 minutes after administration, protected animals against the effects of sodium cyanide upon swimming performance.

The action proceeds in two stages; in the first hydrogen peroxide and potassium aurocyanide are formed, and in the second the hydrogen peroxide oxidizes a further quantity of gold and potassium cyanide to aurocyanide, thus (1) 2Au+4KCN +02+2H20=2KAu(CN)2+4KOH+H202;(2)2Au+4KCN+2H202= 2KAu(CN) 2 +4KOH. Theend reaction may be written 4Au+8KCN 2H 2 0 +0 2 = 4KAu (C N) 2 -}-4KOH.
.The commercial process was patented in 1890 by MacArthur and Forrest, and is now in use all over the world.^ Though the chief foreign commerce is with Great Britain and the United States, the Dominion has trade relations with all the chief countries of the world and maintains commercial agents among them.

^ Using a resource When an algorithm fetches a resource, if the fetching occurs asynchronously then the processing of the resource once some or all of the resource is available is a task.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Using the results of this processing, user agents must determine whether the progress bar is an indeterminate progress bar, or whether it is a determinate progress bar, and in the latter case, what its current and maximum values are, all as follows: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

It is best adapted for free-milling ores, especially after the bulk of the gold has been removed by amalgamation. It has been especially successful in the Transvaal. In the Witwatersrand the ore, which contains about 9 dwts. of gold to the metric ton (2000 ib), is stamped and amalgamated, and the slimes and tailings, containing about 32 dwts. per ton, are cyanided, about 2 dwts. more being thus extracted. The total cost per ton of ore treated is about 6s., of which the cyaniding costs from 2S. to 4S.
The process embraces three operations: (1) Solution of the gold; (2) precipitation of the gold; (3) treatment of the precipitate.
.The ores, having been broken and ground, generally in tube mills, until they pass a 150 to 200-mesh sieve, are transferred to the leaching vats, which are constructed of wood, iron or masonry; steel vats, coated inside and out with pitch, of circular section and holding up to woo tons, have come into use.^ It is useful for piped, pulled, and cast sugar decoration show pieces because it holds up so well, remaining dry and resisting collapse.

^ "The government should hold intense dialogue until they give their consent.

^ South Wales they are larger, carrying up to one ton or more.

.The diameter is generally 26 ft., but may be greater; the best depth is considered to be a quarter of the diameter.^ It has therefore been proposed, for greater depths, to put four columns of tubbings of smaller diameters, 82 and 52 ft., in the shaft, and fill up the remainder of the boring with concrete, so that with thinner and lighter castings a greater depth may be reached.

^ In addition it was estimated that in the proved coalfields at depths greater than 4000 ft.

^ The power is applied by steam acting directly on a crank at one end of the axle , and the diameter of the fan may be 40 ft.

The vats are fitted with filters made of coco-nut matting and jute cloth supported on wooden frames. The leaching is generally carried out with a strong, medium, and with a weak liquor, in the order given; sometimes there is a preliminary leaching with a weak liquor. .The strengths employed depend also upon the mode of precipitation adopted, stronger solutions (up to 0.25% KCN) being used when zinc is the precipitant.^ Our survival depends upon being with land, collecting water, letting forests age and growing… .
  • Alltop - Top Water News 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC water.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Upon this the tubbing is built up in segments, of which usually from 10 to 12 are required for the entire circumference, the edges being made perfectly true.

^ The quantity of air required for a large colliery depends upon the number of men employed, as for actual respiration from zoo to 200 cub.

.For electrolytic precipitation the solution may contain up to 0.1% KCN. The liquors are run off from the vats to the electrolysing baths or precipitating tanks, and the leached ores are removed by means of doors in the sides of the vats into wagons.^ This, being folded and placed in its sheath, is attached by both ends to the head, so that the melted liquor runs into both openings at the same time.

^ The scums then settle down to the bottom of the cone , whence they are run off to the scum tank.

^ When a browsing context is to discard a Document , that means that it is to lose the strong reference from the Document 's browsing context to the Document , and that any tasks associated with the Document in any task source must be removed without being run.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.In the Transvaal the operation occupies 32 to 4 days for fine sands, and up to 14 days for coarse sands; the quantity of cyanide per ton of tailings varies from 0.26 to 0.28 lb, for electrolytic precipitation, and o 5 lb for zinc precipitation.^ Sodium cyanide is an extremely hazardous substance (EHS) subject to reporting requirements when stored in amounts in excess of its threshold planning quantity (TPQ) of 100 lbs.

^ Denaby Main Colliery, 629,947 tons in 281 days, maxiYorkshire mum per day 2673 tons.

