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Granada
—  City  —
View of Granada

Flag

Coat of arms
Granada is located in Spain
Granada
Location of Granada
Coordinates: 37°10′41″N 003°36′03″W / 37.17806°N 3.60083°W / 37.17806; -3.60083Coordinates: 37°10′41″N 003°36′03″W / 37.17806°N 3.60083°W / 37.17806; -3.60083
Country  Spain
Autonomous Community Andalusia
Province Granada
Comarca Vega de Granada
Founded
Government
 - Mayor José Torres Hurtado (PP)
Area
 - Total 88 km2 (34 sq mi)
Elevation (AMSL) 738 m (2,421 ft)
Population (2007)
 - Total 237,929
 Density 2,703.7/km2 (7,002.7/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 18000
Area code(s) +34 (Spain) + (Granada)
Website Official website

Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.

Contents

Overview

Alhambra, the most visited monument of Spain

The city of Granada is placed at the foot of the Sierra Nevada mountains, at the confluence of three rivers, Beiro, Darro and Genil, at an elevation of 738 metres above sea level yet only one hour from the Mediterrean coast, the Costa Tropical. At the 2005 census, the population of the city of Granada proper was 236,982, and the population of the entire urban area was estimated to be 472,638, ranking as the 13th-largest urban area of Spain. About 3.3% of the population did not hold Spanish citizenship, the largest number of these (31%) coming from South America. Its nearest airport is Federico García Lorca Airport.

The Alhambra, a Moorish citadel and palace, is in Granada. It is one of the most famous items of the Islamic historical legacy that makes Granada a hot spot among cultural and tourist cities in Spain. The Almohad urbanism with some fine examples of Moorish and Morisco constructions is preserved at the part of the city called the Albaicín.

Granada is also well-known within Spain due to the prestigious University of Granada and, nowadays, vibrant night-life. In fact, it is said that it is one of the three best cities for university students (the other two are Salamanca and Santiago de Compostela).[citation needed]

The pomegranate (in Spanish, 'granada') is the heraldic device of Granada.

History

Gates of Fajalauza, in the City Walls.
Historic map of Granada by Piri Reis

Pre-Nasrid

The city has been inhabited from the dawn of history[citation needed]. There was an Ibero-Celtic settlement here, which made contact in turn with Phoenicians, Carthagenians and Greeks. By the 5th century BCE, the Greeks had established a colony which they named Elibyrge or Elybirge (Greek: Ἐλιβύργη). Under Roman rule, in the early centuries CE, this name had become "Illiberis". As Illiberis, the city minted its own coins. The Visigoths maintained the importance of the city as a centre of both ecclesiastical and civil administration and also established it as a military stronghold. It was also managed by Eastern Roman Empire for 60 years.

A Jewish community established itself in what was effectively a suburb of the city, called "Gárnata" or "Gárnata al-yahud" (Granada of the Jews). It was with the help of this community that Moorish forces under Tariq ibn-Ziyad first took the city in 711, though it was not fully secured until 713. They referred to it under the Iberian name "Ilbira", the remaining Christian community calling this "Elvira", and it became the capital of a province of the Caliphate of Cordoba. Civil conflicts that wracked the Caliphate in the early eleventh century led to the destruction of the city in 1010. In the subsequent reconstruction, the suburb of Gárnata (Arabic: غرناطة) was incorporated in the city, and the modern name in fact derives from this. With the arrival of the Zirid dynasty in 1013, Granada became an independent emirate Taifa of Granada. By the end of the eleventh century, the city had spread across the Darro to reach what is now the site of the Alhambra.

Nasrid Emirate of Granada

In 1228, with the departure of the Almohad prince, Idris, who left Iberia to take the Almohad leadership, the ambitious Ibn al-Ahmar established the longest lasting Muslim dynasty on the Iberian peninsula - the Nasrids. With the Reconquista in full swing after the conquest of Cordoba in 1236, the Nasrids aligned themselves with Ferdinand III of Castile, officially becoming a tributary state in 1238. The state officially became the Emirate of Granada in 1238.


