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Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna
Grand Duchess Anastasia, ca. 1914. Courtesy: Beinecke Libary.
House House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Father Nicholas II of Russia
Mother Alexandra Fyodorovna
(Alix of Hesse)
Born June 18, 1901(1901-06-18)
Petergof, Russian Empire
Died July 17, 1918 (&0000000000000017.00000017 years, &0000000000000021.00000021 days)
Yekaterinburg, Russian SFSR
Burial Peter and Paul Cathedral, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation
Signature
Religion Eastern Orthodox

Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia (Anastasia Nikolaevna Romanova), (Russian: Великая Княжна Анастасия Николаевна Романова) (June 18 [O.S. June 5] 1901 – July 17, 1918), was the youngest daughter of Czar Nicholas II of Russia, the last sovereign of Imperial Russia, and his wife Alexandra Fyodorovna.

Anastasia was a younger sister of Grand Duchess Olga, Grand Duchess Tatiana and Grand Duchess Maria, and was an elder sister of Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia. She was murdered with her family on July 17, 1918 by forces of the Bolshevik secret police.

Persistent rumors of her possible escape have circulated since her death, fueled by the fact that the location of her burial was unknown during the decades of Communist rule. The mass grave near Ekaterinburg which held the remains of the Tsar, his wife, and three daughters was revealed in 1991, but the bodies of Alexei Nikolaevich and one of his sisters — either Anastasia or her older sister Maria — were not discovered there.

Her possible survival has been entirely disproven. In January 2008, Russian scientists announced that the charred remains of a young boy and a young woman found near Ekaterinburg in August 2007 were most likely those of the thirteen-year-old Tsarevich and one of the four Romanov grand duchesses. Russian forensic scientists confirmed on April 30, 2008 that the remains were those of the Tsarevich Alexei and one of his four sisters.[1] In March 2009, the final results of the DNA testing were published by Dr. Michael Coble of the US Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory, proving once and for all that the remains of all four Grand Duchesses have now been accounted for, and no one escaped.[2]

Several women have falsely claimed to have been Anastasia, the most notorious of whom was Anna Anderson. Anderson's body was cremated upon her death in 1984, but DNA testing in 1994 on available pieces of Anderson's tissue and hair showed no relation to DNA of the Imperial family.[3]

Contents

Biography

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Life and childhood

When Anastasia was born, her parents and extended family were disappointed to have a fourth daughter, because they wanted a son who would be heir to the throne. Tsar Nicholas II went for a long walk to compose himself before going to visit Tsarina Alexandra and the newborn Anastasia for the first time.[4] One meaning of her name is "the breaker of chains" or "the prison opener". The fourth grand duchess received her name because, in honor of her birth, her father pardoned and reinstated students who had been imprisoned for participating in riots in St. Petersburg and Moscow the previous winter.[5] Another meaning of the name is "of the resurrection," a fact often alluded to later in stories about her rumored survival. Anastasia's title is most precisely translated as "Grand Princess," meaning that Anastasia, as an "Imperial Highness" was higher in rank than other Princesses in Europe who were "Royal Highnesses." "Grand Duchess" became the most widely used translation of the title into English from Russian.[6]

Grand Duchess Anastasia knitting in her mother's boudoir. Courtesy: Beinecke Library.

The Tsar's children were raised as simply as possible. They slept on hard camp cots without pillows, except when they were ill, took cold baths in the morning, and were expected to tidy their rooms and do needlework to be sold at various charity events when they were not otherwise occupied. Most in the household, including the servants, generally called the Grand Duchess by her first name and patronym, Anastasia Nikolaevna, and did not use her title or "Her Imperial Highness." She was occasionally called by the French version of her name, "Anastasie," or by the Russian nicknames "Nastya," "Nastas," or "Nastenka." Other family nicknames for Anastasia were "Malenkaya," meaning "little (one),"[7] or "shvibzik," the Russian word for "imp." Anastasia also had a deformity of her left foot, as did famous imposter, Anna Anderson.

Living up to her nicknames, young Anastasia grew into a vivacious and energetic child, described as short and inclined to be chubby, with blue eyes[8] and strawberry-blonde hair.[9] Margaretta Eagar, a governess to the four Grand Duchesses, said one person commented that the toddler Anastasia had the greatest personal charm of any child he had ever seen.[5]

While often described as gifted and bright, she was never interested in the restrictions of the school room, according to her tutors Pierre Gilliard and Sydney Gibbes. Gibbes, Gilliard, and ladies-in-waiting Lili Dehn and Anna Vyrubova described Anastasia as lively, mischievous, and a gifted actress. Her sharp, witty remarks sometimes hit sensitive spots.[9][10][11]

Grand Duchess Anastasia mugs for the camera as a soldier pulls her and her sister Grand Duchess Maria on a cart. Courtesy: Beinecke Library