The precipitation is effected by zinc in the form of bright turnings, or coated with lead, or by electrolysis. .According to Christy, the precipitation with zinc follows equations for 2 according as potassium cyanide is present or not: (1) 4 KAu(CN)2+4Zn+2H20=2Zn(CN)2+ K 2 Zn(CN) 4 +Zn(OK) 2 +4H+4Au; (2) 2KAu (CN) 2 +3Zn+4KCN+2H 2 0 = 2K 2 Zn(CN) 4 +Zn(OK) 2 +4H+2Au; one part of zinc precipitating 3.1 parts of gold in the first case, and 2.06 in the second.^ Split fn on spaces , and let part one be the first resulting token, and part two be the second, if any, or the empty string if there is no second token.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The following example represents the addition of two paragraphs, the second of which was inserted in two parts.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In the non-conforming stream a b x , the first a element would be closed upon seeing the second one, and the "x" character would be inside a link to "b", not to "a".
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

It may be noticed that the potassium zinc cyanide is useless in gold extraction, for it neither dissolves gold nor can potassium cyanide be regenerated from it.
.The precipitating boxes, generally made of wood but sometimes of steel, and set on an incline, are divided by partitions into alternately wide and narrow compartments, so that the liquor travels upwards in its passage through the wide divisions and downwards through the narrow divisions.^ For the export trade it is packed in square boxes made of spruce or some other odourless wood.

In the wider compartments are placed sieves having sixteen holes to the square inch and bearing zinc turnings. .The gold and other metals are precipitated on the under surfaces of the turnings and fall to the bottom of the compartment as a black slime.^ Platinized titanium anodes are used in electroplating with gold, platinum, copper, silver, and other metals of high purity.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There is, however, so little precipitation that snow does not accumulate on the surface to form glaciers, the summer's sun having warmth enough to thaw what falls in the winter.

.The slime is cleaned out fortnightly or monthly, the zinc turnings being cleaned by rubbing and the supernatant liquor allowed to settle in the precipitating boxes or in separate vessels.^ He took out a golden demitasse and rubbed it against a clean spot on his sleeve.
  • Fiction Liberation Front--Gold 27 January 2010 23:57 UTC www.lewisshiner.com [Source type: Original source]

.The slime so obtained consists of finely divided gold and silver (5-5 0%), zinc (30-60%), lead (io%), carbon (io%), together with tin, copper, antimony, arsenic and other impurities of the zinc and ores.^ PEER REVIEWED** IN TESTING FOR GOLD, ARSENIC, MERCURY; PRECIPITATING COPPER [The Merck Index.

^ Gold, silver, copper and other minerals are largely exported, chiefly in an unrefined state and almost entirely to the United States.

^ However, it is unconstitutional and void as an attempt by the state to make a class of debts payable at the option of the debtor in something other than gold and silver coin.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

.After well washing with water, the slimes are roughly dried in bag-filters or filter-presses, and then treated with dilute sulphuric acid, the solution being heated by steam.^ Titanium tetrachloride is a liquid, which is stable in dry air, but decomposes in cold water to form titanium oxide and hydrochloric acid.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In this procedure, the oxides are converted, under heating, into water-soluble sulfates by fumes of sulfuric acid, after which the corresponding sulfates are identified by staining reactions.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The antacid tablets (aluminium content 244 mg tablet-1) were chewed and swallowed either with water, with orange juice, or with citric acid solution.

This dissolves out the zinc. Lime is added to bring down the gold, and the sediment, after washing and drying, is fused in graphite crucibles.
5. Electrolytic Processes. - The electrolytic separation of the gold from cyanide solutions was first practised in the Transvaal. The process, as elaborated by Messrs. .Siemens and Halske, essentially consists in the electrolysis of weak solutions with iron or steel plate anodes, and lead cathodes, the latter, when coated with gold, being fused and cupelled.^ Gold Plating Solutions .
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
  • Aluminum Suppliers Information and Resources 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC www.aluminumsuppliers.net [Source type: Reference]

.Its advantages over the zinc process are that the deposited gold is purer and more readily extracted, and that weaker solutions can be employed, thereby effecting an economy in cyanide.^ PEER REVIEWED** Artificial Pollution Sources: Deposited on boiler tubes due to corrosion effects /in processing of coal/.

.In the process employed at the Worcester Works in the Transvaal, the liquors, containing about 150 grains of gold per ton and from 0.08 to o 01% of cyanide, are treated in rectangular vats in which is placed a series of iron and leaden plates at intervals of 1 in.^ The latest editor's working copy (which may contain unfinished text in the process of being prepared) is also available.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Reports of case series usually contain detailed information about the individual patients.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

The cathodes, which are sheets of thin lead foil weighing 12 lb to the sq. yd., are removed monthly, their gold content being from 0.5 to 1 0%, and after folding are melted in reverberatory furnaces to ingots containing 2 to 4% of gold. Cupellation brings up the gold to about 900 fine. Many variations of the electrolytic process as above outlined have been suggested. S. Cowper Coles has suggested aluminium cathodes; Andreoli has recommended cathodes of iron and anodes of lead coated with lead peroxide, the gold being removed from the iron cathodes by a brief immersion in molten lead; in the Pelatan-Cerici process the gold is amalgamated at a mercury cathode (see also below).

