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A 12-inch (30-cm) 3313 rpm record (left), a 7-inch 45 rpm record (right), and a CD (above)
.Problems listening to this file?^ Problems listening to this file?
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See media help.
.Problems listening to this file?^ Problems listening to this file?
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See media help.
.A gramophone record, commonly known as phonograph record (in American English), vinyl record (when made of polyvinyl chloride), or simply record, is an analog sound storage medium consisting of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove.^ A gramophone record (also phonograph record, or simply record) is an analogue sound storage medium consisting of a flat disc with an inscribed modulated spiral groove starting near the periphery and ending near the center of the disc.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When made of polyvinyl chloride they are also known as lp vinyl records.
  • Lp Vinyl www.lpvinyl.com 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC lpvinyl.com [Source type: General]

^ Phonograph Gramophone Record download .
  • Entertainment Fine Art Pictures - CoolCLIPS Clip Art 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC dir.coolclips.com [Source type: General]

.The groove usually starts near the periphery and ends near the centre of the disc.^ The groove usually starts near the periphery and ends near the centre of the disc.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The disc is almost always engraved with a single concentric spiral groove on each side of the disc, running from the outside edge towards the centre.
  • Gramophone Record Records Disc Side Common Master Called Rpm 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.economicexpert.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A gramophone record was an analog sound storage medium consisting of a flat vinyl disc with an inscribed modulated spiral groove usually starting near the periphery and ending near the center of the disc.
  • Martin K - Aqualion's Daily Blues - Posts tagged by "". 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC my.opera.com [Source type: General]
  • Martin K - Aqualion's Daily Blues - Posts tagged by "". 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC my.opera.com [Source type: General]

.Phonograph records are generally described by their size ("12-inch", "10-inch", "7-inch", etc.^ Comrades Till the End 12 Inch Vinyl Record .
  • Vinyl Records - Micetrap Distribution 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.micetrap.net [Source type: General]

^ Sizes where usually equivalent to a 10" or a 12".
  • 78 Rpm Shellacs, 45's, Mono LP's and Transcription Records etc - audiotools.com. 25 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.audiotools.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's a gramophone disc - usually 12 inches, 10 inches or 7 inches in diameter - used in mastering studios for quality control and test recordings before proceeding with the final master.

), the rotational speed they are played at .("33", "45", "78", etc.^ New Link - Buy Vinyl Record Collections in Bulk Wholesale Lots (33 RPM, 45 RPM & 78 RPM) .
  • Vinyl record sales - collectible new, used and rare vinyl records forsale - music albums collection store resources 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.vinylrecordsforsale.com [Source type: General]

^ The Ion unit, compatible with Mac and Windows systems, comes with Audacity recording software and can record 33 1/3, 45 and even 78 records.” .
  • Blog Of Record - New and Used Vinyl Records 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.blogofrecord.com [Source type: General]

^ BILLSTUFF offers rarities in 33, 45 and 78 rpm formats.
  • eBay – Records, Record Albums and Vinyl Records items on eBay.com 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC music.stores.shop.ebay.com [Source type: General]

), their time capacity .("Long Playing"), their reproductive accuracy, or "fidelity", or the number of channels of audio provided ("Mono", "Stereo", "Quadraphonic", etc.^ Eventually though standardisation came in the form of more recent micro groove vinyl records in mono, stereo and even quadraphonic.
  • Aureola Productions - Preserve Your Memories 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.aureola.com.au [Source type: General]

^ However the record industry was able to improve the quality of stereo records significantly within a few years, and even introduced 'quadraphonic' (4 channel stereo) discs at the beginning of the 1970s.
  • Philips Research - History of the CD - The beginning 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.research.philips.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1958 stereophonic versions of the discs became available with two separate audio channels in the same microgroove allowing stereo playback.
  • Twelve inch vinyl record 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC be.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

) (See below)
.Gramophone records were the primary medium used for commercial music reproduction for most of the 20th century, replacing the phonograph cylinder, with which they had co-existed, by the 1920s.^ Phonograph Gramophone Record download .
  • Entertainment Fine Art Pictures - CoolCLIPS Clip Art 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC dir.coolclips.com [Source type: General]

^ The vinyl record is an audio storage medium, most commonly used for preserving music .

^ At that time they were selling cylinder records.
  • Centenary of Indian Gramophone Records 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.mustrad.org.uk [Source type: General]

.By the late 1980s, digital media had gained a larger market share, and the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991.[1][2] However, they continue to be manufactured and sold in the 21st century.^ They replaced the phonograph cylinder as the most popular recording medium in the 1900s, and although they were supplanted in popularity in the late 1980s by digital media, they continue to be manufactured and sold as of 2008.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vinyl Record manufacturing pressing .
  • Vinyl Record manufacturing pressing 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.rainborecords.com [Source type: General]

^ Records (vinyl) Exclusive vinyl sold here.

.The vinyl record regained popularity by 2008, with nearly 2.9 million units shipped that year, the most in any year since 1998.[3] They are used predominantly by young adults, as well as DJs and audiophiles for many types of music.^ How many millions of records were pressed throughout the years?

^ They are used predominantly by young adults, as well as DJs and audiophiles for many types of music.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most popular records could be found at many places and collections.
  • Perfect Sound Forever: Indian record collectors 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.furious.com [Source type: General]

.As of 2009, vinyl records continue to be used for distribution of independent and alternative music artists.^ The XX (Artist) Vinyl 2009-10-06 XL Records .
  • Tower.com Music: Music (Vinyl) 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.tower.com [Source type: General]

^ Alternative Vinyl Records Over 2,000 new and used Vinyl Records: .
  • How to Sell Used CDs and Used Vinyl Records 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.prex.com [Source type: General]

^ Vinyl records used to be a thing of the past.
  • How to Clean Vinyl Records 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.edubook.com [Source type: General]

.More mainstream pop releases tend to be mostly sold in compact disc or other digital formats, but have still been released in vinyl in certain instances.^ Compact Discs, Digital recording .
  • skills:puttinganeedleonavinylrecord [ObsoleteSkills] 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC obsoleteskills.com [Source type: General]

^ Ever since compact discs became mainstream, .
  • Debate: Which is better, vinyl records or CDs? - Music (Other) - Helium 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.helium.com [Source type: General]

^ More mainstream pop releases tend to be mostly sold in digital or compact disc format, but have still been released in vinyl in certain instances.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Early history

.
Edison cylinder phonograph ca.
^ Edison cylinder phonograph ca.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pioneer audiophiles felt that way about Edison's cylinder phonograph of the late 1800s and the 78-rpm shellac disks of the early 20th century.
  • How Records Got Their Groove Back 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.aarpmagazine.org [Source type: General]

^ It was a revolutionary improvement over Thomas Edison’s 1877 phonograph, which played cylinders.
  • NMAH | Treasures of American History - Reinventing Daily Life (page 2 of 2) 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC americanhistory.si.edu [Source type: General]

1899
.A device utilizing a vibrating pen to graphically represent sound on discs of paper, without the idea of playing it back in any manner, was built by Edouard-Leon Scott of France in 1857. While the mechanism, known as a phonautograph, was intended solely to depict the visual characteristics of sound, it was recently realized that this depiction could be digitally analyzed and reconstructed as an audible recording.^ A sound recording and reproduction device utilizing what were essentially disc records was described by Charles Cros of France in 1877 but never built.
  • Vinyl Records 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC susansdesign.com [Source type: General]

^ Early history[/b] A device utilizing a vibrating pen to graphically represent sound on discs of paper, without the idea of playing it back in any manner, was built by Leon Scott of France in 1857.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A device utilizing a vibrating pen to graphically represent sound on discs of paper, without the idea of playing it back in any manner, was built by Edouard-Leon Scott of France in 1857.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Just such an early phonoautogram, made in 1860 and now the earliest known audio recording, has been reproduced using computer technology.^ A number of such records were made...
  • Restoring Baird's TV Recordings: Publications 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.tvdawn.com [Source type: General]

^ The earliest records were not even made of vinyl.
  • Rare and Vintage Vinyl Records - Collector Information | Collectors Weekly 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.collectorsweekly.com [Source type: General]

^ An early recording made in 1860 has recently been reproduced using computer technology.
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.In 1877, Thomas Edison developed the phonautograph into a machine, the phonograph, that was capable of replaying the recordings made.^ The first analog recording demonstration was by Thomas Alva Edison in 1877.
  • Analogue recording - MediaWiki 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.idc.ul.ie [Source type: Reference]

^ It was a revolutionary improvement over Thomas Edison’s 1877 phonograph, which played cylinders.
  • NMAH | Treasures of American History - Reinventing Daily Life (page 2 of 2) 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC americanhistory.si.edu [Source type: General]

^ The name 'phonograph' was the word given to Thomas Edison's audio recording machine.
  • Antique Phonograph Record Archive - Meloware 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.meloware.com [Source type: General]

.The recordings were made on tinfoil, and were initially intended to be used as a voice recording medium, typically for office dictation.^ He intended it to be used as a voice recording medium, typically for office dictation.
  • Vinyl Records 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC susansdesign.com [Source type: General]

^ The recordings were made on tinfoil, and were initially intending to be used as a voice recording medium, typically for office dictation.
  • About Vinyl Records 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.tonepearls.com [Source type: General]
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Edison had intended the phonograph to be used primarily as a dictating machine in offices.
  • Uk vinyl records and cd shop. We specialise in 45rpm vinyl records and compact discs. 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.jukebox45s.com [Source type: General]

.This phonograph cylinder dominated the recorded sound market beginning in the 1880s.^ The phonograph cylinder dominated the recorded sound market beginning in the 1880s.

^ By the 1880s wax cylinders were mass marketed.
  • http://vinylfanatics.com/analoglovers/page9.html 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC vinylfanatics.com [Source type: General]

^ Cylinders But lets start at the beginning of the history of recorded sound: the cylinder of Edison.

.Lateral-cut disc records were invented by Emile Berliner in 1888 and were used exclusively in toys until 1894, when Berliner began marketing disc records under the Berliner Gramophone label.^ Who invented Gramophone - Record-Player?
  • Inventions: Who invented Gramophone - Record-Player? 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC factbooks.blogspot.com [Source type: General]
  • Inventions: Who invented Balloon? 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC factbooks.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Who invented the Gramophone record?
  • WikiAnswers - When was the vinyl record invented 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Disc records were invented by Emile Berliner in 1888, and were used exclusively in toys until 1894, when Berliner began marketing disk records under the Berliner Gramophone label.

.Berliner's records had poor sound quality, however, but work by Eldridge R. Johnson improved the fidelity to a point where they were as good as cylinders.^ Cylinders and sound recording/reproduction .
  • Centenary of Indian Gramophone Records 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.mustrad.org.uk [Source type: General]

^ At that time they were selling cylinder records.
  • Centenary of Indian Gramophone Records 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.mustrad.org.uk [Source type: General]

^ 'Wherever they go, the Voyagers each carry a golden phonograph record that bears messages from Earth, including natural sounds of surf, wind, thunder and animals.

.Johnson's and Berliner's separate companies merged to form the Victor Talking Machine Company, whose products would come to dominate the market for many years later.^ Victor is formed by Eldridge R. Johnson to market Berliner’s gramophone.
  • Phonograph or gramophone 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.zucable.com [Source type: General]

^ All our records are made on these machines which are the result of many years of design and development and are widely recognised as the best in the world.
  • VF Manufacturing - The Vinyl Factory Group 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.thevinylfactory.com [Source type: General]

^ But with the demands on our services ever increasing, as more people become aware of them, our essential work will almost certainly continue for many years to come.
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[4]
.In an attempt to head off the disc advantage, Edison introduced the Amberol cylinder in 1909, with a maximum playing time of 4½ minutes (at 160 rpm) to be in turn superseded by the Blue Amberol Record whose playing surface was made of Celluloid, an early plastic which was far less fragile than the earlier wax (in fact it would have been more or less indestructible had it not been for the plaster of paris core).^ Early 45 RPM records were made from either vinyl or polystyrene .
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cylinder records were what you played on a 'phonograph'.
  • Antique Phonograph Record Archive - Meloware 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.meloware.com [Source type: General]

^ Records cost more than CDs to produce, but MP3's cost less than CDs to produce.
  • Vinyl records are getting back in the spin | Arts - cleveland.com - cleveland.com 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.cleveland.com [Source type: General]

.By November 1918 the patents for the manufacture of lateral-cut disc records expired, opening the field for countless companies to produce them, causing disc records to overtake cylinders in popularity.^ By November 1918 the patents for the manufacture of lateral-cut disc records expired, opening the field for countless companies to produce them, causing disc records to overtake cylinders in popularity.
  • Vinyl Records 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC susansdesign.com [Source type: General]
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charles Tainter at the Volta Lab made the first lateral-cut records, but without any practical machine to play them back.
  • AzOz -- Incomplete History of Rock and Roll 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.azoz.com [Source type: General]

^ They replaced the phonograph cylinder as the most popular recording medium in the 1900s, and were supplanted in popularity in the late 1980s by digital media.
  • Martin K - Aqualion's Daily Blues - Posts tagged by "". 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC my.opera.com [Source type: General]
  • Martin K - Aqualion's Daily Blues - Posts tagged by "". 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC my.opera.com [Source type: General]

.Edison ceased production of cylinders in 1929 (reputedly the day before the Wall Street Crash).^ Edison ceased production of cylinders in 1929 (reputedly the day before the Wall Street Crash ).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Edison however, kept on producing cylinders until 1929.

^ Edison Cylinder Reproducers Descriptions and photographs of all Edison reproducers manufactured from 1890-s through 1929.

.Disc records would dominate the market until they were supplanted by the Compact Disc, starting from the early 1980s.^ They would dominate the market until the 1980s.
  • Vinyl Records 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC susansdesign.com [Source type: General]

^ Disc records would dominate the market until they were supplanted by the Compact Disc, starting from the 1980s.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Disc records would dominate the market until they were supplanted by the Compact Disc , starting from the early 1980s.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

78 rpm disc developments

Hungarian Pathé record, 90 to 100 rpm

Early speeds

.Early disc recordings were produced in a variety of speeds ranging from 60 to 120 rpm, and a variety of sizes.^ Early speeds[/b] Early disc recordings were produced in a variety of speeds ranging from 60 rpm to 120 rpm, and a variety of sizes.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Binda, E., What speed were the 78-rpm discs recorded?

^ Hungarian Pathé record, 90 rpm to 100 rpm Early disc recordings were produced in a variety of speeds ranging from 60 rpm to 120 rpm, and a variety of sizes.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At least one manufacturer, Philips, produced records that played at a constant linear velocity.^ At least one manufacturer, Philips, produced records that played at a constant linear velocity.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At least one manufacturer, Philips, produced records that played at a constant linear velocity .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A record of his playing was produced.

.As these were played from the inside to the outside, the rotational speed of the record reduced as reproduction progressed (as is also true of the modern Compact Disc).^ These records also, unusually, played from the inside to the outside.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As these were played from the inside to the outside, the rpm of the record reduced as reproduction progressed (as is also true of the modern Compact Disc ).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As these were played from the inside to the outside, the rpm of the record reduced as reproduction progressed (as is also true of the modern Compact Disc).
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]
As early as 1894, Emile Berliner's United States Gramophone Company was selling single-sided 7" discs with an advertised standard speed of "about 70 rpm".[6]
.One standard audio recording handbook describes speed regulators or "governors" as being part of a wave of improvement introduced rapidly after 1897. A picture of a hand-cranked 1898 Victrola shows a governor.^ As early as 1894, Emile Berliner‘s United States Gramophone Company was selling single-sided 7” discs with an advertised standard speed of “about 70 rpm.” One standard audio recording handbook describes speed regulators or “governors” as being part of a wave of improvement introduced rapidly after 1897.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A picture of a hand-cranked 1898 Victrola shows a governor.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One standard audio recording handbook describes speed regulators or "governors" as being part of a wave of improvement introduced rapidly after 1897.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It says that spring drives replaced hand drives.^ It says that spring drives replaced hand drives.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It notes that:
."The speed regulator was furnished with an indicator that showed the speed when the machine was running so that the records, on reproduction, could be revolved at exactly the same speed...The literature does not disclose why 78 rpm was chosen for the phonograph industry, apparently this just happened to be the speed created by one of the early machines and, for no other reason continued to be used."^ His machine begins to revolve -- faster, faster, until it reaches cruising speed: 78 rpm.
  • Life at 78 Rpm Is Different From Today 25 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.bubbaguitar.com [Source type: General]

^ The Henry Temple Recordings (78 rpm recordings) .
  • Draft Inventories for CJA Collections 25 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.lib.uchicago.edu [Source type: General]

^ Equalisation table for 78 rpm records .
  • Restoring old 78s - Equalisation table 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.restoring78s.co.uk [Source type: Reference]

[7]
.
Record of Emile Berliner's Gramophone Company (later Deutsche Grammophon).
^ [Later, in 1907, as the typewriter line was discontinued the word typewriter was dropped both from the name of the company and the record label.
  • Centenary of Indian Gramophone Records 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.mustrad.org.uk [Source type: General]

^ Cylinder records were in market until 1906-10, even at the same time as the single and double side flat discs of the Gramophone and Nicole companies.
  • Centenary of Indian Gramophone Records 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.mustrad.org.uk [Source type: General]

^ The Recording Angel trademark was designed by Theodore Birnbaum, Managing Director of the Berlin branch of the Gramophone Company, in 1898, and was accepted by William Barry Owen, Managing Director of the entire company, in early June of that year.

Made 1908 in Hannover, Germany
.In America in 1900, the two leading manufacturers of flat records were Columbia, which used 80 rpm as its speed, and Victor, which used 76 rpm.^ In America in 1900, the two leading manufacturers of flat records were Columbia, which used 80 RPM as its speed, and Victor, which used 76 RPM. Since one company's records were playable on the other's machines, it is only logical that the eventual standard speed would be in the middle.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lac was used for 78 rpm records for almost 80 years.
  • Centenary of Indian Gramophone Records 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.mustrad.org.uk [Source type: General]

^ The music is from Popular Victor, Edison, and Columbia Recordings from 1900 to 1930.
  • Fred's Head from APH: The Victor Victrola and Turtle's 78 RPM Jukebox 25 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.fredshead.info [Source type: General]

.Since one company's records were playable on the other's machines, it is only logical that the eventual standard speed would be in the middle.^ In America in 1900, the two leading manufacturers of flat records were Columbia, which used 80 RPM as its speed, and Victor, which used 76 RPM. Since one company's records were playable on the other's machines, it is only logical that the eventual standard speed would be in the middle.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Industry standards as well as listeners demand that Sonic Quality expected of a Vinyl Record Pressing to be higher than what one gets on a CD , .
  • Australia. Zenith Vinyl REcords Manufacturing. About Zenith Vinyl REcord Manufacturing. 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.zenithrecords.org [Source type: General]

^ As early as 1894, Emile Berliner‘s United States Gramophone Company was selling single-sided 7” discs with an advertised standard speed of “about 70 rpm.” One standard audio recording handbook describes speed regulators or “governors” as being part of a wave of improvement introduced rapidly after 1897.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 1925, the speed of the record became standardised at a nominal value of 78 rpm.^ By 1925, the speed of the record became standardised at a nominal value of 78 rpm.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Henry Temple Recordings (78 rpm recordings) .
  • Draft Inventories for CJA Collections 25 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.lib.uchicago.edu [Source type: General]

^ The Jack H. Quigley Recordings (78 rpm recordings) .
  • Draft Inventories for CJA Collections 25 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.lib.uchicago.edu [Source type: General]

.However, the standard was to differ between America and the rest of the world.^ However, the standard was to differ between America and the rest of the world.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The effect over standard direct to board jackets, for most record collectors, is similar to the differences between a hardback and paperback book.

^ The lyricist appears to have conjoined the words "Salam" and "Pranam," though there is a world of difference between the two.

.The actual 78 speed in America was 78.26 rpm, being the speed of 3600 rpm synchronous motor (run from 60 Hz supply) reduced by 46:1 gearing.^ Throughout the rest of the world, 77.92 rpm was adopted being the speed of a 3000 rpm synchronous motor (run from 50 Hz supply reduced by 38.5:1 gearing.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This motor ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio which produced 78.26 rpm.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The actual 78 speed in America was 78.26 rpm, being the speed of 3600 rpm synchronous motor (run from 60 Hz supply) reduced by 46:1 gearing.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Throughout the rest of the world, 77.92 rpm was adopted being the speed of a 3000 rpm synchronous motor powered by a 50 Hz supply and reduced by 38.5:1 gearing.^ Throughout the rest of the world, 77.92 rpm was adopted being the speed of a 3000 rpm synchronous motor (run from 50 Hz supply reduced by 38.5:1 gearing.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The actual 78 speed in America was 78.26 rpm, being the speed of 3600 rpm synchronous motor (run from 60 Hz supply) reduced by 46:1 gearing.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Throughout the rest of the world, 77.92 rpm was adopted being the speed of a 3000 rpm synchronous motor powered by a 50 Hz supply and reduced by 38.5:1 gearing.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]

Acoustic recording

.Early recordings were made entirely acoustically, the sound being collected by a horn and piped to a diaphragm which vibrated the cutting stylus.^ The sound causes vibrations in the air that travel down the horn causing the diaphragm to vibrate.
  • Questions about Phonograph - Ask.com 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

^ A stylus conveyed the vibrations to the tinfoil and a big horn, which is connected to the stylus made the recording audible.

^ Sound is collected by a horn that is attached to a diaphragm.
  • Questions about Phonograph - Ask.com 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

.Sensitivity and frequency range were poor, and frequency response was very irregular, giving cylinder recordings an instantly recognizable tonal quality.^ Sensitivity and frequency range were poor, and frequency response was very irregular, giving cylinder recordings an instantly recognizable tonal quality.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was an inexpensive form of making vinyl records but did not give superior sound quality.
  • Vinyl Records - Find popular Vinyl Records items on eBay! 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC popular.ebay.com [Source type: General]

^ Wherever possible we have undertaken to reproduce these recordings with the best of today's mastering technology to give you pristine sound quality that surpasses the original pressings.
  • X, Circle Jerks Vinyl Records on Porterhouse Prime Vinyl 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC porterhouseprimevinyl.com [Source type: General]

.A singer practically had to put his face in the recording horn.^ A singer practically had to put his face in the recording horn.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ F W Gaisberg writes: All the female singers were of course from the caste of the public women, and in those days it was practically impossible to record the voice of a respectable woman.
  • Centenary of Indian Gramophone Records 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.mustrad.org.uk [Source type: General]

.Cellos and double basses were completely unrecordable.^ Cellos and double basses were completely unrecordable.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Standard Violins were barely recordable, so Stroh violins became popular with recording studios.^ European Classical music became popular on American shows, though live transmissions exceeded the fidelity of 78rpm records.

^ The "grading" of records based upon condition became more standardized across the hobby with the publication of these price guides.

^ By 1910 the 10-inch (25.4cm) record was by far the most popular standard, holding about three minutes of music or entertainment on a side.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Contrary to popular belief, if placed properly and prepared-for, drums could be effectively used and heard on even the earliest jazz and military band recordings.^ Most popular records could be found at many places and collections.
  • Perfect Sound Forever: Indian record collectors 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.furious.com [Source type: General]

^ The earliest records were not even made of vinyl.
  • Rare and Vintage Vinyl Records - Collector Information | Collectors Weekly 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.collectorsweekly.com [Source type: General]

^ Contrary to popular belief, if placed properly and prepared-for, drums could be effectively used and heard on even the earliest jazz and military band recordings.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The loudest instruments stood the farthest away from the collecting horn.^ The loudest instruments stood the farthest away from the collecting horn.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lillian Hardin Armstrong, a member of King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band that recorded at Gennett Records in 1923, remembered that at first Oliver and his young second trumpet, Louis Armstrong, stood next to each other and Oliver's horn couldn't be heard.^ Lillian Hardin Armstrong, a member of King Oliver‘s Creole Jazz Band that recorded at Gennett Records in 1923, remembered that at first Oliver and his young second trumpet, Louis Armstrong, stood next to each other and Oliver’s horn couldn’t be heard.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the case of albums and records with picture sleeves, the first code represents the record, the second is the sleeve, e.g., EX/EX. .
  • Dee Jay's Records: Vinyl records and collectible music from the past. - DeeJaysRecords.com 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC deejaysrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another early jazz LP pioneer was Louis Armstrong, whose trumpet work and vocals on the soundtrack for the 1956 film High Society contributed to its brisk sales (Bing Crosby’s duet with Grace Kelly, plus other tracks by Frank Sinatra, didn’t hurt, either).
  • Vinyl LP Records - Collector Information | Collectors Weekly 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.collectorsweekly.com [Source type: General]

."They put Louis about fifteen feet over in the corner, looking all sad."^ "They put Louis about fifteen feet over in the corner, looking all sad."
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are all .mp3 files of about 1MB-3MB in size and you are welcome to save them to your computer, or iPod, or whatever.
  • VINTAGE HARMONICA 78s 25 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.patmissin.com [Source type: General]

^ They put Louis about fifteen feet over in the corner, looking all sad.” [b]“Electrical” recording[/b] During the 1920s, engineers, particularly at Western Electric, developed technology for capturing sound with microphones, amplifying it with vacuum tubes, and using the amplified signal to a drive an electromagnetic recording head.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8][9]

"Electrical" recording

German electrical record of the Carl Lindström AG
.During the 1920s, engineers including Orlando R. Marsh, as well as those at Western Electric, developed technology for capturing sound with microphones, amplifying it with vacuum tubes, and using the amplified signal to drive an electromagnetic recording head.^ German electrical record of the Carl Lindström AG During the 1920s, engineers including Orlando R. Marsh , as well as those at Western Electric , developed technology for capturing sound with microphones, amplifying it with vacuum tubes, and using the amplified signal to drive an electromagnetic recording head.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Development of electromagnetic technology ) motion-picture technology .
  • Thomas Alva Edison (American inventor) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Electric recording which developed during the time that early radio was becoming popular (1925) benefited from the microphones and amplifiers used in radio studios.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A wide frequency range could now be recorded with a big increase in playback volume limited only by the pitch of the grooves in the record.^ A wide frequency range could now be recorded, and there was no longer any limit on playback volume.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A wide frequency range could now be recorded with a big increase in playback volume limited only by the pitch of the grooves in the record.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Western Electric had combined with Warner Brothers to form the Vitaphone corporation and as a result the motion picture could now utilise the innovations in sound recording as well.

Although the technology used vacuum tubes and today would be described as "electronic", at the time it was referred to as "electrical". A 1926 Wanamaker's ad in The New York Times offers records "by the latest Victor process of electrical recording".[10] It was recognized as a breakthrough; in [1930], a Times music critic stated:
."...the time has come for serious musical criticism to take account of performances of great music reproduced by means of the records.^ Since that time, he has led the orchestra in over fifty performances on all subscription series in Jones Hall and throughout the greater Houston area.

^ In its finished form, it's one of far too few overviews of peak human music from the period when the performance was the record and that was that.
  • Black Mirror / Canary Records on MySpace Music - Free Streaming MP3s, Pictures & Music Downloads 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just some country music, but a lot of the finish on the outer edges of the record had worn off by the time I got my hands on it.
  • 78 rpm records - Webmaster Forums 25 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.ahfb2000.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To claim that the records have succeeded in exact and complete reproduction of all details of symphonic or operatic performances...^ The same operations are performed on the B-side of the record.
  • Digitizing Vinyl Records with Audacity [LWN.net] 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC lwn.net [Source type: General]

^ To claim that the records of succeeded in exact and complete reproduction of all details of symphonic or operatic performances… would be extravagant.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Read the review and get all the details on its operation.
  • Record Cleaning Fluid, Brushes 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.sleevetown.com [Source type: General]

would be extravagant. [But] the article of today is so far in advance of the old machines as hardly to admit classification under the same name. .Electrical recording and reproduction have combined to retain vitality and color in recitals by proxy."^ Electrical recording and reproduction have combined to retain vitality and color in recitals by proxy."
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Electrical recording and reproduction have combined to retain vitality and color in recitals by proxy.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are made of vinyl plastic that allows for greater flexibility and color combinations on the record itself.

[11]
.Peter Carl Goldmark (Hungarian: Goldmark Péter Károly) was a Hungarian engineer who, during his time with Columbia Records, was instrumental in developing the long-playing (LP) microgroove 3313 rpm vinyl phonograph discs which defined home audio for two generations.^ The 33⅓ rpm LP (for "long play") format was developed by Columbia Records and marketed in 1948.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Record Collectors Guild :: A website for the Record Collector. (Sections) 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.recordcollectorsguild.org [Source type: General]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All will play 33 and 45 RPM records.
  • eBay Guides - 33 RPM Vinyl Record Care and Handling 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC reviews.ebay.com [Source type: General]

^ In June of 1948, Columbia released the first 33 1/3 rpm LP record.