Granada was held as a vassal to Castile for many decades, and provided trade links with the Muslim world, particularly the gold trade with the sub-saharan areas south of Africa. The Nasrids also provided troops for Castile while the kingdom was also a source of mercenary fighters from North Africa.

On January 2, 1492, the last Muslim sultan in Iberia, Muhammad XII, known as Boabdil to the Spanish, surrendered complete control of Granada, to Ferdinand and Isabella, Los Reyes Católicos ("The Catholic Monarchs"), after the city was besieged.

See Nasrid dynasty for a full list of the Nasrid rulers of Granada. The most prominent members of the dynasty were:

Post-1492

The Capitulation of Granada by F. Padilla: Muhammad XII before Ferdinand and Isabella.
Granada Cathedral as seen from Bib-Rambla Square

The capture of Muslim Granada by the forces of Ferdinand and Isabella is one of the more significant events in Granada's history. The terms of the surrender treaty explicitly allowed the city's Muslim inhabitants to continue unmolested in their faith and customs. By 1499, however, Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros grew frustrated with the slow conversion efforts of Granada's first archbishop, Fernando de Talavera, and undertook a program of forced baptisms. Cisneros's new tactics, which were a direct violation of the terms of the treaty, provoked an armed revolt centered in the Alpujarras, a rural region to the southwest of the city. In response to the rebellion, in 1501 the Castilian Crown rescinded the surrender treaty, demanding that Granada's Muslims convert or emigrate. While many elites chose to emigrate to North Africa, the majority of the city's Muslims converted to Christianity while keeping their Islam secretly, becoming Moriscos, Catholics of Moorish descent.

Over the course of the sixteenth century, Granada took on an ever more Christian and Castilian character, as immigrants flocked to the city from other parts of the Iberian Peninsula. The city's mosques, some of which had been established on the sites of former Christian churches, were converted to Christian uses. New structures, such as cathedral and the Chancillería, or Royal Court of Appeals, helped transform the urban landscape, and in the wake of the 1492 Alhambra decree that expelled Spain's Jewish population, Granada's Jewish neighborhood was demolished to make way for new Christian and Castilian institutions.

The fall of Granada holds an important place among the many significant events that mark the latter half of the 15th century. It ended the eight hundred year-long Islamic presence in the Iberian Peninsula. Freed from internal conflict, a unified Spain embarked on its greatest phase of expansion around the globe, leading to the arrival in the Americas by Isabella's protégé Christopher Columbus. Subsequent colonization led to the creation of the Spanish Empire, the largest empire of the world for its time.

Architecture

Catholic Kings Street (Calle Reyes Católicos)
Royal Gate (Puerta Real)

There are many important Moorish and Catholic architectural sites in Granada:

