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Moldova

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Politics of Moldova takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The position of the break-away republic of Transnistria, relations with Romania and integration into the EU dominate the political agenda.

Contents

Developments

History of Moldova
Coat of arms of Moldova
This article is part of a series
Prehistory
Antiquity
Dacia
Free Dacians
Bastarnae
Early Middle Ages
Origin of the Romanians
Ulichs
Brodnici
Golden Horde
Principality of Moldavia
Foundation
Stephen the Great
Early Modern Era
Phanariots
Bessarabia Governorate
Treaty of Bucharest
Moldavian Democratic Republic
Sfatul Ţării
Greater Romania
Union of Bessarabia with Romania
Moldavian ASSR
Moldovenism
Moldavian SSR
Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina
Soviet deportations
Republic of Moldova
Independence of Moldova
War of Transnistria
Politics of Moldova

Moldova Portal
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Achieving independence

In the new political conditions created after 1985 by the glasnost policy introduced by Mikhail Gorbachov, in 1986, to support the perestroika (restructuring), a Democratic Movement of Moldova (Romanian: Mişcarea Democratică din Moldova) was formed, which in 1989 became known as the pro-nationalist Popular Front of Moldova (PFM; Romanian: Frontul Popular din Moldova).[1][2] Along with the other peripheral Soviet republics, from 1988 onwards, Moldova started to move towards independence. On August 27, 1989, the PFM organized a mass demonstration in Chişinău, that became known as the Great National Gathering (Romanian: Marea Adunare Naţională), which pressured the authorities of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic to adopt on August 31, 1989 a language law that proclaimed Moldovan language written in the Latin script the state language of the Moldavian SSR. The identity with the Romanian Language was also established.[1][3]

The first independent elections into the local parliament were held in February and March 1990. Mircea Snegur was elected as Speaker of the Parliament, and Mircea Druc as Prime-Minister. On June 23, 1990, the Parliament adopted the Declaration of Sovereignty of the Soviet Socialist Republic Moldova, which among other things stipulated the supremacy of Moldovan laws over those of the Soviet Union. On May 23, 1991, the name of the state is again changed into the current Republic of Moldova.[1]

After the failure of the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, on August 27, 1991, Moldova declared its independence, which was recognized the same day by Romania, and afterwards by numerous other countries. In early December of that year, a former communist reformer, Mircea Snegur, won an unchallenged election for the presidency. On December 21 of the same year Moldova, along with most of the former Soviet republics, signed the constitutive act that formed the post-Soviet Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Declaring itself a neutral state, it did not join the military branch of the CIS. Three months later, on March 2, 1992, the country achieved formal recognition as an independent state at the United Nations.

Mircea Snegur was elected president of Moldova in October 1990 by the Parliament. A former Communist Party official, he endorsed independence and actively sought Western recognition. Moldova declared its independence from the Soviet Union in August 1991. However, Snegur's opposition to immediate reunification with Romania led to a split with the Moldovan Popular Front in October 1991 and to his decision to run as an independent candidate in a December 1991 presidential election. Running unopposed, he won after the Popular Front's efforts to organize a voter boycott failed.

Transnistrian conflict

In the region east of the Dniester river, Transnistria, which includes a large proportion of Russophone ethnic Russians and Ukrainians (as of 1989, 51%, as opposed to only 40% ethnic Moldovans), and where the headquarters and many units of the Soviet Guards 14th Army were stationed, an independent "Transdnestrian Moldovan Republic" (TMR) was proclaimed on August 16, 1990, with its capital in Tiraspol.[1] The motives behind this move were fear of the rise of nationalism in Moldova and the country's expected reunification with Romania upon secession from the USSR.

In the winter of 1991-1992 clashes occurred between Transnistrian forces, supported by elements of the 14th Army, and the Moldovan police. Between March 2 and July 26, 1992, the conflict escalated into a military engagement. Negotiations held during the conflict between Russia, Ukraine, Romania, and Moldova did not produce any practical results. After a series of direct negotiations facilitated by Russia, an agreement was reached between Moldova and Transnistria.

