Gotse Delchev: Wikis


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Georgi Nikolov "Gotse" Delchev
Гоце Делчев
Image:G Delchev.jpg
Portrait of Gotse Delchev
Date of birth: February 4, 1872
Place of birth: Kilkis, Ottoman Empire (now Greece)
Date of death: May 4, 1903 (aged 31)
Place of death: Banitsa, Ottoman Empire (now Greece)
Major organizations: leader of the Bulgarian Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Committees,[1] (later SMORO, IMORO, IMRO)
Religion: Eastern Catholic (Uniate) or

Eastern Orthodox Christian (assumed)

Georgi Nikolov Delchev (1872-1903) (Bulgarian and Macedonian: Георги Николов Делчев, known as Gotse Delchev, also spelled Goce Delčev) was an important 19th century revolutionary figure in then Ottoman ruled Macedonia and Thrace. He was one of the leaders of what is commonly known today as Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO), a paramilitary organization active in the Ottoman territories in Europe at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. At his time the name of the organization was Bulgarian Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Committees (BMARC), in 1902 changed to Secret Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization (SMARO).[2]



Delchev (left) and his former classmate from Kukush, Imov as officer cadets in Sofia.

Early life

He was born in a large family on February 4, 1872 in Kilkis (Kukush), then in the Ottoman Empire (today in Greece), which was populated predominantly with Uniate and Orthodox Macedonian Bulgarians.[3][4] Delchev graduated from the local Bulgarian junior high school and also read widely in the town's chitalishte, where he was impressed with revolutionary books. Later his family sent him to the Bulgarian Men's High School of Thessaloniki, where he organized and led a secret revolutionary brotherhood, repeatedly punishing other students who betrayed the group’s plots or for example dared to slander then honoured Bulgarian national revival revolutionaries.[5] Delchev also distributed revolutionary literature, which he acquired from the school’s graduates who studied in Bulgaria. Graduation from a Bulgarian school was faced with few career prospects and Delchev decided to follow the path of his former school-mate Boris Sarafov, entering the military school in Sofia in 1891. He at first encountered the newly independent Bulgaria full of idealism and dedication, but he later became disappointed with the commercialized life of the society and with the authoritarian politics of the dictator Stefan Stambolov. In 1894, only a month before graduation, he was expelled because his political activity as a member of illegal socialist circle.[6] He was given a possibility to enter the Army again through re-applyng for commission, but he refused. Afterwards he returned to European Turkey to work there as a Bulgarian teacher, hoping to organize a national liberation movement through the Bulgarian Exarchate's educational net. The same year Delchev became a teacher in an exarchate school in Štip, where he met another teacher - Dame Gruev, who was also a leader of the newly established local committee of BMARC.[7] The organization developed quickly and had managed to begin establishing a network of local organizations across Macedonia and the Adrianople Vilayet, usually centered around the schools of the Exarchate.[8] As a result of the close friendship between the two, Delchev joined the organization in 1895, and soon became one of its main leaders. After spending the next school year (1895/1896) as a teacher in the town of Bansko, he moved back to the Bulgaria, where he, together with Gjorche Petrov, became a representative of BMARC in Sofia.[9] Again in Sofia, negotiating with suspicious politicians and arms merchants, Delchev saw more of the unpleasant face of the Principality, and became even more disillusioned with its political system.

Revolutionary activity

Delchev with his friend and biographer Peyo Yavorov
Sultana Delcheva - Gotse's mother
Delchev's father - Nikola