  • The Alhambra and Generalife
  • The Palace of Charles V
  • Granada Cathedral
  • Capilla Real. Royal Chapel, with the tombs of Isabella and Ferdinand, the Catholic Monarchs
  • The Albayzín, or Albaicín: The ancient Arab quarter, containing many original houses from the 16th century
  • The Madrasah of Granada, founded in 1349 by the Nasrid monarch Yusuf I, Sultan of Granada as the first university in Granada; now part of the University of Granada
  • The Charterhouse: A Carthusian monastery; one of the most impressive pieces of ornamental Baroque in Spain.
  • Calle Calderería: An Albayzin street where you can taste typical Arab food, especially teas and desserts from North Africa
  • El Cármen de los Mártires: A lovely palace with a beautiful botanical garden, near the Alhambra
  • Santa Ana Church: 16th century, Mudéjar Style
  • San Salvador Church: 16th century, Mudéjar Style. With Moorish Almohad patio from the former mosque
  • El Corral del Carbón: Deposit of merchandise and shelter of merchants. Adapted after 16th century for theater plays
  • Hospital Real: Founded in 1504 by the Reyes Católicos, now part of the University
  • Santo Domingo Church: Founded in 1512 by the Reyes Católicos
  • San José Church: On the site of the "moans"
  • Almorabitín, the mosque of the Almoravids, one of oldest in Granada, dating from the 10th century
  • Sacromonte Abbey: Founded in the 17th century. Legend says that the catacombs under the church were the site of the martyrdom of San Cecilio, the city's first bishop and now its patron saint
  • Old University: Originally Granada's Jesuit college, this building now houses the law school of the University of Granada. The building is particularly notable for its original 17th century façade.
  • Bermejas Towers: Strongholds on the encircling wall of the Alhambra, they date from the 8th and 9th centuries
  • Basilica of St. John of God (San Juan de Dios): The remains of this saint are preserved in this Baroque basilica.
  • The Gate of Elvira: The principal gate to the old city. Part of the Moorish wall
  • Casa de los Tiros, 16th century. With a complex iconographic program of sculpture and painting about Spanish history and full of cryptograms, it was the palace of Gil Vázquez-Rengifo, who helped the Catholic Monarchs in the fight for the city. Nowadays it is a museum where visitors can follow the history of Granada from the Middle Ages to the present day
  • The 16th century Castril palace, home of the Archaeological Museum of Granada
  • The Cube: The main building for CajaGranada, has won many international architects awards.
  • Zaida Building: Situated in the city centre, this residential building designed by Alvaro Siza is a good example of modern architecture surrounded by historical structures

Although many Muslim buildings were destroyed by the Catholics, who forced conversion to Catholicism during the Christian era in Granada, those that remain comprise the most complete group of Moorish domestic architecture in Europe. Palaces like Dar al-Horra, or Alcazar Genil, or houses like the house of the Horno de Oro, the house of Chapiz, or the house of Abén Humeya, are only some of the most famous. Granada's public baths, like El Bañuelo or the Alhambra Baths, and the complex of Arab public fountains and wells (aljibes), are unique in Europe. The Nasrid infrastructure net (acequias) that feeds the public fountains and wells still functions in its majority. Among the best known of Granada's acequias are the Royal Acequia and the Cadí Acequia.

A panoramic view from Generalife

Districts

Albayzín neighbourhood
Battles Fountain (Fuente de las Batallas)

The Realejo

Realejo was the Jewish district at the time of the Nasride Granada. The Jewish population was so important, that Granada was known from the Al-Andalûs Country under the name of Granada de los judios (in Arabic, Garnata Al Yahood). It is today a district made up of many Andalusian villas, with gardens opening onto the streets, called Los Carmenes.

The Cartuja

This district contains the Carthusian monastery of the same name: Cartuja. This is an old monastery started in a late Gothic style with Baroque exuberant interior decorations. In this district also, many buildings were created with the extension of the University of Granada.

Bib-Rambla

The toponym existed at the time of the Arabs. Nowadays, Bib-Rambla is a high point for gastronomy, especially in its terraces of restaurants, open on beautiful days. The Arab bazaar (Alcaicería) is made up of several narrow streets, which start from this place and continue as far as the cathedral.

Sacromonte

The Sacromonte neighbourhood is located on the extension of the hill of Albaicín, along the Darro River. This area, which became famous by the nineteenth century for its predominantly Gitano inhabitants, is characterized by cave houses, which are dug into the hillside. The area has a reputation as a major center of flamenco song and dance, including the Zambra Gitana, Andalusian dance originating in the Middle East. The zone is a protected cultural environment under the auspices of the Centro de Interpretación del Sacromonte, a cultural center dedicated to the preservation of Gitano cultural forms.