Example of Congolese 78 rpm records
A 10-inch gramophone blank for self recording with 78 rpm, brand as material "Decelith" with special surface for hardening
.Electrical recording preceded electrical home reproduction (much as digital recording preceded digital home reproduction), because of the initial high cost of the electronics.^ Gradually, electrical reproduction entered the home.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Electrical recording preceded electrical home reproduction (much as digital recording preceded digital home reproduction), because of the initial high cost of the electronics.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The charging electrical cables and electronics, including in the car, would have to be capable of very high power flows.
  • Sovereign Liege: ABNER DEAN FASCINATES ME 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.sovereignliege.com [Source type: General]

In 1925, the Victor company introduced the groundbreaking Victor Orthophonic Victrola, an acoustical record player that was specifically designed to play electrically recorded discs, as part of a line that also included electrically-reproducing "Electrolas." The acoustical Orthophonics ranged in price from US$95 to $300 (about US$1140 to $3600 in year 2007 dollars), depending on cabinetry; by comparison, the cheapest Electrola cost US$650 (about US$7500 in year 2007 dollars).
.The Orthophonic had an interior folded exponential horn, a sophisticated design informed by impedance-matching and transmission-line theory, and designed to provide a relatively flat frequency response.^ The Orthophonic had an interior folded exponential horn, a sophisticated design informed by impedance-matching and transmission-line theory, and designed to provide a relatively flat frequency response.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, a folded horn with an exponential taper was constructed inside the cabinet to provide better impedance matching to the air.
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  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To compensate for this, the playback characteristic boosted the bass below 200 Hz but left it flat above that - effectively providing a 6 dB/octave boost to the higher frequencies (and the surface noise).
  • 78 RPM Manual 25 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.vadlyd.dk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Its first public demonstration was front-page news in the New York Times, which reported that:
."The audience broke into applause...^ Its first public demonstration was front-page news in the New York Times, which reported that :The audience broke into applause… John Philip Sousa [said] “Gentleman[sic], that is a band.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The audience broke into applause...
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.John Philip Sousa [said]: 'Gentleman [sic], that is a band.^ John Philip Sousa [said]: 'Gentleman [ sic ], that is a band.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its first public demonstration was front-page news in the New York Times, which reported that :The audience broke into applause… John Philip Sousa [said] “Gentleman[sic], that is a band.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is the first time I have ever heard music with any soul to it produced by a mechanical talking machine.'^ This is the first time I have ever heard music with any soul to it produced by a mechanical talking machine.'
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the first time I have ever heard music with any soul to it produced by a mechanical talking machine.” ...
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Got another batch of Music on Vinyl Records’ reissues on tap, with the first one being the third Rage Against the Machine LP, The Battle of Los Angeles.
  • NerdAlertRecords.com - D.I.Y. Vinyl Only Record Store 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC nerdalertrecords.com [Source type: General]

... .The new instrument is a feat of mathematics and physics.^ The new instrument is a feat of mathematics and physics.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is not the result of innumerable experiments, but was worked out on paper in advance of being built in the laboratory....^ It is not the result of innumerable experiments, but was worked out on paper in advance of being built in the laboratory....
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'm sure it could, but, quite frankly, I'd never be comfortable with the results unless I could print out the paper and run my pen over it.
  • The Coming Death of Paper as an Information Storage Medium 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.readwriteweb.com [Source type: General]

^ Currently, in the United States, work is being carried out on creating a global three-dimensional map like that.
  • hard references to ancient technology 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.beforeus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The new machine has a range of from 100 to 5,000 frequencies[sic], or five and a half octaves....^ The new machine has a range of from 100 to 5,000 frequencies[sic], or five and a half octaves....
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Don Gurnett of the University of Iowa says his team reduced their frequencies by a factor of five to bring them into the range of human hearing.
  • Cassini discovers music of the rings - 09 November 2004 - New Scientist 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

^ In 1925, electric recording extended the recorded frequency range from acoustic recording (168-2000 Hz) by 2½ octaves to 100-5000 Hz.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 'phonograph tone' is eliminated by the new recording and reproducing process."^ The “phonograph tone” is eliminated by the new recording and reproducing process.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 'phonograph tone' is eliminated by the new recording and reproducing process."
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It extended the reproducible sound range of phonograph records by more than an octave on high and low ends and it was dubbed "Orthophonic".

[12]
.Gradually, electrical reproduction entered the home.^ Gradually, electrical reproduction entered the home.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Electrical recording preceded electrical home reproduction (much as digital recording preceded digital home reproduction), because of the initial high cost of the electronics.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The clockwork motor was replaced by an electric motor; the 'needle' and diaphragm (the 'sound box') was replaced with a 'pickup' using either a steel or sapphire stylus, and a transducer to convert the groove vibrations into an electrical signal.^ The clockwork motor was replaced by an electric motor; the 'needle' and diaphragm (the 'sound box') was replaced with a 'pickup' using either a steel or sapphire stylus, and a transducer to convert the groove vibrations into an electrical signal.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The clockwork motor was replaced by an electric motor; the ‘needle’ and diaphragm (the ‘sound box’) was replaced with a ‘pickup’ using either a steel or sapphire stylus, and a transducer to convert the groove vibrations into an electrical signal.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In striking contrast the Weco company in Germany, which also started in 1929, mostly used excellent photographs, entirely coated with a translucent material into which the grooves of the electric recordings were pressed.

.The exponential horn became an amplifier and loudspeaker.^ The exponential horn became an amplifier and loudspeaker.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

78 rpm materials

.Early disc records were made of various materials including hard rubber.^ Early disc records were made of various materials including hard rubber .
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early disc records were originally made of various materials including hard rubber.
  • The Record Collectors Guild :: A website for the Record Collector. (Sections) 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.recordcollectorsguild.org [Source type: General]

^ By the early 1990s, digital media such as the compact disc surpassed the gramophone record in popularity, but gramophone records continue to be made (although in very limited quantities) into the 21st century, particularly for DJs doing live remixes.
  • The Record Collectors Guild :: A website for the Record Collector. (Sections) 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.recordcollectorsguild.org [Source type: General]

.From 1897 onwards, earlier materials were largely replaced by a rather brittle formula of 25% shellac, a filler of a cotton compound similar to manila paper, powdered slate, and a small amount of a wax lubricant.^ From 1897 onwards, earlier materials were largely replaced by a rather brittle formula of 25% shellac , a filler of a cotton compound similar to manila paper , powdered slate , and a small amount of a wax lubricant.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the early 20th century earlier materials were largely replaced by a rather brittle formula known as "shellac", actually a mixture of resin and cotton or other fiber.
  • The Record Collectors Guild :: A website for the Record Collector. (Sections) 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.recordcollectorsguild.org [Source type: General]

^ From 1897 onwards, earlier materials were largely replaced by a rather brittle formula of 25% " shellac " (a material obtained from the secretion of a southeast Asian beetle), a filler of a cotton compound similar to manila paper , powdered slate , and a small amount of a wax lubricant.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mass production of shellac records began in 1898 in Hanover, Germany, and continued until the end of the 78 rpm format in the late 1950s.^ Production of 78 rpm records reduced and ultimately stopped.
  • Centenary of Indian Gramophone Records 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.mustrad.org.uk [Source type: General]

^ Shellac records were the most common until the 1950s.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mass production of shellac records began in 1898 in Hanover , Germany , and continued until the end of the 78-rpm format in the late 1950s.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."Unbreakable" records, usually of celluloid on a pasteboard base, were made from 1904 onwards, but they suffered from an exceptionally high level of surface noise.^ "Unbreakable" records, usually of celluloid on a pasteboard base, were made from 1904 onwards, but they suffered from an exceptionally high level of surface noise.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unbreakable records, usually of celluloid (an early form of plastic) on a pasteboard base, were made from 1904 onwards, but they suffered from an exceptionally high level of surface noise.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Below these were the title of the selection, including the large composition, e.g., opera, if necessary, the name of the artist(s), and usually the place where the recording was made.

."Unbreakable" records could be bent, broken, or otherwise damaged; but not nearly as easily as shellac records.^ "Unbreakable" records could be bent, broken, or otherwise damaged; but not nearly as easily as shellac records.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vinyl records were introduced and marketed as the unbreakable record, unlike its shellac counterpart of days gone by, that would break at the drop of a hat and becomes more brittle over time.
  • Grading Your Vinyl Record Albums 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Vinyl Records Albums..., What Are Vinyl Records Albums....?? 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • What is a Phonograph Record?? 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Australia and New Zealand ), or otherwise a pseudo-spider was "built-in" to the record, which could be punched out if desired (ie the United Kingdom , especially before the 1970s).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Vinyl was first tried out as a 78 rpm material in 1939, as a cigarette radio commercial mailed to stations, as vinyl was less breakable in the mail.^ Vinyl was first tried out as a 78 rpm material in 1939, as a cigarette radio commercial mailed to stations, as vinyl was less breakable in the mail.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The commercial rivalry between RCA Victor and Columbia Records led to RCA Victor's introduction of what it had intended to be a competing vinyl format, the 7" (175 mm) /45 rpm disc.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Running Free was Maiden’s first single released on 7" vinyl at 45 rpm which featured of course Running Free on the A-side and one of ARRY’S pre Maiden songs Burning Ambition on the B-side.
  • CRYPT MAGAZINE: sex. horror. rocknroll. 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.cryptmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the record, mention is made of the Lucky Strike exhibit at the 1939 NY World's Fair.^ On the record, mention is made of the Lucky Strike exhibit at the 1939 NY World's Fair.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NY CD Record Fair, The Woodlands.
  • Collecting Vinyl Records- your source for the latest vinyl record information 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC collectingvinylrecords.blogspot.com [Source type: General]
  • Collecting Vinyl Records- your source for the latest vinyl record information: Vinyl Art - A New Canvas 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC collectingvinylrecords.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NY CD & Record Fair, Ramada Inn.
  • Collecting Vinyl Records- your source for the latest vinyl record information 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC collectingvinylrecords.blogspot.com [Source type: General]
  • Collecting Vinyl Records- your source for the latest vinyl record information: Vinyl Art - A New Canvas 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC collectingvinylrecords.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] .Decca introduced vinyl "Deccalite" 78s after the Second World War.^ Decca introduced vinyl "Deccalite" 78s after the Second World War.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Second World War demand for switchboard operators, typists and secretaries led to RNIB opening a commercial college.
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^ Around the second world war came the magnetic heads and tape recorders.
  • Centenary of Indian Gramophone Records 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.mustrad.org.uk [Source type: General]

.During the war, the US Armed Forces produced thousands of V-Discs for the soldiers to play overseas, as well as giant 16-inch War Department radio transcriptions, all of which were made of vinyl.^ During the war, the US Armed Forces produced thousands of V-Discs for the soldiers to play overseas, as well as giant 16-inch War Department radio transcriptions, all of which were made of vinyl.
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^ Subsequently, the 16⅔ rpm speed was used for radio transcription discs or narrated publications for the blind and visually impaired, and were never widely commercially available, although it was common to see new turntable models with a 16 rpm speed setting produced as late as the 1970s.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Downloads and iPods are all very well, but for many musicians, your latest song just hasn't been released until it's been forced on to a small, grooved plastic disc at a pressure of more than 2,000 lb per square inch.
  • Vinyl Records // Current 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC current.com [Source type: General]

[14] .Victor made some vinyl 78s, but other labels would restrict vinyl production to the special DJ copies of 78s, which were also commonly issued in vinyl to be mailed to radio stations, during the late 40s and early 50s.^ Vinyl or a copy would be great.
  • Basil Rathbone, Master of Stage and Screen: Collectors Corner 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.basilrathbone.net [Source type: General]

^ Victor made some vinyl 78s, but other labels would restrict vinyl production to the special DJ copies of 78's, which were also commonly issued in vinyl to be mailed to radio stations, during the late 40's and early 50's.
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^ In the late 1940's, however, it was recognized as an innovative and individual material for radio cases (and numerous other products like telephones, hair dryers, clocks etc.

[15]

78 rpm disc size

.In the 1890s, the early recording formats of discs were usually seven inches (nominally 17.5 cm) in diameter.^ The inch dimensions are nominal, not precise diameters.
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  • What is a Phonograph Record?? 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1890s the early recording formats of discs were usually seven inches (nominally 17.5 cm) in diameter.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1890s the early recording formats of discs were usually seven inches (18cm) in diameter.
  • The Record Collectors Guild :: A website for the Record Collector. (Sections) 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.recordcollectorsguild.org [Source type: General]

.By 1910 the 10-inch (25.4 cm) record was by far the most popular standard, holding about three minutes of music or entertainment on a side.^ So youll get about 6 minutes of music each side.
  • Discover A Hobby.com - Vinyl Record Collecting 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.discoverahobby.com [Source type: General]

^ By 1910 the 10-inch (25.4cm) record was by far the most popular standard, holding about three minutes of music or entertainment on a side.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each record held 40 minutes of music per side, recorded at 420 grooves per inch.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From 1903 onwards, 12-inch records (30.5 cm) were also sold commercially, mostly of classical music or operatic selections, with four to five minutes of music per side.^ From 1903 onwards, 12-inch records (30.5 cm) were also sold commercially, mostly of classical music or operatic selections, with four to five minutes of music per side.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A few, mostly classical, were in the 12 inch format.
  • Centenary of Indian Gramophone Records 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.mustrad.org.uk [Source type: General]

^ LP recordings of classical music, in which this technique was very effective, often approached 30 minutes per side.
  • The Record Collectors Guild :: A website for the Record Collector. (Sections) 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.recordcollectorsguild.org [Source type: General]

.(Victor, Brunswick and Columbia also issued 12" popular medleys, usually spotlighting a Broadway show score.^ (Victor, Brunswick and Columbia also issued 12" popular medleys, usually spotlighting a Broadway show score.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the 45-rpm size was gaining in popularity, too, and Columbia issued its first 45s in February 1951.
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^ Sets of disks classical works, collections of popular music, and Broadway shows were frequently packaged in what were literally albums.
  • The Record Collectors Guild :: A website for the Record Collector. (Sections) 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.recordcollectorsguild.org [Source type: General]

) .However, other sizes did appear.^ However, other sizes did appear.
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.8 inch discs with a 2 inch diameter label became popular for about a decade in Britain, they cannot be played in full on most modern record players because the tone arm can't reach far enough without modification to the equipment.^ They cannot be played completely on most modern equipment because the tone arm cannot reach far enough.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "I played them the twelve-inch and they loved it."
  • Twelve inch vinyl record 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC be.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ There was also a small batch of "longer playing" records issued in the very early 1930s: Columbia introduced 10" 'longer playing' records (18000-D series), as well as a series of double-grooved or longer playing 10" records on their Harmony, Clarion & Velvet Tone cheap labels.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

78 rpm recording time

.The playing time of a phonograph record depended on the turntable speed and the groove spacing.^ The playing time of a phonograph record depended on the turntable speed and the groove spacing.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The audio recording stored in this groove is played back by rotating the record clockwise at a constant rotational speed with a stylus or needle placed in the groove , converting the vibrations of the stylus into an electric signal and sending this signal through an amplifier to the speakers.
  • What is a Phonograph Record?? 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Deliberately playing or recording records at a higher speed gave an antic quirkiness to voices; doing so at a slower speed changed music and voice to an ominous, growling tone.
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.At the beginning of the 20th century, the early discs played for two minutes, the same as early cylinder records.^ Standard records was also used, although the same term had also been used earlier for two-minute cylinders.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Record Collectors Guild :: A website for the Record Collector. (Sections) 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.recordcollectorsguild.org [Source type: General]

^ At the beginning of the 20th century, the early discs played for two minutes, the same as early cylinder records.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By November 1918 the patents for the manufacture of lateral-cut disc records expired, opening the field for countless companies to produce them, causing disc records to overtake cylinders in popularity.
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  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] .The 12-inch disc, introduced by Victor in 1903, increased the playing time to three and a half minutes.^ They had a playing time of eight minutes.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 12-inch disc, introduced by Victor in 1903, increased the playing time to three and a half minutes.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also the playing time increased considerably.

[17] .Because a 10-inch 78 rpm record could hold about three minutes of sound per side and the 10-inch size was the standard size for popular music, almost all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length.^ These were 78 r.p.m., double-sided, ten-inch shellac discs, with about 4 minutes of recording time on each side.

^ A standard 10 inch diameter 78 rpm record, which plays for about three and a half minutes will have a groove length of about 1.5 Km.
  • Centenary of Indian Gramophone Records 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.mustrad.org.uk [Source type: General]

^ Records evolved into three sizes and three forms of sound reproduction.
  • How lp record is made - Background, History, Raw materials, Design, The manufacturing process of lp record, Quality control, Byproducts/waste 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: General]

For example, when King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band, including Louis Armstrong on his first recordings, recorded 13 sides at Gennett Records in Richmond, Indiana, in 1923, one side was 2:09 and four sides were 2:52–2:59.[18]
.By 1938, when Milt Gabler started recording on January 17 for his new label, Commodore Records, to allow longer continuous performances, he recorded some 12" records.^ There are still some studios that allow the performer the option of recording a record.
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^ By 1938, when Milt Gabler started recording on January 17 for his new label, Commodore Records , to allow longer continuous performances, he recorded some 12" records.
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^ Dunphy In sudden and shocking fashion, it was announced today that Touch And Go Records , the venerable Chicago label, would be closing down its distribution wing and, at least for the moment, will no longer be releasing new music.
  • Record Label | Popdose 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC popdose.com [Source type: General]

Eddie Condon explained: "Gabler realized that a jam session needs room for development." The first two 12" recordings did not take advantage of the extra length: "Carnegie Drag" was 3:15; "Carnegie Jump", 2:41. But, at the second session, on April 30, the two 12" recordings were longer: "Embraceable You" was 4:05; "Serenade to a Shylock", 4:32.[19][20]
.Another way around the time limitation was to issue a selection on both sides of a single record.^ Another way around the time limitation was to issue a selection on both sides of a single record.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think there is a textural quality to it that lends itself to creating a time and place—another dimension or context for a recording to exist.
  • My Love of Vinyl Records, Some Thoughts on McLuhan, Neil Young on Analog | pampelmoose Dave Allen of Gang of Four's Music and Media Blog 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.pampelmoose.com [Source type: General]

^ Occasionally, records were issued in the 1920s with a recording on only one side.
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Vaudeville stars Gallagher and Shean, recorded "Mr. Gallagher and Mr. Shean", written by Irving and Jack Kaufman, as two-sides of a 10" 78 in 1922 for Cameo.[21]
.An obvious workaround for longer recordings was to release a set of records.^ An obvious workaround for longer recordings was to release a set of records.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several years after Karloff recorded these, the tales were compiled and released as a set of phonograph records in the early ’60’s.
  • CreativeTechs Tips: Classic Halloween Vinyl Records on MP3s. 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.creativetechs.com [Source type: General]

^ Throw in a couple originals that didn't make the album, and you have a set that gives you a better idea of what the band was all about than what was released on record.

.The first multi-record release was in 1903, when HMV in England made the first complete recording of an opera, Verdi's Ernani, on 40 single-sided discs.^ The first LP record was released in June.
  • Centenary of Indian Gramophone Records 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.mustrad.org.uk [Source type: General]

^ Deutsche Grammophon releases its first complete operatic recording.
  • Deutsche Grammophon: Where The Time Went: Highlights Of Dg's Century | Europe > Western Europe from AllBusiness.com 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.allbusiness.com [Source type: General]

^ The first multi-record release was in 1903, when HMV in England made the first complete recording of an opera, Verdi 's Ernani , on 40 single-sided discs.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] .In 1940, Commodore released Eddie Condon and his Band's recording of "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" in four parts, issued on both sides of two 12" 78s.^ In 1940, Commodore released Eddie Condon and his Band's recording of " A Good Man Is Hard to Find " in four parts, issued on both sides of two 12" 78s.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Specialize in hard to find records.
  • Vinyl Record Collector Resources 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.kixsoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Besides the tunes on the record the coolest part of this release is that both sides contain the SAME SONG! One side is 33 1/3 RPM and the other is 45 RPM. Clearly a must have for any record collection.
  • Vinyl Vlog 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC vinylvlog.com [Source type: General]

This limitation on the length of both popular-music and jazz numbers persisted from 1910 until the invention of the LP, in 1948.
.In popular music, this time limitation of about 3:30 on a 10" 78 rpm record meant that singers usually did not release long pieces on record.^ A Commercial Release 78 rpm is a 78 rpm record that was purchased already recorded.
  • Prices for 78RPM records converstions to CD. Sound restoration available. Cover art available. 25 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.avconvert.com [Source type: General]

^ In popular music, this time limitation of about 3:30 on a 10" 78 rpm record meant that singers usually did not release long pieces on record.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Records as we know them today (or knew them, before the rise of CDs and digital music) have been around since 1930, when RCA manufactured a 12-inch vinyl disc that was meant to be played at 33 1/3 revolutions per minute (RPM).
  • Vinyl LP Records - Collector Information | Collectors Weekly 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.collectorsweekly.com [Source type: General]

.One exception is Frank Sinatra's recording of Rodgers and Hammerstein's "Soliloquy", from Carousel, made on May 28, 1946. Because it ran 7:57, longer than both sides of a standard 78 rpm 10" record, it was released on Columbia's Masterwork label (the classical division) as two sides of a 12" record.^ Because it ran 7:57, longer than both sides of a standard 78 rpm 10" record, it was released on Columbia 's Masterwork label (the classical division) as two sides of a 12" record.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Side one - vocal, Side two - instrumental.

^ A Commercial Release 78 rpm is a 78 rpm record that was purchased already recorded.
  • Prices for 78RPM records converstions to CD. Sound restoration available. Cover art available. 25 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.avconvert.com [Source type: General]

(See date.)
.In the 78 era, classical-music and spoken-word items generally were released on the longer 12" 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side.^ In the 78 era, classical-music and spoken-word items generally were released on the longer 12" 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An L.P. can play for about thirty minutes per side.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The longer the time per side, the smaller the groove needs to be, and the lower the volume must be to make it fit and to prevent skipping.” .
  • Mastering Vinyl | How to make vinyl records and what it takes to mix and master for vinyl music. 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC emusician.com [Source type: General]

.For example, on June 10, 1924, four months after the February 12 premier of Rhapsody in Blue, George Gershwin recorded it with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra.^ For example, on June 10, 1924, four months after the February 12 premier of Rhapsody in Blue , George Gershwin recorded it with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Atlanta based radio show - Interview with Paul Riddle featuring some of the groups hit recordings) (June - 1980) .
  • Rare Vinyl Records Old Collectibles Memorabilia 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.kingoftheoldies.com [Source type: General]

^ Furthermore, they released the four-track 12"EP "Kindergarten" in 1983 on Illuminated Records, which is, of course, very hard to find these days.
  • Vinyl-On-Demand Records's MySpace Blog | 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC blogs.myspace.com [Source type: General]

It was released on two sides of Victor 55225 and runs 8:59. Look under the title

Record albums

.Such 78 rpm records were usually sold separately, in brown paper or cardboard sleeves that were sometimes plain and sometimes printed to show the producer or the retailer's name.^ Such records were usually sold separately, but sometimes in collections held in paper sleeves in a cardboard or leather book, similar to a photograph album, and called record albums .
  • The Record Collectors Guild :: A website for the Record Collector. (Sections) 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.recordcollectorsguild.org [Source type: General]

^ Such records were usually sold separately, in plain paper or cardboard sleeves that may have been printed to show the producer or the retailer's name and, starting in the 1930s, in collections held in paper sleeves in a cardboard or leather book, similar to a photograph album, and called record albums.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not for use with 78 rpm records.
  • Record Cleaning Fluid, Brushes 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.sleevetown.com [Source type: General]

.Generally the sleeves had a circular cut-out allowing the record label to be seen.^ Generally the sleeves had a circular cut-out allowing the record label to be seen.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The older labels have great hand lettering and the decaying sleeves the records came in have pictures of the musicians and lovely designs and drawings of court scenes and gods.
  • Perfect Sound Forever: Indian record collectors 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.furious.com [Source type: General]

^ General Plow - I Remember - Jwyanza Record label 7 VG+ @ 15.00 EUR .
  • Reggae Auction - Rare Reggae Vinyl Records And CD's 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.reggae-auction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Records could be laid on a shelf horizontally or stood upright on an edge, but because of their fragility, many broke in storage.^ Records could be laid on a shelf horizontally or stood upright on an edge, but because of their fragility, many broke in storage.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most popular records could be found at many places and collections.
  • Perfect Sound Forever: Indian record collectors 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.furious.com [Source type: General]

^ Whymant could only interpret a few sentences because the voice was faint and became blurred in the recording.

.German record company Odeon is often said to have pioneered the "album" in 1909 when it released the "Nutcracker Suite" by Tchaikovsky on 4 double-sided discs in a specially-designed package.^ German record company Odeon is often said to have pioneered the "album" in 1909 when it released the " Nutcracker Suite " by Tchaikovsky on 4 double-sided discs in a specially-designed package.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By November 1918 the patents for the manufacture of lateral-cut disc records expired, opening the field for countless companies to produce them, causing disc records to overtake cylinders in popularity.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tudor Hall Frames A framing system for vinyl records that allows you to release the album for playing then put it back into the frame for display.
  • Vinyl Record Collector Resources 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.kixsoftware.com [Source type: General]

.[1] (It is not indicated what size the records are.^ (It is not indicated what size the records are.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) .However, Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in the previous year.^ Deutsche Grammophon releases its first complete operatic recording.
  • Deutsche Grammophon: Where The Time Went: Highlights Of Dg's Century | Europe > Western Europe from AllBusiness.com 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.allbusiness.com [Source type: General]

^ Inside the handbook it states .The Metropolitan Opera Association takes pleasure in dedicating this album the first of a distinguished series of complete opera recordings, to the music lovers of America.
  • Basil Rathbone, Master of Stage and Screen: Collectors Corner 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.basilrathbone.net [Source type: General]

^ Martin, George – Produced by: 50 Years in Recording 11.

.The practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been widely taken up by other record companies for many years; however, HMV provided an album, with a pictorial cover, for the 1917 recording of The Mikado (Gilbert & Sullivan).^ The practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been widely taken up by other record companies for many years; however, HMV provided an album, with a pictorial cover, for the 1917 recording of The Mikado ( Gilbert & Sullivan ).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The company currently presses 25,000 albums a day; that's up from a low of about 6,000 to 8,000 a day in the late 1980s through the late 1990s when CDs were in their heyday.
  • Vinyl Revival? Records Move on CDs in 2008 - PCWorld 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.pcworld.com [Source type: General]

^ The company currently presses 25,000 albums a day; that's up from a low of about 6,000 to 8,000 a day in the late 1980s through the late 1990s, when CDs were in their heyday.
  • Back to the future: Vinyl record sales double in '08, CDs down 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

.By about 1910[note 1] bound collections of empty sleeves with a cardboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as "record albums" that customers could use to store their records (the term "record album" was printed on some covers).^ By about 1910 [ note 1 ] bound collections of empty sleeves with a cardboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as " record albums " that customers could use to store their records (the term "record album" was printed on some covers).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Empty record albums were also sold that customers could use to store their records in.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, empty record albums were sold that customers could use to store their disc records in.
  • The Record Collectors Guild :: A website for the Record Collector. (Sections) 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.recordcollectorsguild.org [Source type: General]

.These albums came in both 10" and 12" sizes.^ These albums came in both 10" and 12" sizes.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I came home with three weighty albums – comfortable with their heft and size and glad that I couldn’t just peel them open and stick them in the car’s CD player.
  • My Love of Vinyl Records, Some Thoughts on McLuhan, Neil Young on Analog | pampelmoose Dave Allen of Gang of Four's Music and Media Blog 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.pampelmoose.com [Source type: General]

^ In addition to having different speeds (33⅓ vs 45), the systems used different record sizes (12" and 10" vs 7") and a different-sized hole in the center.
  • The Record Collectors Guild :: A website for the Record Collector. (Sections) 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.recordcollectorsguild.org [Source type: General]

.The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them.^ The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Placing this disc on a reproducing machine, also operated by hand like a coffee grinder, he played back the resulting record from the etched groove.
  • Centenary of Indian Gramophone Records 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.mustrad.org.uk [Source type: General]
  • The Berliner five inch Records online Catalogue - le catalogue en ligne des disques Berliner de 12,5 cm (5 pouces) - The First Berliner discs - Les premiers disques Berliner 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.archeophone.org [Source type: General]

^ Leading recording companies like RCA Victor found that magnetic tape produced greater fidelity, or faithful reproduction of sound, than other methods.
  • How lp record is made - Background, History, Raw materials, Design, The manufacturing process of lp record, Quality control, Byproducts/waste 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: General]

.Starting in the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums, typically with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover.^ Vintage 78 Rpm Record Album .
  • Collectibles : Music : Vintage 78 Rpm Record Album :: Purplady's Percent Shop 25 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.rubylane.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have a 78 RPM album of Peter and the Wolf.
  • Basil Rathbone, Master of Stage and Screen: Collectors Corner 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.basilrathbone.net [Source type: General]

^ Starting in the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums, typically with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most albums included 3 or 4 records, with 2 sides each, making 6 or 8 songs per album.^ Most albums included 3 or 4 records, with 2 sides each, making 6 or 8 songs per album.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pricing is PER RECORD (NOT per side).
  • Prices for 78RPM records converstions to CD. Sound restoration available. Cover art available. 25 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.avconvert.com [Source type: General]

^ The longer the time per side, the smaller the groove needs to be, and the lower the volume must be to make it fit and to prevent skipping.” .
  • Mastering Vinyl | How to make vinyl records and what it takes to mix and master for vinyl music. 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC emusician.com [Source type: General]

When the 12-inch vinyl LP era began in 1949, the single record often had the same or similar number of songs as a typical album of 78s, which gave rise to the tradition of the term "album" being given to the LP.