Russian military stationed in the region (14th Army) were removed from the main part of Moldova by January 1993, but remain to this day east of the Dniester in the breakaway region, despite signing international obligations to withdraw, and against the will of Moldovan government.[4][5] One such obligation was undertaken at the 1999 OSCE summit in Istanbul to withdraw the Russian troops and ammunition within 3 years, a promise reiterated at the next summit in Porto in 2003. After 1992, Romania and Ukraine were excluded from the diplomatic activity aimed to solve the Transnistrian crisis. Later, OSCE was included, and the Ukraine wes re-included. The postwar status quo remains to this day: Chişinău offers a large autonomy, while Tiraspol demands independence. De jure, Transnistria is internationally recognized as part of Moldova, but de facto, the authorities in Chişinău do not exercise any control over that territory.[1]

Transition to market economy

On January 2, 1992, Moldova introduced the market reforms, of which included price liberalization. This resulted in a 2,600% inflation in 1992, and a further 700% inflation in 1993. From 1992 till 2001, the young country suffered its worst economic crisis that left most of the population below the poverty line. In 1993, a new national currency, the Moldovan leu was introduced to replace the Soviet ruble. The end of the planned economy meant also that the industrial enterprises would have to buy supplies and sell their goods by themselves, and most of the management was not prepared for such a change. Moldova undertook a privatisation plan which was effective in the transfer of the ownership of houses to the people. The attempted privatization of production means did not boost the economy as it was desired. International financial institutions, judging the apparent presence of landmarks indicating a modern developed society in 1992, have overestimated the capacity of Moldova's economy and government to withstand the transition to market economy, and imposed the country to open its market to outside goods without implementation of any effective action to support internal production. As a result, Moldova's industry, especially machine building, became all but defunct, and unemployment skyrocketed. The economic fortunes of Moldova began to change in 2001; since then the country has seen a steady annual growth of between 5% and 10%. Early 2000s also saw a considerable growth of emigration of Moldovans looking for work (mostly illegally) in Italy, Portugal, Spain, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, and other countries, in addition to work in Russia. One of the reasons for this was that in 1991, 1.3 million Moldovans, or ca. 60% of the workforce, were employed in agriculture, which normally does not require such a large number of people. Remittances from Moldovans abroad account for ca. 30% of Moldova's GDP, the largest percentage in Europe. Officially, Moldova's annual GDP is of the order of $1,000 per capita, however a significant part of the economy goes unregistered due to corruption.

Political developments in 1990s

Moldova's transition to democracy was initially impeded by an ineffective Parliament, the lack of a new constitution, a separatist movement led by the Gagauz (Christian Turkic) minority in the south, and unrest in the Transnistria region on the left bank of the Dniester river, where a separatist movement assisted by uniformed Russian military forces in the region and led by supporters of the 1991 coup attempt in Moscow declared a "Dniester republic."

Progress has been made on all these fronts. In 1992, the government negotiated a cease-fire arrangement with Russian and Transnistrian officials (although tensions continue) and negotiations are ongoing. In February 1994, new legislative elections were held, and the ineffective Parliament that had been elected in 1990 to a 5-year term was replaced. A new constitution was adopted in July 1994. The conflict with the Gagauz minority was defused by the granting of local autonomy in 1994.

The governments of Mircea Druc (May 25, 1990 - May 28, 1991), and of Valeriu Muravschi (May 28, 1991 - July 1, 1992) were followed by a more moderate/concervative (pending on one's political interpretation) government of Andrei Sangheli, which saw the removal of most reform-oriented individuals. In the February 1994 elections, only 4 of the dozens of political parties surpassed the 4% threshold.[1] A new government was formed by Andrei Sangheli of the Democratic Agrarian Party.

The February 1994 Parliamentary elections were conducted peacefully and received good ratings from international observers for their fairness. Prime Minister Andrei Sangheli was re-elected to his post in March 1994, as was Petru Lucinschi to his post as speaker of the Parliament. Authorities in Transnistria, refused to allow balloting there and discouraged the local population from participating. Inhabitants of the Gagauz separatist region did participate in the elections, however.