Albayzín

Albayzín (also written as Albaicín), located on a hill on the right bank of the river Darro, is the ancient Moorish quarter of the city and transports the visitor to a unique world: the site of the ancient city of Elvira, so-called before the Zirid Moors renamed it Granada. It housed the artists who went up to build the palaces of Alhambra on the hill facing it. Time allowed its embellishment. Of particular note is the Plaza de San Nicolas (Plaza of St Nicholas) from where a stunning view of the Alhambra can be seen. The artist George Owen Wynne Apperley RA RI (1884-1960) owned houses on both sides of the Placeta de San Nicolás, also known as El Mirador.

Zaidin

This blue collar neighbourhood houses 100,000 residents of Granada, making it the largest neighborhood or 'barrio'. Traditionally populated by gypsies, now many residents are from North and West Africa, China, and many South American countries. Every Saturday morning it hosts a large outdoor market or "mercadillo", where many gypsies come and sell their wares of fruits and vegetables, clothes and shoes, and other sorts of odds and ends.

Parks and garden of Granada

Climate

Climate data for Granada
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 11
(52)
13
(55)
15
(59)
17
(63)
22
(72)
27
(81)
32
(90)
32
(90)
27
(81)
22
(72)
15
(59)
12
(54)
20
(68)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6
(43)
7
(45)
10
(50)
12
(54)
16
(61)
20
(68)
24
(75)
24
(75)
20
(68)
16
(61)
10
(50)
7
(45)
14
(57)
Average low °C (°F) 2
(36)
2
(36)
5
(41)
7
(45)
11
(52)
14
(57)
17
(63)
17
(63)
14
(57)
10
(50)
5
(41)
2
(36)
10
(50)
Precipitation cm (inches) 3
(1.2)
4
(1.6)
6
(2.4)
5
(2)
4
(1.6)
2
(0.8)
0
(0)
0
(0)
2
(0.8)
4
(1.6)
5
(2)
4
(1.6)
43
(16.9)
Source: Weatherbase[1]

Sport

Granada has three football teams:

Granada has a basketball team:

Other sights

Twin towns - sister cities

See also

Notes and references

Notations

  • Cortés Peña, Antonio Luis and Bernard Vincent. Historia de Granada. 4 vols. Granada: Editorial Don Quijote, 1983.
  • Historia del reino de Granada. 3 vols. Granada: Universidad de Granada, Legado Andalusí, 2000.

Footnotes

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

"It is... a city where the one in love writes better than anywhere the name of his love upon the ground." - Federico García Lorca
"Granada is like the cristal bride of our dreams, whoever beholds it has the illusion of visiting it again." - Chateaubriand
"How lazily the sun goes down in Granada, it hides beneath the water, it conceals in the Alhambra!. - Ernest Hemingway

Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the region of Andalusia, Spain. The beautiful city of Granada is set at the foot of the impressive Sierra Nevada mountains, at the confluence of three rivers, Beiro, Darro and Genil, at an elevation of 738 metres above sea level yet only one hour from the Mediterrean coast, the Costa Tropical. The Alhambra, the famous Moorish citadel and palace, is in Granada. It is one of the most famous items of the Islamic historical legacy that makes Granada a hot spot among cultural and tourist cities in Europe. Granada is also well-known within Spain due to the prestigious University of Granada and, nowadays, vibrant night-life.

