The Full Wiki

Grand Coulee Dam: Wikis

  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Grand Coulee Dam

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Grand Coulee Dam
Grand Coulee Dam
Impounds Columbia River
Locale Grand Coulee, Washington
Length 5,223 ft (1592 m)[1]
Height 550 ft (168 m)
Height 380 ft (116 m) (hydraulic)
Width (at base) 500 feet (150 m), Crest: 30 feet (9.1 m) [2]
Opening date June 1, 1942
Reservoir information
Creates Franklin Delano Roosevelt Lake
Banks Lake
Capacity 421 billion ft³ (11.9 km³)
Power generation information
Turbines 33
Installed capacity 6809 MW[3]
Annual generation 21 billion KWh[4]
Geographical Data
Coordinates 47°57.4′N 118°59′W / 47.9567°N 118.983°W / 47.9567; -118.983Coordinates: 47°57.4′N 118°59′W / 47.9567°N 118.983°W / 47.9567; -118.983
Maintained by U.S. Bureau of Reclamation

Grand Coulee Dam is a hydroelectric gravity dam on the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington. In the United States, it is the largest electric power-producing facility[5] and the largest concrete structure.[6] It is the fifth largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world, as of the year 2008.

The reservoir is called Franklin Delano Roosevelt Lake, named after the United States President who presided over the completion of the dam. The foundation was built by the MWAK Company, a joint effort of several contractors united for this purpose. Consolidated Builders Incorporated, including industrialist Henry J. Kaiser, completed the dam. The United States Bureau of Reclamation with then chief designing engineer, John L. Savage supervised the design and construction and the Bureau continues to operate the dam today.[7] Folk singer Woody Guthrie was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to write songs about the Columbia Basin Project;[8] the songs Roll On Columbia and Grand Coulee Dam are part of that series.

The Grand Coulee Dam is almost a mile long at 5223 feet (1586 m). The spillway is 1,650 feet (503 m) wide. At 550 feet (168 m), it is taller than the Great Pyramid of Giza[9]; all the pyramids at Giza could fit within the total area of its base.[2] Its hydraulic height of 380 feet (115 m) is more than twice that of Niagara Falls. There is enough concrete to build a four-foot wide, four-inch deep sidewalk twice around the equator[10].

Contents

Background

The dam was built under the auspices of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation as part of the Columbia Basin Project for irrigation of desert areas of the Pacific Northwest and for the production of electricity.[11] Central Washington's Columbia Basin was a slightly over-ambitious candidate for a dam. The Columbia was by far the largest river anyone had ever considered damming. A Spokane group wanted a safer 134-mile (216 km) gravity flow canal from the Pend Oreille River at Albeni Falls. And the original low dam design would have have been useful for regulating navigation flows, and for hydroelectic power, but it would have been too far below the top of the canyon to make it useful for irrigation of the fertile loess soil of the basin. The controversy over which project should go forward was a central issue of Washington state politics in the 1920s.[12]

By the 1930s, after thirteen years of debate and several studies, and with the Depression in full swing, Roosevelt was eager for large public works. In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt authorized the dam as a Public Works Administration project, and Congress appropriated funding for the low dam. Two years later, the authorization was changed from the low dam to the far more expensive, and technically challenging, high dam of today.

Construction

Excavation of the site began on July 16, 1933. The initial construction plan was for a shorter dam with one partial completed powerhouse with available expansion from 6 units to 18. During construction, the design was changed to the higher specification in order to employ more people, generate more electricity, and to enlarge the irrigation capacity. Construction was completed in January 1942, soon after the U.S. entered WWII. A total of 77 men died.[13] Its height is 1330 (about 405.5 meters) feet above sea level at the roadway, the reservoir height is measured when water reaches the top of the drumgates which is 1290 feet (about 393 meters) above sea level (10 feet (about 3 meters) below the roadway).[14] The dam was designed by John L. Savage[15] with Frank A. Banks as chief construction engineer.[16] For several years it was the largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world.

The primary goal of irrigation was postponed as the wartime need for electricity increased. Aluminum smelting was vital to the war effort, and to airplane construction in particular. The electricity was also used to power plutonium production reactors and reprocessing facilities at the Hanford Site, which was part of the then top-secret Manhattan Project.

The dam was instrumental in the industrial development of the Pacific Northwest.

Irrigation

The original goal of irrigation resumed after the war. A water distribution network was built using the adjacent Grand Coulee to hold the main reservoir now known as Banks Lake. Additional dams, siphons, and canals were constructed, creating a vast irrigation supply network called the Columbia Basin Project. Irrigation began in 1951.[14]

Water is pumped up 280 feet (85 m) from Lake Roosevelt to Banks Lake using twelve 14-foot-wide pipes. Pumped-storage hydroelectricity capability was incorporated into the final six pumps. During low-demand periods, water is pumped into Banks Lake, to be used later during high-demand periods. Water flow is reversed, powering generators as it falls back into Lake Roosevelt. This function is used regularly when irrigation water demand is low and electricity demand is high.

Expansion

Between 1966 and 1974 the dam was expanded to add the Third Powerhouse. This involved demolishing the northeast side of the dam and building a new forebay section. The addition made the dam more than a mile long and accommodated six new generators. Original designs for the powerhouse had twelve smaller units but was changed to incorporate the largest units available. The new turbines and generators, three 600 MW and three 805 MW units, are today nearly the largest ever produced. The expansion was completed in the early eighties and made the Grand Coulee Dam once again one of the largest hydroelectric producers in the world.

The expansion of the dam also required the installation of over 20 km of oil-cooled cables. These 6" cables, made in Japan by Sumitomo Electric, are rated to a maximum potential of 525 kV and are connected to powerful pumps which circulate the oil through the cables during normal operation.