Delchev's involvement in BMARC was an important moment in the history of the Macedonian-Adianople liberation movement.[10] The years between 1896, when he left the Exarchate's educational system and 1903 when he died, represented the final and most effective revolutionary phase of his short life. In 1896 he, along with Gjorche Petrov, wrote the new organization's statute, which divided Macedonia and Adrianople areas into seven regions, each with a regional structure and secret police, following the Internal Revolutionary Organization's example. Below the regional committees were districts.[11] The Central committee was placed in Salonica. In 1898 Delchev decided to be created a permanent acting armed bands (chetas) in every district. His correspondence with other BMARC/SMARO members covers extensive data on supplies, transport and storage of weapons and ammunition in Macedonia. Delchev envisioned independent production of weapons, which resulted in the establishment of a bomb manufacturing plant in the village of Sabler near Kyustendil in Bulgaria. The bombs were later smuggled across the Ottoman border into Macedonia.[12] He made two short visits to the Adrianople area of Thrace in 1896 and 1898.[13] In 1900 he inspected the BMARC's detachments in Eastern Thrace again, aiming better coordination between Macedonian and Thracian revolutionary organizations. He also led the congress of the Adrianople revolutionary district held in Plovdiv in April 1902. Afterwards Delchev inspected the BMARC's structures in the Eastern Rhodopes. The inclusion of the rural areas into the organizational districts contributed to the expansion of the organization and the increase in its membership, while providing the essential prerequisites for the formation of the military power of the organization, at the same time having Delchev as its military advisor (inspector) and chief of all internal revolutionary bands.[14] Delchev aimed also better coordination between BMARC and the Supreme Macedonian-Adrianople Committee (SMAC). Its official declaration was also a struggle for autonomy of Macedonia and Thrace.[15] However as a rule, most of SMAC's leaders were officers with stronger connections with the governments, waging terrorist struggle against the Ottomans in the hope of provoking a war and thus Bulgarian annexation of both areas. For a short time in the late 1890s lieutenant Boris Sarafov, who was former school-mate of Delchev became its leader. At that period BMARC even managed to gain de facto control of the SMAC. Nevertheless it soon split into two factions: one loyal to the BMARC and one led by some officers close to the Bulgarian prince. Delchev opposed this officers' insistent attempts to gain control over the activity of BMARC,[16] sometimes even militarily by local SMARO bands. The primary question regarding the timing of the uprising in Macedonia and Thrace implicated an apparent discordance among SMAC and SMARO, but also among the representatives at the Sofia SMARO's Conference in 1903 with Delchev opposing the uprising as inappropriate as tactics and premature by time.[17] He personally supported the tactics of permanent terrorist attacks as the Thessaloniki bombings of 1903.[18] Finally, he had no choice but agree to that course of action at least managing to delay its start from May to August. Delchev also convinced the IMRO leadership to transform its idea of an mass rising involving the civil population into a rising based on guerrilla warfare. Gotse Delchev died on May 4, 1903 in a skirmish with the Turkish police near the village of Banitsa, probably after betrayal by local villagers, as rumours asserted, while preparing the Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising.[19] On this occasion, the New York Times wrote the following in its article "Many Bulgarians killed", from May 6, 1903:

A Revolutionary Band Loses Sixty Men in a Fight with Turkish Troops.
SALONIKA. May 6. - An engagement is reported to have occurred at the village of Vanitza between Turkish troops and a Bulgarian band. Sixty Bulgarians, including their leader, Detzeff, were killed, while the Turks had four men killed and three wounded. Thirty houses in Vanitza were burned.
A Bulgarian band led by Petroff has been routed at Krapeseza. Seven of the Bulgarians were killed.[20]

After his death in 1903 SMARO aided by SMAC organized the uprising against the Ottomans, which after the initial successes, was crushed with much loss of life.[21] Two of his brothers, Mitso Delchev and Milan Delchev were also killed fighting against the Ottomans as militants in the IMRO chetas of the Bulgarian voivodas Hristo Chernopeev and Krstjo Asenov in 1901 and 1903, respectively.

Mortal remains

The restored grave-place of Delchev near Banitsa during World War II Bulgarian annexation of Northern Greece.
The ruins of Kukush after the Second Balkan War.

