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The Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses is the ruling council of Jehovah's Witnesses[1] based in Brooklyn, New York. The body assumes responsibility for formulating policy and doctrines, producing material for publications and conventions, administering its worldwide branch office staff and directing the activities of all members of the religion.[2] The Governing Body is described as the representative and "spokesman" for God's "faithful and discreet slave class" (the approximately 10,800 remaining "anointed" Jehovah's Witnesses), although in practice it does not seek advice or approval from any "anointed" Witnesses other than high-ranking members at Brooklyn Bethel.[3][4][5][6]

Its size has varied, with as many as eighteen members from 1974 to 1980,[7] but since 2007 it has comprised nine members,[8] all of whom claim to be of the "anointed" class with a hope of heavenly life.[9][10] Its membership is unelected; existing members invite new members to join the body.[11] Once appointed to the Governing Body, members have in almost all cases remained until their death, although two—Ewart Chitty and Leo Greenlees—resigned[12] or were dismissed, both reportedly for improper sexual conduct.[13] Raymond Franz was forced to resign in 1980 over accusations that he had been promoting "wrong teachings" as "new understandings" in private conversations with other Witnesses.[14][15]

Governing Body meetings are held weekly in closed session.[16] Watch Tower Society publications provide no details of the agenda or decisions of meetings.[17] Until 1975, decisions of the body were required to be unanimous; since then, a two-thirds majority of the full body has been sufficient to allow proposals to be carried (regardless of the number present).[18][19]

Contents

History

From the establishment of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania in 1884 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, it been headed by a president and board of directors. Until January 1976, the president maintained complete control of doctrines, publications and activity of the Society and the religious denominations with which it was connected—the Bible Students and Jehovah's Witnesses.[20][21] When the Society's second president, J.F. Rutherford, encountered opposition from directors in 1917, he responded by dismissing them; in 1925 he eliminated the Society's Editorial Committee—selected by Charles Taze Russell to have entire editorial control of The Watch Tower after his death—when it opposed publication of an article that altered doctrines on Bible chronology related to 1914.[22]

The origins of the Governing Body are unclear.[23] In 1943, The Watchtower described the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society as the "legal governing body" of anointed Jehovah's Witnesses.[24] A year later, in an article condemning those who supported the democratic election of congregation elders, the magazine said the appointment of congregation servants was the duty of "a visible governing body under Jehovah God and his Christ".[25] For several years, the role and specific identity of the governing body remained otherwise undefined. A 1955 organizational handbook stated that "the visible governing body has been closely identified with the board of directors of this corporation".[26] Referring to events related to their 1957 convention, a 1959 publication said "the spiritual governing body of Jehovah’s witnesses watched the developments [then] the president of the Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society [acted]".[27] In 1970, the Governing Body was identified as the board of directors of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania;[28] the 1970 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses noted that the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania was the organization used to plan the activity of Jehovah's Witnesses and provide them with "spiritual food", then declared explicitly: "So really the governing body of Jehovah's Witnesses is the board of directors of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania."[28]

Frederick Franz at Watch Tower Society headquarters in Brooklyn.

In October 1, 1971, Watch Tower Society vice-president Frederick Franz presented a speech to the annual meeting of the Pennsylvania corporation in Buckingham, Pennsylvania, stating that the legal corporation of the Watch Tower Society was an "agency" or "temporary instrument" used by the Governing Body on behalf of the "faithful and discreet slave".[29] Three weeks later, on October 20, four additional men joined the seven members of the Society's Board of Directors on what became known as a separate, expanded Governing Body.[30] The Board of Directors had until then met only sporadically, usually only to discuss the purchase of property or new equipment, leaving decisions concerning material to be published in Watch Tower Society publications to the Society's President and Vice-President, Nathan Knorr and Fred Franz.[29][31] In December, The Watchtower made explicit reference to the Governing Body as a defined group leading the religion, with a series of articles explaining its role and its relationship with the Society.[2][32] The focus on the new concept of "theocratic" leadership was accompanied by statements that the structure was not actually new: Watch Tower Society publications declared that the Governing Body had "made its appearance" some time after the formation of Zion's Watch Tower Society in 1884,[33] though it had never been referred to as such at the time.[20] They also stated that the Governing Body had established the Theocratic Ministry School in the Brooklyn headquarters in 1942, and that it had published millions of books and Bibles in the previous 30 years.[34] Raymond Franz has disputed those claims, stating that the actions of presidents Russell, Rutherford and Knorr in overriding and failing to consult with directors proved the Witnesses and Bible Students had been under a monarchical rule until 1976, leaving no decisions to any so-called "governing body".[35]