Environmental and cultural consequences

The dam had severe negative consequences for the local Native American tribes whose traditional way of life revolved around salmon as well as for the original shrub steppe habitat of the area. Grand Coulee Dam permanently blocks fish migration (barring construction of a fish ladder)[17] removing over a thousand miles of spawning grounds.[18] By largely eliminating anadromous fish above the Okanogan River, the Grand Coulee Dam also set the stage for the subsequent decision not to provide for fish passage at Chief Joseph Dam (built in 1953)[11]. Chinook, Steelhead, Sockeye and Coho salmon (as well as other important species including Lamprey) are now unable to spawn in the reaches of the Upper Columbia Basin. The extinction of the spawning grounds upstream from the dam has prevented the Spokane and other tribes from holding the first salmon ceremony since 1940.[11] Grand Coulee Dam flooded over 21,000 acres (85 km²) of prime bottom land where Native Americans had been living and hunting for thousands of years, forcing the relocation of settlements and graveyards.[19] Kettle Falls, once a primary Native American fishing grounds, was inundated. The average catch went from a historical average of over 600,000 salmon a year to nothing. In one study, the Army Corps of Engineers estimated the annual loss was over a million fish.[20] The town of Kettle Falls, Washington was relocated. The project area drastically affected habitat ranges for species such as whitetail and mule deer, pygmy rabbits and burrowing owls.[21] The environmental impact of the dam effectively ended the traditional way of life of the native inhabitants. The government eventually compensated the Colville Indians in the 1990s with a lump settlement of approximately $52 million, plus annual payments of approximately $15 million.[11]

The architects of the new [Columbia] river have been nearly constant in their protestations of concern for salmon, but they have quite consciously made a choice against the conditions that produce salmon. They have wanted the river and its watershed to say electricity, lumber, cattle, and fruit and together these have translated into carp, shad, and squawfish instead of salmon. If ever a death could be unintended and overdetermined, it is the death of the wild runs of the Columbia River salmon. - Richard White[14]

Gallery

Touring the dam

The visitor center contains many historical photos, geological samples, turbine and dam models, and a well used theater. Since May 1989, on summer evenings, The laser light show at Grand Coulee Dam is projected onto the dam's wall. The show includes full-size images of battleships and the Statue of Liberty, as well as some environmental comments. Tours of the new Third Powerhouse are available to the public but have been scaled back for security reasons. Visitors are able to ride a glass elevator, on top of the forebay penstocks, 400 feet down to view the generators.

Panoramic view of the dam, looking Southeast. Powerhouse number three, visible at the lower left of the dam, is large enough to hold five football fields end to end.

Statistics

  • Largest concrete dam and concrete structure in North America with 11,975,521 yd³ (9,155,942 m³) used[22]
  • Total length of dam: 5,223 ft (1,592 m)
  • Length of main dam: 3,867 ft (1,178 m)
  • Length of forebay dam: 1,170 ft (356 m)
  • Length of Wing Dam: 186 ft (56 m)
  • Hydraulic height: 380 ft (116 m)
  • Height of dam from bedrock: 550 ft (168 m)
  • Height above original streambed: 401 ft (122 m)
  • Reservoir Lake Roosevelt stretches for 151 mi (243 km)
  • Average release: 110,000 ft³/s (3,100 m³/s)
  • 4 power plants, 33 generators
  • Installed generating nameplate capacity: 6809 MW [22]
  • Annual energy production: 25 TWh in 2007[23] (varies with annual river flow)
  • Capacity factor: 41.9% in 2007
  • In 2007, Grand Coulee generated the second-most energy among US power facilities, after the Palo Verde Nuclear Power Plant at 26.78 TWh.[23] Palo Verde has a lower nameplate capacity but operates at a higher capacity factor, giving it slightly more annual output.

References

  1. ^ "Grand Coulee Dam". U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. http://www.usbr.gov/dataweb/dams/wa00262.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-02.  
  2. ^ a b U.S Bureau of Reclamation Grand Coulee Dam dimensions
  3. ^ "Grand Coulee Dam, Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region". U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. http://www.usbr.gov/pn/grandcoulee/index.html. Retrieved 2009-08-06.  
  4. ^ Median value for the years 2000–2008, which were as follows:

    2000 = 22.849
    2001 = 14.698
    2002 = 20.215
    2003 = 19.171
    2004 = 18.702
    2005 = 20.683
    2006 = 21.968
    2007 = 21.859
    2008 = 21.891

    Source: Hydropower Consult

  5. ^ "Renewable Energy Sources: A Consumer's Guide". U.S. Department of Energy: Energy Information Administration. http://www.eia.doe.gov/neic/brochure/renew05/renewable.html. Retrieved 2006-11-18.  
  6. ^ Larsen, Jeff (2002-10-03). "Short Trips: Take a step back to take in a concrete wonder". Seattle Post Intelligencer. http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/getaways/89497_shorttrips03.shtml. Retrieved 2006-11-19.  
  7. ^ http://books.nap.edu/html/biomems/jsavage.pdf John Lucian Savage Biography by Abel Wolman & W. H. Lyles, National Academy of Science, 1978.
  8. ^ a b "Columbia Basin Project: Research on Historic Reclamation Projects" (PDF). Bureau of Reclamation History Program, Denver, Colorado. 1998. http://www.usbr.gov/projects/ImageServer?imgName=Doc_1245088276863.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-28.  
  9. ^ "Cairo & Giza.". Egypt State Information Service. http://www.sis.gov.eg/En/Tourism/famouscities/CAIROGIZA/060601000000000001.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-18.  
  10. ^ "Grand Coulee Dam Statistics and Facts" (PDF). USBR. http://www.usbr.gov/pn/grandcoulee/pubs/factsheet.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-18.  
  11. ^ a b c d "Grand Coulee Dam and the Columbia Basin Project" (PDF). The World Commission on Dams. http://www.dams.org/docs/kbase/studies/csusmain.pdf. Retrieved 2006-11-19.  
  12. ^ "Lake Roosevelt NRA:Administrative History". http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/laro/adhi/adhi2.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-29.  
  13. ^ Saul, John B. (2005-08-05). "Grand Coulee Dam: Still a Grand Experience?". Seattle Times. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/outdoors/2002419021_nwwgrandcoulee04.html. Retrieved 2008-05-18.  
  14. ^ a b c "Lake Roosevelt, Administrative History". U.S. National Park Service: Department of the Interior. http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/laro/adhi/adhit.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-20.  
  15. ^ "US Expert Will Survey Site of Dam". Spokane press. http://content.wsulibs.wsu.edu/u?/clipping,12177. Retrieved 2008-05-18.  
  16. ^ The United Press. Builder of Grand Coulee To Retire and Live Near It. The New York Times, September 12, 1950.
  17. ^ Gulick, Bill (1996). A Traveler's History of Washington. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Press, 388.
  18. ^ "Dams of the Columbia Basin & Their Effects on the Native Fishery". Center for Columbia River History. http://www.ccrh.org/comm/river/dams6.htm.  
  19. ^ Harden, Blaine (1996). A River Lost: The Life and Death of the Columbia. New York: W.W. Norton and Company. pp. 106–107.  
  20. ^ "The End of an Era". City of Kettle Falls. http://www.kettlefalls.com/History.htm.  
  21. ^ "USA: Grand Coulee Dam & Columbia River Basin". The World Commission on Dams. http://www.dams.org/kbase/studies/us/us_exec.htm.  
  22. ^ a b "Grand Coulee Powerplant". U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation. http://www.usbr.gov/power/data/sites/grandcou/grandcou.html. Retrieved 2007-01-15.  
  23. ^ a b "Energy in Brief: What is the status of the U.S. nuclear industry?". Energy Information Administration. http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/energy_in_brief/nuclear_industry.cfm. Retrieved 2009-08-28.  