During the Second Balkan War of 1913, the Greeks captured Kilkis, annexed by Bulgaria in the First Balkan War, by which it was almost completely destroyed. Virtually all of its pre-war 7,000 Macedonian Bulgarians inhabitants, including Delchev's family were expelled into Bulgaria.[22] The village of Banitsa, where Delchev was buried, was also destroyed by the Greek Army and its population was expelled into Bulgaria.[23] During the First World War, when Bulgaria was temporarily in control of the area, Delchev's remains were transferred to Sofia, where they rested until after the Second World War.[24] During the Second World War, Delchev's grave near Banitsa was restored.[25] After 1944, the Bulgarian policy on the Macedonian Question changed to serve the activities of the Communist regime, as part of the Comintern conception to stimulate the development of a distinct ethnic Macedonian consciousness into the region of Macedonia.[26] However, at first Delchev was proclaimed by the Communist leader of newly established Yugoslav People's Republic of Macedonia, Lazar Koliševski as: " Bulgarian of no significance for the liberation struggles...".[27] But on October 10, 1946, under the direct pressure from Moscow, the mortal remains of the revolutionary Delchev were transported to Skopje and the following day, they were enshrined in a marble sarcophagus, which is until present displayed in the yard of the church "Sveti Spas".[28] After 1948 Bulgaria gradually shifted to its previous view, that Macedonian Slavs are in fact Bulgarians.[29] However, the Yugoslav authorities successfully removed any Bulgarian influence and created sistematically a distinct Slavic consciousness, that inspired identification with the new state.[30] Having realized, that the Balkan collective memory had already accepted as Bulgarians the IMRO revolutionaries (e.g. Delchev), they exerted extreme efforts in presenting them as had been usurped by Bulgaria.[31] As result, Delchev was promulgated an ethnic Macedonian hero there and the school textbooks written in the recently codified Macedonian language began even to hint at Bulgarian complicity in his death.[32] Nevertheless, according to the former VMRO-DPMNE leader Lyubcho Georgievski, if Delchev was still alive in SFRY during the late 1940s, he would have finished up in the jail of Idrizovo, like other former IMRO activists of that time.[33]

Delchev's views

Excerpt from the statute of BMARC, whose co-author was G. Delchev.
Excerpt from the statute of SMARO, whose co-author was G. Delchev.
Map of European Turkey. Macedonia and Adrianople areas, which were given back from Bulgaria to the Ottomans as per the Treaty of Berlin are shown with green frontiers.

The international, cosmopolitan views of Delchev could be summarized in his proverbial sentence: "I understand the world solely as a field for cultural competition among the peoples".[34] In the late 19th century the Bulgarian anarchists and socialists linked their struggle closely with the revolutionary movements in Macedonia and Thrace.[35] Thus, as a young cadet in Sofia Delchev became a member of a left circle, where he was strongly influenced by the modern than Marxist and Bakunin's ideas.[36] His views were formed also under the influence of the ideas of earlier anti-Ottoman fighters as Levski, Botev and Zahari Stoyanov, who were among the founders of the Internal Revolutionary Organization, the Bulgarian Revolutionary Central Committee and the Bulgarian Secret Central Revolutionary Committee, respectively.[37] Later he participated in the Internal organization's struggle and as well educated leader, became one of its theoreticians and co-author of the BMARC's statute from 1896.[38] Developing his ideas further in 1902 he took the step, together with other left functionaries, of changing its nationalistic character, which determined that members of the organization can be only Bulgarians. The new supra-nationalistic statute renamed it to Secret Macedono-Adrianopolitan Revolutionary Organization (SMARO),[39] which was to be an insurgent organization, open to all Macedonians and Thracians regardless of nationality, who wished to participate in the movement for their autonomy.[40] This scenario was partially facilitated by the Treaty of Berlin (1878), according to which Macedonia and Adrianople areas were given back from Bulgaria to the Ottomans, but especially by its unrealized 23rd. article, which promised future autonomy for unspecified territories in European Turkey, settled with Christian population.[41] In general, the autonomous status was presumed to imply a special kind of Constitution of the region, a reorganization of gendarmerie, broader representation of the local Christian population in it as well as in all the administration, similarly to what happened in the short-lived Eastern Rumelia. However, there was not a clear political agenda behind IMRO's idea about an autonomy.[42] Delcev as the other left-wing activists, vaguely determined the bonds between the future autonomous Macedonia and Adrianople regions on the one hand and on the other, between them and then under Ottoman vassalage Principality of Bulgaria and de facto annexed Eastern Rumelia.[43] Even a possibility of that Bulgaria could be absorbed into future autonomous Macedonia was discussed, then vice versa.[44] It is claimed that Delchev's personal view was much more likely to see incorporation into Bulgaria as a natural final outcome of this autonomy,[45][46][47] or eventually inclusion in a future Balkan (Con)Federative Republic after the expected dissolution of the Ottoman Empire.[48][49] The last idea was probably influenced by the created in 1894 a League for the Balkan Confederation in which participated Balkan socialists, supporting the Macedonian autonomy inside a general federation of Southeast Europe.[50] Despite the efforts of the post-1945 Macedonian historigraphy to represent Delchev as Macedonian separatist,[51] in his own time the idea of a separate Macedonian nation was as yet only promoted by small circles of intellectuals,[52] whose calls were in general unpopular.[53] As a whole the idea of autonomy was strictly political and did not imply a secession from Bulgarian ethnicity.[54] In fact, for militants such as the socialist Delchev and other leftists, that participated in the national movement retaining a political outlook, national liberation meant "radical political liberation through shaking off the social shackles".[55] There aren't any indications suggesting his doubt about the Bulgarian ethnic character of the Macedonians at that time.[56] The Bulgarian ethnic self-identification of Delchev has been recognized аs from leading international researchers of the Macedonian Question,[57] as well as from the Macedonian historical scholarship, although reluctantly.[58][59][60]