Following the elections, the Parliament ratified the CIS accession treaty, modified the national anthem from Deşteaptă-te, române to Limba noastră, adopted a new Constitution that called the official language Moldova as opposed to Romanian (as it was called in 1991-93), and adopted other measures that distanced Moldova from Romania.[1] The new Moldovan Constitution also provided for autonomy for Transnistria and Gagauzia. On December 23, 1994, the Parliament of Moldova adopted a "Law on the Special Legal Status of Gagauzia", and in 1995 it was constituted.

In 1994, Moldova became a member of NATO Partnership for Peace. On June 29, 1995, Moldova became a member of the Council of Europe.[1]

In the presidential elections of 1996, parliamentary speaker Petru Lucinschi surprised with an upset victory over the incumbent, Mircea Snegur, in a second round of balloting. The elections were judged as free and fair by international observers. After winning the presidential elections of 1996, on January 15, 1997, Petru Lucinschi, the former First Secretary of the Moldavian Communist Party in 1989-91 became the country's second president.

President Lucinschi did manage to institute some very controversial reforms (perhaps the United States Assistance for International Development-funded "Pămînt" land privatization program was the most controversial). Indeed, his tenure was marked by constant legislative struggles with Moldova's Parliament. Several times, the Parliament considered votes of no confidence in the president's government, and a succession of moderate, pro-Western reform prime ministers were dismissed by a Parliament that increasingly favored the growing Communist Party faction.

Alliance for Democracy and Reforms

Moldova’s previous two presidents, Mircea Snegur and Petru Lucinschi were respectively President of the Republican Supreme Soviet and Republican Communist Party First Secretary during the Soviet Period. Both served as Politburo members, and Luchinschi was a member of the CC of CPSU.

At the legislative elections on March 22, 1998, the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova, which was re-legalized in 1994 after being banned in 1991, gained 40 of the 101 places in the Parliament, but was reduced to opposition when an Alliance for Democracy and Reforms was formed by the Democratic Convention of Moldova (26 MPs), Movement for a democratic and Prosperous Moldova (24 MPs), and Party of democratic Forces (11 MPs). However, the activity of the second government of Ion Ciubuc (May 22, 1998 - February 1, 1999), the acting government of Serafim Urechean (February 5-17, 1999), and the government of Ion Sturza (February 19 - November 9, 1999) were marked by chronic political instability, which prevented a coherent reform program.[1] The Alliance for Democracy and Reforms was the first coalition government in the history of Moldova. Foreign policy was marked by a duality of belonging to the CIS and steps towards a rapprochement with Western Europe.

Disagreements that appeared within the Alliance for Democracy and Reforms, caused to some degree by displeasure with seat distributions, led to its disintegration and an overwhelming Party of Communists victory in 2001 parliamentary election.

In the next decade, the Party of Communists used very successfully the incoherent activity of the Alliance for Democracy and Reforms for the discreditation of any form of political coalition formed without Communists. Their criticisms of the Alliance For European Integration is a good example.

The 1998 economic crisis in Russia, Moldova's main economic partner at the time, produced an economic crisis in the country. Privatization was stalled, the Moldovan leu lost 60% with respect to the US dollar within a year (August 1998-July 1999), an energy crisis swept through the country, wages and pensions were paid with a considerable delay of several months, corruption extended. The level of life plunged, with 75% of population living below the poverty line, while the economic disaster caused 600,000 people to leave the country. This eventually resulted in the interruption of relations with the International Monetary Fund.[1]

In economic terms, the 1998 crisis provoked an emigration of labor, as well as permanent emigration from Moldova. According to the census data, from 1989 to 2004, Moldova has lost about 400,000 inhabitants, or 9% of the population. Analysts estimate that actual emigration could be higher, as many seasonal workers remain registered as living in the country.

New governments were formed by Ion Sturza (February 19 - November 9, 1999) and Dumitru Braghiş (December 21, 1999 - April 19, 2001).

On July 21, 2000, the Parliament adopted an amendment to the Constitution that transformed Moldova from a presidential to a parliamentary republic, in which the president is elected by 3/5 of the votes in the parliament, and no longer directly by popular vote. Later that year, when Parliament failed three times to successfully elect a new president, Petru Lucinschi exercised his right to dissolve Parliament, calling for new parliamentary elections. However, since no single candidate was able to garner a majority of votes, Lucinschi temporarily remained president.