New sizes and materials

.
A modern 12" vinyl album being played.
^ A modern 12" vinyl album being played.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ U2, Vertigo (Vinyl 12 Inch Single): UK 12-inch taken from the 2004 album 'How To Dismantle An Atomic Bomb'.
  • Medazzaland Discs: Vinyl Records 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.medazzaland.net [Source type: General]

^ Depeche Mode, Darkest Star (12 Inch): Darkest Star is from the extraordinary album by Depeche Mode Playing the Angel.
  • Medazzaland Discs: Vinyl Records 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.medazzaland.net [Source type: General]

Note the stylus's contact with the surface.
.Both the microgroove LP 33⅓ rpm record and the 45 rpm single records are made from vinyl plastic that is flexible and unbreakable in normal use.^ Singles, 45 RPM .
  • Song of the South Memorabilia - Records and Tapes (List View) 25 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.songofthesouth.net [Source type: General]

^ Incidentally, most foreign 45-rpm singles were vinyl pressings while the US records are pressed on plastic.
  • Discover A Hobby.com - Vinyl Record Collecting 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.discoverahobby.com [Source type: General]

^ How vinyl records are made.
  • Grading Your Vinyl Record Albums 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Vinyl Records Albums..., What Are Vinyl Records Albums....?? 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.However, the vinyl records are easier to scratch or gouge, and much more prone to warping.^ However, the vinyl records are easier to scratch or gouge, and much more prone to warping.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the vinyl records are easier to scratch or gouge, and much more prone to warpage.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vinyl records were introduced and marketed as the unbreakable record, unlike its shellac counterpart of days gone by, that would break at the drop of a hat and becomes more brittle over time.
  • Grading Your Vinyl Record Albums 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Vinyl Records Albums..., What Are Vinyl Records Albums....?? 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • What is a Phonograph Record?? 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.In 1931, RCA Victor (which evolved from the Johnson and Berliner's Victor Talking Machine Company) launched the first commercially available vinyl long-playing record, marketed as "Program Transcription" discs.^ In 1931, RCA Victor launched the first commercially available vinyl long-playing record, marketed as "Program Transcription" discs.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I tried playing my vinyl records after that..
  • Are Vinyl Records Back? ~ Tech411 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.lockergnome.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1930, RCA Victor launched the first commercially available vinyl long-playing record, marketed as “Program Transcription” discs.
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.These revolutionary discs were designed for playback at 33⅓ rpm and pressed on a 30 cm diameter flexible plastic disc, with a duration of about ten minutes playing time per side.^ So youll get about 6 minutes of music each side.
  • Discover A Hobby.com - Vinyl Record Collecting 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.discoverahobby.com [Source type: General]

^ These revolutionary discs were designed for playback at 33⅓ rpm and pressed on a 30 cm diameter flexible plastic disc, with a duration of about ten minutes playing time per side.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They had a playing time of eight minutes.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Roland Gelatt's book The Fabulous Phonograph, the author notes that RCA Victor's early introduction of a long-play disc was a commercial failure for several reasons including the lack of affordable, reliable consumer playback equipment and consumer wariness during the Great Depression.^ In Roland Gelatt's book The Fabulous Phonograph, the author notes that RCA Victor's early introduction of a long-play disc was a commercial failure for several reasons including the lack of affordable, reliable consumer playback equipment and consumer wariness during the Great Depression .
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Roland Gelatt's book The Fabulous Phonograph , the author notes that RCA Victor's early introduction of a long-play disc was a commercial failure for several reasons including the lack of affordable, reliable consumer playback equipment and consumer wariness during the Great Depression .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Roland Gelatt’s book ‘’The Fabulous Phonograph’’, the author notes that RCA Victor’s early introduction of a long-play disc was a commercial failure for several reasons including the lack of affordable, reliable consumer playback equipment and consumer wariness during the Great Depression.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] Because of financial hardships that plagued the recording industry during that period (and RCA's own parched revenues), Victor's "long playing" records were quietly discontinued by early 1933.
.There was also a small batch of "longer playing" records issued in the very early 1930s: Columbia introduced 10" 'longer playing' records (18000-D series), as well as a series of double-grooved or longer playing 10" records on their Harmony, Clarion & Velvet Tone cheap labels.^ There was also a small batch of "longer playing" records issued in the very early 1930s: Columbia introduced 10" 'longer playing' records (18000-D series), as well as a series of double-grooved or longer playing 10" records on their Harmony, Clarion & Velvet Tone cheap labels.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were also a small batch of “longer playing” records issued in the very early 1930s.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A handful were issued by Columbia on a special 18000-D series, and labels like Crown and Perfect also issued a few 10” records playing nearly 5 minutes long.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

All of these were phased out in mid-1932.
.However, vinyl's lower surface noise level than shellac was not forgotten, nor was its durability.^ However, vinyl’s lower surface noise level than shellac was not forgotten, nor was its durability.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, vinyl's lower surface noise level than shellac was not forgotten, nor was its durability.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The vinyl material also is quieter than the 78RPM shellac improving greatly the signal-to-noise ratio...."

.In the late '30s, radio commercials and pre-recorded radio programs being sent to disc jockeys started being stamped in vinyl, so they would not break in the mail.^ In the late 30’s, radio commercials and prerecorded radio programs being sent to disc jockeys started being stamped in vinyl, so they would not break in the mail.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the late '30s, radio commercials and pre-recorded radio programs being sent to disc jockeys started being stamped in vinyl, so they would not break in the mail.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the late 30's, radio commercials and prerecorded radio programs being sent to disc jockeys started being stamped in vinyl, so they would not break in the mail.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the mid-1940s, special DJ copies of records started being made of vinyl also, for the same reason.^ In the mid-1940s, special DJ copies of records started being made of vinyl also, for the same reason.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the mid-40's, special DJ copies of records started being made of vinyl also, for the same reason.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How vinyl records are made.
  • Grading Your Vinyl Record Albums 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Vinyl Records Albums..., What Are Vinyl Records Albums....?? 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • What is a Phonograph Record?? 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.These were all 78 rpm.^ These were all 78 rpm.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Airline Record Changer Features: Record changer: 16 / 33 / 45 / 78 RPM to play all record types.
  • 16 / 33 / 45 / 78 rpm Turn Tables, Record Players, Phono Graphs 25 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.ultraelectronicactive.com [Source type: General]

^ It works and sounds perfect for 78 RPM records - these are natural to this player, what a great player!
  • 16 / 33 / 45 / 78 rpm Turn Tables, Record Players, Phono Graphs 25 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.ultraelectronicactive.com [Source type: General]

.During and after World War II, when shellac supplies were extremely limited, some 78 rpm records were pressed in vinyl instead of shellac, particularly the six-minute 12-inch (30 cm) 78 rpm records produced by V-Disc for distribution to US troops in World War II. In the '40s, radio transcriptions, which were usually on 16-inch records, but sometimes 12-inch, were always made of vinyl, but cut at 33⅓ rpm.^ How vinyl records are made.
  • Grading Your Vinyl Record Albums 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Vinyl Records Albums..., What Are Vinyl Records Albums....?? 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • What is a Phonograph Record?? 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Hand cut silhouettes made from reclaimed vinyl records.
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^ Early 45 RPM records were made from either vinyl or polystyrene .
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.Shorter transcriptions were often cut at 78 rpm.^ Shorter transcriptions were often cut at 78 rpm.
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  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A number of 78 rpm record producers as well as early LP makers also cut their records to the NAB/NARTB lateral standard.
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  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antique Edison , We pay top dollar for record collections.78 rpm.lp's.16" transcriptions also, radios, phonographs',microphones, trains, music boxes.
  • http://www.nfo.net/lnx/lfonhist.html 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.nfo.net [Source type: General]

Beginning in 1939, Dr. Peter Goldmark and his staff at Columbia Records undertook efforts to address problems of recording and playing back narrow grooves and developing an inexpensive, reliable consumer playback system. .In 1948, the 12-inch (30 cm) Long Play (LP) 33⅓ rpm microgroove record album was introduced by the Columbia Record Company at a New York press conference on June 21, 1948. In February 1949, RCA Victor released the first 45 rpm single, 7 inches in diameter, with a large center hole to accommodate an automatic play mechanism on the changer, so a stack of singles would drop down one record at a time automatically after each play.^ The first home phonograph disk recorders were introduced by RCA Victor in October 1930.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Singles, 45 RPM .
  • Song of the South Memorabilia - Records and Tapes (List View) 25 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.songofthesouth.net [Source type: General]

^ RCA Victor and Columbia were in a "market war" concerning which recorded format was going to win: the Columbia LP versus the RCA Victor 45 rpm disc (released in February 1949).
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Early 45 rpm records were made from either vinyl or polystyrene.^ How vinyl records are made.
  • Grading Your Vinyl Record Albums 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Vinyl Records Albums..., What Are Vinyl Records Albums....?? 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • What is a Phonograph Record?? 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Early 45 RPM records were made from either vinyl or polystyrene .
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early 45 rpm records were made from either vinyl or polystyrene.
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[24] .They had a playing time of eight minutes.^ They had a playing time of eight minutes.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (I do this because with all due respect to the LP, they will wear & in turn distort as time & playing pass).
  • Vinyl Records Albums..., What Are Vinyl Records Albums....?? 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Yes, the great composers taught the piano, although in classical times, when they played the violin and viola equally well, they did not teach the violin.
  • Hans Keller: huberman.info 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.huberman.info [Source type: Original source]

[25]
.On a small number of early phonograph systems and radio transcription discs, as well as some entire albums, the direction of the groove is reversed, beginning near the center of the disc and leading to the outside.^ (A small number of early phonograph systems and radio transcription discs started the groove from the inside rather than the edge of the disc, and a small number of novelty records were manufactured with multiple separate grooves.
  • The Record Collectors Guild :: A website for the Record Collector. (Sections) 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.recordcollectorsguild.org [Source type: General]

^ On a small number of early phonograph systems and radio transcription discs, as well as some entire albums, the direction of the groove is reversed, beginning near the center of the disc and leading to the outside.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On a small number of early phonograph systems and radio transcription discs, as well as some entire albums, such as ‘’Goodbye Blue and White‘’ by Less Than Jake, the direction of the groove is reversed, beginning near the centre of the disc and leading to the outside.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A small number of records (such as Jeff Mills' Apollo EP or the Hidden In Plainsight EP from Detroit's Underground Resistance) were manufactured with multiple separate grooves to differentiate the tracks (usually called 'NSC-X2').^ A small number of records (such as Jeff Mills‘ ‘’Apollo EP‘’ or the ‘’Hidden In Plainsight EP‘’ from Detroit‘s Underground Resistance) were manufactured with multiple separate grooves to differentiate the tracks (usually called ‘NSC-X2’).
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A small number of records (such as Jeff Mills ' Apollo EP or the Hidden In Plainsight EP from Detroit 's Underground Resistance ) were manufactured with multiple separate grooves to differentiate the tracks (usually called 'NSC-X2').
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vinyl records were easily warped out of shape by heat, improper storage, or manufacturing defects such as excessively tight plastic shrink wrap on the album.
  • The Record Collectors Guild :: A website for the Record Collector. (Sections) 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.recordcollectorsguild.org [Source type: General]

Speeds

.
Edison Records "Diamond Disc" label, early 1920s.
^ Edison Records "Diamond Disc" label, early 1920s.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1890s the early recording formats of discs were usually seven inches (nominally 17.5 cm) in diameter.
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^ Early disc records were made of various materials including hard rubber .
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Edison Disc Records always ran at 80 rpm.
.The earliest rotation speeds varied widely.^ The earliest rotation speeds varied widely.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sound is encoded by fine variations in the edges of the groove that cause a stylus (needle) placed in it to vibrate at acoustic frequencies when the disc is rotated at the correct speed.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Dutch Philips company introduced records whose rotational speed varied such that the reproducing "needle" ran at a constant linear velocity (CLV) in the groove.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most records made in 1900–1925 were recorded at 74–82 revolutions per minute (rpm).^ Revolutions per minute .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most records made in 1900–1925 were recorded at 74–82 revolutions per minute (RPM).
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most records made in 1900–1925 were recorded at 74–82 revolutions per minute (rpm).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Edison Disc Records consistently ran at 80 rpm.^ RCA Victor and Columbia were in a "market war" concerning which recorded format was going to win: the Columbia LP versus the RCA Victor 45 rpm disc (released in February 1949).
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am looking for Columbia's "Treasure Island" M-MM-553 78-rpm four disc record set, and Columbia's "Peter and the Wolf" M-MM-477 78-rpm four disc record set.
  • Basil Rathbone, Master of Stage and Screen: Collectors Corner 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.basilrathbone.net [Source type: General]

^ As these were played from the inside to the outside, the rpm of the record reduced as reproduction progressed (as is also true of the modern Compact Disc).
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.However a few unusual systems were deployed.^ However a few unusual systems were deployed.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Dutch Philips company introduced records whose rotational speed varied such that the reproducing "needle" ran at a constant linear velocity (CLV) in the groove.^ The earliest rotation speeds varied widely.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At least one manufacturer, Philips, produced records that played at a constant linear velocity.
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^ This cassette was sent to various record companies.
  • Vinyl-On-Demand Records's MySpace Blog | 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC blogs.myspace.com [Source type: General]

.These records, also unusually, played from the inside to the outside.^ These records also, unusually, played from the inside to the outside.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These records, also unusually, played from the inside to the outside.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not to mention that stylus wear is greatly accelerated by playing dirty records, and with high price of cartridges these days, playing dirty records can lead to significant and unneeded expense.
  • Grading Your Vinyl Record Albums 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Vinyl Records Albums..., What Are Vinyl Records Albums....?? 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • What is a Phonograph Record?? 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Both of these features were later to be found in the modern day compact disc, which itself was also invented by Philips.^ Both of these features were later to be found in the modern day compact disc , which itself was also invented by Philips.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both of these features were to be emulated by the modern day Compact Disc .
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^ As these were played from the inside to the outside, the rpm of the record reduced as reproduction progressed (as is also true of the modern Compact Disc ).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The London Science Museum displays a Philips CLV record marked as "Speed D".
.In 1925, 78.26 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered synchronous turntable motor.^ In 1925, 78.26 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered synchronous turntable motor.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because it ran 7:57, longer than both sides of a standard 78 rpm 10" record, it was released on Columbia 's Masterwork label (the classical division) as two sides of a 12" record.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A standard 10 inch diameter 78 rpm record, which plays for about three and a half minutes will have a groove length of about 1.5 Km.
  • Centenary of Indian Gramophone Records 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.mustrad.org.uk [Source type: General]

.This motor ran at 3600 rpm, such that a 46:1 gear ratio would produce 78.26 rpm.^ This motor ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio which produced 78.26 rpm.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Typically a 7" record would be a 45 rpm speed, a 10" would be either 33 or 78 rpm and a 12" would be 33 rpm.
  • Vinyl Records Albums..., What Are Vinyl Records Albums....?? 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • What is a Phonograph Record?? 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ A number of 78 rpm record producers as well as early LP makers also cut their records to the NAB/NARTB lateral standard.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In parts of the world that used 50 Hz current, the standard was 77.92 rpm (3000 rpm with a 38.5:1 ratio), which was also the speed at which a strobe disc with 77 lines would "stand still" in 50 Hz light (92 lines for 60Hz).^ Throughout the rest of the world, 77.92 rpm was adopted being the speed of a 3000 rpm synchronous motor (run from 50 Hz supply reduced by 38.5:1 gearing.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In parts of the world that used 50 Hz current, the standard was 77.92 RPM (3000 rpm with a 38.5:1 ratio), which was also the speed at which a strobe disc with 77 lines would "stand still" in 50 Hz light (92 lines for 60Hz).
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In parts of the world that used 50 Hz current, the standard was 77.92 rpm (3000 rpm with a 38.5:1 ratio), which was also the speed at which a strobe disc with 77 lines would "stand still" in 50 Hz light (92 lines for 60Hz).
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.After World War II these records were retroactively known as 78s, to distinguish them from other newer disc record formats.^ Thus these records became known as 78s (or "seventy-eights").
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^ After World War II these records were retroactively known as 78s , to distinguish them from other newer disc record formats.
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^ As vinyl records were eventually replaced almost entirely by CDs as the predominant music format, MP3s and other files have now become the standard.
  • Vinyl — Switched 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.switched.com [Source type: General]

.Earlier they were just called records, or when there was a need to distinguish them from cylinders, disc records.^ Earlier they were just called records, or when there was a need to distinguish them from cylinders , disc records.
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^ At that time they were selling cylinder records.
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^ Earlier they were just called records , or when there was a need to distinguish them from cylinders , disc records .
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.
Columbia and RCA's competition extended to equipment.
^ Columbia and RCA 's competition extended to equipment.
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.Some turntables included spindle size adapters, but other turntables required snap-in inserts like this one to adapt RCA's larger 45 rpm spindle size to the smaller spindle size available on nearly all turntables.^ RCA 45s were also adapted to the smaller spindle of an LP player with a plastic snap-in insert known as a " spider ".
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^ Some turntables included spindle size adapters, but other turntables required snap-in inserts like this one to adapt RCA's larger 45 rpm spindle size to the smaller spindle size available on nearly all turntables.
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^ Some turntables included spindle size adapters , but other turntables required snap-in inserts like this one to adapt RCA's larger 45 rpm spindle size to the smaller spindle size available on nearly all turntables.
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[26] Shown is one popular design in use for many years.
.After World War II, two new competing formats came on to the market and gradually replaced the standard "78": the 33⅓ rpm (often just referred to as the 33 rpm), and the 45 rpm (see above).^ After World War II, two new competing formats came on to the market and gradually replaced the standard "78": the 33⅓ rpm (often just referred to as the 33 rpm), and the 45 rpm (see above).
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^ II. 78 rpm.
  • William Primrose Discography 25 September 2009 12:31 UTC music.lib.byu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ After World War II, two new competing formats came on to the market and gradually replaced the standard "78": the 33⅓ rpm (often just referred to as the 33 rpm), and the 45 rpm.
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.The 33⅓ rpm LP (for "long play") format was developed by Columbia Records and marketed in 1948. RCA Victor developed the 45 rpm format and marketed it in 1949, in response to Columbia.^ RCA Victor and Columbia were in a "market war" concerning which recorded format was going to win: the Columbia LP versus the RCA Victor 45 rpm disc (released in February 1949).
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^ The 33⅓ rpm LP (for "long play") format was developed by Columbia Records and marketed in 1948.
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^ RCA Victor developed the 45 rpm format and marketed it in 1949, in response to Columbia.
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[27] .Both types of new disc used narrower grooves, intended to be played with smaller stylus—typically 0.001 inches (25 µm) wide, compared to 0.003 inches (76 µm) for a 78—so the new records were sometimes called Microgroove.^ I'd recommend you not play any records with the stylus.
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^ Both types of new disc used narrower grooves, intended to be played with smaller styli—typically 0.001 inches (25 µm) wide, compared to 0.003 inches (76 µm) for a 78—so the new records were sometimes called Microgroove .
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^ Both types of new disc used narrower grooves, intended to be played with a smaller stylus—typically 0.001" (25 µm) wide, compared to 0.003" (76 µm) for a 78—so the new records were sometimes called Microgroove.
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.In the mid-1950s all record companies agreed to a common recording standard called RIAA equalization.^ In the mid-1950s all record companies agreed to a common recording standard called RIAA equalization .
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^ The agreed standard has been RIAA equalization since 1952, implemented in 1955.
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^ TELDEC Telefunken and Decca founded a record company that used a characteristic proposed for German DIN-Standard on July 1957: DIN45533, DIN45536, DIN45537.
  • The Genesis Of Vinyl Stereo Record - Entstehungsgeschichte der Stereoschallplatte 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.badenhausen.com [Source type: Academic]

.Prior to the establishment of the standard each company used its own preferred standard, requiring discriminating listeners to use pre-amplifiers with multiple selectable equalization curves.^ Prior to the establishment of the standard each company used its own preferred standard, requiring discriminating listeners to use preamplifiers with multiple selectable equalization curves.
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^ Prior to the establishment of the standard each company used its own preferred standard, requiring discriminating listeners to use pre-amplifiers with multiple selectable equalization curves.
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^ TELDEC Telefunken and Decca founded a record company that used a characteristic proposed for German DIN-Standard on July 1957: DIN45533, DIN45536, DIN45537.
  • The Genesis Of Vinyl Stereo Record - Entstehungsgeschichte der Stereoschallplatte 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.badenhausen.com [Source type: Academic]

.While stroboscopic speed checkers can be used to correctly adjust a turntable speed to 45 rpm in the US where the stroboscope disc is illuminated by a lamp run from a 60 Hz supply, most strobes are slightly inaccurate where there is a 50 Hz supply.^ While stroboscopic speed checkers can be used to correctly adjust a turntable speed to 45 rpm in the US where the stroboscope disc is illuminated by a lamp run from a 60 Hz supply, most strobes are slightly inaccurate where there is a 50 Hz supply.
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^ Subsequently, the 16⅔ rpm speed was used for radio transcription discs or narrated publications for the blind and visually impaired, and were never widely commercially available, although it was common to see new turntable models with a 16 rpm speed setting produced as late as the 1970s.
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^ The recording speed was 33⅓ rpm, originally used in the Western Electric/ERPI movie audio disc system implemented in the early Warner Brothers' Vitaphone "talkies" of 1927.
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.Using a conventional single segment per pulse, the nearest that can be achieved is 45.112+ rpm which requires a disc with 133 segments.^ "Single" refers to the quantity of songs per side — as on the 45 rpm single.
  • Twelve inch vinyl record 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC be.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ Using a conventional single segment per pulse, the nearest that can be achieved is 45.112+ rpm which requires a disc with 133 segments.
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^ While stroboscopic speed checkers can be used to correctly adjust a turntable speed to 45 rpm in the US where the stroboscope disc is illuminated by a lamp run from a 60 Hz supply, most strobes are slightly inaccurate where there is a 50 Hz supply.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The difference amounts to the record sounding sharp by about a twenty fifth of a semitone (i.e. practically unnoticeable). To construct a 50 Hz stroboscope disc that appears stationary at exactly 45 rpm is possible, and would require 400 segments advancing by 3 segments on each pulse of light.
.A number of recordings were pressed at 16⅔ rpm (usually a 7-inch disc, visually identical to a 45 rpm single).^ A number of recordings were pressed at 16⅔ rpm (usually a 7-inch disc, visually identical to a 45 rpm single).
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^ During and after World War II when shellac supplies were extremely limited, some 78 rpm records were pressed in vinyl instead of shellac, particularly the six-minute 12-inch (30 cm) 78 rpm records produced by V-Disc for distribution to US troops in World War II. In the 40’s, radio transcriptions, which were usually on 16 inch records, but sometimes 12 inch, were always made of vinyl, but cut at 33 1/3 rpm.
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^ Although vinyl records lost their long reign of popularity by the late 1980's with the introduction of a digital format or compact disc, records continue to be manufactured and sold today, usually in a limited pressing.
  • What is a Phonograph Record?? 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Peter Goldmark, the man who developed the 33⅓ rpm record, developed the Highway Hi-Fi 16⅔ rpm record to be played in Chrysler automobiles, but poor performance of the system and weak implementation by Chrysler and Columbia led to the demise of the 16⅔ rpm records.^ The 33⅓ rpm LP (for "long play") format was developed by Columbia Records and marketed in 1948.
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^ The recording system as developed by London Record Co.
  • The Genesis Of Vinyl Stereo Record - Entstehungsgeschichte der Stereoschallplatte 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.badenhausen.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Peter Goldmark, the man who developed the 33⅓ rpm record, developed the Highway Hi-Fi 16⅔ rpm record to be played in Chrysler automobiles, but poor performance of the system and weak implementation by Chrysler and Columbia led to the demise of the 16⅔ rpm records.
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.Subsequently, the 16⅔ rpm speed was used for radio transcription discs or narrated publications for the blind and visually impaired, and were never widely commercially available, although it was common to see new turntable models with a 16 rpm speed setting produced as late as the 1970s.^ Subsequently, the 16⅔ rpm speed was used for radio transcription discs or narrated publications for the blind and visually impaired, and were never widely commercially available, although it was common to see new turntable models with a 16 rpm speed setting produced as late as the 1970s.
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^ A number of recordings were pressed at 16⅔ RPM, but these were mostly used for radio transcription discs or narrated publications for the blind and visually impaired, and were never widely commercially available, although it was common to see turntables with a 16 RPM speed setting produced as late as the 1970s.
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^ The recording speed was 33⅓ rpm, originally used in the Western Electric/ERPI movie audio disc system implemented in the early Warner Brothers' Vitaphone "talkies" of 1927.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

1959 Seeburg 16 rpm record
.Seeburg Corporation introduced the Seeburg Background Music System in 1959, using a 16⅔ rpm 9-inch record with 2-inch center hole.^ Seeburg Corporation introduced the Seeburg Background Music System in 1959, using a 16⅔ rpm 9-inch record with 2-inch center hole.
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^ Polystyrene is often used for 7-inch records.
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^ Electrical recording introduced in Britain using the Western Electrical System.
  • Centenary of Indian Gramophone Records 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.mustrad.org.uk [Source type: General]

.Each record held 40 minutes of music per side, recorded at 420 grooves per inch.^ So youll get about 6 minutes of music each side.
  • Discover A Hobby.com - Vinyl Record Collecting 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.discoverahobby.com [Source type: General]

^ Each record held 40 minutes of music per side, recorded at 420 grooves per inch.
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^ Simpson notes that even if he puts only a few minutes of music on a 12-inch record, he tries to keep the grooves closer to the outside of the disc rather than spacing them out evenly across the entire platter.
  • Mastering Vinyl | How to make vinyl records and what it takes to mix and master for vinyl music. 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC emusician.com [Source type: General]

[28]
.The older 78 format continued to be mass produced alongside the newer formats until about 1960 in the US, and in a few countries, such as India (where some Beatles recordings were issued on 78), into the 1960s.^ The older 78 format continued to be mass produced alongside the newer formats until about 1960 in the US, and in a few countries, such as India (where some Beatles recordings were issued on 78), into the 1960s.
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^ The older 78 format continued to be mass produced alongside the newer formats into the 1950s, and in a few countries, such as India , into the 1960s.
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^ This turntable lets you plug and play into your computer with a USB interface to produce sound files identical to the vinyl recordings.
  • Discover A Hobby.com - Vinyl Record Collecting 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.discoverahobby.com [Source type: General]

.For example, Columbia Records' last reissue of Frank Sinatra songs on 78 rpm records was an album called "Young at Heart", issued November 1, 1954.[29] As late as the 1970s, some children's records were released at the 78 rpm speed.^ For example, Columbia Records ' last reissue of Frank Sinatra songs on 78 rpm records was an album called "Young at Heart", issued November 1, 1954.
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^ The last 78-rpm singles in the UK were released in March 1960.
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^ On some recordings (for example Sgt.
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.In the United Kingdom, the 78 rpm single lasted longer than in the United States and the 45 rpm took longer to become popular.^ The last 78-rpm singles in the UK were released in March 1960.
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^ In the United Kingdom , the 78-rpm single lasted longer than in the United States and the 45-rpm took longer to become popular.
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^ The 78-rpm was overtaken in popularity by the 45-rpm in the late 1950s, as teenagers became increasingly affluent, although some of Elvis Presley 's early singles sold more copies on 78 than on 45.
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The 78 rpm was overtaken in popularity by the 45 rpm in the late 1950s, as teenagers became increasingly affluent, although some of Elvis Presley's early singles sold more copies on 78 than on 45. The last new 78 rpm singles in the UK were released in March 1960 and production ceased in 1961.
.The commercial rivalry between RCA Victor and Columbia Records led to RCA Victor's introduction of what it had intended to be a competing vinyl format, the 7-inch (175 mm) 45 rpm disc.^ RCA Victor developed the 45 rpm format and marketed it in 1949, in response to Columbia.
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^ Early 45 RPM records were made from either vinyl or polystyrene .
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^ Twelve inch vinyl record .
  • Twelve inch vinyl record 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC be.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

.For a two-year period from 1948 to 1950, record companies and consumers faced uncertainty over which of these formats would ultimately prevail in what was known as the "War of the Speeds". (See also format war.^ For a two-year period from 1948 to 1950, record companies and consumers faced uncertainty over which of these formats would ultimately prevail in what was known as the "War of the Speeds".
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^ (See also format war .
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^ Virtually a lost war (at least in the South), but they have been known to hire secret shoppers at restaurants to see if Pepsi-joined companies will accept orders for "Coke" without responding "is Pepsi okay?"
  • Attention English Teachers: Google Is Officially A Verb | Techdirt 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: General]

) .In 1949 Capitol and Decca adopted the new LP format and RCA gave in and issued its first LP in January 1950. But the 45 rpm size was gaining in popularity, too, and Columbia issued its first 45s in February 1951. By 1954, 200 million 45s had been sold.^ But the 45-rpm size was gaining in popularity, too, and Columbia issued its first 45s in February 1951.
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^ By 1954, 200 million 45s had been sold.
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^ RCA Victor developed the 45 rpm format and marketed it in 1949, in response to Columbia.
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[30]
.Eventually the 12-inch (300 mm) 33⅓ rpm LP prevailed as the predominant format for musical albums and 10" LPs were no longer issued.^ Eventually the 12" (300 mm) 33⅓ rpm LP prevailed as the predominant format for musical albums, and the 7" (175 mm) 45 rpm disc or "single" established a significant niche for shorter duration discs, typically containing one song on each side.
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^ All LPs are 33 rpm and 12-inch records.
  • Discover A Hobby.com - Vinyl Record Collecting 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.discoverahobby.com [Source type: General]

^ Eventually the 12-inch (300 mm) 33⅓ rpm LP prevailed as the predominant format for musical albums and 10" LPs were no longer issued.
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.The last Columbia Records reissue of any Frank Sinatra songs on a 10" LP record was an album called "Hall of Fame", CL 2600, issued October 26, 1956, containing six songs, one each by Tony Bennett, Rosemary Clooney, Johnny Ray, Frank Sinatra, Doris Day, and Frankie Laine.^ For example, Columbia Records ' last reissue of Frank Sinatra songs on 78 rpm records was an album called "Young at Heart", issued November 1, 1954.
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^ One indication of the decline of the 45-rpm EP is that the last Columbia Records reissue of Frank Sinatra songs on 45-rpm EP records, called "Frank Sinatra" (Columbia B-2641) was issued December 7, 1959.
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^ The last Columbia Records reissue of any Frank Sinatra songs on a 10" LP record was an album called "Hall of Fame", CL 2600, issued October 26, 1956, containing six songs, one each by Tony Bennett , Rosemary Clooney , Johnny Ray , Frank Sinatra , Doris Day , and Frankie Laine .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] .The 10" LP however had a longer life in the United Kingdom, where important early British rock and roll albums such as Lonnie Donegan's Lonnie Donegan Showcase and Billy Fury's The Sound of Fury were released in that form.^ The 10" LP however had a longer life in the United Kingdom , where important early British rock and roll albums such as Lonnie Donegan 's Lonnie Donegan Showcase and Billy Fury 's The Sound of Fury were released in that form.
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^ Breaking charts records with their debut album the band managed to bring gritty Northern life to British music in a way that was completely natural.