Refining or Parting of Gold

.Gold is almost always silverbearing, and it may be also noticed that silver generally contains some gold.^ In these cases, the alt attribute must contain some suitable alternative text, but it may be somewhat brief.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Monetary value means value calculated on the basis of $1 for an amount of silver or gold equal to the amount at the time contained in the standard silver dollar or gold dollar.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gold, silver, copper and other minerals are largely exported, chiefly in an unrefined state and almost entirely to the United States.

.Consequently the separation of these two metals is one of the most important metallurgical processes.^ Consequently, as was pointed out by Bertine & Goldberg (1971), the contribution to the titanium concentrations in air and natural waters will be most evident at these latitudes.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ (The order in which these are evaluated is important, as some of the values refer to earlier ones.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The result of escaping the vCard text string part one A U+003B SEMICOLON character (;) The result of escaping the vCard text string part two Three U+003B SEMICOLON characters (;) Then, skip the remainder of these substeps.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

In addition to the separation of the silver the operation extends to the elimination of the last traces of lead, tin, arsenic, &c. which have resisted the preceding cupeilation.
The " parting " of gold and silver is of considerable antiquity. .Thus Strabo states that in his time a process was employed for refining and purifying gold in large quantities by cementing or burning it with an aluminous earth, which, by destroying the silver, left the gold in a state of purity.^ No state shall make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debt .
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When gold becomes too expensive, and when paper money fails, silver is the only thing left to use as money.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There would also be large quantities of oil and gas left in the source rocks if this biogenic model were correct.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pliny shows that for this purpose the gold was placed on the fire in an earthen vessel with treble its weight of salt, and that it was afterwards again exposed to the fire with two parts of salt and one of argillaceous rock, which, in the presence of moisture, effected the decomposition of the salt; by this means the silver became converted into chloride.^ Split fn on spaces , and let part one be the first resulting token, and part two be the second, if any, or the empty string if there is no second token.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Back There is little or no barium or strontium in seawater, probably because of the presence of sulfate which forms an insoluble salt with these two anions.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The result of escaping the vCard text string part two A U+003B SEMICOLON character (;) The result of escaping the vCard text string part one Three U+003B SEMICOLON characters (;) Add a vCard line with the type " END " and the value " VCARD " to output .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The methods of parting can be classified into "dry," "wet" and electrolytic methods. .In the " dry " methods the silver is converted into sulphide or chloride, the gold remaining unaltered; in the " wet " methods the silver is dissolved by nitric acid or boiling sulphuric acid; and in the electrolytic processes advantage is taken of the fact that under certain current densities and other circumstances silver passes from an anode composed of a gold-silver alloy to the cathode more readily than gold.^ Throughout history, Silver has been used as money in more times in more places than gold.
  • SVP - What is Money? 16 January 2010 14:48 UTC www.svpvril.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The compact condition permits the hay to be kept with less deterioration of quality than under the old system of more loose baling.

^ More titanium was found in maple and elm leaves than in the leaves of other plants while the content of titanium in brush was 50-820 mg/kg.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Of the dry methods only F. B. Miller's chlorine process is of any importance, this method, and the wet process of refining by sulphuric acid, together with the electrolytic process, being the only ones now practised.^ If there is a pending external script , then the method must now return without further processing of the input stream .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The contents of one reservoir may be dominated by natural gas, with only a fraction of one percent being liquid oil.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If any of the arguments to createImageData() or getImageData() are infinite or NaN, or if the createImageData() method is invoked with only one argument but that argument is null, the method must instead raise a NOT_SUPPORTED_ERR exception.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The conversion of silver into the sulphide may be effected by heating with antimony sulphide, litharge and sulphur, pyrites, or with sulphur alone.^ Under a proclamation issued from Windsor Castle by Queen Victoria on the 22nd of May the new constitution came into effect on the ist of July.

.The antimony, or Guss and Fluss, method was practised up till 1846 at the Dresden mint; it is only applicable to alloys containing more than 50% of gold.^ This phenomenon may be more common than is clinically recognised and warrants careful re-examination of the indications and method of administration of anti-coagulants during pregnancy.

^ User agents should allow users to insert new paragraphs into elements that contains only content other than paragraphs.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If string consists of just a single U+002E FULL STOP character or if it contains more than one U+002E FULL STOP character then return an error condition and abort these steps.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The fusion results in the formation of a gold-antimony alloy, from which the antimony is removed by an oxidizing fusion with nitre. .The sulphur and litharge, or Pfannenschmied, process was used to concentrate the gold in an alloy in order to make it amenable to " quartation," or parting with nitric acid.^ Surgery in which a healthy blood vessel taken from another part of the body is used to make a new path for blood around a blocked artery leading to the heart.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The metal is highly resistant to corrosion by many agents including concentrated nitric acid, 5% sulfuric acid, and sea water.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An ashing step with concentrated nitric acid/concentrated perchloric acid (4:1 v/v) is necessary.