In 1972, a Question From Readers article in The Watchtower further reinforced the concept of the "Governing Body"; the magazine said the term referred to an agency that administers policy and provides organizational direction, guidance and regulation and was therefore "appropriate, fitting and Scriptural".[32][36] Organizational changes at the highest levels of the Watch Tower Society in 1976 significantly increased the powers and authority of the Governing Body.[37] The body has never had a legal corporate existence and operates through the Watch Tower Society and its board of directors.[38]

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Reorganization

From the point of its formal establishment in 1971, the Governing Body met regularly but only briefly, meetings sometimes lasting as short as seven minutes,[39] to make decisions about branch appointments and conduct that should be considered disfellowshipping offenses.[40][41] In 1971 and again in 1975, the Governing Body debated the extent of the authority it should be given. Six committees were formed in 1975 to oversee the various administrative requirements of the organization's worldwide activities that had formerly been the domain of the president. The Body voted in December 1975 to elevate the role of the Governing Body in decision-making, bringing all activities of the Watch Tower Society and of the congregations of Jehovah's Witnesses worldwide under its supervision, and simultaneously reduce the power of the president.[42] The change, which took effect from January 1, 1976, was described in the Watch Tower Society's 1993 history book, Jehovah's Witnesses—Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, as "one of the most significant organizational readjustments in the modern-day history of Jehovah's Witnesses".[43]

Headquarters purge

Raymond Franz claims that in 1980, unease with doctrines surrounding the significance of 1914 surfaced within the Governing Body. In February of that year, three Governing Body members—aware that those who had been alive in 1914 were dying out despite the teaching that their generation would be alive to see Armageddon—had proposed radical doctrinal changes, to determine that the "generation" that would see the arrival of Armageddon counted from 1957, referencing the launch of the Russian space satellite Sputnik in that year as a 'sign in heaven'. The proposal, which would have extended the deadline for Armageddon by 43 years, failed to gain a majority vote.[19][44] Internal dissatisfaction with official doctrines continued to grow, leading to a series of secret investigations and judicial hearings. As a result, the Governing Body led a purge of dissenting Brooklyn headquarters staff in April and May 1980.[45][46] Raymond Franz was forced to resign from the Governing Body, and he was later disfellowshipped from the religion. The purge resulted in a number of schisms in the religion in Canada, Britain, and northern Europe, and prompted the formation of loose groups of disaffected former Witnesses. The Watch Tower Society responded to the crisis with a new, hardened attitude towards the treatment of expelled Witnesses.[45][46][47]

2000 and beyond

Don Adams, current president of the Watch Tower Society

The membership of the Governing Body continued to include the directors of the Watch Tower Society until 2000. Since that time, the Governing Body has delegated the responsibility for the various corporations used by Jehovah's Witnesses to directors outside the Body. Hence, the current president of the Watch Tower Society, Don A. Adams, is not a member of the Governing Body.

In his study of the religion, James Penton notes that since Raymond Franz's expulsion in 1980, the Governing Body has displayed an increasing level of conservatism, sturdy resistance to any change to the policies and doctrines of the religion, and an increasing tendency to isolate dissidents within the organisation by means of disfellowshipping.[48]

The number of members of the Governing Body has varied. Since April 2007, there have been nine members. Only two current members, John E. Barr and Theodore Jaracz, were serving on the Body before 1994.