Delchev's legacy

Delchev is today regarded both in Bulgaria and in the Republic of Macedonia as an important national hero, and both nations see him as part of their own national history.[61] His memory is honoured especially in the Bulgarian parts of Macedonia and among the descendants of Bulgarian refugees from other parts of the region, where he is regarded as the most important revolutionary from the second generation of freedom fighters.[62] His name appears also in the national anthem of the Republic of Macedonia - "Denes nad Makedonija". There are two towns named in his honour: Gotse Delchev in Bulgaria and Delčevo in the Republic of Macedonia. There are also two peaks named after Delchev: the highest peak of Slavyanka Mountain, Delchev Vrah and Delchev Peak on Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands in Antarctica. Delchev Ridge on Livingston Island bears also his name. The University of Štip in the Republic of Macedonia carries his name too. The Bulgarian side made several times a proposal that the disputed historical personalities (e.g. Delchev) could be regarded as belonging to the shared historical heritage of the two peoples and celebrated jointly.[63] However, it did not appeal to the Yugoslavs and after the breakup of Yugoslavia to the Macedonians, who interpreted that as hidden attempt at bulgarization.[64]


See also


  1. ^ ...Постоечките документи говорат дека таа била наречена „Бугарски македоно-одрински револуционерни комитети“. Оваа име Организацијата го добила на својот прв Конгрес одржан во летото (15 август 1894) во Ресен... Иван Катарџиев, Кон спомените на И.Х.Николов... Скопје 1995. стр. 8-9.
  2. ^ Encyclopedia of the age of imperialism, 1800-1914, Carl Cavanagh Hodge, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007, ISBN 0313334048, p. 442.
  3. ^ Bulgaria, Oxford history of modern Europe, R. J. Crampton, Oxford University Press, 2007, ISBN 0198205147, p. 74-77.
  4. ^ Balkan ghosts: a journey through history, Robert D. Kaplan, Vintage books, 1994, ISBN 0679749810, p. 58.
  5. ^ Julian Allan Brooks, MA in History "Shoot the Teacher!" Education and the Roots of the Macedonian Struggle; December 2005. Thesis (M.A.) - Department of History - Simon Fraser University, pp. 133-134.
  6. ^ For freedom and perfection. The Life of Yané Sandansky. Mercia MacDermott (Journeyman, London, 1988) p. 44.
  7. ^ MacDermott, Mercia. 1978. Freedom or Death: The Life of Delchev. Published by The Journeyman Press, London and West Nyack. 405 pp. ISBN 0-904526-32-1. Translated in Bulgarian: Макдермот, Мерсия. Свобода или смърт. Биография на Гоце Делчев, София 1979, с. 86-94.
  8. ^ Ivo Banac, The Macedoine (pp. 307–328 in of "The National Question in Yugoslavia. Origins, History, Politics", Cornell University Press, 1984)
  9. ^ Пейо Яворов, "Събрани съчинения", Том втори, "Гоце Делчев", Издателство "Български писател", София, 1977, стр. 30. (Bulgarian) In English: Peyo Yavorov, "Complete Works", Volume 2, biography " Delchev", Publishing house "Bulgarian writer", Sofia, 1977, p. 30.
  10. ^ Балканските държави и Македонския въпрос, Антони Гиза, превод от полски - Димитър Димитров, Македонски Научен Институт ­ София, 2001; in English: Giza, Anthoni: The Balkan states and the Macedonian question. Macedonian Scientific Institute, Sofia. 2001, translation from Polish: Dimitar Dimitrov.
  11. ^ Who are the Macedonians? Hugh Poulton, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2000, ISBN 1850655340, pp. 54-55.
  12. ^ Пейо Яворов, "Събрани съчинения", Том втори, "Гоце Делчев", Издателство "Български писател", София, 1977, стр. 32-33. (Bulgarian) In English: Peyo Yavorov, "Complete Works", Volume 2, biography Delchev, Publishing house "Bulgarian writer", Sofia, 1977, pp. 32-33.
  13. ^ Memoirs of Georgi Vasilev. Prinosi kam istoriyata na Makedono-odrinskoto revolyutsionno dvizhenie. Vol IV, p. 8, 9. From the memoirs of Petar Kiprilov, priest in the village of Pirok. Opus cit. p. 157.