.Fusion with sulphur was used for the same purpose as the Pfannenschmied process.^ On the other hand, the Lilly Cyanide Antidote Kit, which has been approved for use in the USA for the same purpose, has been shown to be toxic and its use requires caution.

It was employed in 1797 at the St Petersburg mint.
.The conversion of the silver into the chloride may be effected by means of salt - the " cementation " process - or other chlorides, or by free chlorine - Miller's process.^ Gentamicin may thus interfere with the mechanisms for cellular uptake and intracellular processing of NAG causing increased NAG release into the tubular lumen.

^ User agents may provide means for bypassing the context menu processing model, ensuring that the user can always access the UA's default context menus.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Under a proclamation issued from Windsor Castle by Queen Victoria on the 22nd of May the new constitution came into effect on the ist of July.

.The first process consists essentially in heating the alloy with salt and brickdust; the latter absorbs the chloride formed, while the gold is recovered by washing.^ PEER REVIEWED** Strong oxidizers (such as acids, acid salts, chlorates & nitrates) [Note: Absorbs moisture from the air forming a syrup].

^ A procedure that uses gold salts (a salt form of the metal element gold) to treat diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

It is no longer employed. .The second process depends upon the fact that, if chlorine be led into the molten alloy, the base metals and the silver are converted into chlorides.^ The second method is based on precipitating silver cyanide, then determining the excess silver ion in the supernatant by atomic absorption spectrometry.

^ The biogenic process that supposedly converted organic matter into the full suites of oils and gases is a seriously deficient idea.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Base Metal Alloys .
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
  • Aluminum Suppliers Information and Resources 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC www.aluminumsuppliers.net [Source type: Reference]

It was proposed in 1838 by Lewis Thompson, but it was only applied commercially after Miller's improvements in 1867, when it was adopted at the Sydney mint. Sir W. C. Roberts-Austen introduced it at the London mint; and it has also been used at Pretoria. .It is especially suitable to gold containing little silver and base metals - a character of Australian gold - but it yields to the sulphuric acid and electrolytic methods in point of economy.^ A series of x-ray pictures of the esophagus taken after a patient drinks a liquid containing barium sulfate (a form of the silver-white metallic element barium).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ PEER REVIEWED** Cleaning metals; mfr of dyes and pigments, nylon int, chelating cmpd; extracting gold and silver from ores.

^ The second method is based on precipitating silver cyanide, then determining the excess silver ion in the supernatant by atomic absorption spectrometry.

.The separation of gold from silver in the wet way may be effected by nitric acid, sulphuric acid or by a mixture of sulphuric acid and aqua regia. Parting by nitric acid is of considerable antiquity, being mentioned by Albertus Magnus (13th cent.^ Increasing the nitric acid concn from pH 3-5 increased total aluminum concn in leachates from 0.70 to 0.85 mM, while increasing sulfuric acid had no effect.

^ User agents may prevent selections from being made in ways that cross from editable elements into non-editable elements (e.g.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These separate cause and effects may be illustrated by Fig.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

), Biringuccio (1540) and Agricola (1556). .It is now rarely practised, although in some refineries both the nitric acid and the sulphuric acid processes are combined, the alloy being first treated with nitric acid.^ Let current cell be the first td or th element in the tr element being processed.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In some parts of the semiarid districts in the interior of the province irrigation is being successfully practised for the purpose of bringing land under profitable cultivation for fruit.

^ An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination that is used to treat non-Hodgkin lymphoma and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It used to be called " quartation " or " inquartation," from the fact that the alloy best suited for the operation of refining contained 3 parts of.silver to I of gold.^ Platinized titanium anodes are used in electroplating with gold, platinum, copper, silver, and other metals of high purity.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Black Treacle: Containing 18 percent water, this dark, thick liquid is obtained from the residual molasses which is drained from the molds used in the sugar refining process.

^ Molasses: Containing 24 percent water, unsulfured molasses has the best flavor because it is refined from the concentrated juice of sugar cane.