Committees

The Governing Body functions by means of six committees, each composed of members of the Body, which carry out various administrative functions.[49]

  • The Personnel Committee arranges for volunteers to serve in the organization's headquarters and branch offices. It oversees arrangements made for the personal and spiritual assistance of members of the Bethel families, as well as the selection and invitation of new members of the Bethel families around the world.
  • The Publishing Committee supervises the printing, publishing and shipping of literature throughout the world, as well as legal matters involved in printing, such as obtaining property for printing facilities. It is responsible for overseeing factories, properties, and financial operations of corporations used by Jehovah’s Witnesses throughout the world.
  • The Service Committee supervises the evangelical activity of Jehovah's Witnesses, which includes traveling overseers, pioneers, and the activities of congregation publishers. It oversees communication between the international headquarters, branch offices, and the congregations. It examines annual reports from the branches dealing with the field activity worldwide. It is responsible for inviting members to attend the Gilead school, the Ministerial Training School, and the Traveling Overseers’ School, and for assigning postgraduate students of these schools to their places of service.
  • The Teaching Committee arranges congregation meetings, special assembly days, circuit assemblies, and district and international conventions as well as various schools for elders, ministerial servants, pioneers, missionaries, such as Gilead school. It supervises preparation of material to be used in teaching, and oversees the development of new audio and video programs.
  • The Writing Committee supervises the writing and translation of all material that the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society publishes, including scripts for dramas and talk outlines. It responds to questions about scriptural, doctrinal, and moral issues, specific problems in the congregations, and the standing of members in congregations.
  • The Coordinator's Committee deals with emergencies, disaster relief and other matters, such as investigations. It is made up of the coordinator, or a representative, from each of the other Governing Body committees and a secretary who is also a member of the Governing Body. It is responsible for the smooth and efficient operation of the other committees.

Relationship with "Faithful and discreet slave"

The Governing Body describes itself as the representative[49][50] and "spokesman" for God's "faithful and discreet slave class" (the approximately 10,800 remaining anointed Jehovah's Witnesses) who are said to be God's "prophet"[51] and "channel for new spiritual light".[52][53] The Governing Body is said to provide "spiritual food" for Witnesses worldwide on behalf of the "slave class",[54][55] though in practice, it seeks neither advice nor approval from any anointed Witnesses other than high-ranking members at Brooklyn Bethel when it formulates policy and doctrines or when it approves material for publications and conventions.[3][6] The vast majority of anointed Witnesses have no authority to contribute to the development or change of doctrines.[56][57][58] Anointed Witnesses are instructed to remain modest and avoid "wildly speculating about things that are still unclear", instead waiting for God to reveal his purposes[58] in The Watchtower.[59]

A 1981 Watchtower stated that stewardship of divine truths was committed to "all the ‘chosen ones’"[60] According to former Governing Body member Raymond Franz, now a critic of Jehovah's Witnesses, there is a widespread perception among the Witnesses that the anointed somehow transmit their thinking, scriptural research, and conclusions to Brooklyn, and gain the attention of the Governing Body. He has claimed that some Witnesses also mistakenly believe that periodic surveys are taken, by which the Governing Body discover the views of the anointed worldwide.[6] He adds that there is actually no mechanism in place to seek the views of anointed Witnesses, including those at Brooklyn Bethel, and that letters from anointed Witnesses are given no more attention than those from anyone else, and Governing Body members make no attempt to contact other anointed Witnesses to discuss their views. Franz indicates that "other sheep" (non-anointed Witnesses) write most Witness publications. He describes the Governing Body's self-description as spokesman for the "faithful and discreet slave class" as a means to divert attention from the small group's absolute monopolisation of authority over the religion.[61] In 2009, The Watchtower indicated that the dissemination of "new spiritual light" is the responsibility of only "a limited number" of the "slave class", asking: "Are all these anointed ones throughout the earth part of a global network that is somehow involved in revealing new spiritual truths? No."[3]