  14. ^ Пейо Яворов, "Събрани съчинения", Том втори, "Гоце Делчев", Издателство "Български писател", София, 1977, стр. 39. (Bulgarian) In English: Peyo Yavorov, "Complete Works", Volume 2, biography Delchev, Publishing house "Bulgarian writer", Sofia, 1977, p. 39.
  15. ^ Елдъров, Светлозар. „Върховният македоно-одрински комитет и Македоно-одринската организация в България (1895 - 1903)“, Иврай, София, 2003, ISBN 9549121062, стр. 6.
  16. ^ For example in a speech, addressed to the VIII extraordinary congress of the Bulgarian promilitary Supreme Macedono-Adrianopolitan Organisation in Sofia on April 7, 1901: "Само ако тукашната организация одобрява духът на вътрешната организация и не се стреми да й дава импулс, въздействие, т. е. не й се бърка в нейните работи, само в такъв случай може да съществува връзка между тия две организации.", НБКМ — БИА, ф. 224, а. е. 8, л. 602, in English: "Only if the external organization approves the spirit of the internal organisation /IMRO, editor's note/ and doesn't aspire to give it impulse, influence, i.e., it doesn't meddle in its affairs, only in such case relation between these two organisations could exist."; the document is kept in the SS. Cyril and Methodius National Library, the Bulgarian Historical Archive department, fund 224, archive unit 8, page 602).
  17. ^ Пейо Яворов, "Събрани съчинения", Том втори, "Гоце Делчев", Издателство "Български писател", София, 1977, стр. 62-66. (Bulgarian) In English: Peyo Yavorov, "Complete Works", Volume 2, biography Delchev, Publishing house "Bulgarian writer", Sofia, 1977, pp. 62-66.
  18. ^ Das makedonische Jahrhundert: von den Anfängen der nationalrevolutionären Bewegung zum Abkommen von Ohrid 1893-2001 ; ausgewählte Aufsätze, Stefan Troebst, Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, 2007, ISBN 3486580507, s. 54-57.
  19. ^ Пейо Яворов, "Събрани съчинения", Том втори, "Гоце Делчев", Издателство "Български писател", София, 1977, стр. 69. (Bulgarian) In English: Peyo Yavorov, "Complete Works", Volume 2, biography Delchev, Publishing house "Bulgarian writer", Sofia, 1977, p. 69.
  20. ^ The New York Times. "MANY BULGARIANS KILLED. A Revolutionary Band Loses Sixty Men in a Fight with Turkish Troops." May 7, 1903
  21. ^ A concise history of Bulgaria, Cambridge concise histories, R. J. Crampton, Cambridge University Press, 1997, ISBN 0521561833, pp. 131-132.
  22. ^ Population exchange in Greek Macedonia: the rural settlement of refugees 1922-1930, Elisabeth Kontogiorgi, Oxford University Press, 2006, ISBN 0199278962, p. 204.
  23. ^ Към Бяло море по стъпките на Гоце.
  24. ^ Прибиране костите на великия революционер апостола Гоце Делчев, Михаил Чаков, списание "Македония", 1998 г.
  25. ^ Standart News online, 2003.05.06. И брястът е изсъхнал край гроба на Гоце, Владимир Смеонов - наш пратеник в Серес.
  26. ^ Politics, power, and the struggle for democracy in South-East Europe, Volume 2 of Authoritarianism and Democratization and authoritarianism in postcommunist societies, Karen Dawisha, Bruce Parrott, Cambridge University Press, 1997, ISBN 0521597331, pp. 229-230.
  27. ^ Мичев. Д. Македонският въпрос и българо-югославските отношения - 9 септември 1944-1949, Издателство: СУ Св. Кл. Охридски, 1992, стр. 91.
  28. ^ Dismembering the state: the death of Yugoslavia and why it matters, P. H. Liotta, Lexington Books, 2001, ISBN 0739102125, p. 292.
  29. ^ The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World, Loring M. Danforth, Princeton University Press, 1997, ISBN 0691043566, p. 68.
  30. ^ Europe since 1945. Encyclopedia by Bernard Anthony Cook, Taylor & Francis, 2001, Volume 2, ISBN 0815340583, pg. 808.
  31. ^ The Macedonian Question: Britain and the Southern Balkans 1939-1949, Oxford Historical Monographs, Dimitris Livanios, Oxford University Press US, 2008, ISBN 0199237689 p. 202.
  32. ^ Who are the Macedonians? Hugh Poulton, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2000, ISBN 1850655340, p. 117.
  33. ^ Кој со кого ќе се помирува? Originally published in the Skopje newspaper Impulsî from 7 July and 14 July 1995.