Quotes

  • Give him charity, girl, as there is nothing worse in life than being blind in Granada.
    • Francisco Alarcón de Icaza, Venezuelian writter.
    • Mark: The poet Francisco Alarcón said this to a girl who did not give a blind beggar a charity and regretted that the blind could not enjoy the beauty of the city of Granada.
  • Were we to visit a sole city in Spain, this one should be Granada.
  • How lazily the sun goes down in Granada, it hides beneath the water, it conceals in the Alhambra!.
  • The most beautiful sunset in the world is in Granada.
  • And your worship, where are you bound for? / I am going to Granada, senor, -said the gentleman,- to my own country. / And a goodly country! -said Don Quixote-.
  • All cities are charming. Granada has its charming and the rest of them all.
  • Granada is one of the most amazing cities in the world, since besides his rich patrimony, we must add the geographic place in which it is settled.
  • Every inquisitive traveller keeps Granada in his heart, without having even visited it.
  • It is (...) a city where the one in love writes better than anywhere the name of his love upon the ground.
  • Granada is unprotected from people; since nothing or no one can defend from praisings.
  • Granada is like the cristal bride of our dreams, whoever beholds it has the illusion of visiting it again.
  • We must visit Granada, Prague and Venice before dying.
    • The Independent, British newspaper.
  • Granada's cathedral is big, but also aggressive. Here God is not in the details but in the ornament. Every square foot to spare is devoted to it. Decoration squirms across the chapels, demonstrating an aliveness to foes of the Christian church.
    • Bernard Holland, American journalist.
  • (The Alhambra is)so magnificent, so exquisitely executed that even he who contemplates it can scarcely be sure that he is not in a paradise.
    • 1497, said by an unknown European ambassor
  • An African paradise set under the Sierras like a rose preserved in snow’ is possibly the best description that Granada will ever be awarded.
    • Mark Eveleigh, photojournalist.
  • Probably (Granada is) the most beautiful and haunting of all Spanish cities.
    • Laurie Lee
  • Granada itself has one of the world’s most naturally dramatic locations, nestling below the snow-capped mountains soaring majestically to a height of 11,000 feet. It is the perfect setting for a perfect monument – the extraordinary Alhambra Palace. So individual in its setting, so rich in its history and so perfect in its design.
  • Seville, Cordoba and Granada have some of the most important monuments anywhere on earth.
    • The Guardian, British newspaper.
  • Carrera del Darro street: probably, the most beautiful street in the world.
    • El Ideal, Spanish newspaper.
  • Second position: Alhambra Palace, Generalife Palace and Albayzín neighbourghood.
    • National Geographic
    • Mark: World ranking about the best preserved World Human Heritage. (1º position: Norwegian fjords)
  • Between its stunning history and gorgeous setting, it is not hard to see why Granada is frequently called the Moorish jewel of Spain
  • If you are looking for a unique historical legacy, no other city in Europe can boast of the Moorish roots that Granada has.
    • Study Abroad, European association of students
  • The Beauty is the industry of Granada
    • Paolo Marconi, Italian architect.

External links

Wikipedia
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Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

There is more than one place called Granada :

Spain

Central America

Colombia

Caribbean

This article is a disambiguation page. If you arrived here by following a link from another page you can help by correcting it, so that it points to the appropriate disambiguated page.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

There is more than one meaning of Granada discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia. We are planning to let all links go to the correct meaning directly, but for now you will have to search it out from the list below by yourself. If you want to change the link that led you here yourself, it would be appreciated.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also granada

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Granada

Plural
-

Granada

  1. A city in Spain.
  2. A department of Nicaragua.

Translations


Portuguese

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Portuguese Wikipedia has an article on:
Granada

Wikipedia pt

Proper noun

Granada

  1. Grenada (caribbean country)

This Portuguese entry was created from the translations listed at Grenada. It may be less reliable than other entries, and may be missing parts of speech or additional senses. Please also see Granada in the Portuguese Wiktionary. This notice will be removed when the entry is checked. (more information) July 2009


Spanish

Proper noun

Granada

  1. Grenada (caribbean country, city in Spain)
  2. Granada

Related terms


Simple English

Granada is a Spanish city, capital of the province of Granada, in Andalusia. With 233,000 inhabitants, it is an important artistic and cultural center. The city has several famous monuments, such as the Alhambra, the Cathedral, the Alcaiceria, and the Corral del Carbon. It is near Sierra Nevada, the highest mountain range in Spain, in the valley where the Genil and Darro rivers meet. The Darro runs through the Albaicin and the Sacromonte, two charming historical areas of the city.

Other pages

Battle of Granada

Other websites

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