.The operation may be conducted in vessels of glass or platinum, and each pound of granulated metal is treated with a pound and a quarter of nitric acid of specific gravity 1.32. The method is sometimes employed in the assay of gold.^ The metal is highly resistant to corrosion by many agents including concentrated nitric acid, 5% sulfuric acid, and sea water.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Platinized titanium anodes are used in electroplating with gold, platinum, copper, silver, and other metals of high purity.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ User agents may limit values of σ to an implementation-specific maximum value to avoid exceeding hardware limitations during the Gaussian blur operation.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Refining by sulphuric acid, the process usually adopted for separating gold from silver, was first employed on the large scale by d'Arcet in Paris in 1802, and was introduced into the Mint refinery, London, by Mathison in 1829. It is based upon the facts that concentrated hot sulphuric acid converts silver and copper into soluble sulphates without attacking the gold, the silver sulphate being subsequently reduced to the metallic state by copper plates with the formation of copper sulphate.^ The money in circulation consists of a limited number of notes issued by the federal government, and the notes of the chartered banks , together with gold, silver and copper coin .

^ When the same concentration of CaCO3 was introduced into the isolated intestinal segments of rats, the absorption of both 200 mg/L ofloxacin and 400 mg/L ciprofloxacin was reduced significantly from 49% and 35% respectively to approximately 30% in each case.

^ The recall involves eight styles of silver-colored metal jewelry, three of which are pictured here and on subsequent slides: .
  • Lead Paint Toy Recalls - Latest Lead Toy Recalls - Toxic Childrens Products - thedailygreen.com 14 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.thedailygreen.com [Source type: General]

It is applicable to any alloy, and is the best method for parting gold with the exception of the electrolytic method.
The process embraces four operations: (1) the preparation of an alloy suitable for parting; (2) the treatment with sulphuric acid; (3) the treatment of the residue for gold; (4) the treatment of the solution for silver.
.It is necessary to remove as completely as possible any lead, tin, bismuth, antimony, arsenic and tellurium, impurities which impair the properties of gold and silver, by an oxidizing fusion, e.g. with nitre.^ PEER REVIEWED** Other Chemical/Physical Properties: Soln readily dissolves gold and silver in presence of air [Budavari, S. (ed.

.Over 10% of copper makes the parting difficult; consequently in such alloys the percentage of copper is diminished by the addition of silver free from copper, or else the copper is removed by a chemical process.^ (In the other cases, such as explicit seeks, relevant events get fired as part of the overall process of changing the current playback position.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ As part of this process, some of the chemical bonds in the kerogen must be broken to form bitumen (Barker 1996, p.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second and optional process in sugar production is refining to remove “impurities.” This refers to anything that is not purely sucrose such as molasses and minerals.

.Other undesirable impurities are the platinum metals, special treatment being necessary when these substances are present.^ A substance being studied in the treatment of melanoma.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A substance being studied in the treatment of breast cancer and other types of cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The alloy, after the preliminary refining, is granulated by being poured, while molten, in a thin stream into cold water which is kept well agitated.^ (For example, the script element can result in scripts executing and using the dynamic markup insertion APIs to insert characters into the stream being tokenized.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Headlines In Camden, Tennessee the city’s Water Department braved the cold all day and well into the night on Monday as they worked to repair broken water lines.
  • Alltop - Top Water News 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC water.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Most of Canada is so well watered that the lakes have outlets and are kept fresh, but there are a few small lakes in southern Saskatchewan, e.g.

.The acid treatment is generally carried out in cast iron pots; platinum vessels used to be employed, while porcelain vessels are only used for small operations, e.g. for charges of 190 to 225 oz.^ V7 765]**PEER REVIEWED** General Manufacturing Information: U.S.: For use only by trained persons with permit or license.

^ PEER REVIEWED** Trace determination of aluminum was carried out in blood samples from 11 patients with chronic renal failure undergoing periodical hemodialysis treatment.

^ Whether loop diuretics increases the bone turn-over by augmenting the urinary calcium excretion is more controversial as only few studies have been carried out on loop diuretics.

as at Oker in the Harz. The pots, which are usually cylindrical with a hemispherical bottom, may hold as much as 13,000 to 16,000 oz. of alloy. .They are provided with lids, made either of lead or of wood lined with lead, which have openings to serve for the introduction of the alloy and acid, and a vent tube to lead off the vapours evolved during the operation.^ NGOs operating in Madagascar report continued armed, open and organized plundering of precious wood from several natural forests,… Water Conservation News .
  • Alltop - Top Water News 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC water.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ CBB Bubble Gun CBB Group recalled about 39,000 toys of five different varieties, all made in China, because they either have excessive levels of lead, or pose a choking hazard or both.
  • Lead Paint Toy Recalls - Latest Lead Toy Recalls - Toxic Childrens Products - thedailygreen.com 14 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.thedailygreen.com [Source type: General]

^ CBB baby rattle CBB Group recalled about 39,000 toys of five different varieties, all made in China, because they either have excessive levels of lead, or pose a choking hazard or both.
  • Lead Paint Toy Recalls - Latest Lead Toy Recalls - Toxic Childrens Products - thedailygreen.com 14 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.thedailygreen.com [Source type: General]