Bibliography

  • Ray Bottenberg: Grand Coulee Dam (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2008).
  • J. Harlen Brentz: The Grand Coulee (American Geographical Society, 1932).
  • L. Vaughn Downs: The Mightiest of Them All: Memories of Grand Coulee Dam (American Society of Civil Engineers, 1993).
  • Marcia S. Gresko: The Grand Coulee Dam (Blackbirch Press, 1999).
  • Paul C. Pitzer: Grand Coulee: Harnessing a Dream (Pullman: Washington State UP, 1994).
  • George Sundborg: Hail Columbia: The Thirty-year Struggle for Grand Coulee Dam (New York: Macmillan, 1954).
  • Richard White: The Organic Machine: The Remaking of the Columbia River (New York: Hill and Wang, 1995).

External links


Grand Coulee Dam
File:Grand Coulee
Map of Grand Coulee Dam

Location of Grand Coulee Dam
Coordinates 47°57′21″N 118°58′54″W / 47.95583°N 118.98167°W / 47.95583; -118.98167Coordinates: 47°57′21″N 118°58′54″W / 47.95583°N 118.98167°W / 47.95583; -118.98167
Impounds Columbia River
Locale Grant / Okanogan counties, near Coulee Dam and Grand Coulee, Washington, USA
Length 5,223 ft (1,592 m)[1]
Height 550 ft (170 m)
Hydraulic head 380 ft (120 m)
Base width 500 feet (150 m)
Crest width 30 feet (9.1 m)[2]
Volume 11,975,520 cu yd (9,155,940 m3)
Type of spillway Service, drum gate
Discharge capacity of spillway 1,000,000 cu ft/s (28,000 m3/s)
Construction began 1933
Opening date June 1, 1942
Construction cost Original dam: $168 million ($2.5 billion in 2009)
Third Powerstation: $730 million ($3.9 billion in 2009)
Maintained by U.S. Bureau of Reclamation
Reservoir information
Creates Franklin Delano Roosevelt Lake
Banks Lake
Capacity 421 billion ft³ (11.9 km³)
Catchment area 74,100 sq mi (192,000 km2)
Power generation information
Turbines 33 - 27 x Francis turbines 6 x pump-generators
Installed capacity 6,809 MW[3]
Maximum capacity 7,079 MW
Annual generation 21 billion KWh (2008)
Conventional Yes
Pumped-storage Yes
Power plant commissioning date 1941 / 1975 (Third) / 1973 (PS)

Grand Coulee Dam is a hydroelectric gravity dam on the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington. It is the largest electric power-producing facility[4] and the largest concrete structure in the United States.[5] It is the fifth largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world, as of the year 2008.

The dam was the result of a bitter debate during much of the 1920s between two parties, one of which wanted to irrigate the ancient Grand Coulee Plateau with a gravity canal and the other side who supported a high dam and pumping scheme. In 1933, the dam was selected but for fiscal reasons, its initial design called for it to be 400 ft (120 m) shorter than it is presently and without a pumping capacity for irrigation. The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and a consortium of three companies called MWAK began construction that same year. After visiting the construction site in August 1934, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt changed his mind and from there on supported the high dam. The high dam was approved by Congress in 1935 and completed in 1942, the first water over-topping its spillway on June 1 of that year.

The dam's power plants fueled an industrious and growing Northwest during World War II. Between 1967 and 1974, the Third Powerplant was constructed in conjunction with the dam. The decision to construct the additional power plant was influenced by growing energy demand, regulated river flows stipulated in the Columbia River Treaty with Canada and competition with the Soviet Union. Through a series of upgrades and the installation of pump-generators, the dam now supplies four power stations with an installed capacity of 6,809 MW. In conjunction with the Columbia Basin Project, the dam's reservoir also supplies water for the irrigation of 671,000 acres.

The reservoir is called Franklin Delano Roosevelt Lake, named after the United States President who presided over the authorization and completion of the dam. The dam has also prevented the migration of fish and its reservoir caused the relocation of over 3,000 people, including Native Americans while also inundating part of their ancestral lands.

Contents

Background

The Grand Coulee is an ancient river bed created during the Pleistocene Epoch (Ice Age) from retreating glaciers and floods. When ice dams had clogged the main Columbia River channel and raised its level, the Grand Coulee became its conduit by transferring water south through its plateau and past the normal river bend.[6][7] Mimicking a similar scheme to irrigate the Grand Coulee plateau would be the intent of engineers and inspiration for the Grand Coulee Dam. In 1892, the Coulee City News and The Spokesman Review published the earliest known proposal to irrigate the Coulee plateau with the Columbia River. It regarded a plan developed by Laughlin McLean to construct a 1000 ft. dam across the Columbia River that would divert the water back into the plateau.[8] Shortly after the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation was formed, known then as the Reclamation Service, they had expressed interest in pumping water from the Columbia River to central areas of Washington.[9] An attempt to raise funds for irrigation failed in 1914 with an unsuccessful bond measure.[8] Pumping would be required because in order for the dam to flood the Grand Coulee Plateau, it would have to be 600 ft. tall but its reservoir would then encroach into Canada, violating treaties.[10]

An attorney from Ephrata named William M. Clapp began proposing in 1917 that the Columbia be dammed right below the Grand Coulee plateau.[9] He suggest that a concrete dam could help flood the plateau just as nature had blocked it with ice centuries ago. Clapp was joined with another attorney, James O' Sullivan, and Rufus Woods, the publisher of the Wenatchee World newspaper. Woods began promoting the Grand Coulee Dam with his newspaper, particularly with articles written by O'Sullivan. The idea had gained popularity with the public in 1918. The previous two schools of thought had existed prior and continued to conflict as the idea for the dam progressed. One side known as the "pumpers", favored pumping water from the river and the other side known as the "ditchers" favored diverting water from northeast Washington's Pend Oreille River via a gravity canal. Locals along with Woods, O'Sullivan and Clapp were pumpers while businessmen in Spokane associated with the Washington Water and Power Company (WWPC) were staunch ditchers. The pumpers believed that hydroelectricity from the dam could be used to cover costs and its maintenance along with the view that the ditchers wanted to control the eastern part of the state. Washington's own governor at the time, Ernest Lister was in favor of the canal but this changed after his death in 1919, when his successor, Louis F. Hart supported the pumping scheme.[8] [[File:|thumb|175px|left|Future dam site, looking south]] Throughout the 1920's, both sides were engaged in a battle to win support for their proposal. Studies both supporting the dam or canal were published while supporters held rallies for their specific cause. The debate was expanded to the lobbying of Congressmen and other government officials.[8] Lister had previously established the Columbia Basin Survey Commission on March 1, 1919. The Commission was composed largely of WWPC engineers and their subsequent report which deemed the dam as "infeasible" was questioned.[10] One influential person, hired by Spokane businesses, General George W. Goethals, the engineer of the Panama Canal, produced a report that agreed with the commission. However, the Bureau of Reclamation ordered $500,000 in drilling tests to confirm the initial report's claim of "flimsy foundation of soft rock" and that "no rock has been encountered." Granite, which was very much suitable for a high dam, was discovered at depths from 67 - 172 feet despite Spokane newspapers initially falsifying the results.[11][7] In the early 1920s, the WWPC tried to eliminate the need for a pumping and the dam by nearly constructing their own dam on the upstream Kettle Falls which would had limited the height of the Grand Coulee Dam and rendering pumping infeasible.[8] They were unsuccessful acquiring federal funding with the absence of federal studies on their project.[7]