Governing Body members

Jehovah's Witnesses began capitalizing Governing Body as a proper noun in 1971; The Watchtower that year announced "The present Governing Body comprises eleven anointed witnesses of Jehovah."[62] The original members are indicated in italics in the lists below.[63]

Current

As of April 2007, the following people are members of the Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses[9] (year appointed to Body in parentheses):

  • John E. Barr (1977)[64][65]
  • Samuel F. Herd (1999)[66]
  • Geoffrey Jackson (2005)[67]
  • Theodore Jaracz (1974)[68][69]
  • M. Stephen Lett (1999)[70]
  • Gerrit Lösch (1994)[71]
  • Anthony Morris (2005)[72]
  • Guy H. Pierce (1999)[73]
  • David H. Splane (1999)[74]

Deceased

The following individuals were members of the Governing Body until their death (years active on body, including pre-1971 directorships in parentheses):

  • Carey W. Barber (1977–2007)[75]
  • William Lloyd Barry (1975–1999)[76]
  • John C. Booth (1974–1996)[77]
  • Charles J. Fekel (1974–1977)[78]
  • Frederick William Franz (1945–1992)—4th President of Watch Tower Society[79]
  • George D. Gangas (1971–1994)[80]
  • John O. Groh (1965–1975), director[81]
  • Milton George Henschel (1947–2003), director until 2000—5th President of Watch Tower Society*[81]
  • William K. Jackson (1971–1981)[81]
  • Karl F. Klein (1974–2001)[82]
  • Nathan Homer Knorr (1934–1977)—3rd President of Watch Tower Society*[81]
  • Martin Pöetzinger (1977–1988)[83]
  • Hugo Henri Riemer (1918–1965), director
  • Albert D. Schroeder (1974–2006)[84]
  • Grant Suiter (1941–1984), director until 1983[85]
  • Thomas J. Sullivan (1932–1974), director until 1973[81][86][87]
  • Lyman Alexander Swingle (1945–2001), director[88]
  • Daniel Sydlik (1974–2006)[89]

Resigned

The following individuals resigned or were asked to step down from their positions in the body (years active on body in parentheses):

  • Ewart Chitty (1974–1979)
  • Raymond Franz (1971–1980)
  • Leo K. Greenlees (1971–1984)