Return of the Communist Party

Widespread popular dissatisfaction with the government, the economy, and the reforms, however, led to a surprise at the polls in February 2001. In elections certified by international observers as free and fair, Moldova's populace voted overwhelmingly for the communists. The communist faction, which had previously occupied 40 of the Parliament's 101 seats since they were legally allowed to exist in 1998, jumped to 71 - a clear majority. Communist deputies were then able to elect Vladimir Voronin, the leader of their faction, as President. Voronin, previously served as an official of the Moldovan Communist Party Central Committee, as well as First Secretary of the Bender City Party Committee and Minister of Internal Affairs.

Only 3 of the 31 political parties passed the 6% threshold of the February 25, 2001 elections. Winning 49.9% of the vote, the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova gained 71 of the 101 MPs, and on April 4, 2001, elected Vladimir Voronin as the country's third president. A new government was formed on April 19, 2001 by Vasile Tarlev. The country became the first post-Soviet state where a non-reformed Communist Party comes back to power.[1]

Since his election, President Voronin has proceeded with Lucinschi's plans to privatize several important state-owned industries, and even has on occasion broken with his own party over important issues. He also also repeatedly announced plans to introduce measures to promote land consolidation in the countryside, a move outside observers have dubbed "recollectivizaiton." However, under President Voronin, relations with Romania have, at times, worsened. Tensions arose when the President tried to introduce Russian as a second national language as well as insist that the Moldovan state language be called Moldovan. The Romanian language in Moldova has come to be called "Moldovan", propting a long controversy whether the language is identical or closely resembles Romanian. In 2007 the Moldovan government did not allow Romania to open two consulates in major cities of Moldova, Bălţi and Cahul, that were intended to simplify the acquisition of Romanian visas for the Moldovan population..

In March-April 2002, in Chişinău, several mass protests took place against the plans of the government to fulfil its electoral promise and introduce Russian as the second state language along with its compulsory study in schools.[1] The government mainly renounced these plans, but Russian was eventually re-introduced as a compulsory subject in Moldovan schools, albeit only 1 to 2 hours per week.

An attempt at re-introduction of Russian into Moldovan schools caused protests in the center of Chisinău, led by the nationalist CDPP party, and was aborted as the movement lost momentum. The Communist party has also attracted much criticism over the increasingly authoritarian rule in Chişinău.

Relationship between Moldova and Russia deteriorated in November 2003 over a Russian proposal for the solution of the Transnistrian conflict, which Moldovan authorities refused to accept due to political pressure from the West, since it stipulated a 20-year Russian military presence in Moldova. The federalization of Moldova would have also turned Transnistria and Gagauzia into a blocking minority over all major policy matters of Moldova.

As of 2006, approximately 1,200 of the 14th army personnel remain stationed in Transnistria. In the last years, negotiations between the Transnistrian and Moldovan leaders have been going on under the mediation of the OSCE, Russia, and Ukraine; lately observers from the European Union and the United States have become involved as observers, creating a 5+2 format.

In the wake of the November 2003 deadlock with Russia, a series of shifts in the external policy of Moldova occurred, targeted at rapprochement with the European Union. In the context of the EU's expansion to the east, Moldova wants to sign a Stability an Association Agreement, and demands an Individual Action Plan to accede to the EU. A national commission for European integration was created in June 2003, and in November 2003 all three political parties present in the parliament adopted a common declaration stating a pro-European orientation of Moldova.[1] Since 1999, Moldova has affirmed its desire to join the European Union,[6][7] and implement its first three-year Action Plan within the framework of the European Neighborhood Policy (ENP) of the EU.[8][9] Analysts claim that, in fact, Moldova did not manage to fully implement the Action Plan and instead of positive ideas it was constantly sending to Brussels contradictory signals about its commitment to implement reforms.[10]

On December 19, 2003, the Parliament passed a Law of Nationalities, which made a controversial distinction between a Moldovan majority and a Romanian minority (a historically, ethnically, and linguistically contentious distinction).[1] In the 2004 population census, first since independence, of the 2,638,125 Moldovans and Romanians (78.3% of the country's population), 2,564,850 (97.2%) were registered as Moldovans and 73,276 (2.8%) as Romanians (94.9%, resp. 5.1% in urban areas, and 98.4%, resp. 1.6% in rural areas). 2,012,542 or 76.3% of them called native language Moldovan (58.9% in urban areas and 84.8% in rural ones), and 552,920 or 21.0% of them called it Romanian (34.3% in urban areas and 14.4% in rural ones).