In 1929, President Herbert Hoover was persuaded by Washington's Senators, Wesley Jones and Clarence Dill, to fund a $600,000 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers study of the Columbia River. This study was included in the River and Harbors Act which provided for studies on the navigation, power, flood control and irrigation potential of rivers. The studies were carried out by the U.S. Corps of Engineers and Federal Power Commission between 1927 and 1929 on the Columbia and Snake Rivers.[7] After a few years of the Corps of Engineers and Reclamation competing, the Army Corps completed the study in 1932.[11] It recommended the Grand Coulee Dam and nine others on the river, including some in Canada.[8] The Bureau of Reclamation also completed a similar report in 1932 that also supported a dam.[9] Overall, the Grand Coulee Dam was being supported but others such as Hoover argued that there was little need for more electricity in the northwest and crops were in surplus.[8][7] The Army Corps did not believe it should be a federal project and saw low demand for electricity but the Bureau of Reclamation argued that energy demand would rise by the time the dam was complete.[12] The head of Reclamation, Elwood Mead stated he wanted the dam built no matter what the cost.[7] President Franklin D. Roosevelt assumed office in 1932 as well and supported the dam because of the irrigation and power it would provide but was uneasy with its $450 million price tag. So he supported a 150 ft. dam instead of the 550 ft. Reclamation-designed dam that was planned. He provided $63 million in federal funding, while Washington State previously provided $377,000.[9][8] In 1933, the same year Roosevelt established the Public Works Administration, Clarence Martin set up the Columbia Basin Commission to oversee construction of the dam, funds were also released in July that year.[7][13]

Construction

Low dam

On July 16, 1933, the ceremonial first stake was driven at the construction site as a crowd of 3,000 watched. Excavation of the site soon began and core drilling commenced that September while the Bureau of Reclamation accelerated their studies and designs for the dam.[14][7] The dam being constructed was the low dam. It would still, although at a reduced capacity, help control floods, provide for irrigation and hydroelectricity. Most importantly, it would not raise its reservoir high enough to irrigate the Grand Coulee plateau.[9] However, the dam's design gave it the ability to be raised and upgraded in the future.[9] [[File:|thumb|175px|right|The east-side coffer dam after the west base was complete.]] Before and during construction, workers and engineers experienced difficulty. Contracts for companies to construct the various parts dam were hard to award because of how large they were compared to companies available, forcing companies to consolidate. In addition, Native American graves had to be relocated and temporary fish ladders had to be constructed. During construction, landslides along with protecting and cooling concrete were formidable problems.[11] Construction on the downstream Grand Coulee Bridge began in May 1934 and more considerable earth-moving began in August.[7] Excavtion for the dam's foundation required the removal of 22,000,000 cu yd (17,000,000 m3) of dirt and stone.[15] To further secure the foundation, workers drilled 660 ft (200 m) to 880 ft (270 m) holes into the granite and filled any fissures with grout, creating a grout curtain.[16] At times, excavated areas would collapse from overburden. In order to secure these areas from further movement and continue excavation, three-inch diameter pipes were inserted into the mass and fueled with cold liquid from a refrigeration plant. This froze the earth and secured it so construction could continue.[17]

Contract bidding for the actual dam began on June 18, 1934 in Spokane. The lowest bid was from a consortium of three companies, Silas Mason Co. from Louisville, Kentucky and New York, Walsh Construction Co. of Davenport, Iowa and Atkinson-Kier Company of San Francisco and San Diego. The consortium was known as MWAK and their bid was $29,339,301.10, almost 15% lower than the next bidder, Six Companies, Inc. who was building Hoover Dam at the time.[18] Between January 1 and March 23, 1935 about 1,200 workers constructed the cofferdam on the river's west side. The cofferdam allowed workers to dry the riverbed and begin constructing the dam.[7] Two cofferdams were constructed for the dam but neither straddled the entire width of the river. First, the west cofferdam was built, allowing the foundation for the west-side of the dam to be built. Once complete, the east side cofferdam was built, allowing the east side of the dam to be constructed.[19] The west cofferdam was 2,000 ft (610 m) long, 50 ft (15 m) thick and was constructed 110 ft (34 m) above the bedrock.[20]

Design change

File:Grand Coulee Dam
Base of the dam in 1938

On August 4, 1934, President Franklin D. Roosevelt visited the construction site and was impressed by the project and its purpose.[21] He closed his speech by saying "I leave here today with the feeling that this work is well undertaken; that we are going ahead with a useful project, and we are going to see it through for the benefit of our country."[22] Soon after, Reclamation was allowed to proceed with the high dam but now had to transition the design and negotiate an altered contract with MWAK. In June of 1935, at an additional $7 million, MWAK agreed to construct the high dam with the obvious improvements, one of which included excavation for the pumping plant.[21]

Roosevelt envisioned how the dam would fit into further into his New Deal under the Public Works Administration; it would create jobs, farming opportunities and it would pay for itself. In addition, as part of a larger heated debate at the time, Roosevelt wanted to keep electricity prices low by limiting private ownership of utility companies, which could charge high prices for energy.[12] Many opposed a federal takeover of the project, including its most prominent supporters, but they knew it was inevitable. Factors included Washington State not being able to afford or being authorized to acquire the needed land to construct the project and political public energy ownership interests.[7][8] In August 1935, with the help of Roosevelt and a Supreme Court decision allowing the acquisition of public land and Indian Reservations, Congress authorized funding for the upgraded high dam under the 1935 River and Harbors Act.[23] The most significant legislative hurdle for the dam was over.[24]

That for the purpose of controlling floods, improving navigation, regulating the flow of the streams of the United States, providing for storage and for the delivery of the stored waters thereof, for the reclamation of public lands and Indian reservations, and other beneficial uses, and for the generation of electric energy as a means of financially aiding and assisting such undertakings the projects known as "Parker Dam" on the Colorado River and "Grand Coulee Dam" on the Columbia River are hereby authorized and adopted.-1935 Rivers and Harbors Act SEC 2, August 30, 1935, [H.R. 6250] [Public, No. 409][24]