  34. ^ Пейо Яворов, "Събрани съчинения", Том втори, "Гоце Делчев", Издателство "Български писател", София, 1977, стр. 13. (Bulgarian) In English: Peyo Yavorov, "Complete Works", Volume 2, biography Delchev, Publishing house "Bulgarian writer", Sofia, 1977, p. 13.[1]
  35. ^ Georgi Khadzhiev, National liberation and libertarian federalism, Sofia 1992, pp. 99-148
  36. ^ How Russia shaped the modern world: from art to anti-semitism, ballet to Bolshevism, Steven Gary Marks, Princeton University Press, 2002, ISBN 0691096848, p. 29.
  37. ^ Macedonia and Greece: the struggle to define a new Balkan nation, John Shea, McFarland, 1997, ISBN 0786402288, p. 170.
  38. ^ "Спомени на Гьорчо Петров", поредица Материяли за историята на македонското освободително движение, книга VIII, София, 1927, глава VII, (in English: "Memoirs of Gyorcho Petrov", series Materials about history of the Macedonian revolutionary movement, book VIII, Sofia, 1927, chapter VII).
  39. ^ ...At first the revolutionary organization began to work among the Bulgarian population, even not among the whole of it, but only among this part, which participated in the Bulgarian Exarchate. IMRO treated suspiciously to the Bulgarians, which participated in other churches, as the Greek Patriarchate, the Eastern Catholic Church and the Protestant Church. As to the revolutionary activity among the other nationalities as Turks, Albanians, Greeks and Vlahs, such question did not exist for the founders of the organization. This other nationalities were for IMRO foreign people... Later, when the leaders of IMRO saw, that the idea for liberation of Macedonia can find followers among the Bulgarians non-Exarchists, as also among the other nationalities in Macedonia, and under the pressure from IMRO-members with left, socialist or anarchist convictions, they changed the staute of IMRO in sence, that member of IMRO can be any Macedonian and Adrianopolitan, regardless from his ethnicity or religious denomination... See: “Борбите на македонския народ за освобождение”. Димитър Влахов, Библиотека Балканска Федерация, № 1, Виена, 1925, стр. 11.
  40. ^ Ivo Banac. (1984). The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0801494932, p. 315.
  41. ^ Defeat in detail: the Ottoman Army in the Balkans, 1912-1913, Edward J. Erickson, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003, ISBN 0275978885, pp. 39-43.
  42. ^ We, the People: Politics of National Peculiarity in Southeastern Europe, Diana Mishkova, Central European University Press, 2008, ISBN 9639776289, p. 114.
  43. ^ Fields of wheat, hills of blood: passages to nationhood in Greek Macedonia, 1870-1990, Anastasia N. Karakasidou, University of Chicago Press, 1997, ISBN 0226424944, p 282.
  44. ^ Bulgaria, Oxford history of modern Europe, R. J. Crampton, Oxford University Press, 2007, ISBN 0198205147, p. 164.
  45. ^ Freedom or Death. The Life of Gotsé Delchev by Mercia MacDermott, The Journeyman Press, London & West Nyack, 1978, p. 322.
  46. ^ Идеята за автономия като тактика в програмите на национално-освободителното движение в Македония и Одринско (1893-1941), Димитър Гоцев, 1983, Изд. на Българска Академия на Науките, София, 1983, c. 34.; in English: The idea for autonomy as a tactics in the programs of the National Liberation movements in Macedonia and Adrianople regions 1893-1941", Sofia, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Dimitar v, 1983, p 34. Among others, there are used the memoirs of the IMRO revolutionary Kosta Tsipushev, where he cited Delchev, that the autonomy then was only tactics, aiming future unification with Bulgaria. (55. ЦПА, ф. 226); срв. К. Ципушев. 19 години в сръбските затвори, СУ Св. Климент Охридски, 2004, ISBN 954-91083-5-X стр. 31-32. in English: Kosta Tsipushev, 19 years in Serbian prisons, Sofia University publishing house, 2004, ISBN 954-91083-5-X, p. 31-32.
  47. ^ Таjните на Македониjа.Се издава за прв пат, Скопjе 1999. in Macedonian - Ете како ја објаснува целта на борбата Гоце Делчев во 1901 година: "...Треба да се бориме за автономноста на Македанија и Одринско, за да ги зачуваме во нивната целост, како еден етап за идното им присоединување кон општата Болгарска Татковина". In English - How Delchev explained the aim of the struggle against the Ottomans in 1901: "...We have to fight for autonomy of Macedonia and Adrianople regions as a stage for their future unification with our common fatherland, Bulgaria."
