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Republic of Macedonia

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Politics and government of
the Republic of Macedonia







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Politics of the Republic of Macedonia occurs within the framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

Contents

Political System

The political system of the Republic of Macedonia consists of three branches: Legislative, Executive and Judicial. The Constitution is the highest law of the country. The political institutions are constituted by the will of its citizens by secret ballot at direct and general elections. Its political system of parliamentary democracy was established with the Constitution of 1991, which stipulates the basic principles of democracy and guarantees democratic civil freedom. The Elections for Representatives in the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia is held in October. The Assembly is composed of 120 Representatives, who are elected for a period of four years. Out of this number, 85 are elected according to the majority principle in 85 constituencies and 35 according to the proportional principle (the territory of the Republic of Macedonia representing one constituency). There are approximately 1.5 million voters registered in the General Electoral Roll for the election of Representatives in the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia, assigned in 85 constituencies, in 2.973 polling stations. The voting for the Representatives according to the majority principle can be conducted in two electoral rounds, whereas the voting according to the proportional principle ends in the first round.[1 ]

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Majority principle

85 Representatives - 85 Constituencies Out of 40 registered political parties, 28 have nominated candidates. 635 candidates have been proposed from 28 political parties, eight coalitions and eight private members. In the first round, the candidate who wins the majority of votes (50% of the total number of votes cast) will be elected, providing that the number of votes won is not less than 1/3 of the total number of registered voters in the constituency. Second round: If no candidate has won the required number of votes in the first round, the voting will be repeated in 14 days (1 of November, 1998). The first two candidates in a constituency, who have won the largest number of votes in the first round shall participate in the second round.The candidate who has won the largest number of votes from the votes cast in the second round shall be elected Representative.[1 ]

Proportional Principle

35 representatives - 1 Constituency 17 lists of candidates have been submitted from 22 political parties, out of which independently from 12 political parties, from four coalitions and from one group of voters, and the total number of nominated candidates is 595. The D’Hondt formula shall be applied for establishing the results of the vote. Only candidates’ lists, which have won at least 5% of the votes cast, may be represented in the Assembly.[1 ]

Presidents

Executive branch

Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
President Gjorge Ivanov VMRO-DPMNE 12 May 2009
Prime Minister Nikola Gruevski VMRO-DPMNE 27 August 2006

The role of the President of the Republic is mostly ceremonial, with the real power resting in the hands of the President of the Government. The President is the commander-in-chief of the state armed forces and a president of the state Security Council. The President of the Republic is elected every five years and he or she can be elected twice at most. The current President is Gjorge Ivanov. The President is obliged to entrust the mandate for constituting the Government to a candidate from the party or parties which has/have a majority in the Assembly. The Government is elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly.

The president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term. The power of the President of the Republic is mostly limited, with the real power resting in the hands of the President of the Government of Macedonia. The last election was last held in 2009: Gjorge Ivanov was elected president.

The current government is a coalition of VMRO-DPMNE, the Democratic Union for Integration, the Socialist Party of Macedonia, and the Party for the Movement of Turks in Macedonia.

The members of the Government of the Republic of Macedonia are chosen by the Prime Minister and approved by the national Parliament, however certain cabinet level positions are chosen by both President and Prime Minister, and approved by the Parliament.

Member Portfolio
Zoran Stavreski Deputy Prime Minister in charge of Finance
Abdulaqim Ademi Deputy Prime Minister in charge of Framework Agreement Implementation
Vladimir Peshevski Deputy Prime Minister in charge of Economic Affairs
Vasko Naumovski Deputy Prime Minister in charge of European Integration
Antonio Miloshoski Minister of Foreign Affaris
Zoran Konjanovski Minister of Defense
Gordana Jankuloska Minister of Internal Affairs
Mihajlo Manevski Minister of Justice
Mile Janakieski Minister of Transport and Communication
Fatmir Besimi Minister of Economy
Ljupcho Dimovski Minister of Agriculture , Forestry and Watersupply
Buyar Osmani Minister of Health
Nikola Todorov Minister of Education and Science
Ivo Ivanovski Minister of Information Society
Musa Xaferi Minister of Local Self-Government
Elizabeta Kancheska Milevska Minister of Culture
Xhelal Bajrami Minister of Labor and Social Policy
Nexhati Yakupi Minister of Environment and Physical Planning
Hadi Nezir Minister without Portfolio
Nezdet Mustafa Minister without Portfolio
Vele Samak Minister without Portfolio
Miroslav Stojanovski Chief of General staff of the Arm Forces
Zoran Jolevski Special Envoy and Chief Negotiator of the Macedonia name disupte

Legislative branch

The Assembly (Sobranie) has 120 members, elected for a four year term, by proportional representation.