First concrete pour and completion

File:Grand Coulee Dam no
The dam after completion

On December 6, 1935, the first concrete was poured for the dam.[7] Bulk concrete was delivered on site by rail-cars where it was further processed by eight large mixers before being placed in form. Concrete was poured into 50 sq ft (4.6 m2) columns by crane-lifted buckets, each supporting eight tons of concrete.[25] To cool the concrete and facilitate contraction, about 2,000 mi (3,200 km) of piping was placed throughout the drying mass. Cold water from the river was then pumped into the pipes, reducing core temperatures that exceeded 105F down to 45F. This caused the dam to contract about eight inches in length of which gaps where filled with grout.[19] On January 24, 1936, the Grand Coulee Bridge was complete.[7] Three additional and temporary bridges downstream moved sand and gravel across the river for cement mixing along with vehicles and workers.[26] In March 1938, MWAK had completed the lower dam and Consolidated Builders Inc. began constructing the high dam. Consolidated consisted of MWAK and seven other construction companies, they were awarded the high dam contract in 1937. on the west power house was completed in December 1939 and about 5,500 workers were on site that year. Between 1940 and 1941, the dam's eleven floodgates were installed on the spillway and the dams first generator went into operation in January 1941.[7] The reservoir was full and the first water flowed over the dam's spillway on June 1, 1942 while work was officially complete on January 31, 1943.[27][28]

Reservoir clearing

[[File:|thumb|175px|right|Banks and Smith felling the last tree in the reservoir zone.]] In 1933, the Bureau of Reclamation had begun efforts to purchase land behind the dam, as far as 151 mi (243 km) upstream, for the future reservoir zone. The reservoir, known later as Lake Roosevelt, would flood 70,500 acres and Reclamation acquired an additional 11,500 acres around the future shoreline. Within the zone was eleven towns, two railroads, three state highways, about one hundred and fifty miles of country roads, four sawmills, fourteen bridges, four telegraph and telephone systems along with power lines and cemeteries. All facilities had to be purchased or relocated and a total of 3,000 residents were relocated.[29] The government appraised the land and offered to purchase it from the effected residents. Many refused to accept the offers and Reclamation filed condemnation suits.[30] The relocation of Colville Confederated and Spokane Tribe of Indians members with year-round and seasonal settlements within the reservoir zone occurred as well. The Acquisition of Indian Lands for Grand Coulee Dam Act of June 29, 1940 allowed the Secretary of the Interior to acquire land on the Colville and Spokane Reservations, eventually accounting for 21,100 acres.[31] Eventually, by 1942, all land had been purchased at market value at a cost $10.5 million which included the relocation of farms, bridges, highways and railroads. Relocation costs were not offered to property owners though, which was common until laws were changed in 1958.[30]

In late 1928, the Public Works Administration began clearing the reservoir zone of trees and other plants. A total of 54,000 acres were cleared, 11,000 of which had as much as tree roots pulled. The cut timber was floated downstream and sold to the highest bidder, Lincoln Lumber Company, who paid $2.25 per a thousand board feet.[32] The pace of clearing was accelerated in April 1941 when it was declared a national defense project and the last tree was fell on July 19, 1941. The felling was done by Reclamation Supervising Engineer Frank A. Banks and State WPA Administrator Carl W. Smith during a ceremony.[33] A total of 2,626 people living in five main camps along the Columbia worked on the project and when complete, $4.9 million had been spent in labor.[34]

Labor and supporting infrastructure

[[File:|thumb|175px|right|Workers installing a penstock section]] Workers building the dam received an average of 80 cents an hour; the payroll for the dam was the largest in the nation. The workers were mainly pulled from Grant, Lincoln, Douglas, and Okanogan Counties and women were only allowed to work at the dorms and the cookhouse.[7] Around 8,000 people worked on the project and Frank A. Banks served as the chief construction engineer. Bert A Hall was the chief inspector, who would accept the dam from the contractors. Orin G. Patch served as the chief of concrete.[35][36][11] A total of 77 men died.[14]

To prepare for construction, housing for workers needed to be constructed along with four bridges downstream of the dam site, one of which, the Grand Coulee Bridge, exists today. The Bureau of Reclamation provided housing and located their administrative building at Engineer's Town which was located directly downstream of the construction site, on the west side of the river.[26] Opposite Engineer's town, MWAK, a consortium of three companies constructing the low dam, constructed Mason City in 1934. Mason city contained a hospital, post office, electricity, and other amenities along with a population of 3,000. Three-bedroom houses in the city were rented for $32 a month.[37] Out of the two cities worker living areas, Engineer's City was considered to have the best housing.[38] Several other towns formed around the construction site is an area known as Shack Town which did not have reliable access to electricity of the same amenities as the other towns.[39] Incorporated in 1935, the city of Grand Coulee supported workers as well and is located just west of the dam on the plateau.[40] MWAK eventually sold Mason City to the Bureau of Reclamation in 1937, prior to their contract being completed.[41] In 1956, Reclamation was allowed to sell the houses and eventually both Mason and Engineer's City combined to form the city of Coulee Dam. In February 1959, Coulee Dam was incorporated as an independent city.[38]

Later expansions

Third Powerplant

File:Water turbine
One of the new turbines in the Third Powerplant

After World War II, the growing demand for electricity sparked interest in constructing another power plant supported by the Grand Coulee Dam.[42] One major obstacle to an additional power plant was the inconsistent Columbia River flow. During low flow periods, the river flow was between 50,000 cu ft/s (1,400 m3/s) and 80,000 cu ft/s (2,300 m3/s) while maximum spring run-off flows were around 500,000 cu ft/s (14,000 m3/s). As it was, only nine out of the dam's eighteen generators could run year-round while the remaining nine operated for less than six months a year.[43] In 1952, Congress authorized $125,000 for Reclamation to conduct a feasibility study on the Third Powerplant which was completed in 1953 with two recommended locations. Nine of the same 108 MW generators were recommended but would only be able to operate in periods of high water.[42]

