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Oats, barley, and some food products made from cereal grains.
.Cereals, grains or cereal grains, are grasses (members of the monocot families Poaceae or Gramineae)[1] cultivated for the edible components of their fruit seeds (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) - the endocarp, germ and bran.^ A type of evergreen tree with hard fragrant wood that is a member of the cypress family.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Cereal grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop; they are therefore staple crops.^ This type of radiation may cause less damage to nearby healthy tissue than radiation therapy with high-energy x-rays.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Back Terrestrial plant can be used to generate certain oil molecules in the laboratory, but the quantities and types are smaller than those from marine organisms.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The top of it was more than four feet down, one end higher than the other.
  • Fiction Liberation Front--Gold 27 January 2010 23:57 UTC www.lewisshiner.com [Source type: Original source]

.In their natural form (as in whole grain), they are a rich source of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats and oils, and protein.^ We are reminded that quartz is naturally water-wet 21 so the oil does not stick to the grain surfaces.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Explaining where the surfactants came from, and where they went after the oil has left the source rock, simply replaces one problem with another two.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins due to ingestion of mineral oil can be minimized by administering mineral oil on an empty stomach or consuming vitamin or mineral supplements at least two hours before or after the mineral oil.

However, when refined by the removal of the bran and germ, the remaining endocarp is mostly carbohydrate and lacks the majority of the other nutrients. In some developing nations, grain in the form of rice, wheat, or maize (in American terminology, corn) constitutes a majority of daily sustenance. In developed nations, cereal consumption is more moderate and varied but still substantial.
The word cereal derives from Ceres, the name of the Roman goddess of harvest and agriculture.

Contents

Production

The following table shows annual production of cereal grains, in 1961,[2] 2005, 2006, and 2007 ranked by 2007 production.[3] All but buckwheat and quinoa are true grasses (these two are pseudocereals).
Worldwide production in millions (106) of metric tons
Grain 2007 2006 2005 1961
Maize 792 695 713 205
A staple food of people in America, Africa, and of livestock worldwide; often called "corn" or "Indian corn" in North America, Australia, and New Zealand.

Rice[4] 659 635 631 285
The primary cereal of tropical and some temperate regions

Wheat 606 605 629 222
The primary cereal of temperate regions

Barley 133 139 141 7277
Grown for malting and livestock on land too poor or too cold for wheat

Sorghum 63 57 59 41
Important staple food in Asia and Africa and popular worldwide for livestock

Millet 341 323 316 262
A group of similar but distinct cereals that form an important staple food in Asia and Africa.

Oats 25 23 24 50
Formerly the staple food of Scotland and popular worldwide for livestock

Rye 15 13 15 35
Important in cold climates

Triticale 12 11 13 12
Hybrid of wheat and rye, grown similarly to rye

Buckwheat 2.0 2.4 2.1 2.5
A pseudocereal, as it is a Polygonacea and not a Poaceae or Gramineae, used in Eurasia. Major uses include various pancake and groats

Fonio 0.37 0.38 0.36 0.18
Several varieties of which are grown as food crops in Africa

Quinoa 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.03
Pseudocereal, grown in the Andes

.Maize, wheat and rice, between them, accounted for 87% of all grain production, worldwide, and 43% of all food calories in 2003,[3] while the production of oats and rye have drastically gone down from their 1960s levels.^ A digestive disease that is caused by an immune response to a protein called gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, barley, and oats.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ KLJACKO, Ju.A., CEDAEV, A.S., CEDAEVA, J.C., & MALINA, V.P. (1972) [Levels of trace elements and corrosion products in media of the canning and food concentrate industries.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Other grains that are important in some places, but that have little production globally (and are not included in FAO statistics), include:
  • Teff, popular in Ethiopia but scarcely known elsewhere. This ancient grain is a staple in Ethiopia. It is high in fiber and protein. Its flour is often used to make injera. It can also be eaten as a warm breakfast cereal similar to farina with a chocolate or nutty flavor. Its flour and whole grain products can usually be found in natural foods stores.
  • Wild rice, grown in small amounts in North America
  • Amaranth, ancient pseudocereal, formerly a staple crop of the Aztec Empire (besides maize)
  • Kañiwa, close relative of quinoa
Several other species of wheat have also been domesticated, some very early in the history of agriculture:

Farming

A wheat field in Dorset, England.
While each individual species has its own peculiarities, the cultivation of all cereal crops is similar. All are annual plants; consequently one planting yields one harvest. .Wheat, rye, triticale, oats, barley, and spelt are the cool-season cereals.^ A digestive disease that is caused by an immune response to a protein called gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, barley, and oats.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

These are hardy plants that grow well in moderate weather and cease to grow in hot weather (approximately 30°C but this varies by species and variety). The other warm-season cereals are tender and prefer hot weather.
Barley and rye are the hardiest cereals, able to overwinter in the subarctic and Siberia. Many cool-season cereals are grown in the tropics. .However, some are only grown in cooler highlands, where it may be possible to grow multiple crops in a year.^ However, the exposure in these studies was not to pure titanium dioxide and a possible explanation for the fibrogenic activity may be concomitant exposure to other elements, such as silica (SiO 2 ).
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Planting

The warm-season cereals are grown in tropical lowlands year-round and in temperate climates during the frost-free season. Rice is commonly grown in flooded fields, though some strains are grown on dry land. Other warm climate cereals, such as sorghum, are adapted to arid conditions.
Cool-season cereals are well-adapted to temperate climates. Most varieties of a particular species are either winter or spring types. Winter varieties are sown in the autumn, germinate and grow vegetatively, then become dormant during winter. They resume growing in the springtime and mature in late spring or early summer. .This cultivation system makes optimal use of water and frees the land for another crop early in the growing season.^ Surgery in which a healthy blood vessel taken from another part of the body is used to make a new path for blood around a blocked artery leading to the heart.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Consumers should immediately stop using the products and contact Muniré Furniture to receive a replacement coupon, which will entitle consumers to exchange the products for another product free of charge.
  • Lead Paint Toy Recalls - Latest Lead Toy Recalls - Toxic Childrens Products - thedailygreen.com 14 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.thedailygreen.com [Source type: General]