The bullion with about twice its weight of sulphuric acid of 66° Be is placed in the pot, and the whole gradually heated. .Since the action is sometimes very violent, especially when the bullion is treated in the granulated form (it is steadier when thin plates are operated upon), it is found expedient to add the acid in several portions.^ An elevated fibrogenic action and pronounced dystrophy of the liver, kidneys, and sometimes of the myocardium were found to occur to a greater extent with the borides than with the carbides.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

The heating is continued for 4 to 12 hours according to the amount of silver present; the end of the reaction is known by the absence of any hissing. .Generally the reaction mixture is allowed to cool, and the residue, which settles to the bottom of the pot, consists of gold together with copper, lead and iron sulphates, which are insoluble in strong sulphuric acid; silver sulphate may also separate if present in sufficient quantity and the solution be sufficiently cooled.^ Reaction with water may generate much heat which will increase the concentration of fumes in the air.

^ The money in circulation consists of a limited number of notes issued by the federal government, and the notes of the chartered banks , together with gold, silver and copper coin .

^ The highest levels of aluminum may be found in the lungs, where it may be present as inhaled insoluble particles.

.The solution is removed by ladles or by siphons, and the residue is leached out with boiling water; this removes the sulphates.^ The residue after shoveling, or small spills, may be removed by dry vacuuming or flushing with a liberal quantity of water.

.A certain amount of silver is still present and, according to M. Pettenkofer, it is impossible to remove all the silver by means of sulphuric acid.^ Omitting an element's start tag does not mean the element is not present; it is implied, but it is still there.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The retreat of the ice left Canada much in its present condition except for certain post-glacial changes of level which seem to be still in progress.

Several methods are in use for removing the silver. .Fusion with an alkaline bisulphate converts the silver into the sulphate, which may be extracted by boiling with sulphuric acid and then with water.^ F. Firm ball: Syrup dropped into ice water may be formed into a firm ball which does not flatten on removal from the water.

^ F. Hard ball: Syrup dropped into ice water may be formed into a hard ball which holds its shape on removal but is still plastic.

^ OTHER SYRUPS Corn Syrup: Containing 24 percent water, corn syrup is obtained by partial hydrolysis of cornstarch by acid, alkaline or enzymatic catalysts.

.Another process consists in treating a mixture of the residue with one-quarter of its weight of calcined sodium sulphate with sulphuric acid, the residue being finally boiled with a large quantity of acid.^ Sugar, the one ingredient that defines dessert, was being treated like just a pretty face, over-looking its mind and character.

^ After calcination, the titanium dioxide is treated by proprietary finishing processes as in the sulfate process.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Would it be possible, then, to substitute your white sugar component in the recipe with brown sugar using one quarter of the white sugar weight?

.Or the alloy is dissolved in aqua regia, the solution filtered from the insoluble silver chloride, and the gold precipitated by ferrous chloride.^ PEER REVIEWED** Other Chemical/Physical Properties: Soln readily dissolves gold and silver in presence of air [Budavari, S. (ed.

.The silver present in the solution obtained in the sulphuric acid boiling is recovered by a variety of processes.^ Actually, it is partially refined because during the initial processing necessary to obtain crystals (boiling, centrifuging and washing) some of the “impurities” are removed.

.The solution may be directly precipitated with copper, the copper passing into solution as copper sulphate, and the silver separating as a mud, termed " cement silvers" Or the silver sulphate may be separated from the solution by cooling and dilution, and then mixed with iron clippings, the interaction being accompanied with a considerable evolution of heat.^ The ethanol solution is aspirated directly into the flame, and iron equivalent to a known amount of cyanide is then determined.

^ A saturated sugar solution contains the maximum amount of sugar possible at room temperature without precipitating out into crystals.

^ OTHER ELEMENTS MAY BE ADDED AS ALLOYING COMPONENTS, SUCH AS BERYLIUM, COPPER, MAGNESIUM, MANGANESE, IRON & SILICA IN DURALUMIN. [Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.

.Or Gutzkow's method of precipitating the metal with ferrous sulphate may be employed.^ Tabor & Warren (1958), employing a semi-quantitative spectrographic method, studied the distribution of a number of metals including titanium in the atmosphere of several American cities.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

The electrolytic parting of gold and silver has been shown to be more economical and free from the objections - such as the poisonous fumes - of the sulphuric acid process. .One process depends upon the fact that, with a suitable current density, if a very dilute solution of silver nitrate be electrolysed between an auriferous silver anode and a silver cathode, the silver of the anode is dissolved out and deposited at the cathode, the gold remaining at the anode.^ If placed upon Europe it would extend from Rome to the North Cape , but latitude is of course only one of the factors influencing climate, the arrangement of the ocean currents and of the areas of high and low pressure making a very wide difference between the climates of the two sides of the Atlantic.

^ PEER REVIEWED** Other Chemical/Physical Properties: Soln readily dissolves gold and silver in presence of air [Budavari, S. (ed.