In the March, 6, 2005 elections, the Communist Party won 46% of the vote, (56 of the 101 seats in the Parliament), Democratic Moldova Block won 28.5% of the vote (34 MPs), and the Christian Democratic People Party (CDPP) won 9.1% (11 MPs). On April 4, 2005, Vladimir Voronin was re-elected as country's president, supported by a part of the opposition, and on April 8, Vasile Tarlev was again charged as head of government.[1] Several major shifts produced in the political scene of Moldova since 2005. At first most of the opposition supported Vladimir Voronin, who was regarded as changed from being pro-Russian to being pro-Western, but this was changed largely after Voronin launched a sustained verbal campaign (in press, in official declarations, and at European fora) against Romanians and Romania, whom he blames for stealing Moldova's citizens (ca. 100,000 Moldovans have also Romanian citizenship, and other 800,000 are waiting in line).

The government was formed by the Party of the Communists, supported parliamentary by CDPP (deserted by many members because of that) and mostly (not always) by the Democratic Party of Moldova. The major opposition parties include Party Alliance Our Moldova, Liberal Party, whose candidate Dorin Chirtoacă won on June 17, 2007 the elections for the mayor of the capital Chişinău,[11] and Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova.

On March 31, 2008, Vasile Tarlev was replaced by Zinaida Greceanîi as head of the government.

On November 18, 2008, NATO Parliamentary Assembly adopted Resolution 371 on the future of NATO-Russia relations, with among other things, "urges the government and the parliament of Russia to respect its commitments which were taken at the Istanbul OSCE Summit in 1999 and has to withdraw its illegal military presence from the Transdnestrian region of Moldova in the nearest future."[12]

The fear and insecurity grew even stronger in Moldova after Valeriu Boboc, Ion Ţâbuleac, and Eugen Ţapu have been sent dead to their families. All of them showed signs of brutal violence on their face and body. Although the families asked for answers, they didn't receive any. They don't know who, where, when and why killed the young boys.

Alliance For European Integration

In the Moldovan parliamentary election, July 2009, the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova, gained around 45% of the vote, whilst the other four parties which won seats each gained from around 7% to 16%.[13] However, combined, the opposition parties to the Communists secured a greater percentage of the vote, and are now in discussion over forming a coalition.[13] This has led some commentators to declare the election a loss for the Communists.[13][14]

In August 2009, four Moldovan parties – Liberal Democratic Party, Liberal Party, Democratic Party, and Our Moldova Alliance – agreed to create a governing coalition that will push the Communist party into opposition. The name of the coalition was Alliance for European Integration.

Issues

Criticism

There is disagreement as to whether elections and politics in Moldova are carried out in a free and democratic climate on the part of certain organizations. The United States Senate has held committee hearings on irregularities that marred elections in Moldova, including arrests and harassment of opposition candidates, intimidation and suppression of independent media, and state run media bias in favor of candidates backed by the Communist-led Moldovan Government.[15] Other critics have also referred to the Communist Party government as being authoritarian.[16][17] Nevertheless, George W. Bush stated that: "We note and welcome Moldova's positive record since independence in conducting free and fair elections and in implementing democratic reforms."[18]

There have also been reports of politically motivated arrests and arrests without valid legal grounds. Such arrests are allegedly carried out against opponents of the Communist Party government of President Vladimir Voronin. In one case which was criticized by various Western organizations and individuals, opposition politician Valeriu Pasat was sentenced to ten years imprisonment on dubious grounds.[19]

In recent months, the leadership of the autonomous region of Gagauzia has become more vocal in its complaints that the Moldovan Government does not respect the region's statutory-enshrined autonomy.