^ However, the EP lasted considerably longer in Europe , and was a popular format during the 1960s for recordings by artists such as Serge Gainsbourg and the Beatles .
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.The 7-inch (175 mm) 45 rpm disc or "single" established a significant niche for shorter duration discs, typically containing one item on each side.^ Eventually the 12" (300 mm) 33⅓ rpm LP prevailed as the predominant format for musical albums, and the 7" (175 mm) 45 rpm disc or "single" established a significant niche for shorter duration discs, typically containing one song on each side.
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^ "Single" refers to the quantity of songs per side — as on the 45 rpm single.
  • Twelve inch vinyl record 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC be.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ The 7-inch (175 mm) 45-rpm disc or "single" established a significant niche for shorter duration discs, typically containing one item on each side.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 45 rpm discs typically emulated the playing time of the former 78 rpm discs, while the 12" LP discs provided up to one half hour of time per side.^ "Single" refers to the quantity of songs per side — as on the 45 rpm single.
  • Twelve inch vinyl record 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC be.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ Transferring of 78 RPM and LP's.
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^ MICROGROOVE (LPs and 45 rpm) .
  • 78 RPM Manual 25 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.vadlyd.dk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The amount of music per LP varied from label to label and possibly from performer to performer.^ The amount of music per LP varied from label to label and possibly from performer to performer.
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^ Introducing Jayne Heather Released: December 24, 1965 Label: Eureka Music Status: Limited Edition LP. Out of print.

^ The amount of cross-linking agent used may vary from 0.1 to 30 parts per 100 parts rubber; normally the amount is 0.5 - 6 parts per 100 parts rubber with 1.0 - 4.0 parts being preferred.
  • Method for cross-linking rubber - Patent 3869435 18 September 2009 6:29 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Frank Sinatra's "A Swinging Affair", a monaural album, contained 15 songs and ran 50 minutes.^ Frank Sinatra 's " A Swinging Affair ", a monaural album, contained 15 songs and ran 50 minutes.
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^ The last Columbia Records reissue of any Frank Sinatra songs on a 10" LP record was an album called "Hall of Fame", CL 2600, issued October 26, 1956, containing six songs, one each by Tony Bennett , Rosemary Clooney , Johnny Ray , Frank Sinatra , Doris Day , and Frankie Laine .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, Columbia Records ' last reissue of Frank Sinatra songs on 78 rpm records was an album called "Young at Heart", issued November 1, 1954.
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.Other albums by other performers could run as little as 30 or 35 minutes.^ Other albums by other performers could run as little as 30 or 35 minutes.
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^ Performances begin at 8:30 p.m., and the show runs Friday through Sunday nights - July 20-22, July 26-28 and Aug.
  • Sacramento Bee -- 21Q 18 September 2009 6:29 UTC www.sacbee.com [Source type: General]

.After the introduction of stereophonic recording, record times dropped because, presumably, the early stereo groove was wider than the monaural groove.^ After the introduction of stereophonic recording, record times dropped because, presumably, the early stereo groove was wider than the monaural groove.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vinyl records were introduced and marketed as the unbreakable record, unlike its shellac counterpart of days gone by, that would break at the drop of a hat and becomes more brittle over time.
  • Grading Your Vinyl Record Albums 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Vinyl Records Albums..., What Are Vinyl Records Albums....?? 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • What is a Phonograph Record?? 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ This section allows the stylus to be dropped at the start of the record groove, without damaging the recorded section of the groove.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A stroboscopic disc for 33⅓ and 45 rpm (actually 44.77 rpm as it has the wrong number of segments on the 45 ring) at 50 Hz
.The 45 rpm discs also came in a variety known as extended play (EP) which achieved up to 10–15 minutes play at the expense of attenuating (and possibly compressing) the sound to reduce the width required by the groove.^ A stroboscopic disc for 33⅓ and 45 rpm (actually 44.77 rpm as it has the wrong number of segments on the 45 ring) at 50 Hz The 45-rpm discs also came in a variety known as extended play (EP) which achieved up to 10–15 minutes play at the expense of attenuating (and possibly compressing) the sound to reduce the width required by the groove.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Maxi Single, and Extended play (EP) .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 7" 45rpm format normally contains one item per side but a 7" EP could achieve recording times of 10 to 15 minutes at the expense of attenuating and compressing the sound to reduce the width required by the groove.
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.EP discs were generally used to reissue LP albums on the smaller format for those people who had only 45 rpm players.^ EP discs were generally used to make available tracks not on singles including tracks on LPs albums in a smaller, less expensive format for those who had only 45 rpm players.
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^ EP discs were generally used to reissue LP albums on the smaller format for those people who had only 45 rpm players.
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^ MICROGROOVE (LPs and 45 rpm) .
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.LP albums could be purchased 1 EP at a time, with four items per EP, or in a boxed set with 3 EPs or 12 items.^ LP albums could be purchased 1 EP at a time, with four items per EP, or in a boxed set with 3 EPs or 12 items.
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^ EP discs were generally used to reissue LP albums on the smaller format for those people who had only 45 rpm players.
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^ Except for the LP and EP (which are acronyms for Long Play and Extended Play respectively), these type designations refer to their rotational speeds in revolutions per minute (rpm).
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.The large center hole on 45s allows for easier handling by jukebox mechanisms.^ The large center hole on 45s allows for easier handling by jukebox mechanisms.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The large center hole on 7" 45rpm records allows for easier handling by jukebox mechanisms.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1949, RCA Victor released the first 45 RPM single, 7" in diameter, with a large center hole to accommodate an automatic play mechanism on the changer, so a stack of singles would drop down one record at a time automatically after each play.
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.EPs were generally discontinued by the late 1950s as three- and four-speed record players replaced the individual 45 players.^ EPs were generally discontinued by the late 1950s as three- and four-speed record players replaced the individual 45 players.
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^ Eventually, they were replaced by the three–speed record player.
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^ Typically a 7" record would be a 45 rpm speed, a 10" would be either 33 or 78 rpm and a 12" would be 33 rpm.
  • Vinyl Records Albums..., What Are Vinyl Records Albums....?? 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.One indication of the decline of the 45 rpm EP is that the last Columbia Records reissue of Frank Sinatra songs on 45 rpm EP records, called "Frank Sinatra" (Columbia B-2641) was issued December 7, 1959.[29] However, the EP lasted considerably longer in Europe, and was a popular format during the 1960s for recordings by artists such as Serge Gainsbourg and the Beatles.^ However, the EP lasted considerably longer in Europe , and was a popular format during the 1960s for recordings by artists such as Serge Gainsbourg and the Beatles .
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^ For example, Columbia Records ' last reissue of Frank Sinatra songs on 78 rpm records was an album called "Young at Heart", issued November 1, 1954.
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^ One indication of the decline of the 45-rpm EP is that the last Columbia Records reissue of Frank Sinatra songs on 45-rpm EP records, called "Frank Sinatra" (Columbia B-2641) was issued December 7, 1959.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the late 1940s and early 1950s, 45 rpm-only players that lacked speakers and plugged into a jack on the back of a radio were widely available.^ In the late 1940s and early 1950s, 45 rpm-only players that lacked speakers and plugged into a jack on the back of a radio were widely available.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Progress - my new car has no tape player but does have a radio with CD player and a cute little jack for my MP3 player.
  • What is a Phonograph Record?? 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Subsequently, the 16⅔ rpm speed was used for radio transcription discs or narrated publications for the blind and visually impaired, and were never widely commercially available, although it was common to see new turntable models with a 16 rpm speed setting produced as late as the 1970s.
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.Eventually, they were replaced by the three–speed record player.^ Eventually, they were replaced by the three–speed record player.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To make matters worse, relatively few records state the speed (and when they do it’s not always accurate).
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^ As vinyl records were eventually replaced almost entirely by CDs as the predominant music format, MP3s and other files have now become the standard.
  • Vinyl — Switched 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.switched.com [Source type: General]

.From the mid-1950s through the 1960s, in the U.S. the common home "record player" or "stereo" (after the introduction of stereo recording) would typically have had these features: a three- or four-speed player (78, 45, 33⅓, and sometimes 16⅔ rpm); with changer, a tall spindle that would hold several records and automatically drop a new record on top of the previous one when it had finished playing, a combination cartridge with both 78 and microgroove styli and a way to flip between the two; and some kind of adapter for playing the 45s with their larger center hole.^ As late as the 1970s, some children's records were released at the 78 rpm speed.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EPs were generally discontinued by the late 1950s as three- and four-speed record players replaced the individual 45 players.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Deliberately playing or recording records at the wrong speed was a common amusement.
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.The adapter could be a small solid circle that fit onto the bottom of the spindle (meaning only one 45 could be played at a time) or a larger adaptor that fit over the entire spindle, permitting a stack of 45s to be played.^ The adapter could be a small solid circle that fit onto the bottom of the spindle (meaning only one 45 could be played at a time) or a larger adaptor that fit over the entire spindle, permitting a stack of 45s to be played.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You also get record changers that let you play a stack of records without having to keep changing each one when it is over.
  • Discover A Hobby.com - Vinyl Record Collecting 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.discoverahobby.com [Source type: General]

^ So this may mean you only get one good play from a record if you play it wet.
  • Cleaning Vinyl Records 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.instructables.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26]
.RCA 45s were also adapted to the smaller spindle of an LP player with a plastic snap-in insert known as a "spider".[26] These inserts, commissioned by RCA president David Sarnoff and invented by Thomas Hutchison,[31] were prevalent starting in the 1960s, selling in the tens of millions per year during the 45 rpm heyday.^ RCA 45s were also adapted to the smaller spindle of an LP player with a plastic snap-in insert known as a " spider ".
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^ These inserts, commissioned by RCA president David Sarnoff and invented by Thomas Hutchison, [ 31 ] were prevalent starting in the 1960s, selling in the tens of millions per year during the 45's heyday.
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^ RCA 45s can also be adapted to the smaller spindle of an LP player with a plastic snap-in insert known as a "spider"; such inserts were prevalent starting in the 1960s.
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.In countries outside of the US, 45s often had the smaller album-sized holes (e.g.^ In countries outside of the US, 45s often had the smaller album-sized holes (e.g.
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.Australia and New Zealand), or otherwise a pseudo-spider was "built-in" to the record, which could be punched out if desired (ie the United Kingdom, especially before the 1970s).^ Australia and New Zealand ), or otherwise a pseudo-spider was "built-in" to the record, which could be punched out if desired (ie the United Kingdom , especially before the 1970s).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I could just be lazy and break out the packing tape but I want my record cover to look better than when I found it.
  • How To Clean Analogue Vinyl Records | Tips on how to keep those prized vinyl records clean and sounding like new. | DiscoMusic.com 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.discomusic.com [Source type: General]

^ Also, more records could be produced from each master since molds would eventually wear out.
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.Deliberately playing or recording records at a higher speed gave an antic quirkiness to voices; doing so at a slower speed changed music and voice to an ominous, growling tone.^ Playing at a higher speed gave an antic quirkiness to voices whereas playing at a slower speed changed music and voice to an ominous, growling tone.
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^ Deliberately playing or recording records at a higher speed gave an antic quirkiness to voices; doing so at a slower speed changed music and voice to an ominous, growling tone.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Deliberately playing or recording records at the wrong speed was a common amusement.
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.Canadian musician Nash the Slash also took advantage of this speed/tonal effect with his 1981 12-inch disc Decomposing, which featured four instrumental tracks that were engineered to play at any speed (with the playing times listed for 33⅓, 45 and 78 rpm playback).^ Canadian musician Nash the Slash also took advantage of this speed/tonal effect with his 1981 12-inch disc Decomposing , which featured four instrumental tracks that were engineered to play at any speed (with the playing times listed for 33⅓, 45 and 78 rpm playback).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Canadian musician Nash the Slash also took advantage of this speed/tonal effect with his 1981 12" disc Decomposing, which featured four instrumental tracks that were engineered to play at any speed (with the playing times listed for 33⅓, 45 and 78 rpm playback).
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Category: Vinyl > 45 rpm > Instrumental .
  • Welcome to Thursday's Golden Goodies - Vinyl Records Are Our Speciialty 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.vinyl45s.com [Source type: General]

Sound enhancements

.As the LP became established as the dominant size for longer recordings, several developments were made to enhance the sound.^ As the LP became established as the dominant size for longer recordings, several developments were made to enhance the sound.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the first several decades of disc record manufacturing, sound was recorded directly on to the master disc (also called the matrix, sometimes just the master) at the recording studio.
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^ The 33⅓ rpm LP (for "long play") format was developed by Columbia Records and marketed in 1948.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

High fidelity

.The first of these was the attempt to develop high fidelity, or hi-fi, sound.^ High fidelity[/b] The first of these was the attempt to develop high fidelity, or hi-fi, sound.
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^ The first of these was the attempt to develop high fidelity , or hi-fi, sound.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High fidelity sound equipment can reproduce tracking noise and rumble.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the late 1920s and early 1930s, since vertical modulation was considered the higher fidelity medium due to its immunity of picking up common lateral turntable rumble, caused by the rubber puck driving the edge of the turntable rim, an earlier version of the Cook binaural system (described below in Stereo) was experimented with as well, but for high-fidelity, not for stereo (at least not yet).^ This is the stereo version I picked up at Savers (for $.99) the other day.
  • Cleaning Vinyl Records 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.instructables.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One could envision a system in which the left channel was recorded laterally, as on a monophonic recording, with the right channel information recorded with a "hill-and-dale" vertical motion; such systems were proposed but not adopted, due to their incompatibility with existing phono pickup designs (see below).
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Room vibrations will also be picked up if the pedestal—turntable—pickup arm—stylus system is not well damped.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This system utilized vertical modulation in the smaller space near the center of the disc for the bass portion of the program, starting from halfway through the disc going to the label avoiding inner-groove distortion, and used lateral modulation for the treble portion of the program in the larger space from the edge of the disc to halfway through for the treble portion of the program.^ The groove usually starts near the periphery and ends near the centre of the disc.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additionally, the problem of inner groove distortion which plagued lateral cuts could be avoided with the vertical cut system.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ID is written or stamped in the space between the groove in the lead-out on the master disc, resulting in visible recessed writing on the final version of a record.
  • What is a Phonograph Record?? 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.This meant that the lateral turntable rumble could be filtered out of the treble electronically by a crossover network and the crackle and static of the treble could be filtered out of the bass by the same process.^ Empirically, and not by any formula, it was learned that the bass end of the audio spectrum below 100 Hz could be boosted somewhat to override system hum and turntable rumble noises.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was also common to flatten out the bass at the very lowest frequencies to reduce the boost of rumble from the turntable.
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[citation needed]
.Since vertical pickups were harder to come by and took up more space than their lateral counterparts, experiments were soon underway to record both the bass and the treble portions of a high-fidelity program in their own separate grooves in a lateral fashion on the same side of the disc.^ Normally mono recordings are lateral, which means ”side to side” in the groove wall.
  • 78 RPM Manual 25 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.vadlyd.dk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the late 1910s, both sides of the record have been used to carry the grooves.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although that’s more than any year since SoundScan began tracking vinyl sales in 1991, the phenomenon seemed to remain an underground practice as digital sales boomed.

.Utilizing a two-channel amplifier and speaker system, with one channel driving the wide-range woofer, and one channel driving the combination wide-range midrange and tweeter, true wide-range high-fidelity would be achieved.^ As one or two ninja-readers can attest, this system would not work for me.
  • Bookninja » 2006 » May 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.bookninja.com [Source type: General]

^ I do remember I had RTR towers (2-12" woofers, 3-8" mid-range & 4 3" tweeters per speaker as I remember it) fed by 1500 watt per channel Amp through a 15 band equalizer per channel.
  • How To Clean Analogue Vinyl Records | Tips on how to keep those prized vinyl records clean and sounding like new. | DiscoMusic.com 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.discomusic.com [Source type: General]

^ Equipment of modest quality is relatively unaffected by these issues, as the amplifier and speaker will not reproduce such low frequencies, but high-fidelity turntable assemblies need careful design to minimize audible rumble.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The format was only experimental, but it wasn't long before this system was adapted once again for early stereo (see below).^ Sukhia claimed to have smoked only once, that too after seeing a movie, Sant Tulsidas.
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^ Major Features Superb Fidelity The incident area of the laser beam on the groove is only a fourth the contact area of the best stereo needle and twenty-six times smaller than a mono needle (see below).
  • How can I transfer music from an old phonograph record to my computer? - Yahoo! Answers 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.People who were concerned with hearing all the quality sound now embedded in the new LPs began to buy separate turntables, amplifiers, speakers and woofers to get the best sound possible.^ It's not only the R&B and club people who are buying it.
  • Twelve inch vinyl record 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC be.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ People who were concerned with hearing all the quality sound now embedded in the new LPs began to buy separate turntables, amplifiers, and speakers and woofers to get the best sound possible.
  • PS Audio - High-Performance Home Audio Equipment 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.psaudio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now, buy me a new stereo.
  • Bookninja » 2006 » May 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.bookninja.com [Source type: General]

  • Stan Freberg satirized these fans in his 1956 radio show with a skit about a man who turned his whole house into a speaker.
  • Flanders & Swann also poked fun at installing the components necessary for high fidelity in their Song of Reproduction.
.(In 1931, Victor experimented with a high-fidelity microphone recording system and a number of records issued in the 22900 and 24000 series were surprisingly "hi-fi."^ (In 1931, Victor experimented with a high-fidelity microphone recording system and a number of records issued in the 22900 and 24000 series were surprisingly "hi-fi".
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^ Peter Goldmark, the man who developed the 33⅓ rpm record, developed the Highway Hi-Fi 16⅔ rpm record to be played in Chrysler automobiles, but poor performance of the system and weak implementation by Chrysler and Columbia led to the demise of the 16⅔ rpm records.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The LP record for longer works, 45 rpm for pop songs, and FM radio became high fidelity program sources in demand.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, the records were too loud and 'blasty' on most home reproducers, and after getting complaints from their dealers, Victor stopped using this equipment in their New York and Camden studios around mid-1932 and sent it to their Chicago studio, where it continued to be used until about 1934.)

Stereo sound

.In 1957 the first commercial stereo two-channel records were issued on translucent blue vinyl by Bel Canto, the first of which is a highly-collectible multi-colored-vinyl sampler featuring `A Stereophonic Tour of Los Angeles' narrated by Jack Wagner on one side, and a collection of tracks from various Bel Canto albums on the back.^ Occasionally, records were issued in the 1920s with a recording on only one side.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lp vinyl record collections .

^ Side one - vocal, Side two - instrumental.

[citation needed]
.Following in 1958, more Stereo LP releases were offered by Audio Fidelity in the USA and Pye in Britain, using the Westrex "45/45" single-groove system.^ Notes: Single release from "Handmade" LP .

^ In 1958 the first stereo two-channel records were issued—by Audio Fidelity in the USA and Pye in Britain, using the Westrex "45/45" single-groove system.
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^ A further late 1970s development was the Disco Eye-Cued(TM) system used mainly on Motown 12" singles released between 1978 and 1980.
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.While the stylus moves horizontally when reproducing a monophonic disk recording, on stereo records the stylus moves vertically as well as horizontally.^ While the stylus moves horizontally when reproducing a monophonic disk recording, on stereo records the stylus moves vertically as well as horizontally.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Master recordings are cut on a recording lathe, where a sapphire stylus moves radially across the blank, suspended on a straight track and driven by a lead screw.
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^ The recommended Stylus for CD-4 as well as regular stereo records was a line contact or Shibata type.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In fact, prior to the full development of the 45/45 system, the first stereo cutting heads were made by bolting together one lateral cut head and one vertical cut head sharing a common stylus holder.^ In fact, prior to the full development of the 45/45 system, the first stereo cutting heads were made by bolting together one lateral cut head and one vertical cut head sharing a common stylus holder.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Westrex system, each channel drives the cutting head at a 45 degree angle to the vertical.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until this record came in my mailbox I had never heard of this band before, but apparently this is their first full length record, having only released an EP prior to this one.
  • Vinyl | The Punk Vault 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.punkvinyl.com [Source type: General]

.Feeding the driving coils with suitably phased material, a practice which would later give rise to the matrices used in quadraphony, achieved the 45/45 groove.^ Feeding the driving coils with suitably phased material achieved the 45/45 groove.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using a conventional single segment per pulse, the nearest that can be achieved is 45.112+ rpm which requires a disc with 133 segments.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These sub-carriers use special FM-PM-SSBFM (Frequency Modulation-Phase Modulation-Single Sideband Frequency Modulation) and have signal frequencies that extend to 45 kHz.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

rill with sound only on left channel
.One could envision a system in which the left channel was recorded laterally, as on a monophonic recording, with the right channel information recorded with a "hill-and-dale" vertical motion; such systems were proposed but not adopted, due to their incompatibility with existing phono pickup designs (see below).^ One could envision a system in which the left channel was recorded laterally, as on a monophonic recording, with the right channel information recorded with a "hill-and-dale" vertical motion; such systems were proposed but not adopted, due to their incompatibility with existing phono pickup designs (see below).
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, anyone can do this using a standard record player with a suitable pickup, a phono-preamp (pre-amplifier) and a typical personal computer.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It should be noted that these records could be played with any type stylus as long as the pickup cartridge had CD-4 frequency response.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Prior to these experiments, the lateral and vertical portions of the groove were experimented with in a discrete twin-groove system described below.^ In fact, prior to the full development of the 45/45 system, the first stereo cutting heads were made by bolting together one lateral cut head and one vertical cut head sharing a common stylus holder.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Groove cuts in the vertical plane were employed rather than the usual lateral cuts.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additionally, the problem of inner groove distortion which plagued lateral cuts could be avoided with the vertical cut system.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, before this lateral-vertical single-groove system was experimented with for stereo reproduction, its components were adopted for other uses, namely many radio station music transcriptions used the vertical modulation portion with its higher fidelity and lower susceptibility to rumble, and lateral portion for speech, as the rumble could be filtered out electronically and not affect the program.^ A further late 1970s development was the Disco Eye-Cued(TM) system used mainly on Motown 12" singles released between 1978 and 1980.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A further late 1970s development was the Disco Eye-Cued system used mainly on Motown 12-inch singles released between 1978 and 1980.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Australia and New Zealand ), or otherwise a pseudo-spider was "built-in" to the record, which could be punched out if desired (ie the United Kingdom , especially before the 1970s).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also by the mid-1950s, an audio engineer by the name of Mintner grew tired of the incompatibility of the vertical portion of stereo records and their susceptibility of damage when played with a mono vertically-noncompliant cartridge and stylus and came up with a way to have both channels recorded laterally and in the same groove.^ Conversely, a stereo cartridge reproduces the lateral grooves of monophonic recording equally through both channels, rather than one channel.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'd recommend you not play any records with the stylus.
  • Cleaning Vinyl Records 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.instructables.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1958 stereophonic versions of the discs became available with two separate audio channels in the same microgroove allowing stereo playback.
  • Twelve inch vinyl record 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC be.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

.Due to the frequency limitations of cutting heads of the period, the disc needed to be mastered at 16-2/3 RPM for playback at 33-1/3 RPM, a practice which would later be adapted and improved in the 1970s, coupled with 180 gram virgin vinyl to create Half Speed Mastered audiophile LPs.^ By November 1918 the patents for the manufacture of lateral-cut disc records expired, opening the field for countless companies to produce them, causing disc records to overtake cylinders in popularity.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In parts of the world that used 50 Hz current, the standard was 77.92 RPM (3000 rpm with a 38.5:1 ratio), which was also the speed at which a strobe disc with 77 lines would "stand still" in 50 Hz light (92 lines for 60Hz).
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The recording speed was 33 1/3 rpm, originally used in the Western Electric/ERPI movie audio disc system implemented in the early Warner Brothers' Vitaphone "talkies" of 1927.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Similar to lateral-vertical stereo played through a 45/45 stereo system, Mintner left the normal mono signal in the normal frequency range of 20Hz-20KHz, ensuring compatibility with normal mono players of the period, and then moved the difference signal up to a supersonic band of 20KHz-45KHz by modulating a 30KHz carrier signal engraved on the disc.^ Mechanically-Independent Left and Right Lasers These lasers can reproduce true superior stereo separation, greater than the capability of a cutter at all frequencies.
  • How can I transfer music from an old phonograph record to my computer? - Yahoo! Answers 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Effectively, all vertical stylus motion conveys the L-R difference signal, and horizontal stylus motion carries the L+R summed signal.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The recording is played back by rotating the disc clockwise at a constant rotational speed with a stylus (needle) placed in the groove, converting the vibrations of the stylus into an electric signal (see magnetic cartridge ), and sending this signal through an amplifier to loudspeakers .
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A carrier detector and de-matrix circuit, similar to what would later be used for FM multiplex stereo, sensed the carrier wave, stripped it off, retrieved the signal, and then matrixed it with the original mono signal to create stereo.^ Monos are quite rare since all later editions were stereo.
  • Discover A Hobby.com - Vinyl Record Collecting 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.discoverahobby.com [Source type: General]

^ While most vinyl records are pressed from metal discs known as 'stampers', a technique known as lathe-cutting is used to create the original discs.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is a form of frequency multiplexing as the "control signal" (restoring force) used to keep the stylus in the groove is carried by the same mechanism as the sound itself.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unfortunately, the development of lightweight pickup arms was still many years away, so the heavy weight of pickup arms in the 1950s caused the carrier wave on the record to be completely destroyed after only a few plays.^ Many record collectors report that the CD-4 sub-carriers are still playable, even though the records have been played extensively and are in excess of 30 years old.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Forster Charlton steered the Society through the difficult years of the 1950s to its present healthy state, in particular drafting the Constitution and organising many Society concerts.

^ In the entire history of musical performance there has only been very few figures who unreservedly believed in composing while playing.
  • Hans Keller: huberman.info 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.huberman.info [Source type: Original source]

.But, both the modulated carrier wave and matrix-encoding systems used herein would later be multiplied by two and used as CD-4 and SQ/QS respectively in quadraphonic.^ CD-4 LPs contain two sub-carriers, one in the left groove wall and one in the right groove wall.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As one or two ninja-readers can attest, this system would not work for me.
  • Bookninja » 2006 » May 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.bookninja.com [Source type: General]

^ Since the late 1910s, both sides of the record have been used to carry the grooves.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.Another early-stereo experiment engraved the left channel of the program on the left (top) side of the disc running conventionally in a clockwise format, and the right channel on the right (bottom) side of the disc in a counterclockwise fashion.^ The early discs were one sided.
  • Centenary of Indian Gramophone Records 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.mustrad.org.uk [Source type: General]

^ Mechanically-Independent Left and Right Lasers These lasers can reproduce true superior stereo separation, greater than the capability of a cutter at all frequencies.
  • How can I transfer music from an old phonograph record to my computer? - Yahoo! Answers 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The stereo image was not made up of fully discrete Left and Right channels; each channel's signal coming out of the magnetic cartridge contained approximately 20% of the signal from the other channel.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was accomplished simply by flipping the stylus around front-to-back in the recording head, and introducing a figure-8 flip in the lathe drive belt, causing the recording to still be made outside-in, but in reverse.^ It has long been proven that the playing of dirty records will result in a rapid deterioration of quality and degradation of the original recorded sound, or simply can cause permanent damage to your vinyl records.
  • Grading Your Vinyl Record Albums 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ "We broke our first record via the discos, and that's where our strength still is," he told Billboard , which ran a front-page story on the release.
  • Twelve inch vinyl record 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC be.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ These sleeves are constructed in two parts: a laminated front section is wrapped around a separate back panel.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To play the disc, a pedal was depressed to separate the twin gramophone heads which faced one another across the turntable and load the disc vertically as in a jukebox.^ Zon was hauling butt into the chute and forgot to dismount after breaking and they were being a little playful with one another.
  • Early Coolest Race Report? - Mtbr.com Forums 18 September 2009 6:29 UTC forums.mtbr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Auto changing turntables included a mechanism to support a stack of several records above the turntable itself, dropping them one at a time onto the active turntable to be played in order.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 45 rpm discs typically emulated the playing time of the former 78 rpm discs, while the 12" LP discs provided up to one half hour of time per side.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Then the pedal was very carefully released again in order to set the heads upon the disc for play. .As the pedals were spring loaded, most of the records were destroyed by the two heavy gramophone heads crashing into the disc when the load pedal was released.^ Earache Records has released Cult Of Luna's classic first two albums on limited edition vinyl , marking the first time these albums have ever been pressed on vinyl.