References

  1. ^ Penton, M. James (1997). Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. pp. 216. ISBN 0-8020-7973-3. 
  2. ^ a b "Questions From Readers". The Watchtower: 703. November 15, 1972. 
  3. ^ a b c "The faithful slave and its governing body", The Watchtower, June 15, 2009, pages 23-24.
  4. ^ You Can Live Forever in Paradise on Earth. Watchtower Society. 1989. p. 195. 
  5. ^ Franz, Raymond (2007). In Search of Christian Freedom. Commentary Press. pp. 153. ISBN 0-914675-17-6. 
  6. ^ a b c Franz, Raymond (2007). In Search of Christian Freedom. Commentary Press. pp. 152–164. ISBN 0-914675-17-6. 
  7. ^ Penton, M. James (1997). Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. pp. 217. ISBN 0-8020-7973-3. 
  8. ^ As of September 2005, twelve members listed (See The Watchtower, March 15, 2006, page 26)
    Schroeder died March 8, 2006 (See The Watchtower, September 15, 2006, page 31)
    Sydlik died April 18, 2006 (See The Watchtower, January 1, 2007, page 8)
    Barber died April 8, 2007 (See The Watchtower, October 15, 2007, page 31)
  9. ^ a b Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania (2007). Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses. pp. 4, 6. 
  10. ^ Botting, Heather & Gary (1984). The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. pp. 178. ISBN 0-8020-6545-7. 
  11. ^ Franz, Raymond (2007). In Search of Christian Freedom. Commentary Press. pp. 123. ISBN 0-914675-17-6. 
  12. ^ Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses. 1980. p. 257–258. 
  13. ^ Penton, M. James (1997). Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. pp. 322. ISBN 0-8020-7973-3. 
  14. ^ Franz, Raymond (2007). Crisis of Conscience. Commentary Press. pp. 273–336. ISBN 0-914675-23-0. 
  15. ^ Penton, M. James (1997). Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. pp. 120. ISBN 0-8020-7973-3. 
  16. ^ "How the Governing Body is Organized", The Watchtower, May 15, 2008, page 29.
  17. ^ Franz, Raymond (2007). Crisis of Conscience. Commentary Press. pp. 32. ISBN 0-914675-23-0. 
  18. ^ Franz, Raymond (2007). Crisis of Conscience. Commentary Press. pp. 85, 115. ISBN 0-914675-23-0. 
  19. ^ a b Penton, M. James (1997). Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. pp. 218. ISBN 0-8020-7973-3. 
  20. ^ a b Franz, Raymond (2007). Crisis of Conscience. Commentary Press. pp. 58. ISBN 0-914675-23-0. 
  21. ^ Franz, Raymond (2007). In Search of Christian Freedom. Commentary Press. pp. 186, footnote. ISBN 0-914675-17-6. 
  22. ^ Franz, Raymond (2007). Crisis of Conscience. Commentary Press. pp. 61–62. ISBN 0-914675-23-0. 
  23. ^ Penton, M. James (1997). Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. pp. 214. ISBN 0-8020-7973-3. 
  24. ^ The Watchtower. July 15, 1943. 
  25. ^ The Watchtower. November 1, 1944. 
  26. ^ Qualified to be Ministers. Watch Tower Society. 1955. pp. 381.  cited by Raymond Franz, Crisis of Conscience, page 74
  27. ^ "Divine Will International Assembly of Jehovah’s Witnesses", The Watchtower, February 15, 1959, page 115, "So with intense interest the spiritual governing body of Jehovah’s witnesses watched the developments... Without delay the president of the Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society closed a contract with the owners to use the Polo Grounds simultaneously with Yankee Stadium."
  28. ^ a b Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses. Watch Tower Society. 1970. p. 65. 
  29. ^ a b Franz, Raymond (2007). Crisis of Conscience. Commentary Press. pp. 57. ISBN 0-914675-23-0. 
  30. ^ Franz, Raymond. Crisis of Conscience. p. 44.  The seven directors at October 20 were Nathan Knorr, Fred Franz, Grant Suiter, Thomas Sullivan, Milton Henschel, Lyman Swingle and John Groh. The additional four to form the Governing Body were William Jackson, Leo Greenlees, George Gangas and Raymond Franz.
  31. ^ Testimony by Fred Franz, Lord Strachan vs. Douglas Walsh Transcript, Lord Strachan vs. Douglas Walsh, 1954, as cited by Raymond Franz, Crisis of Conscience, 2007, page 75-76.
  32. ^ a b "Theocratic Organization with Which to Move Forward Now; A Governing Body as Different from a Legal Corporation". The Watchtower. December 15, 1971. 
  33. ^ The Watchtower. December 15, 1971. 