Human Trafficking

Due to the high rate of poverty, Moldova remains a large source-country of illegal sex workers that are exported to Western Europe and the Middle East. Because of pervasive corruption and a general lack of awareness, many victims of human trafficking are lured into the business with offers of high-salary jobs abroad, and are often trapped once out of the country. The U.S government urged Moldova to pass an anti-trafficking law in 2005, but due to a lack of enforcement, low regard of legal institutions, and unequal benchmark requirements, clear progress is difficult to ascertain. Organizations such as the International Organization for Migration [1] provide non-governmental support integral to helping victims. However, NGOs are often subject to domestic constraints and government interference in their work, complicating their operations.

Transnistria

The population of the Moldovan region of Transnistria is approximately 32% Moldovan, 31% Ukrainian, and 29% Russian. After failing to establish control over the breakaway region in the War of Transnistria, Moldova offered a rather broad cultural and political autonomy to the region. The dispute has strained Moldova's relations with Russia. The July 1992 cease-fire agreement established a tripartite peacekeeping force composed of Moldovan, Russian, and Transnistrian units. Negotiations to resolve the conflict continue, and the cease-fire is still in effect. The OSCE is also trying to facilitate a negotiated settlement and has had an observer mission in place for several years.

Some progress by Russia in early 2000s in destroying the weapons and munitions of the Organized Group of Russian Forces stationed in Transnistria have raised hopes that Russia intends to comply with the 1999 Istanbul Accords.

The country remains divided, with the Transnistrian region along the Ukrainian border controlled by separatist forces. The new communist government has shown increased determination to resolve the ongoing conflict, but has been unable to make any significant progress because of fundamental disagreements with the separatist authorities in Transnistria over the status of that region, as well as complex international political pressure exerted by the US, the OSCE, the EU and especially Russia.

General situation

Moldova had successfully joined the World Trade Organization and the Southeast European Stability Pact in 2001. Of primary importance have been the government's efforts to improve relations with the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank and to comply with agreements negotiated in 2000 by the former government. Agreement in these areas was critical, because large government debts that were due in 2002 had to be rescheduled. The government has made concerted efforts to find ways to pay for Moldova's energy supplies.

Politically the government is committed to present a budget that will deal with social safety net items such as health, education, and increasing pensions and salaries. The Moldovan Government supported democracy and human rights in FY 2001.

Political parties and other groups publish newspapers, which often criticize government policies. There are several independent news services, radio stations, and an independent television station. Peaceful assembly is allowed, though permits for demonstrations must be obtained; private organizations, including political parties, are required to register with the government. Legislation passed in 1992 codified freedom of religion but required that religious groups be recognized by the government.

A 1990 Soviet law and a 1991 Parliamentary decision authorizing formation of social organizations provide for independent trade unions. However, the Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Moldova, successor to the former organizations of the Soviet trade union system, is the sole structure. It has tried to influence government policy in labor issues and has been critical of many economic policies. Moldovan labor law, which is based on former Soviet legislation, provides for collective bargaining rights.

Legislative branch

The Parliament (Parlamentul) has 101 members, elected for a four year term by proportional representation. The president is elected for a four year term by parliament.

Political parties and elections

e • d  Summary of the 6 March 2005 Parliament of Moldova election results
Parties and coalitions % Seats
Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (Partidul Comuniştilor din Republica Moldova) 45.98 56
Party Alliance Our Moldova (Alianţa Moldova Noastră) 28.53 22
Democratic Party of Moldova (Partidul Democrat din Moldova) 8
Social Liberal Party (Partidul Social Liberal) 4
Christian Democratic People's Party (Partidul Popular Creştin Democrat) 9.07 11
Electoral Bloc Motherland (Blocul Electoral Patria - Rodina) 4.97 0
Social Democratic Party of Moldova (Partidul Social-Democrat din Moldova) 2.92 0
Republican Socio-Political Movement Equality (Miscarea Social-Politică Republicană Ravnopravie) 2.83 0
Party of the Socio-Economic Justice of Moldova (Partidul Dreptăţii Social-Economice din Moldova) 1.66 0
Peasants' Christian Democratic Party of Moldova (Partidul Ţărănesc Creştin-Democrat din Moldova) 1.37 0
Total (turnout 63.7%)   101

AMN, PDM and PSL formed the Electoral Bloc Democratic Moldova (Blocul Electoral Moldova Democrată).