  48. ^ Гоце Делчев. Писма и други материали, Дино Кьосев, Биографичен очерк, стр. 33.
  49. ^ Review of Chairs of History at Law and History Faculty of South-West University - Blagoevgrad, vol. 2/2005, Културното единство на българския народ в контекста на фирософията на Гоце Делчев, автор Румяна Модева, стр. 2.
  50. ^ Balkan federation: a history of the movement toward Balkan unity in modern times, Smith College studies in history, Leften Stavros Stavrianos, Archon Books, 1964, p. 151.
  51. ^ Collective memory, national identity, and ethnic conflict: Greece, Bulgaria, and the Macedonian question, Victor Roudometof, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002, ISBN 0275976483, p. 79.
  52. ^ The Macedonian Question: Britain and the Southern Balkans 1939-1949, Dimitris Livanios, Oxford University Press US, 2008 ISBN 0199237689, p. 15.
  53. ^ The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World, Loring M. Danforth, Editor: Princeton University Press, 1997, ISBN 0691043566,p. 64.
  54. ^ The national question in Yugoslavia: origins, history, politics, Cornell Paperbacks, Ivo Banac, Cornell University Press, 1988, ISBN 0801494931, p. 314.
  55. ^ Internationalism as an alternative political strategy in the modern history of Balkans by Vangelis Koutalis, Greek Social Forum, Thessaloniki, June 2003.
  56. ^ Perry, Duncan M. (1988). The Politics of Terror: The Macedonian Revolutionary Movements, 1893-1903, Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press.), p.23.
  57. ^ Delchev, openly said that “We are Bulgarians” (Mac Dermott, 1978:192, 273, quoted in Danforth, 1995:64) and addressed “the Slavs of Macedonia as ‘Bulgarians’ in an offhanded manner without seeming to indicate that such a designation was a point of contention” (Perry, 1988:23, quoted in Danforth, 1995:64). See: Center for Documentation and Information on Minorities in Europe - Southeast Europe (CEDIME-SE), Macedonians of Bulgaria, p. 5.
  58. ^ Академик Иван Катарџиев, "Верувам во националниот имунитет на македонецот", интервjу, "Форум": "ФОРУМ - Дали навистина Делчев се изјаснувал како Бугарин и зошто? КАТАРЏИЕВ - Ваквите прашања стојат. Сите наши луѓе се именувале како „Бугари“..."; also (in Macedonian; in English: "Academician Ivan Katardzhiev. I believe in Macedonian national immunity", interview, "Forum" magazine: "FORUM - Whether Delchev really defined himself as Bulgarian and why? KATARDZHIEV - Such questions exist. All our people named themselves as "Bulgarians"...")
  59. ^ "Уште робуваме на старите поделби", Разговор со д-р Зоран Тодоровски,, 27. 06. 2005, also here (in Macedonian; in English: "We are still in servitude to the old divisions", interview with Ph. D. Zoran Todorovski, published on, 27. 06. 2005.
  60. ^ Проштавање и национално помирување (3), д-р Антонио Милошоски, Утрински Весник, бр. 1760, 16 окт. 2006, In English: Forgiving and national reconcilement (3), Ph.D. Antonio Miloshoski, Utrinski Vesnik, issue 1760, 16.10.2006.
  61. ^ Balkan identities: nation and memory, Mariana Nikolaeva Todorova, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2004, ISBN 1850657157, p. 238.
  62. ^ Bones of Contention: The Living Archive of Vasil Levski and the Making of Bulgaria's National Hero, Maria N. Todorova, Central European University Press, 2008, ISBN 9639776246, pp. 76-77.
  63. ^ Yugoslav - Bulgarian Relations from 1955 to 1980 by Evangelos Kofos from J. Koliopoulos and J. Hassiotis (eds), Modern and Contemporary Macedonia: History, Economy, Society, Culture, vol. 2, (Athens-Thessaloniki, 1992), pp. 277--280.
  64. ^ Сите ние сме Бугари! Јавноста го осуди предлагат на Бугариjа до Бучковски. Весник Вечер, 05.09.2006 Бр. 13290
  65. ^ Created by the Bulgarian sculptor Lyubomir Dalchev in 1946, donated from the city of Sofia to the city of Skopje in 1948.