  34. ^ Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses. 1972. pp. 254–257. 
  35. ^ Franz, Raymond (2007). Crisis of Conscience. Commentary Press. pp. 78. ISBN 0-914675-23-0. 
  36. ^ "Questions From Readers". The Watchtower: 703. November 15, 1972. 
  37. ^ Franz, Raymond (2007). Crisis of Conscience. Commentary Press. pp. 44–110. ISBN 0-914675-23-0. 
  38. ^ Penton, M. James (1997). Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. pp. 228. ISBN 0-8020-7973-3. 
  39. ^ Franz, Raymond (2007). Crisis of Conscience. Commentary Press. pp. 45. ISBN 0-914675-23-0. 
  40. ^ Franz, Raymond (2007). Crisis of Conscience. Commentary Press. pp. 46. ISBN 0-914675-23-0. 
  41. ^ Penton, M. James (1997). Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. pp. 215. ISBN 0-8020-7973-3. 
  42. ^ Franz, Raymond (2007). Crisis of Conscience. Commentary Press. pp. 80–107. ISBN 0-914675-23-0. 
  43. ^ Jehovah's Witnesses–Proclaimers of God's Kingdom. Watch Tower Society. 1993. pp. 108–109. 
  44. ^ Franz, Raymond (1997). Crisis of Conscience. pp. 262. 
  45. ^ a b Penton, M. James (1997). Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. pp. 117–123. ISBN 0-8020-7973-3. 
  46. ^ a b Botting, Heather & Gary (1984). The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. pp. 158–165. ISBN 0-8020-6545-7. 
  47. ^ Franz, Raymond (2007). "11-12". Crisis of Conscience. Commentary Press. 
  48. ^ Penton, M. James (1997). Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. pp. 219, 297-302, 319. ISBN 0-8020-7973-3. 
  49. ^ a b The Watchtower, May 15, 2008, page 29
  50. ^ "Seek God's guidance in all things", The Watchtower, April 15, 2008, page 11.
  51. ^ All Scripture is Inspired and Beneficial, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, page 9, paragraph 16.
  52. ^ "The Things Revealed Belong to Us", The Watchtower, May 15, 1986, page 13.
  53. ^ Franz, Raymond (2007). In Search of Christian Freedom. Commentary Press. pp. 153. ISBN 0-914675-17-6. 
  54. ^ "The Watchtower and Awake!—Timely Journals of Truth". The Watchtower: 21. January 1, 1994. 
  55. ^ "Building for an Eternal Future". The Watchtower: 25. January 1, 1986. 
  56. ^ Penton, M. James (1997). Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. pp. 211. ISBN 0-8020-7973-3. 
  57. ^ "The faithful slave and its governing body", The Watchtower, June 15, 2009, pages 23-24, "They do not believe that their being of the anointed gives them special insights beyond what even some experienced members of the "great crowd" may have. They do not believe that they necessarily have more holy spirit than their companions of the 'other sheep' have. They do not expect special treatment; nor do they claim that their partaking of the emblems places them above the appointed elders in the congregation."
  58. ^ a b "A Secret Christians Dare Not Keep!", The Watchtower, June 1, 1997, page 14.
  59. ^ "Insight That Jehovah Has Given", The Watchtower, March 15, 1989, page 22, "It is through the columns of The Watchtower that explanations of vital Scriptural truths have been provided for us by Jehovah’s 'faithful and discreet slave.' The Watchtower is the principal instrument used by the 'slave' class for dispensing spiritual food."
  60. ^ "Do You Appreciate the “Faithful and Discreet Slave”?", Watchtower, March 1, 1981, page 26, "While alive on earth, Jesus’ faithful apostles were especially responsible for providing spiritual teaching for the “household of God.” Appointed ‘shepherds’ of the “flock,” as well as others, also had similar responsibility. However, the apostle Peter shows that such stewardship of divine truths actually was committed to all the ‘chosen ones.’ Hence, each respective member of the congregation made a contribution to the building up of the body. (Eph. 4:11-16; 1 Pet. 1:1, 2; 4:10, 11; 5:1-3) Thus we see a clear Scriptural basis for saying that all anointed followers of Christ Jesus make up God’s “servant,” with Jesus as its Master. Accordingly, that servant, or “slave,” as a collective body provides spiritual food for all the individuals of this congregation, which make up the household of “domestics.” These individually benefit as recipients of that food.—1 Cor. 12:12, 19-27; Heb. 3:5, 6; 5:11-14."