Next elections are scheduled for spring 2009. According to a November 2008 pool, four Moldovan political parties have real chances to pass the 6% threshold to acceed to the Moldovan Parliament: Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (42%), Party Alliance Our Moldova (11%), and two new parties Liberal Party (10%) and Liberal-Democratic Party of Moldova (9%). Democratic Party of Moldova, which merged with Social Liberal Party is situated at the threshold level (5.9%), while the Christian-Democratic People's Party seems to have fallen below.

Executive branch

Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
Acting President Mihai Ghimpu Liberal Party
Alliance for European Integration
11 September 2009
Prime Minister Vlad Filat Liberal Democratic Party
Alliance for European Integration
25 September 2009

The president is elected by the Parliament for a four-year term. According to the Moldovan constitution, the president, on consulting with the parliament, will designate a candidate for the office of prime minister; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate will request a vote of confidence from the parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet. The cabinet is selected by prime minister-designate, subject to approval of parliament.

Judicial branch

Supreme Court; Constitutional Court is the sole authority of constitutional judicature

Administrative divisions

Moldova is divided into 32 raions, or raioane, 5 municipalities (Chişinău, Bălţi and Bender), one autonomous region (Gagauzia), and the breakaway region of Transnistria, the status of which is disputed.

International organization participation

ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o (Romanian) Horia C. Matei, "State lumii. Enciclopedie de istorie." Meronia, Bucureşti, 2006, p. 292-294
  2. ^ "Romanian Nationalism in the Republic of Moldova" by Andrei Panici, American University in Bulgaria, 2002; pages 40 and 41
  3. ^ Legea cu privire la functionarea limbilor vorbite pe teritoriul RSS Moldovenesti Nr.3465-XI din 01.09.89 Vestile nr.9/217, 1989 (Law regarding the usage of languages spoken on the territory of the Republic of Moldova): "Moldavian SSR supports the desire of the Moldovans that live across the borders of the Republic, and considering the existing linguistic Moldo-Romanian identity — of the Romanians that live on the territory of the USSR, of doing their studies and satisfying their cultural needs in their native language."
  4. ^ Statement by H.E. Mr. Andrei Stratan at the General Debate of the Sixty Second Session of the UN General Assembly, New-York, 1 October 2007: "I would like to reiterate on this occasion the position of the Republic of Moldova according to which the withdrawal of the Russian troops that remain on the Moldovan territory against its will, in conformity with the obligations assumed by the Russian Federation in 1999 in Istanbul, would create the necessary premises for ratifying and applying the Adapted CFE Treaty."
  5. ^ http://www.jamestown.org/edm/article.php?article_id=2368523 Jamestown: "Moldovan President wants out of Russia's orbit"
  6. ^ Moldpres:"Voronin highlighted, that we will strive for becoming an EU member"
  7. ^ Itar-Tass
  8. ^ Moldova-EU Action Plan Approved by European Commission, http://www.azi.md, December 14, 2004, retrieved July 2, 2007
  9. ^ EU/MOLDOVA ACTION PLAN
  10. ^ Ion Marandici, De a raportul Comisiei Europene la viitorul Acord cu UE, Timpul, nr. 45, 28.03.2008. See: http://europa.timpul.md/Article.asp?idIssue=179&idRubric=2146&idArticle=5509
  11. ^ Results of the 2007 local elections in Moldova
  12. ^ NATO Parliamentary Assembly Resolution 371
  13. ^ a b c Harding, Luke (2009-07-30). "Moldova votes out Europe's last ruling Communists". Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/jul/30/moldova-votes-communists-out. Retrieved 2009-07-30.  
  14. ^ Kole, William; Corneliu Rusnac (2009-07-30). "Communist rout puts spotlight on obscure Moldova". Associated Press. http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5ivqja7QsDDJn61yKkLcgqOkwXLJQD99OTG601. Retrieved 2009-07-30.  
  15. ^ U.S. Library of Congress, Senate report 2004
  16. ^ Statement of Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ)
  17. ^ Press freedom report (CPJ)
  18. ^ Joint Statement by President George W. Bush and President Vladimir Voronin on U.S.-Moldovan Relations U.S. State Department December 17, 2002. Retrieved 11-20 2006.
  19. ^ Moldova: An Insider Looks At The Pasat Case Radio Free Europe. July 4, 2005. Retrieved 11-15 2006

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