Political parties and elections

e • d  Summary of the 14 and 28 April 2004 Republic of Macedonia presidential election results
Candidates and nominating parties Votes 1st round % Votes 2nd round %
Branko Crvenkovski - Social Democratic Union of Macedonia 385,300 42.5 553,522 60.6
Saško Kedev - Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization 309,131 34.1 329,271 39.4
Gzim Ostreni - Democratic Union for Integration 134,048 14.8 - -
Zidi Xhelili - Democratic Party of Albanians 78,269 8.6 - -
Total (turnout  %) 906,748   912,605
Source: Psephos Adam Carr's Election Archive
e • d  Summary of the 5 July 2006 Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia election results
Parties and coalitions Votes % (p.r.) Seats
Coalition: Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization–Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity
(Vnatrešno-Makedonska Revolucionerna Organizacija-Demokratska Partija za Makedonsko Nacionalno Edinstvo)
304.585 32.51 38
Liberal Party of Macedonia (Liberalna Partija na Makedonija) 2
Socialist Party of Macedonia (Socijalisticka Partija na Makedonija) 3
Democratic Union (Demokratski sojuz) 1
Party for the Movement of Turks in Macedonia (Partija za Dviženje na Turcite vo Makedonija)
Union of Roma in Macedonia (Sojuz na Romite na Makedonija) 1
Party of Democratic Action of Macedonia (Stranka na Demokratska Akcija na Makedonija)
Party of Vlachs of Macedonia (Stranka na Vlasite od Makedonija)
European Party of Macedonia (Evropska Partija na Makedonija)
Party of the Greens (Partija na Zelenite)
People's Movement of Macedonia (Narodno Dviženje za Makedonija)
Democratic Party of the Bosniaks (Bošnjačka Demokratska Partija)
Party of the Democratic Forces of Roma in Macedonia (Partija na Demokratskite Sili na Romite na Makedonija)
Party for Roma Integration (Partija za Integracija na Romite)
Together for Macedonia
(Za Makedonija zaedno)
Social Democratic Union of Macedonia (Socijaldemokratski Sojuz na Makedonija) 218,463 23.31 23
Liberal Democratic Party (Liberalno-Demokratska Partija) 5
Democratic Party of Turks (Demokratska Partija na Turcite) 2
United Party of Romas in Macedonia (Obedinita Partija na Romite na Makedonija) 1
Democratic Party of Serbs (Demokratska Partija na Srbite) 1
Democratic Union of Vlachs (Demokratski Sojuz na Vlasite)
Workers-Peasant Party (Rabotnicka Zemjodelska Partija)
Socialist Christian Party of Macedonia (Socialisticka Hristijanska Partija na Makedonija)
Green Party of Macedonia (Zelena Partija na Makedonia )
Coalition: Democratic Union for Integration (Demokratska Unija za Integracija) 113,803 12.12 14
Party for Democratic Prosperity (Partia e prosperiteti demokratike /Partija za Demokratski Prosperitet) 3
Democratic League of Bosniaks (Demokratska Liga na Bošnjacite)
Democratic Party of Albanians (Partia Demokratike Shqiptare/Demokratska Partija na Albancite) 70.317 7.50 11
VMRO-People's Party (VMRO-Narodna PartijaNacionala Demokratska Partija) 57,077 6.09 6
New Social Democratic Party (Nova Socijaldemokratska Partija) 56,624 6.04 7
Democratic Renewal of Macedonia (Demokraticka Obnova na Makedonija) 17,364 1.85 1
Party for Economic Renewal (Partija za ekonomska obnova) 12,718 1.36 0
Agricultural People's Party of Macedonia (Zemjodelska Narodna Partija na Makedonia) 12,628 1.35 0
Party for European Future (Partija za Evropska Idnina) 11,255 1.20 1
Democratic Alternative (Demokratska Alternativa) 11,067 1.18 0
Total (turnout 55.98 %) 933,438 100.0 120
Source: State election commission. Only parties and coalitions with more than 1 % of the vote are listed.

Judicial branch

Judiciary power is exercised by courts, with the court system being headed by the Judicial Supreme Court, Constitutional Court and the Republican Judicial Council. The assembly appoints the judges.

Administrative divisions

With the passage of a new law and elections held in 2005, local government functions are divided between 78 municipalities (општини, opštini; singular: општина, opština. The capital, Skopje, is governed as a group of ten municipalities collectively referred to as "the City of Skopje". Municipalities in the Republic of Macedonia are units of local self-government. Neighbouring municipalities may establish cooperative arrangements.

Ethnic diversity

The country's main political divergence is between the largely ethnically-based political parties representing the country's Macedonian majority and Albanian minority. The issue of the power balance between the two communities led to a brief war in 2001, following which a power-sharing agreement was reached. In August 2004, the Republic's parliament passed legislation redrawing local boundaries and giving greater local autonomy to ethnic Albanians in areas where they predominate.

Foreign relations

The Republic is member of the ACCT, BIS, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

References


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