  61. ^ Franz, Raymond (2007). In Search of Christian Freedom. Commentary Press. pp. 163,164. ISBN 0-914675-17-6. ""By its stress on a 'class' it also serves to robe the real authority structure with a shroud of anonymity, giving the appearance of a wide diversity of membership and globality that is 'not of whole cloth', simply not true. This fictional concept enables the real authority structure — the dozen or so members of the Governing Body — to ask for almost total obedience to their own directives without appearing as arrogant or self-serving ... By speaking of the 'faithful and discreet slave class', attention is diverted from the small power group as the true authority structure."" 
  62. ^ "A Governing Body as Different from a Legal Corporation", The Watchtower, December 15, 1971, page 762
  63. ^ "The Governing Body", 1973 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, ©Watch Tower, page 257, "The Governing Body of Jehovah’s Witnesses consists of eleven brothers, all anointed of God. They are as follows: Frederick W. Franz, Raymond V. Franz, George D. Gangas, Leo K. Greenlees, John O. Groh, Milton G. Henschel, William K. Jackson, Nathan H. Knorr, Grant Suiter, Thomas J. Sullivan and Lyman A. Swingle."
  64. ^ "Britain", 2000 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, ©Watch Tower, page 130
  65. ^ "New Members of the Governing Body", The Watchtower, November 15, 1977, page 680
  66. ^ "New Members of the Governing Body", The Watchtower, January 1, 2000, page 29
  67. ^ "New Members of the Governing Body", The Watchtower, March 15, 2006, page 26
  68. ^ "Gilead Sends Missionaries “to the Most Distant Part of the Earth”", The Watchtower, December 15, 1999, page 28, "Theodore Jaracz, a member of the Governing Body, who himself graduated with Gilead’s seventh class in 1946"
  69. ^ "Governing Body of Jehovah’s Witnesses Enlarged", The Watchtower, January 15, 1975, page 60
  70. ^ "New Members of the Governing Body", The Watchtower, January 1, 2000, page 29
  71. ^ "Governing Body Addition", The Watchtower, November 1, 1994, page 29
  72. ^ "New Members of the Governing Body", The Watchtower, March 15, 2006, page 26
  73. ^ "New Members of the Governing Body", The Watchtower, January 1, 2000, page 29
  74. ^ "New Members of the Governing Body", The Watchtower, January 1, 2000, page 29
  75. ^ "Rejoicing Over "Victory With the Lamb", The Watchtower, October 15, 2007, page 31.
  76. ^ "We Were a Team", The Watchtower, April 1, 2001, page 24.
  77. ^ "He Humbly Served Jehovah", The Watchtower, June 15, 1996, page 32.
  78. ^ "A Joyful Perseverer in Good Work", The Watchtower, July 1, 1977, page 399.
  79. ^ "How the Governing Body Differs From a Legal Corporation", The Watchtower, January 15, 2001, page 28.
  80. ^ "His Deeds Follow Him", The Watchtower, December 1, 1994, page 31.
  81. ^ a b c d e Franz, Raymond (2007). Crisis of Conscience. Commentary Press. pp. 273–336. ISBN 0-914675-23-0. 
  82. ^ "Jehovah Has Dealt Rewardingly With Me", The Watchtower, October 1, 1984, page 21.
  83. ^ "A Staunch Fighter for the Truth", The Watchtower, September 15, 1988, page 31.
  84. ^ "His Delight Was in the Law of Jehovah", The Watchtower, September 15, 2006, page 31.
  85. ^ "Moving Ahead With God’s Organization", The Watchtower, September 1, 1983, page 13.
  86. ^ "He Ran for “The Prize of the Upward Call” and Won!", The Watchtower, September 15, 1974, page 554, "On October 31, 1932, he [Sullivan] was made a member of the board of directors of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania; he was also one of the eleven-member governing body of Jehovah’s witnesses."
  87. ^ "A Time of Testing (1914-1918)", Jehovah's Witnesses - Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, ©1993 Watch Tower, page 71, "Thomas (Bud) Sullivan, who later served as a member of the Governing Body, recalled: “It was my privilege to visit Brooklyn Bethel in the late summer of 1918 during the brothers’ incarceration."
  88. ^ Jehovah's Witnesses–Proclaimers of God's Kingdom. Watch Tower Society. 1993. pp. 91. 
  89. ^ "How Priceless Your Friendship, O God!", The Watchtower, June 1, 1985, page 27.

External links

See also


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