.Winter varieties do not flower until springtime because they require vernalization: exposure to low temperature for a genetically determined length of time.^ Temperatures in the range 120–140°C require depths of several miles, or even deeper if the fluids are expelled slowly because they would then have a chance to cool on their upward journey.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So the basic level of confidence in basin modelling is low, because the model requires a subjective assumption about temperature.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To that extent they are not providing an explanation for the origin of oil at all, because they fail the sufficiency test—their requirement does not fit with the analysis that we have concluded previously.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Where winters are too warm for vernalization or exceed the hardiness of the crop (which varies by species and variety), farmers grow spring varieties. Spring cereals are planted in early springtime and mature later that same summer, without vernalization. Spring cereals typically require more irrigation and yield less than winter cereals.

Period

Once the cereal plants have grown their seeds, they have completed their life cycle. The plants die and become brown and dry. As soon as the parent plants and their seed kernels are reasonably dry, harvest can begin.
.In developed countries, cereal crops are universally machine-harvested, typically using a combine harvester, which cuts, threshes, and winnows the grain during a single pass across the field.^ Used Water Jet Cutting Machines .
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
  • Aluminum Suppliers Information and Resources 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC www.aluminumsuppliers.net [Source type: Reference]

.In developing countries, a variety of harvesting methods are in use,depending on the cost of labor, from combines to hand tools such as the scythe or cradle.^ A wide variety of analytical methods has been used for the determination of titanium in various media.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Analytical Methods A wide variety of analytical procedures has been used for the determination of titanium in various media.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

If a crop is harvested during wet weather, the grain may not dry adequately in the field to prevent spoilage during its storage. In this case, the grain is sent to a dehydrating facility, where artificial heat dries it.
.In North America, farmers commonly deliver their newly harvested grain to a grain elevator, a large storage facility that consolidates the crops of many farmers.^ They may occur as one large stone or as many small ones, and vary from the size of a golf ball to a grain of sand.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

The farmer may sell the grain at the time of delivery or maintain ownership of a share of grain in the pool for later sale. Storage facilities should be protected from small grain pests, rodents and birds.

Nutritional facts

Some grains are deficient in the essential amino acid lysine. That is why a multitude of vegetarian cultures, in order to get a balanced diet, combine their diet of grains with legumes. .Many legumes, on the other hand, are deficient in the essential amino acid methionine, which grains contain.^ In Kazakhstan, grain crops absorbed titanium levels of 50-100 g/ha and legumes 123-398 g/ha from soil containing levels of titanium of 1.2-7 mg/kg (Grabarov, 1970).
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Thus a combination of legumes with grains forms a well-balanced diet for vegetarians. Common examples of such combinations are dal with rice by South Indians and Bengalis, dal with wheat by North Indians, and beans with corn tortillas, tofu with rice, and peanut butter with wheat bread (as sandwiches) in several other cultures, including Americans.[5]

Standardization

ISO has published a series of standards regarding the products of the topic and these standards are covered by ICS 67.060 [6].

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The seeds of several other plants, such as buckwheat, are also used in the same manner as grains, but since they are not grasses they cannot strictly be called such
  2. ^ 1961 is the earliest year for which FAO statistics are available.
  3. ^ a b "ProdSTAT". FAOSTAT. http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx. Retrieved 2006-12-26. 
  4. ^ The weight given is for paddy rice
  5. ^ Vogel, Steven. Prime Mover – A Natural History of Muscle. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., USA (2003), p. 301. ISBN 039332463X; ISBN 978-0393324631.
  6. ^ International Organization for Standardization. "67.060: Cereals, pulses and derived products". http://www.iso.org/iso/products/standards/catalogue_ics_browse.htm?ICS1=67&ICS2=060&. Retrieved 23 April 2009. 

External links


GRAIN is an international non-governmental organization based in Barcelona, Spain, which works toward sustainable agriculture. It was formed upon the realization that the genetic diversity of the world's food crops are being drastically eliminated. Very few breeds of crop plants are in use today; this is because many have stopped being used in favor of the most robust and productive strains. This is termed genetic erosion. GRAIN's goal is to preserve the diversity of plants used for food and fiber by human beings. GRAIN is generally in opposition of genetically modified organisms.

External links


1911 encyclopedia

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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki


used, in Amos 9:9, of a small stone or kernel; in Mt 13:31, of an individual seed of mustard; in Jn 12:24, 1Cor 15:37, of wheat. .The Hebrews sowed only wheat, barley, and spelt; rye and oats are not mentioned in Scripture.^ A digestive disease that is caused by an immune response to a protein called gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, barley, and oats.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
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Facts about GrainRDF feed

Simple English

s, barley, and some products made from them]] Grain is the seeds of some special kinds of grass. These grains are also called cereals. People grow different kinds of grain as food. The different kinds of grain are perhaps one of the most important foods in the world.

Some kinds of grain are:


87% of all grain grown by farmers around the world is maize.Grains contain carbohydrates that people can eat. In poorer countries, grains are a large part of the food supply. In richer countries, they are still important as food, but not as important as in poorer countries.

Many different foods are made from different types of grain. When we grind grain to make a powder, it is called flour.

Different kinds of beer are made from the flour or wheat and other grains.

Tortillas are made of the flour of maize (corn).


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 17, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Wheat, which are similar to those in the above article.








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