Regulation of the Columbia's flows would be necessary to make the new power plant feasible but the dam's reservoir extended to the Canadian border. Water storage and regulation projects in Canada were necessary and the Columbia River Treaty, which had been in discussion between the U.S. and Canada since 1944 was seen as the answer. Efforts to build the Third Powerplant were also influenced by competition with the Soviet Union who had constructed power plants on the Volga River that were larger than Grand Coulee.[44] On September 16, 1964, the Columbia River Treaty was signed and included an agreement by Canada to construct the Duncan, Keenleyside and Mica Dams upstream.[45] Shortly afterward, Washington Senator Henry M. Jackson, who was influential in constructing the new power plant, announced that Reclamation would present the project to Congress for appropriation and funding.[46] To keep up with Soviet competition and increase the generating capacity, it was determined that the generators could be upgraded to 300 MW or 600 MW designs. With the possibility of international companies bidding on the project, the Soviets who had just installed a 500 MW hydroelectric generator on the Yenisei River, indicated their interest. To avoid embarrassment, the Department of the Interior declined international bidding. The Third Powerplant was approved and its appropriation bill was signed by Lyndon Johnson on June 14, 1966.[47]

Between 1967 and 1974 the dam was expanded to add the Third Powerplant. This involved demolishing the northeast side of the dam and building a new fore-bay section. The addition made the original 4,300 ft (1,300 m) dam almost a mile long and accommodated six new generators. Original designs for the powerhouse had twelve smaller units but was changed to incorporate the largest units available. The new turbines and generators, 600 MW units, were at the time nearly the largest units produced, three were later upgraded to 805 MW. The expansion was completed in the early eighties and made the Grand Coulee Dam once again one of the largest hydroelectric producers in the world.[48]

Pumping station

After power shortages in the Northwest during the 1960s, it was determined that six of the 12 planned pumps be pump-generators. When energy demand is high, the pump generators could generate electricity with water from the Banks Lake feeder canal which site adjacent to the dam and at a higher elevation.[49] By 1973, the Pump-Generating plant was completed. This included 6 pumps and 6 pump-generators. The six pump-generators added an additional 314 MW capacity to the dam.[50] In May 2009, the Pump Generating Plant was renamed the John W. Keys III Pump-Generating Power Plant after John W. Keys III, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation's commissioner from 2001 to 2006.[51] The expansion of the dam also required the installation of over 20 km of oil-cooled cables. These 6-inch cables, made in Japan by Sumitomo Electric, are rated to a maximum potential of 525 kV and are connected to powerful pumps which circulate the oil through the cables during normal operation.

Overhauls

A major overhaul of the Third Powerplant began in March 2008, and will be continuing for many years. Among the projects to be completed before the generators can begin to be overhauled include replacing underground 500 kV oil-filled cables for G19, G20 and G21 generators with overhead transmission lines (started in February 2009 and scheduled to be completed in December 2011), new 236 MW transformers for G19 and G20 (started in November 2006 and scheduled to be completed in December 2011), and several other projects.[52] Planning, design, procurement and site preparation for the 805 MW G22, G23 and G24 generator overhauls are scheduled to begin in August 2011, with the overhauls themselves to start in March 2013 with the G-24 generator, then G-23 starting in September 2014, and finally G-24 starting in March 2016, with planned completions in September 2014, March 2016 and September 2017, respectively. The generator overhauls for G19, G20 and G21 have yet to be scheduled.[53]

Operation and benefits

File:Grand
Pump Generating Plant and Roosevelt Lake at bottom, feeder canal to Banks Lake at top

The primary goal of irrigation was postponed as the wartime need for electricity increased. The dam's powerhouse began production around the time World War II began and its electricity was vital to the war effort. The dam helped power aluminum smelters in Longview and Vancouver, Washington along with Boeing factories in Seattle and Vancouver and Portland's shipyards. In 1943, The electricity was also used to power plutonium production in Richland, Washington at the Hanford Site, which was part of the then top-secret Manhattan Project.[7] So great was the demand for power that in 1943, two generators originally intended for the Shasta Dam were installed.[54]

Irrigation

The original goal of irrigation resumed after the World War II. In 1945, the plan for a water distribution network was authorized and the Bureau of Reclamation began construction in 1946.[7] Directly to the west and above of the Grand Coulee Dam, the North Dam was constructed. This dam along with the Dry Falls Dam to the south enclosed and created Banks Lake. Additional dams such as the Pinto and O'Sullivan Dams along with siphons, and canals were constructed, creating a vast irrigation supply network called the Columbia Basin Project. Irrigation began in 1951 after Banks Lake was filled. Water is pumped up 280 feet (85 m) from Lake Roosevelt to a feeder canal then Banks Lake by means of the Pump Generating Plant and 14-foot -wide (4.3 m) pipes. The pumps can transfer up to 1,605-cubic-foot-per-second -wide (45.4 m3/s). Currently, the Columbia Basin Project irrigates 671,000 acres with a potential for 1.1 million.[49]

Power

Grand Coulee Dam supports four different power houses containing 33 hydroelectric generators. The original Left and Right Powerhouses contain 18 main generators and the Left has an additional three service generators for total installed capacity of 2,280 MW. The first generator was commissioned in 1941 and all 18 were operating by 1950. The Third Powerplant contains a total of six main generators with a 4,215 MW installed capacity. Generators G-19, G-20 and G-21 in the Third Powerplant have a 600 MW installed capacity but can operate at a maximum capacity of 690 MW which brings the overall maximum capacity of the dam's power facilities to 7,079 MW. The Pump-Generating Plant contains six pump-generators with an installed capacity of 314 MW. When pumping water into Banks Lake, they consume 600 MW of electricity. Each generator is supplied with water by an individual penstock. The largest of these feed the Third Powerplant and are 40 ft (12 m) in diameter and can supply up to 35,000 cu ft/s (990 m3/s). The dam's power facilities originally had an installed capacity of 1,974 MW but expansions and upgrades have increased generation to 6,809 MW installed, 7,079 MW maximum. In 2008, close to 2 billion kWh of electricity was generated with a plant factor of 38.24%.[55]

Generator installed-capacity breakdown at Grand Coulee Dam[56]
Location Type Quantity Capacity (MW) Total capacity (MW)
Left Powerhouse Francis turbine, service generator 3 10 30
Francis turbine, main generator 9 125 1,125
Right Powerhouse Francis turbine, main generator 9 125 1,125
Third Powerplant Francis turbine, main generator 3 805 2,415
Francis turbine, main generator 3 600 (Max: 690 MW) 1,800
Pumping Plant Pump-generator, peak generator 4 53.5 214
Pump-generator, peak generator 2 50 100
Totals 33 6,809

Spillway

Grand Coulee Dam's spillway is 1,650 feet (500 m) long and is an overflow, drum-gate controlled type with a 1,000,000 cu ft/s (28,000 m3/s) maximum capacity.[57]. A record severe flood in May and June of 1948 flooded lowland below the dam and highlighted its limited flood control capability at the time[58], as its spillway and turbines hit a record flow of 637,800-cubic-foot-per-second -wide (18,060 m3/s).[49] The flood damaged river banks downstream of the dam and also deteriorated the face of the dam and its flip bucket, at the base (toe) of the spillway.[59] The flooding in 1948 spurred efforts to further regulate flows on the Columbia, much of which was centered on the Columbia River Treaty and its provisions for dams constructed upstream in Canada.[60]