^ RCA Victor and Columbia were in a "market war" concerning which recorded format was going to win: the Columbia LP versus the RCA Victor 45 rpm disc (released in February 1949).
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In reality the liquid starts to evaporate as the record is played and the needle just starts to dig the junk further into the grooves and now contaminates the entire disc.
  • How To Clean Analogue Vinyl Records | Tips on how to keep those prized vinyl records clean and sounding like new. | DiscoMusic.com 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.discomusic.com [Source type: General]

.The format died mainly because of the brittleness of 78s as described above, and also because some discs were produced in an offset format for players with heads at opposite sides of the turntable, while others were produced for playback on machines with gramophone heads on the same side.^ GARAGE TRACKS side-A contains 5 unreleased songs from 1985, all synth-drum machine, again produced with 8-track gear this time in a band spare bedroom.
  • Vinyl-On-Demand Records's MySpace Blog | 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC blogs.myspace.com [Source type: General]

^ Most turntables use a pivoting tonearm, introducing side forces and pitch and azimuth errors, and thus distortion in the playback signal.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ FIG. 16 shows two cutters with blades 338 and 340 that may be at the same longitudinal position on opposite sides of the mandrel 152 .
  • Velour-like pile articles and pile surface structures and methods of making - Patent 6720058 18 September 2009 6:29 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Playing a disc made for one on a player made for the other would induce a half-revolution difference in the program, similar to trying to play a manual-sequence album on a changer where the sides would be out of sequence.^ After one side is clean, flip it over and do the other.
  • Cleaning Vinyl Records 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.instructables.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The early discs were one sided.
  • Centenary of Indian Gramophone Records 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.mustrad.org.uk [Source type: General]

^ If the WAV file you save in Sound Studio can't be opened on a Windows program, try opening the file with Windows Media Player.
  • How can I transfer music from an old phonograph record to my computer? - Yahoo! Answers 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]
.Utilizing another technique borrowed from vintage Vitaphone recordings which accompanied sound films in the 1920s before the advent of sound-on-film, arrows were inscribed on the master indicating the start of the lead-in groove.^ A phonograph record is an analog sound medium that consists of a flat disc record with an inscribed modulated spiral groove usually starting near the outside edge (lead-in) and ending near the center of the record (lead-out).The audio content of the record is contained within the spiral groove which extends for more than a half mile.
  • Grading Your Vinyl Record Albums 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Record label area The catalog number and stamper ID is written or stamped in the space between the groove in the lead-out on the master disc, resulting in visible recessed writing on the final version of a record.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Master recordings are cut on a recording lathe, where a sapphire stylus moves radially across the blank, suspended on a straight track and driven by a lead screw.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Stampers could then be either aligned with or staggered from one another for production, which, due to the exacting care needed for stamper alignment was accomplished at the long-dormant Vitaphone disc production facilities which produced the originals.^ On another note..."google" already has a place in the dictionary, the original meaning before there was a search engine, the number represented by a "1" followed by one hundred zeros.
  • Attention English Teachers: Google Is Officially A Verb | Techdirt 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: General]

^ In this way several million vinyl discs can be produced from a single lacquer original.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For production of discs where a relatively small quantity is required, the first nickel negative grown from the lacquer original can be used as a stamper.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For a good visual of the early problems associated with Vitaphone, see the recording scene and the movie-preview scene of Gene Kelly in MGM's Singin' in the Rain.^ The recording speed was 33⅓ rpm, originally used in the Western Electric/ERPI movie audio disc system implemented in the early Warner Brothers' Vitaphone "talkies" of 1927.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The recording speed was 33 1/3 rpm, originally used in the Western Electric/ERPI movie audio disc system implemented in the early Warner Brothers' Vitaphone "talkies" of 1927.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Modern anti-aliasing filters and oversampling systems used in digital recordings have reduced the problems observed with early CDs.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unlike most phonograph discs, the needle on Vitaphone records moved from the inside of the disc to the outside, a practice which would be half-borrowed by live recording engineers of those pre-tape days, recording odd sides of a live performance conventionally outside-in, and even sides of a program inside-out back and forth between twin disc recording lathes.^ A phonograph record is an analog sound medium that consists of a flat disc record with an inscribed modulated spiral groove usually starting near the outside edge (lead-in) and ending near the center of the record (lead-out).The audio content of the record is contained within the spiral groove which extends for more than a half mile.
  • Grading Your Vinyl Record Albums 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ My answer is that I do try use albums that would practically ruin a good phonograph needle, and also, I'm turning something that likely would sit in a box in someone's garage into something they can hang on their wall to celebrate their musical culture.
  • Collecting Vinyl Records- your source for the latest vinyl record information: Vinyl Art - A New Canvas 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC collectingvinylrecords.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Record label area The catalog number and stamper ID is written or stamped in the space between the groove in the lead-out on the master disc, resulting in visible recessed writing on the final version of a record.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When plated and pressed, these discs were produced with a hybrid of manual-operator and automatic-changer sequence called "DJ disc sequence," so that an operator would never have to flip a disc over in order to continue.^ This would work well but it would be costly to fabricate the cylinder and continuously operate a vacuum source.
  • Velour-like pile articles and pile surface structures and methods of making - Patent 6720058 18 September 2009 6:29 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A disc cutting lathe is used to transfer a sound recording to a "reference lacquer" (commonly called an acetate or dub-plate).
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A number of recordings were pressed at 16⅔ RPM, but these were mostly used for radio transcription discs or narrated publications for the blind and visually impaired, and were never widely commercially available, although it was common to see turntables with a 16 RPM speed setting produced as late as the 1970s.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This inline/staggered heads idea from twin-sided stereo shellac 78s would later be utilized in competing home-stereo tape recording formats of the early 1950s, once again, one machine being unable to play stereo recordings made on the other.^ The early discs were one sided.
  • Centenary of Indian Gramophone Records 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.mustrad.org.uk [Source type: General]

^ Vinyl records were introduced and marketed as the unbreakable record, unlike its shellac counterpart of days gone by, that would break at the drop of a hat and becomes more brittle over time.
  • Grading Your Vinyl Record Albums 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ One exception is Frank Sinatra 's recording of Rodgers and Hammerstein 's " Soliloquy ", from Carousel , made on May 28, 1946.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This time, however, one format, Inline, won out.^ When KCTC switched its format to all-sports in February, Sims was out of a full-time gig, though he filled in on weekends at KWOD. .
  • Sacramento Bee -- 21Q 18 September 2009 6:29 UTC www.sacbee.com [Source type: General]

^ Anyway, the bottom four danced solo one more time before the results were meted out.
  • Sacramento Bee -- 21Q 18 September 2009 6:29 UTC www.sacbee.com [Source type: General]

^ The album was originally released on CD in 2007 but this is the first time it has been released on the proper format and I for one am glad it has.
  • Vinyl | The Punk Vault 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.punkvinyl.com [Source type: General]

.After lying dormant for over 40 years, the idea of having one head on the front of a disc and one head on the back was picked up in the 1970s by Sharp Electronics and used in a space-saving turntable design to play both sides of a vertically-oriented LP in sequence without having to move the stylus from one side to the other (as in a two-sided LaserDisc player where the pickup travels from bottom to top to play the other side).^ Side one - vocal, Side two - instrumental.

^ Tonearm skating forces and other perturbations are also picked up by the stylus.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After one side is clean, flip it over and do the other.
  • Cleaning Vinyl Records 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.instructables.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each side had its own cartridge and stylus, and the three-inch platter could spin in either direction, allowing for as much as 45 minutes of uninterrupted music.^ So youll get about 6 minutes of music each side.
  • Discover A Hobby.com - Vinyl Record Collecting 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.discoverahobby.com [Source type: General]

^ It should be noted that these records could be played with any type stylus as long as the pickup cartridge had CD-4 frequency response.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1910 the 10-inch (25.4cm) record was by far the most popular standard, holding about three minutes of music or entertainment on a side.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Cook twin-groove stereo system borrowed from this but put both grooves on the same side of the disc, engraving the left channel of the groove beginning near the edge of the disc and the right channel beginning near a point halfway through the recording and concluding near the label.^ In 1958 stereophonic versions of the discs became available with two separate audio channels in the same microgroove allowing stereo playback.
  • Twelve inch vinyl record 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC be.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ A phonograph record is an analog sound medium that consists of a flat disc record with an inscribed modulated spiral groove usually starting near the outside edge (lead-in) and ending near the center of the record (lead-out).The audio content of the record is contained within the spiral groove which extends for more than a half mile.
  • Grading Your Vinyl Record Albums 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Record label area The catalog number and stamper ID is written or stamped in the space between the groove in the lead-out on the master disc, resulting in visible recessed writing on the final version of a record.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A twin-lateral pickup was used for playback.^ Audio response was claimed out to 8,000 Hz, later 13,000 Hz, using light weight pickups employing jeweled styli.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Westrex system, the lateral-vertical system described above is tilted 45 degrees, allowing each channel to drive the cutting head at a 45 degree angle to the vertical, sharing equally in both the lateral and vertical modulations and eliminating the need for a matrix when encoding from a stereo source.^ In the Westrex system, each channel drives the cutting head at a 45 degree angle to the vertical.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1958 stereophonic versions of the discs became available with two separate audio channels in the same microgroove allowing stereo playback.
  • Twelve inch vinyl record 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC be.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ In fact, prior to the full development of the 45/45 system, the first stereo cutting heads were made by bolting together one lateral cut head and one vertical cut head sharing a common stylus holder.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During playback the combined signal is sensed by a left channel coil mounted diagonally opposite the inner side of the groove, and a right channel coil mounted diagonally opposite the outer side of the groove.^ During playback the combined signal is sensed by a left channel coil mounted diagonally opposite the inner side of the groove, and a right channel coil mounted diagonally opposite the outer side of the groove.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CD-4 LPs contain two sub-carriers, one in the left groove wall and one in the right groove wall.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was achieved on the two stereo channels by electronic matrixing , where the additional channels were combined into the main signal.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32]
.
It is helpful to think of the combined stylus motion in terms of the vector sum and difference of the two stereo channels.
^ It is helpful to think of the combined stylus motion in terms of the vector sum and difference of the two stereo channels.
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^ In 1958 stereophonic versions of the discs became available with two separate audio channels in the same microgroove allowing stereo playback.
  • Twelve inch vinyl record 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC be.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ Effectively, all horizontal stylus motion conveys the L+R sum signal, and vertical stylus motion carries the L-R difference signal.
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.Effectively, all vertical stylus motion conveys the L-R difference signal, and horizontal stylus motion carries the L+R summed signal.^ Effectively, all horizontal stylus motion conveys the L+R sum signal, and vertical stylus motion carries the L-R difference signal.
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^ Effectively, all vertical stylus motion conveys the L-R difference signal, and horizontal stylus motion carries the L+R summed signal.
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^ This is a form of frequency multiplexing as the "control signal" (restoring force) used to keep the stylus in the groove is carried by the same mechanism as the sound itself.
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The advantages of the 45/45 system are:
.
  • greater compatibility with monophonic recording and playback systems.^ There were acoustic limitations due to mechanical resonances in both the recording and playback system.
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    ^ The intent of the new W. E. system was to improve the overall quality of disc recording and playback.
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    .A monophonic cartridge will reproduce an equal blend of the left and right channels instead of reproducing only one channel.^ A monophonic cartridge will reproduce an equal blend of the left and right channels instead of reproducing only one channel.
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    ^ One could envision a system in which the left channel was recorded laterally, as on a monophonic recording, with the right channel information recorded with a "hill-and-dale" vertical motion; such systems were proposed but not adopted, due to their incompatibility with existing phono pickup designs (see below).
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    ^ Conversely, a stereo cartridge reproduces the lateral grooves of monophonic recording equally through both channels, rather than one channel.
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    .(However many monophonic styli would damage a stereo groove, leading to the common recommendation to never use a mono cartridge on a stereo record.^ (However many monophonic styli would damage a stereo groove, leading to the common recommendation to never use a mono cartridge on a stereo record.
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    ^ Not to mention that stylus wear is greatly accelerated by playing dirty records, and with high price of cartridges these days, playing dirty records can lead to significant and unneeded expense.
    • Grading Your Vinyl Record Albums 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Early digital recordings and early CDs, however, sounded poor to many of us.
    • Vinyl frontier: Why records sales are soaring again | Music | guardian.co.uk 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ) Conversely, a stereo cartridge reproduces the lateral grooves of monophonic recording equally through both channels, rather than one channel;
  • a more balanced sound, because the two channels have equal fidelity (rather than providing one higher-fidelity vertically recorded channel and one lower-fidelity laterally recorded channel); and
  • higher fidelity in general, because the "difference" signal is usually of low power and thus less affected by the intrinsic distortion of hill-and-dale recording.
.This system was invented by Alan Blumlein of EMI in 1931 and patented the same year.^ This system was invented by Alan Blumlein of EMI in 1931 and patented the same year.
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.EMI cut the first stereo test discs using the system in 1933 see "Bell Labs Stereo Experiments of 1933." It was not used commercially until a quarter of a century later.^ It was not used commercially until a quarter of a century later.
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^ EMI cut the first stereo test discs using the system in 1933.
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^ For production of discs where a relatively small quantity is required, the first nickel negative grown from the lacquer original can be used as a stamper.
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.Stereo sound provides a more natural listening experience where the spatial location of the source of a sound is, at least in part, reproduced.^ Stereo sound provides a more natural listening experience where the spatial location of the source of a sound is, at least in part, reproduced.
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^ Generally, the outer and inner parts of the groove bear no intended sound (at least one exception is Split Enz 's Mental Notes ).
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^ People are recognizing that MP3's have terrible sound quality and listening to music on records can be a terrific experience.
  • Discover A Hobby.com - Vinyl Record Collecting 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.discoverahobby.com [Source type: General]

Other enhancements

.Under the direction of recording engineer C. Robert Fine, Mercury Records initiated a minimalist single microphone monaural recording technique in 1951. The first record, a Chicago Symphony Orchestra performance of "Pictures at an Exhibition," conducted by Rafael Kubelik, was described as "being in the living presence of the orchestra" by The New York Times music critic.^ Under the direction of recording engineer C. Robert Fine, Mercury Records initiated a minimalist single microphone monaural recording technique in 1951.
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^ Under the direction of C. Robert Fine, Mercury Records initiated a minimalist single microphone monaural recording technique in 1951.
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^ New Symphony Orchestra conducted by Tibor Serly.
  • William Primrose Discography 25 September 2009 12:31 UTC music.lib.byu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The series of records was then named “Mercury Living Presence.” In 1955, Mercury began three-channel stereo recordings, still based on the principle of the single microphone.^ In 1955 Mercury began three-channel stereo recordings, still based on the principle of the single microphone.
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^ The series of records was then named “Mercury Living Presence”.
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^ The Mercury Living Presence recordings were remastered to CD in the 1990s by the original producer, Wilma Cozart Fine, using the same method of 3-to-2 mix directly to the master recorder.
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.The center (single) microphone was of paramount importance, with the two side mics adding depth and space.^ The center (single) microphone was of paramount importance, with the two side mics adding depth and space.
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^ The SP or single play records usually have around two songs per side and are 7 inches with 45 rpm.
  • Discover A Hobby.com - Vinyl Record Collecting 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.discoverahobby.com [Source type: General]

^ Two sided 12" single contains Autumn Leaves in 45rpm on side A, and Alison's Uncle in 45rpm on side B. 1.
  • Format > Blue Note Vinyl Reissue, Vinyl Records at SoundStage Direct 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.soundstagedirect.com [Source type: General]

.Record masters were cut directly from a three-track to two-track mixdown console, with all editing of the master tapes done on the original three-tracks.^ Record masters were cut directly from a three-track to two-track mixdown console, with all editing of the master tapes done on the original three-tracks.
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^ All the tracks and visual archives have been mastered from the originals.
  • Vinyl-On-Demand Records's MySpace Blog | 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC blogs.myspace.com [Source type: General]

^ All original near perfect finish and fully functional, free standing, console radio with 78rpm automatic record player and shortwave radio combo.
  • Basil Rathbone, Master of Stage and Screen: Collectors Corner 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.basilrathbone.net [Source type: General]

.In 1961, Mercury enhanced this technique with three-microphone stereo recordings using 35 mm magnetic film instead of half-inch tape for recording.^ In 1961 Mercury enhanced this technique with three-microphone stereo recordings using 35 mm magnetic film instead of half-inch tape for recording.
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^ In 1961 Mercury enhanced this technique with three-microphone stereo recordings using 35mm magnetic film instead of half-inch tape for recording.
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^ Polystyrene is often used for 7-inch records.
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.The greater thickness and width of 35 mm magnetic film prevented tape layer print-through and pre-echo and gained extended frequency range and transient response.^ The greater thickness and width of 35mm magnetic film prevented tape layer print-through and pre-echo and gained extended frequency range and transient response .
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^ The greater thickness and width of 35 mm magnetic film prevented tape layer print-through and pre-echo and gained extended frequency range and transient response .
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^ In 1961 Mercury enhanced this technique with three-microphone stereo recordings using 35 mm magnetic film instead of half-inch tape for recording.
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.The Mercury Living Presence recordings were remastered to CD in the 1990s by the original producer, Wilma Cozart Fine, using the same method of 3-to-2 mix directly to the master recorder.^ The Mercury Living Presence recordings were remastered to CD in the 1990s by the original producer, using the same method of 3-to-2 mix directly to the master recorder.
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^ The Mercury Living Presence recordings were remastered to CD in the 1990s by the original producer, Wilma Cozart Fine, using the same method of 3-to-2 mix directly to the master recorder.
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^ The series of records was then named “Mercury Living Presence”.
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.The development of quadraphonic records was announced in 1971. These recorded four separate sound signals.^ These recorded four separate sound signals.
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^ The development of quadraphonic records was announced in 1971.
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^ When the records were played, phase-detection circuits in the amplifiers were able to decode the signals into four separate channels.
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.This was achieved on the two stereo channels by electronic matrixing, where the additional channels were combined into the main signal.^ This was achieved on the two stereo channels by electronic matrixing, where the additional channels were combined into the main signal.
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^ When the records were played, phase-detection circuits in the amplifiers were able to decode the signals into four separate channels.
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^ In addition to Charlotte Fadipe's departure (see item below), we've just learned that two other reporters are leaving Channel 13.
  • Sacramento Bee -- 21Q 18 September 2009 6:29 UTC www.sacbee.com [Source type: General]

.When the records were played, phase-detection circuits in the amplifiers were able to decode the signals into four separate channels.^ When the records were played, phase-detection circuits in the amplifiers were able to decode the signals into four separate channels.
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^ These recorded four separate sound signals.
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^ This turntable lets you plug and play into your computer with a USB interface to produce sound files identical to the vinyl recordings.
  • Discover A Hobby.com - Vinyl Record Collecting 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.discoverahobby.com [Source type: General]

.There were two main systems of matrixed quadraphonic records produced, confusingly named SQ (by CBS) and QS (by Sansui).^ There were two main systems of matrixed quadraphonic records produced, confusingly named SQ (by CBS ) and QS (by Sansui ).
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^ These techniques, marketed, to name two, as the CBS DisComputer and Teldec Direct Metal Mastering, were used to reduce inner-groove distortion.
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^ There are two vocabularies to compare here -- two conceptual systems -- running parallel to one another in some cases: a psychological and a physiological.
  • Philosophy of Psychology - the Language of Mind 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.roangelo.net [Source type: Original source]

.They proved commercially unsuccessful, but were an important precursor to later "surround sound" systems, as seen in SACD and home cinema today.^ They proved commercially unsuccessful, but were an important precursor to later " surround sound " systems, as seen in SACD and home cinema today.
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^ Jane met him at a Grateful Dead concert in 1985 and for some reason they woke up some mornings later to the sound of gunfire at a camp ground 200 miles from home.

.A different format, CD-4 (not to be confused with compact disc), by RCA, encoded rear channel information on an ultrasonic carrier, which required a special wideband cartridge to capture it on carefully calibrated pickup arm/turntable combinations.^ A different format, CD-4 (not to be confused with compact disc ), by RCA, encoded rear channel information on an ultrasonic carrier, which required a special wideband cartridge to capture it on carefully-calibrated pickup arm/turntable combinations.
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^ RCA Victor and Columbia were in a "market war" concerning which recorded format was going to win: the Columbia LP versus the RCA Victor 45 rpm disc (released in February 1949).
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^ Room vibrations will also be picked up if the pedestal - turntable - pickup arm - stylus system is not well damped.
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.Typically the high-frequency information inscribed onto these LPs wore off after only a few playings, and CD-4 was even less successful than the two matrixed formats.^ Typically the high frequency information inscribed onto these LPs wore off after only a few playings, and CD-4 was even less successful than the two matrixed formats.
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^ After a few of these the water got kind of a funky brown color so I only did a couple batches.
  • How To Clean Analogue Vinyl Records | Tips on how to keep those prized vinyl records clean and sounding like new. | DiscoMusic.com 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.discomusic.com [Source type: General]

^ Many record collectors report that the CD-4 sub-carriers are still playable, even though the records have been played extensively and are in excess of 30 years old.
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.(A further problem was that no cutting heads were available that could handle the HF information.^ (A further problem was that no cutting heads were available that could handle the HF information.
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^ When cut and assembled precisely, no further tuft shearing is needed in the final carpet product, although for some products, shearing may still be preferred.
  • Velour-like pile articles and pile surface structures and methods of making - Patent 6720058 18 September 2009 6:29 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additionally, the problem of inner groove distortion which plagued lateral cuts could be avoided with the vertical cut system.
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.That was remedied by cutting at 'half-speed.'^ Later, the special half-speed cutting heads and equalization techniques were employed to get a wider frequency response in stereo with reduced distortion and greater headroom.
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^ That was got round by cutting at 'half-speed'.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Later, the special half-speed cutting heads and equalization techniques were employed to get a wider frequency response in stereo with reduced distortion and greater headroom.^ It is believed the low speed reduces the wear rate and the direction of rotation minimizes any yarn tension increase during cutting.
  • Velour-like pile articles and pile surface structures and methods of making - Patent 6720058 18 September 2009 6:29 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amplifiers and cutters both using negative feedback were employed thereby improving the range of frequencies cut and lowering distortion levels.
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^ These techniques, marketed as the CBS DisComputer and Teldec Direct Metal Mastering, were used to reduce inner-groove distortion.
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)
.Through the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, various methods to improve the dynamic range of mass produced records involved highly advanced disc cutting equipment.^ In the late 1970s and 1980s, a method to improve the dynamic range of mass produced records involved highly advanced disc cutting equipment.
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^ Through the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, various methods to improve the dynamic range of mass produced records involved highly advanced disc cutting equipment.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By November 1918 the patents for the manufacture of lateral-cut disc records expired, opening the field for countless companies to produce them, causing disc records to overtake cylinders in popularity.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These techniques, marketed, to name two, as the CBS DisComputer and Teldec Direct Metal Mastering, were used to reduce inner-groove distortion.^ These techniques, marketed as the CBS DisComputer and Teldec Direct Metal Mastering, were used to reduce inner-groove distortion.
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^ It should be noted that with direct metal mastering (DMM) the master disc is cut on a copper-coated disc which can also have a minor "orange peel" effect.
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^ While most vinyl records are pressed from metal discs known as 'stampers', a technique known as lathe-cutting is used to create the original discs.
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.RCA Victor introduced another system to boost dynamic range and achieve a groove with less surface noise under the commercial name of Dynagroove.^ RCA Victor introduced another system to boost dynamic range and achieve a groove with less surface noise under the commercial name of Dynagroove.
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^ The first home phonograph disk recorders were introduced by RCA Victor in October 1930.
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^ The newly invented W. E. moving coil or dynamic microphone was part of the Wide Range System.
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.Two main elements were combined: another disk material with less surface noise in the groove and dynamic compression for masking background noise.^ Two main elements were combined: another disk material with less surface noise in the groove and dynamic compression for masking background noise.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two main elements were combined: another disk material with less surface noise in the groove and dynamic expansion for masking background noise.
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^ On surface 478 , there are shown two strands, 482 and 484 , each in a guide groove (not shown).
  • Velour-like pile articles and pile surface structures and methods of making - Patent 6720058 18 September 2009 6:29 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sometimes this was called "diaphragming" the source material and not favoured by some music lovers for its unnatural side effects.^ Sometimes this was called "diaphragming" the source material and not favoured by some music lovers for its unnatural side effects.
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^ My major criticism is that Beecham sometimes omits some measures of Schubert's music, for unknown reasons.
  • essay about my favorite music 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.rbs0.com [Source type: General]

^ If you call yourself an adventurous explorer in sound and music and if you are open-minded from both sides, either minimal or experimental, then you can’t miss this one.
  • Vinyl-On-Demand Records's MySpace Blog | 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC blogs.myspace.com [Source type: General]

.Both elements were reflected in the brandname of Dynagroove, described elsewhere in more detail.^ Both elements were reflected in the brandname of Dynagroove, described elsewhere in more detail.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It also used the earlier advanced method of forward-looking control on groove spacing with respect to volume of sound and position on the disk.^ It also used the earlier advanced method of forward looking control on track distance with respect to volume of sound and position on the disk.
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^ Furthermore it used advanced forward looking steering on track distance with respect to volume of sound and position on the disk.
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^ Visits throughout the city and lagoon islands introducing the students to the less visited major works in Venice and the islands and teaching a useful method for looking at architecture and works of art.
  • John Hall Venice - Alumni - Record of Past Programmes 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.johnhallvenice.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lower recorded volume used closer spacing; higher recorded volume used wider spacing, especially with lower frequencies.^ The theory that vinyl records can audibly represent lower frequencies that compact discs cannot (making the recording sound "warmer") is disputed by some and accepted by others.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This introduces noise into the record, particularly in the lower frequency range.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A wide frequency range could now be recorded with a big increase in playback volume limited only by the pitch of the grooves in the record.
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.Also, the higher track density at lower volumes enabled disk recordings to end farther away from the disk center than usual, helping to reduce endtrack distortion even further.^ Also the higher track density at lower volumes enabled disk recordings to end farther away from the inner circle than usual, helping to reduce endtrack distortion even further.
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^ The result is that inner tracks have distortion that can be noticeable at higher recording levels.
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^ Tracks were close to each other with lower volumes and farther away with loud passages.
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.Also in the late 1970s, "direct-to-disc" records were produced, aimed at an audiophile niche market.^ Also in the late 1970s, "direct-to-disc" records were produced, aimed at an audiophile niche market.
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^ By November 1918 the patents for the manufacture of lateral-cut disc records expired, opening the field for countless companies to produce them, causing disc records to overtake cylinders in popularity.
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^ Vinyl records continue to be manufactured and sold today, especially by independent rock bands and labels, although record sales are considered to be a niche market composed of audiophiles , collectors and DJs .
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.These completely bypassed the use of magnetic tape in favor of a "purist" transcription directly to the master lacquer disc.^ These completely bypassed the use of magnetic tape in favor of a "purist" transcription directly to the master lacquer disc.
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^ These completely bypassed the use of magnetic tape in favour of a "purist" transcription directly to the master lacquer disc.
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^ In 1961 Mercury enhanced this technique with three-microphone stereo recordings using 35 mm magnetic film instead of half-inch tape for recording.
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.Also during this period, "half-speed mastered" and "original master" records were released, using expensive state-of-the-art technology.^ Also during this period, "half-speed mastered" and "original master" records were released, using expensive state-of-the-art technology.
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^ The recording speed was 33⅓ rpm, originally used in the Western Electric/ERPI movie audio disc system implemented in the early Warner Brothers' Vitaphone "talkies" of 1927.
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^ The recording speed was 33 1/3 rpm, originally used in the Western Electric/ERPI movie audio disc system implemented in the early Warner Brothers' Vitaphone "talkies" of 1927.
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.A further late 1970s development was the Disco Eye-Cued system used mainly on Motown 12-inch singles released between 1978 and 1980. The introduction, drum-breaks, or choruses of a track were indicated by widely separated grooves, giving a visual cue to DJs mixing the records.^ A further late 1970s development was the Disco Eye-Cued(TM) system used mainly on Motown 12" singles released between 1978 and 1980.
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^ A further late 1970s development was the Disco Eye-Cued system used mainly on Motown 12-inch singles released between 1978 and 1980.
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^ Disco music of the 1970s-1980s for DJs & record collectors .
  • How To Clean Analogue Vinyl Records | Tips on how to keep those prized vinyl records clean and sounding like new. | DiscoMusic.com 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.discomusic.com [Source type: General]

.The appearance of these records is similar to an LP, but they only contain one track each side.^ Occasionally, records were issued in the 1920s with a recording on only one side.
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^ The appearance of these records is similar to an LP, but they only contain one track each side.
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^ The 12" LP record rotates at 331/3 RPM and has tight "microgrooves" allowing 25 minutes of playing time per side.