  • Пандев, К. "Устави и правилници на ВМОРО преди Илинденско-Преображенското въстание", Исторически преглед, 1969, кн. I, стр. 68—80. (Bulgarian)
  • Пандев, К. "Устави и правилници на ВМОРО преди Илинденско-Преображенското въстание", Извeстия на Института за история, т. 21, 1970, стр. 250-257. (Bulgarian)
  • Битоски, Крсте, сп. "Македонско Време", Скопје - март 1997, quoting: Quoting: Public Record Office - Foreign Office 78/4951 Turkey (Bulgaria), From Elliot, 1898, Устав на ТМОРО. S. 1. published in Документи за борбата на македонскиот народ за самостојност и за национална држава, Скопје, Универзитет "Кирил и Методиј": Факултет за филозофско-историски науки, 1981, pp 331 – 333. (Macedonian)
  • Hugh Pouton Who Are the Macedonians? , C. Hurst & Co, 2000. p. 53. ISBN 1-85065-534-0
  • Fikret Adanir, Die Makedonische Frage: ihre entestehung und etwicklung bis 1908., Wiessbaden 1979, p. 112.
  • Duncan Perry The Politics of Terror: The Macedonian Liberation Movements, 1893-1903 , Durham, Duke University Press, 1988. pp. 40–41, 210 n. 10.
  • Friedman, V. (1997) "One Grammar, Three Lexicons: Ideological Overtones and Underpinnings of the Balkan Sprachbund" in CLS 33 Papers from the 33rd Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. (Chicago : Chicago Linguistic Society)
  • Димитър П. Евтимов, Делото на Гоце Делчев, Варна, изд. на варненското Македонско културно-просветно дружество "Гоце Делчев", 1937. (Bulgarian)
  • Пейо Яворов, "Събрани съчинения", Том втори, "Гоце Делчев", Издателство "Български писател", София, 1977. (Bulgarian) In English: Peyo Yavorov, "Complete Works", Volume 2, biography " Delchev", Publishing house "Bulgarian writer", Sofia, 1977.
  • MacDermott, Mercia. 1978. Freedom or Death: The Life of Goce Delchev. Published by The Journeyman Press, London and West Nyack. ISBN 0-904526-32-1.


Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Portrait of Goce Delčev

Georgi Nikolov Delchev (Bulgarian and Macedonian: Георги Николов Делчев), known as Gotse Delchev or Goce Delčev (23 January 1872 - 4 May 1903), was a significant revolutionary in Macedonia and Thrace.


  • I understand the world solely as a field for cultural competition among the peoples.
    • Quoted in Peyo Yavorov, Complete Works, vol. 2 (Sofia, 1977), p. 13
  • Let us not allow the splits and splintering to frighten us. It is, indeed, a pity, but what can we do, since we are Bulgarians and all suffer from one common disease. If this disease had not been present in our ancestors, from whom we inherited it, they would have never fallen under the sceptre of the Turkish Sultan...
    • Sofia, 1 May 1899, Letter from Gotse Delchev to Nikola Maleshevski.

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