^ The current drag operation can change during the processing of the drop event, if one was fired.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The silver is quite free from gold, and the gold after boiling with nitric acid has a fineness of over 999.
.Gold is left in the anode slime when copper or silver are refined by the usual processes, but if the gold preponderate in the anode these processes are inapplicable.^ The money in circulation consists of a limited number of notes issued by the federal government, and the notes of the chartered banks , together with gold, silver and copper coin .

^ Most of these commemoratives are gold and silver and go above the 2 Euro value.
  • The Euro- FAQ 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gold, silver, copper and other minerals are largely exported, chiefly in an unrefined state and almost entirely to the United States.

.A cyanide bath, as used in electroplating, would dissolve the gold, but is not suitable for refining, because other metals (silver, copper, &c.^ Other metal cyanides are similar.

^ Used as bulk metal and in lightweight alloys with magnesium for engines, also as a sacrificial electrode to protect other metals.
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Mg Magnesium 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Because it dissolves so instantly, it is particularly useful for sprinkling on berries to be consumed immediately because the berries keep all their juice instead of forming a syrup.

) passing with gold into the solution would deposit with it. Bock, however, in 1880 (Bergand hiittenmannische Zeitung, 1880, p. .411) described a process used at the North German Refinery in Hamburg for the refining of gold containing platinum with a small proportion of silver, lead or bismuth, and a subsequent patent specification (1896) and a paper by Wohlwill (Zeus.^ The submenu must be constructed by taking the element and creating a new menu for it using the complete process described in this section.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This process may be used to kill certain types of small tumors or to seal off blood vessels to stop bleeding.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Platinized titanium anodes are used in electroplating with gold, platinum, copper, silver, and other metals of high purity.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

f. Elektrochem.,
18 9 8, pp. .379, 402, 421) have thrown more light upon the process.^ We don't wish this to be a competition, however more an appreciation and acknowledgement of the handmade community; a light and fun process to celebrate the Handmade!
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.The electrolyte is gold chloride (2.5-3 parts of pure gold per loo of solution) mixed with from 2 to 6% of the strongest hydrochloric acid to render the gold anodes readily soluble, which they are not in the neutral chloride solution.^ The ionized forms of calcium, such as citrate and citrate malate, tend to be more soluble and have a greater absorption rate, especially in people who are deficient in hydrochloric acid.

^ PEER REVIEWED** Solubilities: SOL IN ALKALIES, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, SULFURIC ACID; INSOL IN CONCN NITRIC ACID, HOT ACETIC ACID; INSOL IN COLD & HOT WATER [Weast, R.C. (ed.

.The bath is used at 65° to 70° C. (150° to 158° F.), and if free chlorine be evolved, which is known at once by its pungent smell, the temperature is raised, or more acid is added, to promote the solubility of the gold.^ The combination of excessive oxygen free radical production with an increased Al(3+) level may contribute to a variety of complications, including aluminum dementia or initiation and promotion of carcinogenic process, which are known to be more common in uremic patients.

^ Duplicates are not prevented; a range may be added more than once in which case it appears in the list more than once, which (for example) will cause stringification to return the range's text twice.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The idea has been promoted in the West more recently by Gold (1979, 1987).
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The bath is used with a current-density of loo amperes per sq. ft. at I volt (or higher), with electrodes about 1.2 in. apart. .In this process all the anode metals pass into solution except iridium and other refractory metals of that group, which remain as metals, and silver, which is converted into insoluble chloride; lead and bismuth form chloride and oxychloride respectively, and these dissolve until the bath is saturated with them, and then precipitate with the silver in the tank.^ Only the newest application cache in an application cache group can have its completeness flag set to incomplete , the others are always all complete .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When forms are submitted, the data in the form is converted into the form specified by the enctype , and then sent to the destination specified by the action using the given method .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ With an item , the properties are unordered with respect to each other, except for properties with the same name, which are ordered in tree order .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

But if the gold-strength of the bath be maintained, only gold is deposited at the cathode - in a loose powdery condition from pure solutions, but in a smooth detachable deposit from impure liquors. Under good conditions the gold should contain 99.98% of the pure metal. The tank is of porcelain or glazed earthenware, the electrodes for impure solutions are z in. apart (or more with pure solutions), and are on the multiple system, and the potential difference at the terminals of the bath is I volt. .A high current-density being employed, the turn-over of gold is rapid - an essential factor of success when the costliness of the metal is taken into account.^ Each currency's value is taken into account when a rate of ERM is established.
  • The Euro- FAQ 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Platinum and palladium dissolved from the anode accumulate in the solution, and are removed at intervals of, say, a few months by chemical precipitation.^ A chemical solution is put on the skin to dissolve the top layers of skin cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In solution, (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and (NH 4 ) 2 C 2 O 4 will remove Ca and Ba as a precipitate.
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Mg Magnesium 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: Reference]

.It is essential that the bath should not contain more than 5% of palladium, or some of this metal will deposit with the gold.^ A supersaturated sugar solution contains more sugar than the water can dissolve at room temperature.