Cost benefits

The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation in 1932 estimated the cost of the Grand Coulee Dam, with the exception of the Third Power Plant, to be $168 million but its actual cost was $163 million ($2.5 billion in $2009).[nb 1] Expenses to finish the power stations and repair design flaws with the dam throughout the 1940s and 50s added another $107 million bringing the total cost to $270 million ($4.2 billion in 2009), about 33% over estimates.[61] The Third Powerplant was estimated to cost $390 million in 1967 but higher construction costs and labor disputes drove the projects final cost in 1973 to $790 million ($3.7 billion in $2009), about 55% over estimates. Despite estimates being exceeded, the dam became an economic success, particularly with the Third Powerplant exhibiting a benefit-cost ratio of 2:1.[45] Although the Bureau of Reclamation has only irrigated about one half of the land predicted, the gross value of crop output (in constant dollars) had doubled from 1962 to 1992, largely due to different farming practices and crop choices.[62]

Environmental and social consequences

The dam had severe negative consequences for the local Native American tribes whose traditional way of life revolved around salmon as well as for the original shrub steppe habitat of the area. Without a fish ladder, Grand Coulee Dam permanently blocks fish migration[63] removing over a thousand miles of spawning grounds.[64] By largely eliminating anadromous fish above the Okanogan River, the Grand Coulee Dam also set the stage for the subsequent decision not to provide for fish passage at Chief Joseph Dam (built in 1953)[65]. Chinook, Steelhead, Sockeye and Coho salmon (as well as other important species including Lamprey) are now unable to spawn in the reaches of the Upper Columbia Basin. The extinction of the spawning grounds upstream from the dam has prevented the Spokane and other tribes from holding the first salmon ceremony.[66]

Grand Coulee Dam flooded over 21,000 acres (85 km²) of prime bottom land where Native Americans had been living and hunting for thousands of years, forcing the relocation of settlements and graveyards.[67] Kettle Falls, once a primary Native American fishing grounds, was inundated. The average catch went from a historical average of over 600,000 salmon a year to nothing. In one study, the Army Corps of Engineers estimated the annual loss was over a million fish.[68] In June 1941, Native Americans throughout the Northwest met at the Falls for a Ceremony of Tears, marking the end of fishing there and a month later, the falls were inundated.[66] The town of Kettle Falls, Washington was relocated. The Columbia Basin Project has affected habitat ranges for species such as whitetail and mule deer, pygmy rabbits and burrowing owls, resulting in decreased populations. However, it has created new habitat in the form of wetlands, reservoirs, and riparian corridors.[69] The environmental impact of the dam effectively ended the traditional way of life of the native inhabitants. The government eventually compensated the Colville Indians in the 1990s with a lump settlement of approximately $53 million, plus annual payments of approximately $15 million.[70]

Touring the dam

The visitor center contains many historical photos, geological samples, turbine and dam models, and a well used theater. Since May 1989, on summer evenings, The laser light show at Grand Coulee Dam is projected onto the dam's wall. The show includes full-size images of battleships and the Statue of Liberty, as well as some environmental comments. Tours of the new Third Powerhouse are available to the public but have been scaled back for security reasons. Visitors are able to ride a glass elevator, on top of the forebay penstocks, 400 feet down to view the generators.

fields end to end.]]

Cultural references

Woody Guthrie sings about the dam in both "Grand Coulee Dam" and "End of the Line."

In the song "Idiot Wind" by Bob Dylan the dam is mentioned in the line "From the Grand Coulee Dam to the capital".

During the second season of the cartoon Venture Bros., in the second episode, titled "Hate Floats"; the Venture brothers' learning beds teach them correctly that, "the Grand Coulee Dam. The largest concrete structure in the United States. Construction began in...."