.The early 1980s saw the introduction of "dbx-encoded" records, again for the audiophile niche market.^ The early 1980s saw the introduction of "dbx-encoded" records, again for the audiophile niche market.
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^ Vinyl records continue to be manufactured and sold today, especially by independent rock bands and labels, although record sales are considered to be a niche market composed of audiophiles , collectors and DJs .
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^ Disc records would dominate the market until they were supplanted by the Compact Disc , starting from the 1980s.
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.These were completely incompatible with standard record playback preamplifiers, relying on the dbx compandor encoding/decoding scheme to greatly increase dynamic range (dbx encoded disks were recorded with the dynamic range compressed by a factor of two in dB: quiet sounds were meant to be played back at low gain and loud sounds were meant to be played back at high gain, via automatic gain control in the playback equipment; this reduced the effect of surface noise on quiet passages).^ These were completely incompatible with standard record playback preamplifiers, relying on the dbx compandor encoding/decoding scheme to greatly increase dynamic range (dbx encoded disks were recorded with the dynamic range compressed by a factor of two in dB: quiet sounds were meant to be played back at low gain and loud sounds were meant to be played back at high gain, via automatic gain control in the playback equipment; this reduced the effect of surface noise on quiet passages).
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^ Noise can be reduced somewhat by cleaning the record prior to playback.
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^ Many longer sound recordings, such as complete operas, were interleaved across several 10-inch or 12-inch discs for use with auto-changing mechanisms, so that the first disk of a three-disk recording would carry sides 1 and 6 of the program, while the second disk would carry sides 2 and 5, and the third, sides 3 and 4, allowing sides 1, 2, and 3 to be played automatically, then the whole stack reversed to play sides 4, 5, and 6.
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.A similar and very short-lived scheme involved using the CBS-developed "CX" noise reduction encoding/decoding scheme.^ A similar and very short lived scheme involved using the CBS-developed " CX " noise reduction encoding/decoding scheme.
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^ With very short pile heights the pile yarn wastefully buried in the backing makes up a large percentage of the pile yarn used.
  • Velour-like pile articles and pile surface structures and methods of making - Patent 6720058 18 September 2009 6:29 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Much of what is considered prevention in harm reduction involves reducing harms to high-risk users by providing greater access to services and safer ways to use drugs.
  • CAMH and Harm Reduction: A Background Paper-CAMH 18 September 2009 6:29 UTC www.camh.net [Source type: Academic]

Laser turntable

.ELPJ, a Japanese-based company, sells a laser turntable that uses a laser to read vinyl discs optically, without physical contact.^ Main article: Laser turntable ELPJ , a Japanese -based company, has developed a player that uses a laser instead of a stylus to read vinyl discs.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ELPJ , a Japanese -based company, has developed a player that uses a laser instead of a stylus to read vinyl discs.
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^ This is due to problems with the laser reading the discs.
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.The laser turntable eliminates record wear and the possibility of accidental scratches, which degrade the sound, but its expense limits use primarily to digital archiving of analog records; and the laser does not recognize colored vinyl or picture disks.^ In theory the laser turntable eliminates the possibility of scratches and attendant degradation of the sound, but its expense limits use primarily to digital archiving of analog records.
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^ In theory the laser turntable eliminates the possibility of scratches and attendant degradation of the sound, but its expense limits use primarily to digital archiving of analog records and the laser does not recognize colored vinyl or picture disk.
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^ How the records are handled and the equipment on which they are played as well as the manufacturing process and quality of original vinyl have a considerable impact upon their wear.
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.Various other laser-based turntables were tried during the 1990s, but while a laser reads the groove very accurately, since it does not touch the record the dust that vinyl attracts due to static electric charge is not mechanically pushed out of the groove, worsening sound quality in casual use compared to conventional stylus playback.^ The sound quality and durability of vinyl records is highly dependent on the quality of the vinyl .
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^ The quality of these versions was due to a different process used to transfer the recording to vinyl.
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^ This is due to problems with the laser reading the discs.
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.In some ways similar to the laser turntable is the IRENE scanning machine for disc records, which images with microphotography in two dimensions, invented by a team of physicists at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories.^ Main article: Laser turntable ELPJ , a Japanese -based company, has developed a player that uses a laser instead of a stylus to read vinyl discs.
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^ In the early 1930s Bell Telephone Laboratories and Western Electric announced the total reinvention of disc recording: the Western Electric Wide Range System, "The New Voice of Action."
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^ The theory that vinyl records can audibly represent lower frequencies that compact discs cannot (making the recording sound "warmer") is disputed by some and accepted by others.
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.IRENE will retrieve the information from a laterally-modulated monaural grooved sound source without touching the media itself, but cannot read vertically-modulated information.^ Groove cuts in the vertical plane were employed rather than the usual lateral cuts.
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^ Additionally, the problem of inner groove distortion which plagued lateral cuts could be avoided with the vertical cut system.
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^ This is a form of frequency multiplexing as the "control signal" (restoring force) used to keep the stylus in the groove is carried by the same mechanism as the sound itself.
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.This excludes grooved recordings such as cylinders and some radio transcriptions which feature a hill-and-dale format of recording, and stereophonic or quadraphonic grooved recordings which utilize a combination of the two as well as supersonic encoding for quadraphonic.^ The older 78 format continued to be mass produced alongside the newer formats until about 1960 in the US, and in a few countries, such as India (where some Beatles recordings were issued on 78), into the 1960s.
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^ However, the EP lasted considerably longer in Europe , and was a popular format during the 1960s for recordings by artists such as Serge Gainsbourg and the Beatles .
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^ Some records were produced employing noise reduction systems in the tape mastering as well as in the LP itself.
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An offshoot of IRENE, the Confocal Microscope Cylinder Project, can capture a high-resolution 3-D image of the surface, down to 200µm. .In order to convert to a digital sound file, this is then played by a version of the same 'virtual stylus' program developed by the research team in real-time, converted to digital and, if desired, processed through sound-restoration programs.^ Once a recording has been digitized, it can be manipulated with software to restore and, hopefully, improve the sound, for example by removing the result of scratches.
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^ When the record was played back using a complementary inverse curve, signal to noise ratio was improved and the programming sounded more life-like.
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^ It is desireable to wind several tuftstrings onto cylinder 82 at the same time to speed up the production of the carpet.
  • Velour-like pile articles and pile surface structures and methods of making - Patent 6720058 18 September 2009 6:29 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Before final playback in the computer to convert to digital audio files in real-time, it is possible to remove many of the sonic imperfections in the media while still in the video domain, by utilizing the same tools as major motion picture studios in restoring their films.^ As video recorders became perfected technically it became possible to modify them and use analog to digital converters (codecs) for digital sound recording.
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^ As an alternative to playback with a stylus, a recording can be read optically, processed with software that calculates the velocity that the stylus would be moving in the mapped grooves and converted to a digital recording format.
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^ Though digital audio technology has improved over the years, some audiophiles still prefer what they perceive as the sound of vinyl over CDs.
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[citation needed]

Formats

The protective cover of the one-off Voyager Golden Record, containing symbolic information on how it is to be played.

Types of records

.As recording technology evolved, more specific terms for various types of phonograph records were used in order to describe some aspect of the record: either its correct rotational speed ("16⅔ rpm" (revolutions per minute), "33⅓ rpm", "45 rpm", "78 rpm") or the material used (particularly "vinyl" to refer to records made of polyvinyl chloride, or the earlier "shellac records" generally the main ingredient in 78s).^ The earliest rotation speeds varied widely.
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^ Early 45 RPM records were made from either vinyl or polystyrene .
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^ As late as the 1970s, some children's records were released at the 78 rpm speed.
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.Other terms such as "Long Play" or L.P. and "Extended Play" or E.P. describe multi-track records that play a lot longer than the single-item-per-side records, which typically don't go much past 4 minutes per side.^ Other terms such as "Long Play" or L.P. and "Extended Play" or E.P. describe multi-track records that play a lot longer than the single-item-per-side records, which typically don't go much past 4 minutes per side.
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^ Maxi Single, and Extended play (EP) .
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^ An L.P. can play for about thirty minutes per side.
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.An L.P. can play for about thirty minutes per side.^ An L.P. can play for about thirty minutes per side.
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^ The 12" LP record rotates at 331/3 RPM and has tight "microgrooves" allowing 25 minutes of playing time per side.

^ Today, his most famous work is the Coronation March from Le Prophète, a work that takes about 3½ minutes to play.
  • essay about my favorite music 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.rbs0.com [Source type: General]

.The 7" 45 rpm format normally contains one item per side but a 7" EP could achieve recording times of 10 to 15 minutes at the expense of attenuating and compressing the sound to reduce the width required by the groove.^ I think my pit times were in the 10-15 minute range.
  • Early Coolest Race Report? - Mtbr.com Forums 18 September 2009 6:29 UTC forums.mtbr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 7" 45rpm format normally contains one item per side but a 7" EP could achieve recording times of 10 to 15 minutes at the expense of attenuating and compressing the sound to reduce the width required by the groove.
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^ The 45 rpm discs also came in a variety known as Extended play (EP) which achieved up to 10-15 minutes play at the expense of attenuating (and possibly compressing) the sound to reduce the width required by the groove.
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.EP discs were generally used to make available tracks not on singles including tracks on LPs albums in a smaller, less expensive format for those who had only 45 rpm players.^ EP discs were generally used to reissue LP albums on the smaller format for those people who had only 45 rpm players.
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^ EP discs were generally used to make available tracks not on singles including tracks on LPs albums in a smaller, less expensive format for those who had only 45 rpm players.
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^ While stroboscopic speed checkers can be used to correctly adjust a turntable speed to 45 rpm in the US where the stroboscope disc is illuminated by a lamp run from a 60 Hz supply, most strobes are slightly inaccurate where there is a 50 Hz supply.
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.The large center hole on 7" 45 rpm records allows for easier handling by jukebox mechanisms.^ The large center hole on 45s allows for easier handling by jukebox mechanisms.
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^ The large center hole on 7" 45rpm records allows for easier handling by jukebox mechanisms.
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^ RCA Victor and Columbia were in a "market war" concerning which recorded format was going to win: the Columbia LP versus the RCA Victor 45 rpm disc (released in February 1949).
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.The term "album," originally used to mean a "book" with liner notes, holding several 78 rpm records each in its own "page" or sleeve, no longer has any relation to the physical format: a single LP record, or nowadays more typically a compact disc.^ The term "album," originally used to mean a "book" with liner notes, holding several 78 RPM records each in its own "page" or sleeve, no longer has any relation to the physical format: a single LP record, or nowadays more typically a compact disc .
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^ It has the original 78 rpm record, which is in near perfect condition with no scratches or markings.
  • Basil Rathbone, Master of Stage and Screen: Collectors Corner 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.basilrathbone.net [Source type: General]

^ I have a 78 RPM album of Peter and the Wolf.
  • Basil Rathbone, Master of Stage and Screen: Collectors Corner 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.basilrathbone.net [Source type: General]

.Sizes of records in America and the UK are generally measured in inches, usually represented with a double prime symbol, e.g.^ Sizes of records in America and the UK are generally measured in inches , usually represented with a double prime symbol, e.g.
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^ In the 1890s the early recording formats of discs were usually seven inches (nominally 17.5 cm) in diameter.
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^ UK), and these were originally sold in either paper or card covers, generally with a circular cutout allowing the record label to be seen.
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a .7-inch or 7" record which are generally 45 rpm records.^ Some 12 inch LPs were cut at 45 rpm claiming better quality sound, but this practice was short-lived.
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^ EP discs were generally used to reissue LP albums on the smaller format for those people who had only 45 rpm players.
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^ RCA Victor and Columbia were in a "market war" concerning which recorded format was going to win: the Columbia LP versus the RCA Victor 45 rpm disc (released in February 1949).
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.LPs were 10" records at first, but soon the 12" size became by far the most common with 78s generally being 10" but also 12" and 7" and even smaller—the so called 'little wonders.'^ LPs were 10" records at first, but soon the 12" size became by far the most common with 78s generally being 10" but also 12" and 7" and even smaller—the so called 'little wonders.'
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^ For example, on June 10, 1924, four months after the February 12 premier of Rhapsody in Blue , George Gershwin recorded it with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra.
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^ The 12" LP record rotates at 331/3 RPM and has tight "microgrooves" allowing 25 minutes of playing time per side.

[33]

Common formats

Diameter Revolutions per minute Time duration
12 in. (30 cm) 33⅓ rpm 45 min Long play (LP)
45 rpm 12-inch single, Maxi Single, and Extended play (EP)
10 in. (25 cm) 33⅓ rpm Long play (LP)
78 rpm 3 minutes
7 in. (17.5 cm) 45 rpm Single, and Extended play (EP)
33⅓ rpm Often used for children's records in the 1960s and 1970s.
.Notes:
  • Before the early 1950s the 33⅓ rpm LP was most commonly found in a 10-inch (25 cm) format.^ Note: Before the mid-1950s, the 33⅓ rpm LP was most commonly found in a 10" (25 cm) format.
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    ^ Note: Before the early 1950s, the 33⅓ rpm LP was most commonly found in a 10-inch (25 cm) format.
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    ^ Some 12 inch LPs were cut at 45 rpm claiming better quality sound, but this practice was short-lived.
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    .The 10-inch format disappeared from United States stores around 1950, but remained common in some markets until the mid-1960s.^ The 10" LP remained a common format in some markets until the mid-1960s.
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    ^ The 10-inch format disappeared from United States stores around 1950, but remained a common format in some markets until the mid-1960s.
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    ^ The older 78 format continued to be mass produced alongside the newer formats until about 1960 in the US, and in a few countries, such as India (where some Beatles recordings were issued on 78), into the 1960s.
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    The 10-inch vinyl format was resurrected in the 1970s for marketing some popular recordings as collectible, and these are occasionally seen today.
  • The maximum time per side for an LP is only achievable with special playback styli, so cutting engineers often dislike cutting such grooves[citation needed].

Less common formats

Structure

A standard wide-hole 7" vinyl record from 1978 on its respective sleeve.
.The normal commercial disc is engraved with two sound-bearing concentric spiral grooves, one on each side, running from the outside edge towards the centre.^ The normal commercial disc is engraved with two sound bearing concentric spiral grooves, one on each side of the disc, running from the outside edge towards the centre.
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^ The normal commercial disc is engraved with two sound-bearing concentric spiral grooves, one on each side of the disc, running from the outside edge towards the centre.
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^ This does no further damage to the disc and generally produces a better sound than normal playback.
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.The last part of the spiral meets an earlier part to form a circle.^ The last part of the spiral meets an earlier part to form a circle .
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.The sound is encoded by fine variations in the edges of the groove that cause a stylus (needle) placed in it to vibrate at acoustic frequencies when the disc is rotated at the correct speed.^ The earliest rotation speeds varied widely.
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^ The sound is encoded by fine variations in the edges of the groove that cause a stylus (needle) placed in it to vibrate at acoustic frequencies when the disc is rotated at the correct speed.
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^ The recording is played back by rotating the disc clockwise at a constant rotational speed with a stylus (needle) placed in the groove, converting the vibrations of the stylus into an electric signal (see magnetic cartridge ), and sending this signal through an amplifier to loudspeakers .
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.Generally, the outer and inner parts of the groove bear no intended sound (an exception is Split Enz's Mental Notes).^ Generally, the outer and inner parts of the groove bear no intended sound (at least one exception is Split Enz 's Mental Notes ).
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^ This does no further damage to the disc and generally produces a better sound than playback.
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^ This does no further damage to the disc and generally produces a better sound than normal playback.
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.Since the late 1910s, both sides of the record have been used to carry the grooves.^ Since the late 1910s, both sides of the record have been used to carry the grooves.
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^ (However many monophonic styli would damage a stereo groove, leading to the common recommendation to never use a mono cartridge on a stereo record.
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^ Each record held 40 minutes of music per side, recorded at 420 grooves per inch.
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.Occasionally, records were issued in the 1920s with a recording on only one side.^ Occasionally, records were issued in the 1920s with a recording on only one side.
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^ The appearance of these records is similar to an LP, but they only contain one track each side.
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^ Another way around the time limitation was to issue a selection on both sides of a single record.
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.In the eighties Columbia records briefly issued a series of less expensive one-sided 45 rpm singles.^ Occasionally, records were issued in the 1920s with a recording on only one side.
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^ In the eighties Columbia records briefly issued a series of one-sided 45 rpm singles as "loss leaders", the theory being that they could charge less for a one-sided single when not obligated to pay the artist royalties for two.
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^ There was also a small batch of "longer playing" records issued in the very early 1930s: Columbia introduced 10" 'longer playing' records (18000-D series), as well as a series of double-grooved or longer playing 10" records on their Harmony, Clarion & Velvet Tone cheap labels.
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.The majority of non–78 rpm records are pressed on black vinyl.^ The majority of non–78 rpm records are pressed on black vinyl .
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^ A sequence where a school teacher's collection of 78 rpm jazz records is smashed by a group of rebellious students is a key moment in the film Blackboard Jungle .
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^ For example, Columbia Records ' last reissue of Frank Sinatra songs on 78 rpm records was an album called "Young at Heart", issued November 1, 1954.
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.The colouring material used to blacken the transparent PVC plastic mix is [[carbon black], which increases the strength of the disc and makes it opaque.^ The colouring material used to blacken the transparent PVC plastic mix is carbon black , the generic name for the finely divided carbon particles produced by the incomplete burning of a mineral oil based hydrocarbon.
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^ The colouring material used to blacken the transparent PVC plastic mix is carbon black .
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^ Carbon black increases the strength of the disc and renders it opaque.
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.Polystyrene is often used for 7-inch records.^ Polystyrene is often used for 7-inch records.
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^ In 1961 Mercury enhanced this technique with three-microphone stereo recordings using 35 mm magnetic film instead of half-inch tape for recording.
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^ In 1961 Mercury enhanced this technique with three-microphone stereo recordings using 35mm magnetic film instead of half-inch tape for recording.
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.In 2008 reissue label Classic announced their future releases would all be on clear vinyl after technicians determined that the carbon black itself has magnetic properties that detrimentally affect proper playback from the cartridge[citation needed].^ Recently (2008), reissue label Classic has announced their future releases would all be on clear vinyl after technicians determined that the carbon black itself has magnetic properties that detrimentally affect proper playback from the cartridge.
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^ Earache Records has released Cult Of Luna's classic first two albums on limited edition vinyl , marking the first time these albums have ever been pressed on vinyl.

^ New "virgin" or "heavy/heavyweight" (180–220 g) vinyl is commonly used for modern "audiophile" vinyl releases in all genres .
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.Some records are pressed on coloured vinyl or with paper pictures embedded in them ("picture discs").^ Most vinyl records are pressed on recycled vinyl.
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^ Some records are pressed on coloured vinyl or with paper pictures embedded in them ("picture discs").
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^ Colour pictures with gramophone record.
  • Basil Rathbone, Master of Stage and Screen: Collectors Corner 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.basilrathbone.net [Source type: General]

.Certain 45 rpm RCA or RCA Victor "Red Seal" records used red translucent vinyl for extra "Red Seal" effect.^ Early 45 RPM records were made from either vinyl or polystyrene .
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^ Certain 45-rpm RCA or RCA Victor "Red Seal" records used red translucent vinyl for extra "Red Seal" effect.
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^ The first home phonograph disk recorders were introduced by RCA Victor in October 1930.
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.During the 1980s there was a trend for releasing singles on coloured vinyl—sometimes with large inserts that could be used as posters.^ During the 1980s there was a trend for releasing singles on coloured vinyl — sometimes with large inserts that could be used as posters.
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^ A further late 1970s development was the Disco Eye-Cued(TM) system used mainly on Motown 12" singles released between 1978 and 1980.
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^ A further late 1970s development was the Disco Eye-Cued system used mainly on Motown 12-inch singles released between 1978 and 1980.
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.This trend has been revived recently with 7-inch singles.^ This trend has been revived recently and has succeeded in keeping 7" singles a viable format.
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^ This trend has been revived recently with 7-inch singles.
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^ In the United Kingdom , sales of new vinyl records (particularly 7 inch singles) have increased significantly in recent years, [ 51 ] [ 52 ] somewhat reversing the downward trend seen during the 1990s.
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.Vinyl record standards for the United States follow the guidelines of the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA).^ Vinyl record standards for the United States follow the guidelines of the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA).
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^ Inside the handbook it states .The Metropolitan Opera Association takes pleasure in dedicating this album the first of a distinguished series of complete opera recordings, to the music lovers of America.
  • Basil Rathbone, Master of Stage and Screen: Collectors Corner 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.basilrathbone.net [Source type: General]

^ This created quite a bit of interest in the United States and raised overall quality expectations by customers for microgroove records.
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[34] .The inch dimensions are nominal, not precise diameters.^ The inch dimensions are nominal, not precise diameters.
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^ In the 1890s the early recording formats of discs were usually seven inches (nominally 17.5 cm) in diameter.
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^ In the 1890s, the early recording formats of discs were usually seven inches (nominally 17.5 cm) in diameter.
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.The actual dimension of a 12-inch record is 302 mm (11.89 in), for a 10-inch it is 250 mm (9.84 in), and for a 7-inch it is 175 mm (6.89 in).^ The record diameters are typically 300 mm, 250 mm and 175 mm.
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^ The actual dimension of a 12-inch record is 302 mm (11.89 in), for a 10-inch it is 250 mm (9.84 in), and for a 7-inch it is 175 mm (6.89 in).
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^ The actual dimension of a 12 inch record is 302 mm (11.89 in), for a 10 inch it is 250 mm (9.84 in), and for a 7 inch it is 175 mm (6.89 in).
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.Records made in other countries are standardized by different organizations, but are very similar in size.^ Records made in other countries are standardized by different organizations, but are very similar in size.
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^ Karajan made a very large number of gramophone recordings.
  • essay about my favorite music 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.rbs0.com [Source type: General]

^ Even if, by some stretch of the imagination, the Pistols had made anything other than sub-standard run-through rock.

.The record diameters are typically nominally 300 mm, 250 mm and 175 mm.^ The record diameters are typically 300 mm, 250 mm and 175 mm.
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^ The commercial rivalry between RCA Victor and Columbia Records led to RCA Victor's introduction of what it had intended to be a competing vinyl format, the 7" (175 mm) /45 rpm disc.
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^ In the 1890s the early recording formats of discs were usually seven inches (nominally 17.5 cm) in diameter.
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.There is an area about 6 mm (0.25 in) wide at the outer edge of the disk, called the lead-in where the groove is widely spaced and silent.^ There is an area about 6 mm (0.25″) wide at the outer edge of the disk, called the lead-in where the groove is widely spaced and silent.
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^ There is an area about 6 mm (0.25 in) wide at the outer edge of the disk, called the lead-in where the groove is widely spaced and silent.
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^ Record label area The catalog number and stamper ID is written or stamped in the space between the groove in the lead-out on the master disc, resulting in visible recessed writing on the final version of a record.
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.The stylus is lowered onto the lead-in, without damaging the recorded section of the groove.^ This section allows the stylus to be dropped at the start of the record groove, without damaging the recorded section of the groove.
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^ Master recordings are cut on a recording lathe, where a sapphire stylus moves radially across the blank, suspended on a straight track and driven by a lead screw.
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^ Master recordings are cut on a recording lathe where a sapphire stylus moves radially across the blank, suspended on a straight track and driven by a lead screw.
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.Between tracks on the recorded section of an LP record there is usually a short gap of around 1 mm (0.04 in) where the groove is widely spaced.^ Between each track on the recorded section of an LP record, there is usually a short gap of around 1 mm (0.04") where the groove is widely spaced.
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^ A small number of records (such as Jeff Mills ' Apollo EP or the Hidden In Plainsight EP from Detroit 's Underground Resistance ) were manufactured with multiple separate grooves to differentiate the tracks (usually called 'NSC-X2').
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^ Record label area The catalog number and stamper ID is written or stamped in the space between the groove in the lead-out on the master disc, resulting in visible recessed writing on the final version of a record.
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.This space is clearly visible, making it easy to find a particular track.^ This space is clearly visible, making it easy to find a particular track.
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^ Stored sound in the form of variations in the tracks is clearly visible, as is dust on the record.
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.
A macro photo of the innermost grooves of a vinyl record.
^ A macro photo of the innermost grooves of a vinyl record.
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Stored sound in the form of variations in the tracks is clearly visible, as is dust on the record.
Magnified grooves. Dust can be spotted. Red lines mark one millimeter
.Towards the centre, at the end of the groove, there is another wide-pitched section known as the lead-out.^ Towards the label centre, at the end of the groove, there is another wide-pitched section known as the lead-out .
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^ Colored splatter vinyl, NOFX - HOFX ( Fat Wreck Chords ) Towards the label centre, at the end of the groove, there is another wide-pitched section known as the lead-out.
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^ A wide frequency range could now be recorded with a big increase in playback volume limited only by the pitch of the grooves in the record.
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.At the very end of this section the groove joins itself to form a complete circle, called the lock groove; when the stylus reaches this point, it circles repeatedly until lifted from the record.^ At the very end of this section, the groove joins itself to form a complete circle, called the lock groove ; when the stylus reaches this point, it circles repeatedly until lifted from the record.
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^ A skip going to the previous groove was called a broken record ; the same section of 1.8 seconds of LP (1.3 if 45 rpm) music would repeat over and over until the stylus was lifted off the record.
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^ A skip going to the previous groove was called a broken record; the same section of 1.8 seconds of LP music would repeat over and over until the stylus was lifted off the record.
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On some recordings (for example Sgt. .Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band by The Beatles and Atom Heart Mother by Pink Floyd), the sound continues on the lock groove, which gives a strange repeating effect.^ Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band by The Beatles and Atom Heart Mother by Pink Floyd ), the sound continues on the lock groove, which gives a strange repeating effect.
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^ On some recordings (for example Spice by Eon ), the sound continues on the lock groove, which gives a strange repeating effect.
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.Automatic turntables rely on the position or angular velocity of the arm, as it reaches these more widely spaced grooves, to trigger a mechanism that lifts the arm off the record.^ Automatic turntables rely on the position or angular velocity of the arm, as it reaches these more widely spaced grooves, to trigger a mechanism that raises the arm and moves it out of the way of the record.
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^ The introduction, drum-breaks or choruses of a track were indicated by widely separated grooves, giving a visual clue to DJs mixing the records.
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^ At the very end of this section, the groove joins itself to form a complete circle, called the lock groove ; when the stylus reaches this point, it circles repeatedly until lifted from the record.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The catalog number and stamper ID is written or stamped in the space between the groove in the lead-out on the master disc, resulting in visible recessed writing on the final version of a record.^ The catalog number and stamper ID is written or stamped in the space between the groove in the lead-out on the master disc, resulting in visible recessed writing on the final version of a record.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Record label area The catalog number and stamper ID is written or stamped in the space between the groove in the lead-out on the master disc, resulting in visible recessed writing on the final version of a record.
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^ A record cutter would engrave the grooves into the master disc.
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.Sometimes the cutting engineer might add handwritten comments or their signature, if they are particularly pleased with the quality of the cut.^ Sometimes the cutting engineer might add handwritten comments or their signature, if they are particularly pleased with the quality of the cut.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These are generally referred to as "run-out etchings."
.When auto-changing turntables were commonplace, records were typically pressed with a raised (or ridged) outer edge and a raised label area, allowing records to be stacked onto each other without the delicate grooves coming into contact, reducing the risk of damage.^ This section allows the stylus to be dropped at the start of the record groove, without damaging the recorded section of the groove.
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^ When auto-changing turntables were commonplace, records were typically pressed with a raised (or ridged) outer edge and a raised label area.
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^ This would allow records to be stacked onto each other, gripping each other without the delicate grooves coming into contact, thus reducing the risk of damage.
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.Auto-changers included a mechanism to support a stack of several records above the turntable itself, dropping them one at a time onto the active turntable to be played in order.^ Auto changing turntables included a mechanism to support a stack of several records above the turntable itself, dropping them one at a time onto the active turntable to be played in order.
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^ In February 1949, RCA Victor released the first 45 rpm single, 7 inches in diameter, with a large center hole to accommodate an automatic play mechanism on the changer, so a stack of singles would drop down one record at a time automatically after each play.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1949, RCA Victor released the first 45 RPM single, 7" in diameter, with a large center hole to accommodate an automatic play mechanism on the changer, so a stack of singles would drop down one record at a time automatically after each play.
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Many longer sound recordings, such as complete operas, were interleaved across several 10-inch or 12-inch discs for use with auto-changing mechanisms, so that the first disk of a three-disk recording would carry sides 1 and 6 of the program, while the second disk would carry sides 2 and 5, and the third, sides 3 and 4, allowing sides 1, 2, and 3 to be played automatically; then the whole stack reversed to play sides 4, 5, and 6.

Vinyl quality

.The sound quality and durability of vinyl records is highly dependent on the quality of the vinyl.^ Red lines mark one millimeter The sound quality and durability of vinyl records is highly dependent on the quality of the vinyl .
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^ It has a better sound quality.” Still, many customers have been collecting records since they were children.

^ A lot of people tell me recently that it just sounds better.” Many customers prefer the artwork that accompanies a vinyl record, Howard said.

.During the early 1970s, as a cost-cutting move towards use of lightweight, flexible vinyl pressings, much of the industry adopted a technique of reducing the thickness and quality of vinyl used in mass-market manufacturing, marketed by RCA Victor as the "Dynaflex" (125 g) process, considered inferior by most record collectors.^ During the early 1970s, as a cost-cutting move towards use of lightweight, flexible vinyl pressings, much of the industry adopted a technique of reducing the thickness and quality of vinyl used in mass-market manufacturing, marketed by RCA Victor as the "Dynaflex" (125 g ) process, considered inferior by most record collectors.
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^ The quality of these versions was due to a different process used to transfer the recording to vinyl.
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^ While most vinyl records are pressed from metal discs known as 'stampers', a technique known as lathe-cutting is used to create the original discs.
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[35] .Most vinyl records are pressed from a mix of 70% virgin and 30% recycled vinyl.^ Most vinyl records are pressed from a mix of seventy per cent virgin vinyl and thirty per cent recycled vinyl.
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^ The majority of records are pressed on black vinyl .
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^ Most vinyl records are pressed on recycled vinyl.
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.New "virgin" or "heavy/heavyweight" (180–220 g) vinyl is commonly used for modern "audiophile" vinyl releases in all genres.^ New "virgin" or "heavy" (180-220 g/m²) vinyl is commonly used for modern "audiophile" vinyl releases in all genres .
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^ New "virgin" or "heavy/heavyweight" (180–220 g) vinyl is commonly used for modern "audiophile" vinyl releases in all genres .
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^ First the distributors began charging retailers more for new product if they returned unsold vinyl, and then they stopped providing any credit at all for returns.
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.Many collectors prefer to have heavyweight vinyl albums, and they have been reported to have a better sound than normal vinyl as they withstand the deformation caused by normal play better.^ Many collectors prefer to have 180 g/m² vinyl albums, and they have been reported to have a better sound than normal vinyl.
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^ Many collectors prefer to have 180 g vinyl albums, and they have been reported to have a better sound than normal vinyl.
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^ These albums tend to withstand the deformation caused by normal play better than regular vinyl [ citation needed ] .
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[36] .180 g vinyl is more expensive to produce only because it uses more vinyl.^ These albums tend to withstand the deformation caused by normal play better than regular vinyl [ 35 ] 180 g vinyl is more expensive to produce only because it uses more vinyl.
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^ Also, many customers collect vinyl for the bargaining experience - records, especially used ones, tend to be less expensive than CDs.