^ Some elements, most notably area , can correspond to more than one distinct focusable area.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ I did invent the MAA several years ago, but sold no more than one membership for some reason.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

The slimes are treated chemically for the separation of the metals contained in them.

AuTxoRITIEs

Standard works on the metallurgy of gold are the treatises of T. Kirke Rose and of M. Eissler. The cyanide process is especially treated by M. Eissler, Cyanide Process for the Extraction of Gold, which pays particular attention to the Witwatersrand methods; Alfred James, Cyanide Practice; H. Forbes Julian and Edgar Smart, Cyaniding Gold and Silver Ores. Gold milling is treated by Henry Louis, A Handbook of Gold Milling; C. G. Warnford Lock, Gold Milling; T. A. Rickard, Stamp Milling of Gold Ores. Gold dredging is treated by Captain C. C. Longridge in Gold Dredging, and hydraulic mining is discussed by the same author in his Hydraulic Mining. For operations in special districts see J. M. Maclaren, Gold (1908); J. H. Curie, Gold Mines of the World; Africa: F. H. Hatch and J. A. Chalmers, Gold Mines of the Rand; S. J. Truscott,Witwaters- rand Goldfields Banket and Mining Practice; Australasia: D. Clark, Australian Mining and Metallurgy; Karl Schmeisser, Goldfields of Australasia; A. G. Charleton, Gold Mining and Milling in Western Australia; India: F. H. Hatch, The Kolar Gold-Field.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also gold

Contents

German

Etymology

Old High German gold

Pronunciation

Noun

Gold n
  1. gold (chemical element, Au)
(atomical number 79)

Derived terms


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

  1. Heb. .zahab, so called from its yellow colour (Ex 25:11; 1Chr 28:18; 2Chr 3:5).
  2. Heb.^ Oncology, 25 : 11-18.
    • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    .segor, from its compactness, or as being enclosed or treasured up; thus precious or "fine gold" (1 Kg 6:20; 7:49).
  3. Heb.^ A URL in the list can be flagged with multiple different types, and thus an entry can end up being categorized as multiple entries.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Thus, a time position included within a range of the objects return by the buffered attribute at one time can end up being not included in the range(s) of objects returned by the same attribute at later times.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 2:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .paz, native or pure gold (Job 28:17; Ps 1910; 21:3, etc.^ In 1900 the wheat acreage in Ontario was 1,487,633, producing 28,418,907 bushels, an average yield of 19.10 bushels per acre.

    ).
  4. Heb. betzer, "ore of gold or silver" as dug out of the mine (Job 36:19, where it means simply riches).
  5. Heb. kethem, i.e., something concealed or separated (Job 28:16,19; Ps 459; Prov 25:12). Rendered "golden wedge" in Isa 13:12.
  6. Heb. haruts, i.e., dug out; poetic for gold (Prov 8:10; 16:16; Zech 9:3).
Gold was known from the earliest times (Gen 2:11). It was principally used for ornaments (Gen 24:22). It was very abundant (1Chr 22:14; Nah 2:9; Dan 3:1). Many tons of it were used in connection with the temple (2Chr 1:15). .It was found in Arabia, Sheba, and Ophir (1 Kg 9:28; 10:1; Job 28:16), but not in Palestine.^ Grabarov (1970) found that the titanium content of soils in Kazakhstan, USSR, ranged from 2 to 7 g/kg but that only 10-50 mg/kg was in a readily soluble form.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

In Dan 2:38, the Babylonian Empire is spoken of as a "head of gold" because of its great riches; and Babylon was called by Isaiah (14:4) the "golden city" (R.V. marg., "exactress," adopting the reading marhebah, instead of the usual word madhebah).
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)
Facts about GoldRDF feed

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|A gold nugget, the name given to a piece of gold found in nature. This gold nugget is big.]] Gold is a soft, heavy, dark yellowish shiny metal that has been used for many thousands of years by people all over the world, for jewelry, as money, and now in tooth fillings and electronic equipment such as computers. It was especially admired as jewelry in early times because of its great luster and beauty. The color of this metal is also called gold.

Chemical properties

In chemistry, gold is chemical element 79, a transition metal in Group 11. It has an atomic weight of 199.96 a.m.u. Its symbol is Au, from the Latin word for gold, aurum.

Gold is very soft, which means you can hammer it into thin metal sheets; and ductile, which means it can be pulled into wire. When it is used in money or in jewelry, it is often mixed with silver or some other metal to make it harder.

Most metals are gray in color. Gold's yellow color comes from the way that electrons behave in it.

Other websites

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