See Also

Renewable energy portal
Energy portal
Sustainable development portal

References

  1. ^ "Grand Coulee Dam". U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. http://www.usbr.gov/dataweb/dams/wa00262.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-02. 
  2. ^ "Grand Coulee Dam Dimensions". U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. http://www.usbr.gov/projects/Facility.jsp?fac_Name=Grand+Coulee+Dam&groupName=Dimensions. Retrieved 4 September 2010. 
  3. ^ "Grand Coulee Dam, Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region". U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. http://www.usbr.gov/pn/grandcoulee/index.html. Retrieved 2009-08-06. 
  4. ^ "Renewable Energy Sources: A Consumer's Guide". U.S. Department of Energy: Energy Information Administration. http://www.eia.doe.gov/neic/brochure/renew05/renewable.html. Retrieved 2006-11-18. 
  5. ^ Larsen, Jeff (2002-10-03). "Short Trips: Take a step back to take in a concrete wonder". Seattle Post Intelligencer. http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/getaways/89497_shorttrips03.shtml. Retrieved 2006-11-19. 
  6. ^ Pitzer 1994, p. 2
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Pitzer, Paul C. (1994). Grand Coulee: Harnessing a Dream. Washington State University Press. ISBN 0874221102. http://www.amazon.com/Grand-Coulee-Harnessing-Paul-Pitzer/dp/0874221102#reader_0874221102. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Grand Coulee Dam: History and purpose". NW Council. http://www.nwcouncil.org/history/grandcouleehistory.asp. Retrieved 4 September 2010. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f "History of the Columbia Basin Project". OWT. http://users.owt.com/chubbard/gcdam/html/history.html. Retrieved 4 September 2010. 
  10. ^ a b Bottenberg 2008, p. 7
  11. ^ a b c d Bottenberg 2008, p. 8
  12. ^ a b Ortolano & Cushing 2000, p. v
  13. ^ McKay & Renk 2002, p. 28
  14. ^ a b Saul, John B. (2005-08-05). "Grand Coulee Dam: Still a Grand Experience?". Seattle Times. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/outdoors/2002419021_nwwgrandcoulee04.html. Retrieved 2008-05-18. 
  15. ^ State of 1947, p. 5
  16. ^ State of 1947, p. 7
  17. ^ Bottenberg 2008, p. 21
  18. ^ Downs 1993, p. 27-28
  19. ^ a b State of 1947, p. 11
  20. ^ Downs 1993, p. 177
  21. ^ a b Downs 1993, p. 29
  22. ^ Downs 1993, p. 14
  23. ^ Ortolano & Cushing 2000, p. vi
  24. ^ a b "1935 Rivers and Harbors Act". Center for Columbia River History. http://www.ccrh.org/comm/moses/primary/riveract.html. Retrieved 10 October 2010. 
  25. ^ State of 1947, p. 9
  26. ^ a b Bottenberg 2008, p. 21
  27. ^ Bottenberg 2008, p. 9
  28. ^ "The Grand Coulee Dam". Grand Coulee Dam Area Chamber of Commerce. http://www.grandcouleedam.org/oldweb/dam.html. Retrieved 4 September 2010. 
  29. ^ McKay & Renk 2002, p. 31
  30. ^ a b McKay & Renk 2002, p. 32
  31. ^ McKay & Renk 2002, p. 35
  32. ^ McKay & Renk 2002, p. 38
  33. ^ McKay & Renk 2002, p. 40
  34. ^ McKay & Renk 2002, p. 39
  35. ^ Downs 1993, p. 59-60
  36. ^ McKay & Renk 2002, p. 30
  37. ^ Bottenberg 2008, p. 25
  38. ^ a b Bottenberg 2008, p. 22
  39. ^ Bottenberg 2008, p. 26
  40. ^ Bottenberg 2008, p. 29
  41. ^ Bottenberg 2008, p. 24
  42. ^ a b Ortolano & Cushing 2000, p. A244
  43. ^ Ortolano & Cushing 2000, p. A243
  44. ^ Ortolano & Cushing 2000, p. A245
  45. ^ a b Ortolano & Cushing 2000, p. viii
  46. ^ Ortolano & Cushing 2000, p. A246
  47. ^ Ortolano & Cushing 2000, p. A247
  48. ^ "World's Largest Hydroelectric Plants (over 4,000 MW capacity)". Infoplease.com. http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0001336.html. Retrieved 2010-07-09. 
  49. ^ a b c "Columbia Basin Project". U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. http://www.usbr.gov/projects/Project.jsp?proj_Name=Columbia%20Basin%20Project. Retrieved 4 September 2010. 
  50. ^ U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Grand Coulee Dam Factsheet
  51. ^ Grand Coulee Pump-Generating Plant Dedication Ceremony in Honor of John W. Keys III - May 5, 2009
  52. ^ "Grand Coulee Dam: Third Powerplant Overhaul Project". U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. http://www.usbr.gov/pn/grandcoulee/tpp/prior-projects.html. Retrieved 4 September 2010. 
  53. ^ "Overview: Grand Coulee Dam: Third Powerplant Overhaul Project". U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. http://www.usbr.gov/pn/grandcoulee/tpp/index.html. Retrieved 4 September 2010. 
  54. ^ Ortolano & Cushing 2000, p. 32
  55. ^ "Grand Coulee Powerplant". U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. http://www.usbr.gov/projects/Powerplant.jsp?fac_Name=Grand%20Coulee%20Powerplant. Retrieved 4 September 2010. 
  56. ^ "Grand Coulee Powerplant, Columbia Basin Project". U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. http://www.usbr.gov/projects//ImageServer?imgName=Doc_1240936015754.pdf. Retrieved 4 September 2010. 
  57. ^ "Grand Coulee Dam Statistics and Facts" (PDF). USBR. http://www.usbr.gov/pn/grandcoulee/pubs/factsheet.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-18. 
  58. ^ Ortolano & Cushing 2000, p. 41
  59. ^ Ortolano & Cushing 2000, p. A201
  60. ^ Ortolano & Cushing 2000, p. 42
  61. ^ Ortolano & Cushing 2000, p. vii
  62. ^ Ortolano & Cushing 2000, p. vi
  63. ^ Gulick, Bill (1996). A Traveler's History of Washington. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Press, 388.
  64. ^ "Dams of the Columbia Basin & Their Effects on the Native Fishery". Center for Columbia River History. http://www.ccrh.org/comm/river/dams6.htm. 
  65. ^ Ortolano & Cushing 2000, p. xiv
  66. ^ a b Ortolano & Cushing 2000, p. 74
  67. ^ Harden, Blaine (1996). A River Lost: The Life and Death of the Columbia. New York: W.W. Norton and Company. pp. 106–107. 
  68. ^ "The End of an Era". City of Kettle Falls. http://www.kettlefalls.com/History.htm. 
  69. ^ "USA: Grand Coulee Dam & Columbia River Basin". The World Commission on Dams. http://www.dams.org/kbase/studies/us/us_exec.htm. 
  70. ^ Ortolano & Cushing 2000, p. 79

Notes

  1. ^ 2009 inflation estimates were calculated with The Inflation Calculator.

Bibliography

Further reading

  • J. Harlen Brentz: The Grand Coulee (American Geographical Society, 1932).
  • Marcia S. Gresko: The Grand Coulee Dam (Blackbirch Press, 1999).
  • George Sundborg: Hail Columbia: The Thirty-year Struggle for Grand Coulee Dam (New York: Macmillan, 1954).
  • Richard White: The Organic Machine: The Remaking of the Columbia River (New York: Hill and Wang, 1995).

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Grand Coulee Dam is a hydroelectric gravity dam on the Columbia River in Washington. It is the largest electric power producing facility in the United States, and the largest concrete structure in the U.S. When completed in 1941, it was the largest manmade structure ever built. The reservoir it backs up is called Franklin Delano Roosevelt Lake, named after the United States president who presided over the conception and completion of the dam.

Sourced

  • Now the world holds seven wonders that the travelers always tell,
    Some gardens and some towers, I guess you know them well.
    But now the greatest wonder is in Uncle Sam's fair land,
    It's the big Columbia River and the big Grand Coulee Dam.
  • Don't feel sorry for yourself
    I'll always wait for you
    Your ghost is a lightshow at night
    On the Grand Coulee Dam.
    The river is watching you
    At the drive-in tonight
    Who do they comfort now
    Since I've gone away?
  • Idiot wind, blowing like a circle around my skull,
    From the Grand Coulee Dam to the Capitol.
    Idiot wind, blowing every time you move your teeth,
    You're an idiot, babe.
    It's a wonder that you still know how to breathe.

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Grand Coulee article)

From Wikitravel

Grand Coulee is a city in the Columbia River Plateau of Washington State.

  • Grand Coulee Dam[1]
  • Dry Falls Interpretive Center, 34875 Park Lk Rd NE, Coulee City, WA 99115. Opposite the Grand Coulee from the Grand Coulee dam, the dry falls once carried more water by volume than all the rivers of the world combined. The interpretive center is on Highway 17.
  • Lake Lenore Caves, [2]. These caves on the Grand Coulee were formed by water erosion on volcanic rock, which makes them geologically interesting.  edit
  • Steamboat Rock State Park, (On the north shore of Banks Lake, 16 miles north of Coulee City.), [3].  edit
  • Summer Falls State Park, (about 10 miles south of Coulee City), [4].  edit
  • Sun Lakes State Park, (7 miles SW of Coulee City), [5]. At the foot of Dry "Falls. Offers camping and lakefront shoreline.  edit
This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!







Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message