^ New "virgin" or "heavy" (180-220 g/m²) vinyl is commonly used for modern "audiophile" vinyl releases in all genres .
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.Manufacturing processes are identical regardless of weight.^ Manufacturing processes are identical regardless of weight.
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.In fact, pressing lightweight records requires more care.^ In fact, pressing lightweight records requires more care.
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^ Rainbo Records, which has been pressing vinyl LPs since 1955, doubled its production from 2006 to 2007 and more than doubled record output this past year.
  • Back to the future: Vinyl record sales double in '08, CDs down 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ While records are generally pressed on plain black vinyl, the album itself is given a much more ornamental appearance.
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.An exception is the propensity of 200 g pressings to be slightly more prone to "non-fill", where the vinyl biscuit does not sufficiently fill a deep groove during pressing (percussion or vocal amplitude changes are the usual locations of these artifacts).^ An exception is the propensity of 200 g pressings being slightly more prone to "non-fill", where the vinyl biscuit does not sufficiently fill a deep groove during pressing (percussion or vocal amplitude changes are the usual locations of these artifacts).
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^ Factory problems involving incomplete hot vinyl flow within the stamper could fail to accurately recreate a small section of one side of the groove, a problem called non-fill.
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^ This allowed the vinyl to flow better in the pressing stage and reduced the non-fill problem.
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.This flaw causes a grinding or scratching sound at the non-fill point.^ This flaw exhibits a grinding or scratching sound at the non-fill point.
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^ Non-fill made itself known as a tearing, grating or ripping sound.
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.Since most vinyl records contain up to 30% recycled vinyl, impurities can accumulate in the record and cause even a brand-new record to have audio artifacts such as clicks and pops.^ Dust and scratches cause audio clicks and pops.
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^ Since most vinyl records contain up to thirty per cent recycled vinyl, impurities can be accumulated in the record, causing a brand new album to have audio artifacts like clicks and pops.
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^ Most vinyl records are pressed on recycled vinyl.
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.Virgin vinyl means that the album is not from recycled plastic, and will theoretically be devoid of these impurities.^ Virgin vinyl means that the album is not from recycled plastic, and will theoretically be devoid of these impurities.
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^ Earache Records has released Cult Of Luna's classic first two albums on limited edition vinyl , marking the first time these albums have ever been pressed on vinyl.

^ Since most vinyl records are from recycled plastic, impurities can be accumulated in the record, causing a brand new album to have audio artifacts like clicks and pops.
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.In practice, this depends on the manufacturer's quality control.^ In practice, this depends on the manufacturer's quality control.
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.The orange peel effect on vinyl records is caused by worn molds.^ The orange peel effect on vinyl records is caused by worn molds.
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^ The orange peel effect on vinyl records is caused by worn moulds.
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^ It should be noted that with direct metal mastering (DMM) the master disc is cut on a copper-coated disc which can also have a minor "orange peel" effect.
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.Rather than having the proper mirror-like finish, the surface of the record will have a texture that looks like orange peel.^ Rather than having the proper mirror-like finish, the surface of the record will have what looks like an orange peel texture.
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^ The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them.
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^ The orange peel effect on vinyl records is caused by worn molds.
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.This introduces noise into the record, particularly in the lower frequency range.^ This introduces noise into the record, particularly in the lower frequency range.
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^ Decca in England employed high quality wide range microphones (condensers) for the Full Frequency Range Recording (FFRR) system ca.
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^ In 1925, electric recording extended the recorded frequency range from acoustic recording (168-2000 Hz) by 2½ octaves to 100-5000 Hz.
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.With direct metal mastering (DMM) the master disc is cut on a copper-coated disc which can also have a minor "orange peel" effect on the disc itself.^ It should be noted that with direct metal mastering (DMM) the master disc is cut on a copper-coated disc which can also have a minor "orange peel" effect.
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^ It should be noted that with direct metal mastering (DMM) the master disc is cut on a copper-coated disc which can also have a minor "orange peel" effect on the disc itself.
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^ Wax masters were made by flowing heated wax over a hot metal disc thus avoiding the microscopic irregularities of cast blocks of wax and the necessity of planing and polishing.
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.As this "orange peel" originates in the master rather than being introduced in the pressing stage, there is no ill-effect as there is no physical distortion of the groove.^ As this "orange peel" originates in the master rather than being introduced in the pressing stage, there is no ill-effect as there is no physical distortion of the groove.
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^ As this "orange peel" originates in the master rather than being introduced in the pressing stage, there is no ill-effect.
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^ These techniques, marketed, to name two, as the CBS DisComputer and Teldec Direct Metal Mastering, were used to reduce inner-groove distortion.
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.Original master discs are created by lathe-cutting: a lathe is used to cut a microgroove into an aluminum disc coated with nitro-cellulose lacquer, which is then electroplated with nickel; the nickel is then separated from the lacquer, destroying the lacquer impression.^ This master disc is then electroplated with nickel to form a positive disc known as a 'mother'.
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^ The lacquer disc is destroyed when the nickel impression is separated.
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^ A lathe is used to cut microgrooves into an aluminum disc coated with nitro-cellulose lacquer.
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.The "negative" nickel impression is known as a 'master' disc; it has a protrusion rather than a groove.^ This master disc is then electroplated with nickel to form a positive disc known as a 'mother'.
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^ This lacquer disc is then electroplated with nickel to form a negative known as a 'master' disc, which has a protrusion rather than a groove.
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^ Limitations in the disc cutting part of the process later generated the idea that half-speed mastering would improve quality (in which the source tape is played at half-speed and the lacquer/aluminum disc cut at 16⅔ rpm rather than 33⅓ rpm).
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.The master disc is then electroplated with nickel to form a positive disc known as a 'mother'. Many mothers can be taken from a single master before the master deteriorates beyond use.^ The metal master was then electroplated (electroformed)to create metal positive matrices, or "mothers".
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^ This master disc is then electroplated with nickel to form a positive disc known as a 'mother'.
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^ Many mothers can be grown from a single master before the master deteriorates beyond use.
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.The mothers are then nickel-plated to produce more negative discs known as 'stampers'. Again a single mother can be used to make many stampers before deteriorating beyond use.^ This master disc is then electroplated with nickel to form a positive disc known as a 'mother'.
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^ This master disc is then electroplated with nickel to form a a positive disc known as a 'mother'.
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^ In their own turn the mothers are nickel plated to produce more negative discs known as 'stampers'.
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.The stampers are then used to mold the final vinyl discs.^ It is these stampers that are then used to mould the final vinyl discs.
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^ It is these stampers that are then used to mold the final vinyl discs.
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^ While most vinyl records are pressed from metal discs known as 'stampers', a technique known as lathe-cutting is used to create the original discs.
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[37] .In this way several million vinyl discs can be produced from a single lacquer original.^ In this way several million vinyl discs can be produced from a single lacquer original.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While most vinyl records are pressed from metal discs known as 'stampers', a technique known as lathe-cutting is used to create the original discs.
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^ For production of discs where a relatively small quantity is required, the first nickel negative grown from the lacquer original can be used as a stamper.
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.When only a few discs are required, the first nickel negative grown from the lacquer original can be used as a stamper.^ For production of discs where a relatively small quantity is required, the first nickel negative grown from the lacquer original can be used as a stamper.
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^ For production of discs where a relatively small quantity is required, the first nickel negative grown from the lacquer original is used directly as a stamper.
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^ EP discs were generally used to reissue LP albums on the smaller format for those people who had only 45 rpm players.
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.Production by this latter process (known as the 'one-step-process') is limited to a few hundred vinyl discs; possibly more if the stamper holds out and the quality of the vinyl is high.^ Production by this latter process (known as the 'one-step-process') is limited to a few hundred vinyl discs or more if the stamper holds out and the quality of the vinyl is high.
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^ Production by this latter process (known as the 'half process') is limited to a few hundred vinyl discs.
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^ In many cases vinyl runs are limited to relatively small numbers of units pressed and in some way it makes you feel like one of the few lucky people owning a specific record.
  • Vinyl frontier: Why records sales are soaring again | Music | guardian.co.uk 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

.As in any analog copying process, each generation of copy is to some extent inferior and noisier than the previous generation, so there is some loss of quality in the progression from original to master to mother to stamper to vinyl disc.^ This master disc is then electroplated with nickel to form a positive disc known as a 'mother'.
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^ The vinyl discs are high quality pressings made in Germany.The Systematics "What We Did In The Afternoon" is limited to 500 handnumbered copies VARIOUS ARTISTS: Echoes from the past Lp+7“(ANNA 009.2007) lmtd.
  • Vinyl-On-Demand Records's MySpace Blog | 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC blogs.myspace.com [Source type: General]

^ Limitations in the disc cutting part of the process later generated the idea that half-speed mastering would improve quality (in which the source tape is played at half-speed and the lacquer/aluminum disc cut at 16⅔ rpm rather than 33⅓ rpm).
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Limitations

Shellac

.Shellac 78s are brittle, and must be handled carefully.^ Shellac 78s are brittle, and must be handled carefully.
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.In the event of a 78 breaking, the pieces might remain loosely connected by the label and still be playable if the label holds them together, although there is a loud "pop" with each pass over the crack, and breaking of the stylus is likely.^ In the event of a 78 breaking, the pieces might remain loosely connected by the label and still be playable if the label holds them together, although there is a loud "pop" with each pass over the crack, and breaking of the stylus is likely.
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^ Yeah, just in case you come around a corner and there is a huge piece of playground equipment you might hit.
  • Early Coolest Race Report? - Mtbr.com Forums 18 September 2009 6:29 UTC forums.mtbr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A static electric charge could build up on the surface of the spinning record and discharge into the stylus, making a loud 'pop'.
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.Breakage was very common in the shellac era.^ Breakage was very common in the shellac era.
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.In the 1934 novel, Appointment in Samarra, the protagonist "broke one of his most favorites, Whiteman's Lady of the Evening ...^ In the 1934 novel, Appointment in Samarra , the protagonist "broke one of his most favorites, Whiteman 's Lady of the Evening ...
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^ A poignant moment in J. D. Salinger 's 1951 novel The Catcher in the Rye occurs after the adolescent protagonist buys a record for his younger sister but drops it and "it broke into pieces ...
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^ Linda McGinley , one of Five Figs' favorite seamstresses, is visiting the boutique for an evening of alterations!
  • Sacramento Bee -- 21Q 18 September 2009 6:29 UTC www.sacbee.com [Source type: General]

.He wanted to cry but could not."^ He wanted to cry but could not."
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.A poignant moment in J. D. Salinger's 1951 novel The Catcher in the Rye occurs after the adolescent protagonist buys a record for his younger sister but drops it and "it broke into pieces ...^ A poignant moment in J. D. Salinger 's 1951 novel The Catcher in the Rye occurs after the adolescent protagonist buys a record for his younger sister but drops it and "it broke into pieces ...
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.I damn near cried, it made me feel so terrible."^ I damn near cried, it made me feel so terrible."
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.A sequence where a school teacher's collection of 78 rpm jazz records is smashed by a group of rebellious students is a key moment in the film Blackboard Jungle.^ A sequence where a school teacher's collection of 78 rpm jazz records is smashed by a group of rebellious students is a key moment in the film Blackboard Jungle .
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^ A sequence where a school teacher's collection of 78 RPM jazz records is smashed by a group of rebellious students is a key moment in the film Blackboard Jungle .
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^ For example, Columbia Records ' last reissue of Frank Sinatra songs on 78 rpm records was an album called "Young at Heart", issued November 1, 1954.
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.Another problem with Shellac was that the size of the disks tended to be larger due to the fact that it was limited to 80-100 groove walls per inch before the risk of groove collapse became too high, whereas vinyl could have up to 260 groove walls per inch.^ Another problem with Shellac was that the size of the disks tended to be larger due to the fact that it was limited to 80-100 groove walls per inch before the risk of groove collapse became too high, whereas vinyl could have up to 260 groove walls per inch.
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^ They also became a popular means of distribution among Soviet punk bands; in addition to the high cost and low availability of vinyl, punk music was politically suppressed, and publishing outlets were limited.
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^ Production by this latter process (known as the 'one-step-process') is limited to a few hundred vinyl discs or more if the stamper holds out and the quality of the vinyl is high.
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[38][39]
.By the time World War II began, major labels were experimenting with laminated records.^ Twenty years after it began, Record Collector is the world's leading magazine in its field.

^ This term did not come into use until after World War II when a need developed to distinguish the 78 from other newer disc record formats, an example of a retronym .
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^ Lateral-cut disc records were invented by Emile Berliner in 1888 and were used exclusively in toys until 1894, when Berliner began marketing disc records under the Berliner Gramophone label.
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.As stated above, and in several record advertisements of the period ``the materials that make for a quiet surface (shellacque) are notoriously weak and brittle.^ Also during this period, "half-speed mastered" and "original master" records were released, using expensive state-of-the-art technology.
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^ A static electric charge could build up on the surface of the spinning record and discharge into the stylus, making a loud 'pop'.
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.Conversely the materials that make for a strong disc (cardboard and other fiber products) are not those known for allowing a quiet noise-free surface.^ Moriarty: Be quiet, or I'll tell them who sold those three cardboard tanks.
  • The Goon Show Site - Comedy Quotes From The Goons 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC www.thegoonshow.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Production by this latter process (known as the 'half process') is limited to a few hundred vinyl discs.
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^ Two main elements were combined: another disk material with less surface noise in the groove and dynamic expansion for masking background noise.
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.Solution: (according to the same period-advertisements) put strength in the core (with a fibre centre) and quality on the surfaces (with some of the newly developed forms of shellacque).^ Some small recording labels advertised their special curves which were the same as Columbia/RCA Ortophonic curves.
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.Because the noise floor on the disc was so much lower, this would allow a greater dynamic range to be recorded than could be accomplished on the old shellacque-only discs.^ This introduces noise into the record, particularly in the lower frequency range.
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^ A wide frequency range could now be recorded with a big increase in playback volume limited only by the pitch of the grooves in the record.
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^ In fact it is possible to have eighty- or even ninety-year-old records that sound as new as brand new discs with pops and ticks.
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[citation needed]

Vinyl

.Vinyl records do not break easily, but the soft material is easily scratched.^ Vinyl records do not break easily, but the soft material is easily scratched.
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^ Single-Record (45 rpm) Vinyl records do not break easily, but the soft material is easily scratched.
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^ A dusty/scratched vinyl record being played.
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.Vinyl readily acquires a static charge, attracting dust that is difficult to remove completely.^ Vinyl readily acquires a static charge, attracting dust that is difficult to remove completely.
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^ Paper sleeves deteriorate over time, leave dusty fibers, and produce static that attract dust.
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.Dust and scratches cause audio clicks and pops.^ Dust and scratches cause audio clicks and pops.
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^ Since most vinyl records contain up to thirty per cent recycled vinyl, impurities can be accumulated in the record, causing a brand new album to have audio artifacts like clicks and pops.
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^ Since most vinyl records are from recycled plastic, impurities can be accumulated in the record, causing a brand new album to have audio artifacts like clicks and pops.
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.In extreme cases, they can cause the needle to skip over a series of grooves, or worse yet, cause the needle to skip backwards, creating a "locked groove" that repeats over and over.^ In extreme cases, they can cause the needle to skip over a series of grooves, or worse yet, cause the needle to skip backwards, creating a "locked groove" that repeats over and over.
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^ In extreme cases, they can cause the needle to skip over a series of grooves, or worse yet, cause the needle to skip backwards, creating a "locked groove" that repeats the same 1.8 seconds of track (at 33⅓ rpm) over and over.
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^ Heavier accidents could cause the stylus to break through the groove wall as it was playing, creating a permanent skip that would cause the stylus to either skip ahead to the next groove or skip back to the previous groove.
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.Locked grooves were not uncommon and were even heard occasionally in broadcasts.^ Locked grooves were not uncommon and were even heard occasionally in broadcasts.
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.
A dusty/scratched vinyl record being played.
^ A dusty/scratched vinyl record being played.
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^ In the mid-1940s, special DJ copies of records started being made of vinyl also, for the same reason.
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^ Vinyl records do not break easily, but the soft material is easily scratched.
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Note how the dust settles into the grooves.
.Vinyl records can be warped by heat, improper storage, or manufacturing defects such as excessively tight plastic shrinkwrap on the album cover.^ The manufacturing and production of vinyl records .
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^ Vinyl records can be warped by heat , improper storage, or manufacturing defects such as excessively tight plastic shrinkwrap on the album cover.
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^ The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them.
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.A small degree of warp was common, and allowing for it was part of the art of turntable and tonearm design.^ A small degree of warp was common, and allowing for it was part of the art of turntable and tonearm design.
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."Wow" (once-per-revolution pitch variation) could result from warp, or from a spindle hole that was not precisely centered.^ Wow " (once-per-revolution pitch variation) could result from warp, or from a spindle hole that was not precisely centered.
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^ Heat could warp the disk, causing pitch and tone problems if minor; tracking problems if major.
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^ The chief advantage claimed was more grooves per inch which could be crowded together resulting in longer playback time.
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.Standard practice for LPs, which were more expensive than singles, was to include the LP in a plastic lined inner cover.^ Standard practice for LPs, which were more expensive than singles, was to include the LP in a plastic lined inner cover.
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^ With regard to inner sleeves, plastic polyethylene is purported to be better than the common paper sleeve and less bulky than the poly-lined paper variety.
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^ The double LP comes in gatefold cover with special finish print and stamped inner sleeves.
  • Vinyl-On-Demand Records's MySpace Blog | 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC blogs.myspace.com [Source type: General]

.This, if placed within the outer cardboard cover so that the opening was entirely within the outer cover, was said to reduce ingress of dust onto the record surface.^ This, if placed within the outer cardboard cover so that the opening was entirely within the outer cover, was said to reduce ingress of dust onto the record surface.
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^ Many new records include a CD version of the album or a code to download the album onto an MP3 player, which also helps sales, Pfefferkorn said.

^ This would allow records to be stacked onto each other, gripping each other without the delicate grooves coming into contact, thus reducing the risk of damage.
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.Singles, with rare exceptions, had simple paper covers with no inner cover.^ Singles, with rare exceptions, had simple paper covers with no inner cover.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Standard practice for LPs, which were more expensive than singles, was to include the LP in a plastic lined inner cover.
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^ Generally, the outer and inner parts of the groove bear no intended sound (at least one exception is Split Enz 's Mental Notes ).
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There is controversy about the relative quality of CD sound and LP sound when the latter is heard under the very best conditions (see Analog vs. Digital sound argument).
.A further limitation of the record is that with a constant rotational speed, the quality of the sound may differ across the width of the record because the inner groove modulations are more compressed than those of the outer tracks.^ A further limitation of the record is that with a constant rotational speed, the quality of the sound may differ across the width of the record because the inner groove modulations are more compressed than those of the outer tracks.
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^ The helix angle may be changed plus or minus twenty (+/−20) degrees to make patterns where the tuftstrings are at angles different than zero and ninety degrees.
  • Velour-like pile articles and pile surface structures and methods of making - Patent 6720058 18 September 2009 6:29 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To further complicate matters, identical equalization curves existed but were named differently by different recording labels.
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.The result is that inner tracks have distortion that can be noticeable at higher recording levels.^ The result is that inner tracks have distortion that can be noticeable at higher recording levels.
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^ Also the higher track density at lower volumes enabled disk recordings to end farther away from the inner circle than usual, helping to reduce endtrack distortion even further.
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^ Also the higher track density at lower volumes enabled disk recordings to end farther away from the inner circle than usual, helping to reduce endtrack distorsion even further.
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.7-inch singles were typically poorer quality for a variety of the reasons mentioned above, and in the 1970s the 12-inch single (sometimes referred to as a "doughnut"), manufactured at both 33⅓ and 45 rpm, became popular for DJ use and for fans and collectors.^ DJ use and for fans and collectors.
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^ A further late 1970s development was the Disco Eye-Cued(TM) system used mainly on Motown 12" singles released between 1978 and 1980.
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^ A further late 1970s development was the Disco Eye-Cued system used mainly on Motown 12-inch singles released between 1978 and 1980.
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.Another problem arises because of the geometry of the tonearm.^ Another problem arises because of the geometry of the tonearm.
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.Master recordings are cut on a recording lathe where a sapphire stylus moves radially across the blank, suspended on a straight track and driven by a lead screw.^ Master recordings are cut on a recording lathe, where a sapphire stylus moves radially across the blank, suspended on a straight track and driven by a lead screw.
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^ Master recordings are cut on a recording lathe where a sapphire stylus moves radially across the blank, suspended on a straight track and driven by a lead screw.
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^ After separating from the Master a new mother was polished with a fine abrasive to remove or at least round-off the microscopic "horns" at the top of the grooves, produced by the cutting lathe.
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.Most turntables use a pivoting tonearm, introducing side forces and pitch and azimuth errors, and thus distortion in the playback signal.^ Most turntables use a pivoting tonearm, introducing side forces and pitch and azimuth errors, and thus distortion in the playback signal.
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^ The "warmer" sound of analog records is generally believed on both sides of the argument to be an artifact of harmonic distortion and signal compression .
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^ During playback the combined signal is sensed by a left channel coil mounted diagonally opposite the inner side of the groove, and a right channel coil mounted diagonally opposite the outer side of the groove.
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.Various mechanisms were devised in attempts to compensate, with varying degrees of success.^ Various mechanisms were devised in attempts to compensate, with varying degrees of success.
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.See more at phonograph.^ See more at phonograph .
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Frequency response and noise

.In 1925, electric recording extended the recorded frequency range from acoustic recording (168–2000 Hz) by 2½ octaves to 100–5000 Hz.^ In 1925, electric recording extended the recorded frequency range from acoustic recording (168–2000 Hz) by 2½ octaves to 100–5000 Hz.
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^ In 1925, electric recording extended the recorded frequency range from acoustic recording (168-2000 Hz) by 2½ octaves to 100-5000 Hz.
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^ The early electric recordings were reminiscent tonally of acoustic recordings except there was more recorded bass and treble as well as delicate sounds and overtones cut on the records.
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.Even so, these early electronically recorded records used the exponential-horn phonograph (see Orthophonic Victrola) for reproduction.^ Even so, these early electronically recorded records used the exponential-horn phonograph (see Orthophonic Victrola ) for reproduction.
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^ For example, Nimbus Records uses a specially built horn record player [9] to transfer 78s.
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^ As these were played from the inside to the outside, the rpm of the record reduced as reproduction progressed (as is also true of the modern Compact Disc ).
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.The frequency response of vinyl records may be degraded by frequent playback if the cartridge is set to track too heavily, or the stylus is not compliant enough to trace the high frequency grooves accurately, or the cartridge/tonearm is not properly aligned.^ The frequency response of vinyl records may be degraded by frequent playback if the cartridge is set to track too heavily, or the stylus is not compliant enough to trace the high frequency grooves accurately, or the cartridge/tonearm is not properly aligned.
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^ Master recordings are cut on a recording lathe, where a sapphire stylus moves radially across the blank, suspended on a straight track and driven by a lead screw.
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^ Heavenly Oceans ' 2006 album The Original Motion Picture Soundtrack released on vinyl and CD. Groove recordings, first designed in the final quarter of the 19th century, held a predominant position for nearly a century—withstanding competition from reel-to-reel tape , the 8-track cartridge and the compact cassette .
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.The RIAA has suggested the following acceptable losses: down to 20 kHz after one play, 18 kHz after three plays, 17 kHz after five, 16 kHz after eight, 14 kHz after fifteen, 13 kHz after twenty five, 10 kHz after thirty five, and 8 kHz after eighty plays.^ The RIAA has suggested the following acceptable losses: down to 20 kHz after one play, 18 kHz after three plays, 17 kHz after five, 16 kHz after eight, 14 kHz after fifteen, 13 kHz after twenty five, 10 kHz after thirty five, and 8 kHz after eighty plays.
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^ Belinda’s dead friends Outake 88) 4,10 13.Power of Spirit (Demo 87) 3,46 14.
  • Vinyl-On-Demand Records's MySpace Blog | 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC blogs.myspace.com [Source type: General]

^ Chemical analysis gives 14.08% N and 48.17% S compared to 14.16% N and 48.65% calculated for C 6 H 4 Cl 2 N 4 S 6 .
  • Method for cross-linking rubber - Patent 3869435 18 September 2009 6:29 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.While this degradation is possible if the record is played on improperly set up equipment, many collectors of LPs report excellent sound quality on LPs played many more times when using care and high quality equipment.^ While this degradation is possible if the record is played on improperly set up equipment, many collectors of LPs report excellent sound quality on LPs played many more times when using care and high quality equipment.
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^ The sound quality and durability of vinyl records is highly dependent on the quality of the vinyl .
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^ The advantages of this system over the earlier more direct system included ability to make a large number of records quickly by using multiple stampers.
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.This rapid sound degradation is not usually typical on modern Hi-Fi equipment with a properly balanced tonearm and well balanced low-mass stylus.^ This rapid sound degradation is not usually typical on modern Hi-Fi equipment with a properly balanced tonearm and well balanced low-mass stylus.
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^ Those of you (OK, me) expecting the usual chunk of backstory that Rowling typically starts her books with - well, not so much here.
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^ Even an acoustic recording played back electrically on modern equipment sounds like it was recorded through a horn, not withstanding a 50% reduction in distortion because of the modern playback.
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.CD-4 LPs contain two sub-carriers, one in the left groove wall and one in the right groove wall.^ CD-4 LPs contain two sub-carriers, one in the left groove wall and one in the right groove wall.
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^ Many record collectors report that the CD-4 sub-carriers are still playable, even though the records have been played extensively and are in excess of 30 years old.
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^ It should be noted that CD-4 sub-carriers could be played with any type stylus as long as the pickup cartridge had CD-4 frequency response.
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.These sub-carriers use special FM-PM-SSBFM (Frequency Modulation-Phase Modulation-Single Sideband Frequency Modulation) and have signal frequencies that extend to 45 kHz.^ These sub-carriers use special FM-PM-SSBFM (Frequency Modulation-Phase Modulation-Single Sideband Frequency Modulation) and have signal frequencies that extend to 45 kHz.
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^ It should be noted that CD-4 sub-carriers could be played with any type stylus as long as the pickup cartridge had CD-4 frequency response.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The single mandrel tuftstring former 150 in FIG. 10 or module 55 in FIG. 5 require some special control considerations that can best be discussed referring to FIG. 10 .
  • Velour-like pile articles and pile surface structures and methods of making - Patent 6720058 18 September 2009 6:29 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It should be noted that CD-4 sub-carriers could be played with any type stylus as long as the pickup cartridge had CD-4 frequency response.^ It should be noted that these records could be played with any type stylus as long as the pickup cartridge had CD-4 frequency response.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It should be noted that CD-4 sub-carriers could be played with any type stylus as long as the pickup cartridge had CD-4 frequency response.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A different format, CD-4 (not to be confused with compact disc ), by RCA, encoded rear channel information on an ultrasonic carrier, which required a special wideband cartridge to capture it on carefully-calibrated pickup arm/turntable combinations.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The recommended Stylus for CD-4 as well as regular stereo records was a line contact or Shibata type.^ The recommended Stylus for CD-4 as well as regular stereo records was a line contact or Shibata type.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Regular readers know that I love interesting stories about record stores that are doing well.

^ It should be noted that these records could be played with any type stylus as long as the pickup cartridge had CD-4 frequency response.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gramophone sound suffers from rumble, low-frequency (below about 30 Hz) mechanical noise generated by the motor bearings and picked up by the stylus.^ Gramophone sound suffers from rumble, low-frequency (below about 30 Hz) mechanical noise generated by the motor bearings and picked up by the stylus.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During a quiet passage, woofer speaker cones can sometimes be seen to vibrate with the subsonic tracking of the stylus, at frequencies as low as about 0.5 Hz (the frequency at which a 33⅓ rpm record turns on the turntable).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Room vibrations will also be picked up if the pedestal—turntable—pickup arm—stylus system is not well damped.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Equipment of modest quality is relatively unaffected by these issues, as the amplifier and speaker will not reproduce such low frequencies, but high-fidelity turntable assemblies need careful design to minimize audible rumble.^ High fidelity sound equipment can reproduce tracking noise and rumble.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Equipment of modest quality is relatively unaffected by these issues, as the amplifier and speaker will not reproduce such low frequencies, but high-fidelity turntable assemblies need careful design to minimize audible rumble.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The business grew like "wild fire" as did the widespread interest in high fidelity sound and the do-it-yourself market for pickups, turntables, amplifier kits, loudspeaker enclosure plans, and AM/FM radio tuners.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Room vibrations will also be picked up if the pedestal—turntable—pickup arm—stylus system is not well damped.^ Room vibrations will also be picked up if the pedestal—turntable—pickup arm—stylus system is not well damped.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Room vibrations will also be picked up if the pedestal - turntable - pickup arm - stylus system is not well damped.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It suggests picking up your bag from your room, and exploring the kitchen.

.Tonearm skating forces and other perturbations are also picked up by the stylus.^ Tonearm skating forces and other perturbations are also picked up by the stylus.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Room vibrations will also be picked up if the pedestal—turntable—pickup arm—stylus system is not well damped.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gramophone sound suffers from rumble, low-frequency (below about 30 Hz) mechanical noise generated by the motor bearings and picked up by the stylus.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is a form of frequency multiplexing as the "control signal" (restoring force) used to keep the stylus in the groove is carried by the same mechanism as the sound itself.^ This is a form of frequency multiplexing as the "control signal" (restoring force) used to keep the stylus in the groove is carried by the same mechanism as the sound itself.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tracking force of the stylus was not always the same from beginning to end of the groove.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the very end of this section, the groove joins itself to form a complete circle, called the lock groove ; when the stylus reaches this point, it circles repeatedly until lifted from the record.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Subsonic frequencies below about 20 Hz in the audio signal are dominated by tracking effects, which is one form of unwanted rumble ("tracking noise") and merges with audible frequencies in the deep bass range up to about 100 Hz.^ Subsonic frequencies below about 20 Hz in the audio signal are dominated by tracking effects, which is one form of unwanted rumble ("tracking noise") and merges with audible frequencies in the deep bass range up to about 100 Hz.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was able to chat with him for about 20 minutes this morning, right after he woke up, right before he starts prepping for tonight's big competition.
  • Sacramento Bee -- 21Q 18 September 2009 6:29 UTC www.sacbee.com [Source type: General]

^ During a quiet passage, woofer speaker cones can sometimes be seen to vibrate with the subsonic tracking of the stylus, at frequencies as low as about 0.5 Hz (the frequency at which a 33⅓ rpm record turns on the turntable).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.High fidelity sound equipment can reproduce tracking noise and rumble.^ High fidelity sound equipment can reproduce tracking noise and rumble.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is possible because the initial recording is captured on an analog source (usually tape) for the ultimate in High Fidelity sound, it is then pressed onto virgin vinyl.
  • Husker Du - Land Speed Record, Vinyl Records at SoundStage Direct Vinyl Records 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.soundstagedirect.com [Source type: General]

^ A 180 or 200 gram LP is sometimes also referred to as an audiophile pressing, there is a higher bass response and an even warmer High Fidelity sound.
  • Husker Du - Land Speed Record, Vinyl Records at SoundStage Direct Vinyl Records 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC www.soundstagedirect.com [Source type: General]

.During a quiet passage, woofer speaker cones can sometimes be seen to vibrate with the subsonic tracking of the stylus, at frequencies as low as about 0.5 Hz (the frequency at which a 33⅓ rpm record turns on the turntable).^ During a quiet passage, woofer speaker cones can sometimes be seen to vibrate with the subsonic tracking of the stylus, at frequencies as low as about 0.5 Hz (the frequency at which a 33⅓ rpm record turns on the turntable).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During a quiet passage, woofer speaker cones can sometimes be seen to vibrate with the subsonic tracking of the stylus, at frequencies as low as about 0.5 Hz (the frequency at which a 33-1/3 rpm record turns on the turntable).
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Master recordings are cut on a recording lathe, where a sapphire stylus moves radially across the blank, suspended on a straight track and driven by a lead screw.
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.Another reason for very low frequency material can be a warped disk: its undulations produce frequencies of only a few hertz and presentday amplifiers have large power bandwidths.^ Another reason for very low frequency material can be a warped disk: its undulations produce frequencies of only a few Hertz and presentday amplifiers have large power bandwidths.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another reason for very low frequency material can be a warped disk: its undulations produce frequencies of only a few hertz and presentday amplifiers have large power bandwidths.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The aim of the commune was to create a closed subsystem, a kind of subsociety and to narrow down its contact to the outside world only on very few specific actions.
  • Vinyl-On-Demand Records's MySpace Blog | 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC blogs.myspace.com [Source type: General]

.For this reason, many stereo receivers contained a switchable subsonic filter.^ For this reason, many stereo receivers contained a switchable subsonic filer.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For this reason, many stereo receivers contained a switchable subsonic filter.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some subsonic content is directly out of phase in each channel.^ Some subsonic content is directly out of phase in each channel.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If played back on a mono subwoofer system, the noise will cancel, significantly reducing the amount of rumble that is reproduced.^ If played back on a mono subwoofer system, the noise will cancel, significantly reducing the amount of rumble that is reproduced.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the record was played back using a complementary inverse curve, signal to noise ratio was improved and the programming sounded more life-like.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High fidelity sound equipment can reproduce tracking noise and rumble.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At high audible frequencies, hiss is generated as the stylus rubs against the vinyl, and from dirt and dust on the vinyl.^ At high audible frequencies, hiss is generated as the stylus rubs against the vinyl, and from dirt and dust on the vinyl.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The heated stylus improved the cutting of high frequencies.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gramophone sound suffers from rumble, low-frequency (below about 30 Hz) mechanical noise generated by the motor bearings and picked up by the stylus.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Noise can be reduced somewhat by cleaning the record prior to playback.^ Noise can be reduced somewhat by cleaning the record prior to playback.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The result should be that the sound is perceived to be without change, thus more music will fit the record, and noise is reduced.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another method, introduced by the Lenco company is playing the disk "wet". Using a special dispenser the groove is wetted ahead of the stylus passing by and dries up afterwards.^ Another method, introduced by the Lenco company is playing the disk "wet".
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using a special dispenser the groove is wetted ahead of the stylus passing by and dries up afterwards.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sending scanner contains a photo-electric cell and some optics, and the receiver creates the image on special paper using a heated stylus.

.This certainly reduces hiss, but when it became clear that any disk once played wet, should forever be played this way because of residue left behind, people did not change over in great numbers.^ This certainly reduces hiss, but when it became clear that any disk once played wet, should forever be played this way because of residue left behind, people did not change over in great numbers.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another method, introduced by the Lenco company is playing the disk "wet".
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have to admit that I did slightly and I should have known when I overheard the guy earlier saying something about spooking people at night.
  • Early Coolest Race Report? - Mtbr.com Forums 18 September 2009 6:29 UTC forums.mtbr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With normal cleaning this problem does not occur (this also seems to remove Lenco residue if present).^ With normal cleaning this problem does not occur (this also seems to remove Lenco residue if present).
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Equalization

.Due to recording mastering and manufacturing limitations, both high and low frequencies were removed from the first recorded signals by various formulae.^ Due to recording mastering and manufacturing limitations, both high and low frequencies were removed from the first recorded signals by various formulae.
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^ Decca in England employed high quality wide range microphones (condensers) for the Full Frequency Range Recording (FFRR) system ca.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the first several decades of disc record manufacturing, sound was recorded directly on to the master disc (also called the matrix, sometimes just the master) at the recording studio.
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.With low frequencies, the stylus must swing a long way from side to side, requiring the groove to be wide, taking up more space and limiting the playing time of the record.^ The playing time of a phonograph record depended on the turntable speed and the groove spacing.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With low frequencies, the stylus must swing a long way from side to side, requiring the groove to be wide, taking up more space and limiting the playing time of the record.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The introduction, drum-breaks or choruses of a track were indicated by widely separated grooves, giving a visual clue to DJs mixing the records.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At high frequencies noise is significant.^ At high frequencies noise is significant.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These problems can be compensated for by using equalization to an agreed standard.^ These problems can be compensated for by using equalization to an agreed standard.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These clumps can create problems in handling the strand and in proper bonding of the strand using ultrasonics.
  • Velour-like pile articles and pile surface structures and methods of making - Patent 6720058 18 September 2009 6:29 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the mid-1950s all record companies agreed to a common recording standard called RIAA equalization .
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This simply means reducing the amplitude at low-frequencies, thus reducing the groove width required, and increasing the amplitude at high frequencies.^ This simply means reducing the amplitude at low-frequencies, thus reducing the groove width required, and increasing the amplitude at high frequencies.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A preferred drawable strand for a moldable carpet should not have too high a melt temperature compared to the backing, so the required molding stretch at a low force can be achieved.
  • Velour-like pile articles and pile surface structures and methods of making - Patent 6720058 18 September 2009 6:29 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This meant that as frequency increased in the treble, recording amplitude decreased.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The playback equipment boosts bass and cuts treble in a complementary way.^ The playback equipment boosts bass and cuts treble in a complementary way.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The early electric recordings were reminiscent tonally of acoustic recordings except there was more recorded bass and treble as well as delicate sounds and overtones cut on the records.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Columbia disclosed a recording characteristic showing that it was like the NAB curve in the treble, but had more bass boost or pre-emphasis below 200 Hz.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The result should be that the sound is perceived to be without change, thus more music will fit the record, and noise is reduced.^ This track was the result or many hours of rewinding and re-playing and re-recording, and thus began Liles fascination, obsession and addiction with tape-manipulation, sound FX and recording techniques.
  • Vinyl-On-Demand Records's MySpace Blog | 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC blogs.myspace.com [Source type: General]

^ To order, contact me via e-mail adam@usedrecordsandmore.com More Music's Collectors resource guide; UK record shop directory .
  • Adam's Used Records Emporium - vinyl records LPs for sale 3 February 2010 19:019 UTC usedrecordsandmore.com [Source type: General]

.The agreed standard has been RIAA equalization since 1952, implemented in 1955. Prior to that, especially from 1940, some 100 formulae were used by the record manufacturers.^ The agreed standard has been RIAA equalization since 1952, implemented in 1955.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These problems can be compensated for by using equalization to an agreed standard.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prior to that, especially from 1940, some 100 formulae were used by the record manufacturers.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1926 it was disclosed by Joseph P. Maxwell and Henry C. Harrison from Bell Telephone Laboratories that the recording pattern of the Western Electric (W. E.) "rubber line" magnetic disc cutter had a constant velocity characteristic.^ In 1926 it was disclosed by Joseph P. Maxwell and Henry C. Harrison from Bell Telephone Laboratories that the recording pattern of the Western Electric (W. E.) "rubber line" magnetic disc cutter had a constant velocity characteristic.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The recording speed was 33⅓ rpm, originally used in the Western Electric/ERPI movie audio disc system implemented in the early Warner Brothers' Vitaphone "talkies" of 1927.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The recording speed was 33 1/3 rpm, originally used in the Western Electric/ERPI movie audio disc system implemented in the early Warner Brothers' Vitaphone "talkies" of 1927.
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.This meant that as frequency increased in the treble, recording amplitude decreased.^ This meant that as frequency increased in the treble, recording amplitude decreased.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conversely, in the bass as frequency decreased, recording amplitude increased.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A wide frequency range could now be recorded with a big increase in playback volume limited only by the pitch of the grooves in the record.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Conversely, in the bass as frequency decreased, recording amplitude increased.^ This meant that as frequency increased in the treble, recording amplitude decreased.
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^ Conversely, in the bass as frequency decreased, recording amplitude increased.
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^ This simply means reducing the amplitude at low-frequencies, thus reducing the groove width required, and increasing the amplitude at high frequencies.
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.Therefore, it was necessary to attenuate the bass frequencies below about 250 Hz, the bass turnover point, in the amplified microphone signal fed to the recording head.^ Therefore, it was necessary to attenuate the bass frequencies below about 250 Hz, the bass turnover point, in the amplified microphone signal fed to the recording head.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ German electrical record of the Carl Lindström AG During the 1920s, engineers including Orlando R. Marsh , as well as those at Western Electric , developed technology for capturing sound with microphones, amplifying it with vacuum tubes, and using the amplified signal to drive an electromagnetic recording head.
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^ For example, in Europe recordings for years required playback with a bass turnover setting of 250–300 Hz and a treble rolloff at 10,000 Hz ranging from 0 to −5 dB or more.
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.Otherwise, bass modulation became excessive and overcutting took place into the next record groove.^ Otherwise, bass modulation became excessive and overcutting took place into the next record groove.
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^ The material that the records were made from (advertised as "Victrolac") was soft and it was possible to somewhat modulate the grooves using the pick-up with proper recording needle and a fairly heavy weight placed on the pick-up.
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^ The recording is played back by rotating the disc clockwise at a constant rotational speed with a stylus (needle) placed in the groove, converting the vibrations of the stylus into an electric signal (see magnetic cartridge ), and sending this signal through an amplifier to loudspeakers .
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.When played back electrically with a magnetic pickup having a smooth response in the bass region, a complementary boost in amplitude at the bass turnover point was necessary.^ When played back electrically with a magnetic pickup having a smooth response in the bass region, a complementary boost in amplitude at the bass turnover point was necessary.
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^ It should be noted that these records could be played with any type stylus as long as the pickup cartridge had CD-4 frequency response.
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^ When the record was played back using a complementary inverse curve, signal to noise ratio was improved and the programming sounded more life-like.
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.G. H. Miller in 1934 reported that when complementary boost at the turnover point was used in radio broadcasts of records, the reproduction was more realistic and many of the musical instruments stood out in their true form.^ G. H. Miller in 1934 reported that when complementary boost at the turnover point was used in radio broadcasts of records, the reproduction was more realistic and many of the musical instruments stood out in their true form.
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^ They are used predominantly by young adults, as well as DJs and audiophiles for many types of music.
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^ As these were played from the inside to the outside, the rpm of the record reduced as reproduction progressed (as is also true of the modern Compact Disc ).
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.West in 1930 and later P. G. H. Voight (1940) showed that the early Wente-style condenser microphones contributed to a 4 to 6 dB midrange brilliance or pre-emphasis in the recording chain.^ West in 1930 and later P. G. H. Voight (1940) showed that the early Wente-style condenser microphones contributed to a 4 to 6 dB midrange brilliance or pre-emphasis in the recording chain.
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^ Alternatively, the Wente style condenser microphone used with the Western Electric (W. E.) licensed recording method had a brilliant midrange and was prone to overloading from sibilants in speech, but it was generally better at picking up sounds more accurately than carbon microphones were.
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^ Columbia disclosed a recording characteristic showing that it was like the NAB curve in the treble, but had more bass boost or pre-emphasis below 200 Hz.
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.This meant that the electrical recording characteristics of W. E. licensees such as Columbia Records and Victor Talking Machine Company in the 1925 era had a higher amplitude in the midrange region.^ This meant that the electrical recording characteristics of W. E. licensees such as Columbia Records and Victor Talking Machine Company in the 1925 era had a higher amplitude in the midrange region.
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^ Heretofore, electrical recording technology from company to company was considered a proprietary art all the way back to the 1925 W. E. licensed method used by Columbia and Victor.
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^ In 1925, electric recording extended the recorded frequency range from acoustic recording (168-2000 Hz) by 2½ octaves to 100-5000 Hz.
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.Brilliance such as this compensated for dullness in many early magnetic pickups having drooping midrange and treble response.^ Brilliance such as this compensated for dullness in many early magnetic pickups having drooping midrange and treble response.
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^ When played back electrically with a magnetic pickup having a smooth response in the bass region, a complementary boost in amplitude at the bass turnover point was necessary.
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.As a result, this practice was the empirical beginning of using pre-emphasis above 1,000 Hz in 78 rpm and 33⅓ rpm records.^ As a result, this practice was the empirical beginning of using pre-emphasis above 1,000 Hz in 78 rpm and 33⅓ rpm records.
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^ As a result, this practice was the empirical beginning of using pre-emphasis above 1,000 Hz in 78 rpm and 33 1/3 rpm records.
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^ The recording speed was 33⅓ rpm, originally used in the Western Electric/ERPI movie audio disc system implemented in the early Warner Brothers' Vitaphone "talkies" of 1927.
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.Over the years a variety of record equalization practices emerged and there was no industry standard.^ Over the years a variety of record equalization practices emerged and there was no industry standard.
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^ In the mid-1950s all record companies agreed to a common recording standard called RIAA equalization .
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^ Evidence from the early technical literature concerning electrical recording suggests that it wasn't until the 1942–1949 period that there were serious efforts to standardize recording characteristics within an industry.
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.For example, in Europe recordings for years required playback with a bass turnover setting of 250–300 Hz and a treble rolloff at 10,000 Hz ranging from 0 to −5 dB or more.^ Playback of these recordings works well using a bass turnover of 300 Hz and a 10,000 Hz rolloff of -8.5 dB. .
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^ For example, in Europe recordings for years required playback with a bass turnover setting of 250 - 300 Hz and a treble rolloff at 10,000 Hz ranging from 0 to -5 dB or more.
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^ For example, in Europe recordings for years required playback with a bass turnover setting of 250–300 Hz and a treble rolloff at 10,000 Hz ranging from 0 to −5 dB or more.
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.In the United States there were more varied practices and a tendency to use higher bass turnover frequencies such as 500 Hz as well as a greater treble rolloff like −8.5 dB and even more to record generally higher modulation levels on the record.^ In the United States there were more varied practices and a tendency to use higher bass turnover frequencies such as 500 Hz as well as a greater treble rolloff like -8.5 dB and even more to record generally higher modulation levels on the record.
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^ Playback of these recordings works well using a bass turnover of 300 Hz and a 10,000 Hz rolloff of −8.5 dB. .
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^ In the United States there were more varied practices and a tendency to use higher bass turnover frequencies such as 500 Hz as well as a greater treble rolloff like −8.5 dB and even more to record generally higher modulation levels on the record.
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.Evidence from the early technical literature concerning electrical recording suggests that it wasn't until the 1942–1949 period that there were serious efforts to standardize recording characteristics within an industry.^ Evidence from the early technical literature concerning electrical recording suggests that it wasn't until the 1942–1949 period that there were serious efforts to standardize recording characteristics within an industry.
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^ Evidence from the early technical literature concerning electrical recording suggests that it wasn't until the 1942-1949 period that there were serious efforts to standardize recording characteristics within an industry.
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^ Because of financial hardships that plagued the recording industry during that period (and RCA's own parched revenues), Victor's "long playing" records were quietly discontinued by early 1933.
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.Heretofore, electrical recording technology from company to company was considered a proprietary art all the way back to the 1925 W. E. licensed method used by Columbia and Victor.^ Heretofore, electrical recording technology from company to company was considered a proprietary art all the way back to the 1925 W. E. licensed method used by Columbia and Victor.
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^ This meant that the electrical recording characteristics of W. E. licensees such as Columbia Records and Victor Talking Machine Company in the 1925 era had a higher amplitude in the midrange region.
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^ Visits throughout the city and lagoon islands introducing the students to the less visited major works in Venice and the islands and teaching a useful method for looking at architecture and works of art.
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.For example, what Brunswick-Balke-Collender (Brunswick Corporation) did was different from the practices of Victor.^ For example, what Brunswick-Balke-Collender ( Brunswick Corporation ) did was different from the practices of Victor.
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.Broadcasters were faced with having to adapt daily to the varied recording characteristics of many sources: various makers of "home recordings" readily available to the public, European recordings, lateral cut transcriptions, and vertical cut transcriptions.^ Broadcasters were faced with having to adapt daily to the varied recording characteristics of many sources: various makers of "home recordings" readily available to the public, European recordings, lateral cut transcriptions, and vertical cut transcriptions.
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^ By November 1918 the patents for the manufacture of lateral-cut disc records expired, opening the field for countless companies to produce them, causing disc records to overtake cylinders in popularity.
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^ The lateral cut NAB curve was remarkably similar to the NBC Orthacoustic curve which evolved from practices within the National Broadcasting Company since the mid-1930s.
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.Efforts were started in 1942 to standardize within the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB), later known as the National Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters (NARTB).^ Efforts were started in 1942 to standardize within the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB), later known as the National Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters (NARTB).
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^ Evidence from the early technical literature concerning electrical recording suggests that it wasn't until the 1942–1949 period that there were serious efforts to standardize recording characteristics within an industry.
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^ The NAB, among other items, issued recording standards in 1949 for laterally and vertically cut records, principally transcriptions.
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.The NAB, among other items, issued recording standards in 1949 for laterally and vertically cut records, principally transcriptions.^ The NAB, among other items, issued recording standards in 1949 for laterally and vertically cut records, principally transcriptions.
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^ By November 1918 the patents for the manufacture of lateral-cut disc records expired, opening the field for countless companies to produce them, causing disc records to overtake cylinders in popularity.
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^ In some cases, this was the result of record companies issuing CDs produced from master recordings that were compressed and equalized for cutting.
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.A number of 78 rpm record producers as well as early LP makers also cut their records to the NAB/NARTB lateral standard.^ A number of 78 rpm record producers as well as early LP makers also cut their records to the NAB/NARTB lateral standard.
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^ These machines were capable of recording at 33 1/3 rpm as well as 78 rpm.
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^ By November 1918 the patents for the manufacture of lateral-cut disc records expired, opening the field for countless companies to produce them, causing disc records to overtake cylinders in popularity.
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.The lateral cut NAB curve was remarkably similar to the NBC Orthacoustic curve which evolved from practices within the National Broadcasting Company since the mid-1930s.^ The lateral cut NAB curve was remarkably similar to the NBC Orthacoustic curve which evolved from practices within the National Broadcasting Company since the mid-1930s.
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^ By November 1918 the patents for the manufacture of lateral-cut disc records expired, opening the field for countless companies to produce them, causing disc records to overtake cylinders in popularity.
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^ The NAB, among other items, issued recording standards in 1949 for laterally and vertically cut records, principally transcriptions.
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.Empirically, and not by any formula, it was learned that the bass end of the audio spectrum below 100 Hz could be boosted somewhat to override system hum and turntable rumble noises.^ Empirically, and not by any formula, it was learned that the bass end of the audio spectrum below 100 Hz could be boosted somewhat to override system hum and turntable rumble noises.
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^ Gramophone sound suffers from rumble, low-frequency (below about 30 Hz) mechanical noise generated by the motor bearings and picked up by the stylus.
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^ This curve was defined by the time constants of audio filters and had a bass turnover of 400 Hz and a 10,000 Hz rolloff of −12 dB. .
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.Likewise at the treble end beginning at 1,000 Hz, if audio frequencies were boosted by 16 dB at 10,000 Hz the delicate sibilant sounds of speech and high overtones of musical instruments could survive the noise level of cellulose acetate, lacquer/aluminum, and vinyl disc media.^ Likewise at the treble end beginning at 1,000 Hz, if audio frequencies were boosted by 16 dB at 10,000 Hz the delicate sibilant sounds of speech and high overtones of musical instruments could survive the noise level of cellulose acetate , lacquer /aluminum, and vinyl disc media.
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^ The theory that vinyl records can audibly represent lower frequencies that compact discs cannot (making the recording sound "warmer") is largely a myth - according to Red Book specifications , the compact disc has a frequency response of 20 Hz to 22.05 kHz, while the human auditory system is sensitive to frequencies from 20 Hz to a maximum of around 20,000 Hz.
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^ The early electric recordings were reminiscent tonally of acoustic recordings except there was more recorded bass and treble as well as delicate sounds and overtones cut on the records.
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.When the record was played back using a complementary inverse curve, signal to noise ratio was improved and the programming sounded more life-like.^ When the record was played back using a complementary inverse curve, signal to noise ratio was improved and the programming sounded more life-like.
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^ The advantages of this system over the earlier more direct system included ability to make a large number of records quickly by using multiple stampers.
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^ When the records were played, phase-detection circuits in the amplifiers were able to decode the signals into four separate channels.
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.When the Columbia LP was released in June 1948, the developers subsequently published technical information about the 33⅓ rpm microgroove long playing record.^ The 33⅓ rpm LP (for "long play") format was developed by Columbia Records and marketed in 1948.
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^ In 1948, the 12" (30 cm) Long Play (LP) 33⅓ rpm microgroove record album was introduced by the Columbia Record at a dramatic New York press conference.
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^ In 1948, the 12-inch (30 cm) Long Play (LP) 33⅓ rpm microgroove record album was introduced by the Columbia Record Company at a New York press conference on June 21, 1948.
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.Columbia disclosed a recording characteristic showing that it was like the NAB curve in the treble, but had more bass boost or pre-emphasis below 200 Hz.^ Columbia disclosed a recording characteristic showing that it was like the NAB curve in the treble, but had more bass boost or pre-emphasis below 200 Hz.
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^ The authors disclosed electrical network characteristics for the Columbia LP curve.
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^ The early electric recordings were reminiscent tonally of acoustic recordings except there was more recorded bass and treble as well as delicate sounds and overtones cut on the records.
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.The authors disclosed electrical network characteristics for the Columbia LP curve.^ The authors disclosed electrical network characteristics for the Columbia LP curve.
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^ Columbia disclosed a recording characteristic showing that it was like the NAB curve in the treble, but had more bass boost or pre-emphasis below 200 Hz.
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^ The RCA Victor New Orthophonic curve was within the tolerances for the NAB/NARTB, Columbia LP, and AES curves.
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.This was the first such curve based on formulae.^ This was the first such curve based on formulae.
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.In 1951 at the beginning of the post-World War II high fidelity (hi-fi) popularity, the Audio Engineering Society (AES) developed a standard playback curve.^ In 1951 at the beginning of the post-World War II high fidelity (hi-fi) popularity, the Audio Engineering Society (AES) developed a standard playback curve.
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^ The first of these was the attempt to develop high fidelity , or hi-fi, sound.
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^ Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 51 (December): 1172.
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.This was intended for use by hi-fi amplifier manufacturers.^ This was intended for use by hi-fi amplifier manufacturers.
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^ If records were engineered to sound good on hi-fi amplifiers using the AES curve, this would be a worthy goal towards standardization.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If records were engineered to sound good on hi-fi amplifiers using the AES curve, this would be a worthy goal towards standardization.^ This was intended for use by hi-fi amplifier manufacturers.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If records were engineered to sound good on hi-fi amplifiers using the AES curve, this would be a worthy goal towards standardization.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ German electrical record of the Carl Lindström AG During the 1920s, engineers including Orlando R. Marsh , as well as those at Western Electric , developed technology for capturing sound with microphones, amplifying it with vacuum tubes, and using the amplified signal to drive an electromagnetic recording head.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This curve was defined by the time constants of audio filters and had a bass turnover of 400 Hz and a 10,000 Hz rolloff of −12 dB.
.RCA Victor and Columbia were in a "market war" concerning which recorded format was going to win: the Columbia LP versus the RCA Victor 45 rpm disc (released in February 1949).^ RCA Victor and Columbia were in a "market war" concerning which recorded format was going to win: the Columbia LP versus the RCA Victor 45 rpm disc (released in February 1949).
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 33⅓ rpm LP (for "long play") format was developed by Columbia Records and marketed in 1948.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ RCA Victor developed the 45 rpm format and marketed it in 1949, in response to Columbia.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Besides also being a battle of disc size and record speed, there was a technical difference in the recording characteristics.^ Besides also being a battle of disc size and record speed, there was a technical difference in the recording characteristics.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Evidence from the early technical literature concerning electrical recording suggests that it wasn't until the 1942–1949 period that there were serious efforts to standardize recording characteristics within an industry.
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^ Earlier they were just called records, or when there was a need to distinguish them from cylinders , disc records.
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.RCA Victor was using "New Orthophonic" whereas Columbia was using the LP curve.^ The RCA Victor New Orthophonic curve was within the tolerances for the NAB/NARTB, Columbia LP, and AES curves.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ RCA Victor was using "New Orthophonic" whereas Columbia was using the LP curve.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ultimately the New Orthophonic curve was disclosed in a publication by R. C. Moyer of RCA Victor in 1953.
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.Ultimately, the New Orthophonic curve was disclosed in a publication by R. C. Moyer of RCA Victor in 1953. He traced RCA Victor characteristics back to the W. E. "rubber line" recorder in 1925 up to the early 1950s laying claim to long-held recording practices and reasons for major changes in the intervening years.^ He traced RCA Victor characteristics back to the W. E. "rubber line" recorder in 1925 up to the early 1950s laying claim to long-held recording practices and reasons for major changes in the intervening years.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ RCA Victor was using "New Orthophonic" whereas Columbia was using the LP curve.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ultimately the New Orthophonic curve was disclosed in a publication by R. C. Moyer of RCA Victor in 1953.
  • Phonograph Record History 15 September 2009 1:59 UTC www.customrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The RCA Victor New Orthophonic curve was within the tolerances for the NAB/NARTB, Columbia LP, and AES curves.^ The RCA Victor New Orthophonic curve was within the tolerances for the NAB/NARTB, Columbia LP, and AES curves.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ RCA Victor was using "New Orthophonic" whereas Columbia was using the LP curve.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ultimately the New Orthophonic curve was disclosed in a publication by R. C. Moyer of RCA Victor in 1953.
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.It eventually became the technical predecessor to the RIAA curve.^ It eventually became the technical predecessor to the RIAA curve.
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^ It eventually became the technical predecessor to the RIAA curve and superseded all other curves.
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^ By the time of the stereo LP in 1958, the RIAA curve, identical to the RCA Victor New Orthophonic curve, became standard throughout the national and international record markets.
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.As the RIAA curve was essentially an American standard, it had little impact outside of the USA until the late 1970s when European recording labels began to adopt the RIAA equalization.^ It was even later when some Asian recording labels adopted the RIAA standard.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the RIAA curve was essentially an American standard, it had little impact outside of the USA until the late 1970s when European recording labels began to adopt the RIAA equalization.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some small recording labels advertised their special curves which were the same as Columbia/RCA Ortophonic curves.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was even later when some Asian recording labels adopted the RIAA standard.^ It was even later when some Asian recording labels adopted the RIAA standard.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:30 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the mid-1950s all record companies agreed to a common recording standard called RIAA equalization .
  • Phonograph Record History