Anastasia's daring occasionally exceeded the limits of acceptable behavior. "She undoubtedly held the record for punishable deeds in her family, for in naughtiness she was a true genius," said Gleb Botkin, son of the court physician Yevgeny Botkin, who later died with the family at Ekaterinburg.[12] Anastasia sometimes tripped the servants and played pranks on her tutors. As a child, she would climb trees and refuse to come down. Once, during a snowball fight at the family's Polish estate, Anastasia rolled a rock into a snowball and threw it at her older sister Tatiana, knocking her to the ground.[9] A distant cousin, Princess Nina Georgievna, recalled that "Anastasia was nasty to the point of being evil," and would cheat, kick and scratch her playmates during games; she was affronted because the younger Nina was taller than she was.[13] She was also less concerned about her appearance than her sisters. Hallie Erminie Rives, a best-selling American author and wife of an American diplomat, described how 10-year-old Anastasia ate chocolates without bothering to remove her long, white opera gloves at the St. Petersburg opera house.[14]

Grand Duchess Anastasia enjoying the outdoors at Tsarskoe Selo in about 1910. Courtesy: Beinecke Library.

Anastasia and her older sister Maria were known within the family as "The Little Pair." The two girls shared a room, often wore variations of the same dress, and spent much of their time together. Their older sisters Olga and Tatiana also shared a room and were known as "The Big Pair." The four girls sometimes signed letters using the nickname, OTMA, which was derived from the first letters of their first names.[15]

Despite her energy, Anastasia's physical health was sometimes poor. The Grand Duchess suffered from the painful condition hallux valgus (bunions), which affected both of her big toes.[16] Anastasia had a weak muscle in her back and was prescribed twice-weekly massage. She hid under the bed or in a cupboard to put off the massage.[17] Anastasia's older sister, Maria, reportedly hemorrhaged in December 1914 during an operation to remove her tonsils, according to her paternal aunt Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia, who was interviewed later in her life. The doctor performing the operation was so unnerved that he had to be ordered to continue by Maria's mother, Tsarina Alexandra. Olga Alexandrovna said she believed all four of her nieces bled more than was normal and believed they were carriers of the hemophilia gene, like their mother.[18] Symptomatic carriers of the gene, while not hemophiliacs themselves, can have symptoms of hemophilia including a lower than normal blood clotting factor that can lead to heavy bleeding.[19] DNA testing on the remains of the royal family proved conclusively in 2009 that Alexei suffered from Hemophilia B, a rarer form of the disease. His mother and one of his sisters, identified by the Russians as Anastasia and by Americans as Maria, were carriers. Anastasia potentially would have passed on the disease if she had lived to have children.[20]Anastasia, like all her family, doted on the long-awaited heir Tsarevich Alexei, or "Baby," who suffered frequent attacks of hemophilia and nearly died several times.

Association with Grigori Rasputin

Her mother relied on the counsel of Grigori Rasputin, a Russian peasant and wandering starets or "holy man", and credited his prayers with saving the ailing Tsarevich on numerous occasions. Anastasia and her siblings were taught to view Rasputin as "Our Friend" and to share confidences with him. In the autumn of 1907, Anastasia's aunt Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia was escorted to the nursery by the Tsar to meet Rasputin. Anastasia, her sisters and brother Alexei were all wearing their long white nightgowns.

Grand Duchess Anastasia with her mother, Tsarina Alexandra, in about 1908. Courtesy: Beinecke Library.

"All the children seemed to like him," Olga Alexandrovna recalled. "They were completely at ease with him."[21] Rasputin's friendship with the Imperial children was evident in some of the messages he sent to them. In February 1909, Rasputin sent the imperial children a telegram, advising them to "Love the whole of God's nature, the whole of His creation in particular this earth. The Mother of God was always occupied with flowers and needlework."[22]

However, one of the girls' governesses, Sofia Ivanovna Tyutcheva, was horrified in 1910 that Rasputin was permitted access to the nursery when the four girls were in their nightgowns and wanted him barred. Nicholas asked Rasputin to avoid going to the nurseries in the future. The children were aware of the tension and feared that their mother would be angered by Tyutcheva's actions. "I am so afr(aid) that S.I. (governess Sofia Ivanovna Tyutcheva) can speak...about our friend something bad," Anastasia's twelve-year-old sister Tatiana wrote to their mother on March 8, 1910. "I hope our nurse will be nice to our friend now."[23] Alexandra eventually had Tyutcheva fired.

Grand Duchess Anastasia with her brother Alexei. Courtesy: Beinecke Library.

Tyutcheva took her story to other members of the family.[24] While Rasputin's visits to the children were, by all accounts, completely innocent in nature, the family was scandalized. Tyutcheva told Nicholas's sister, Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna of Russia, that Rasputin visited the girls, talked with them while they were getting ready for bed, and hugged and patted them. Tyutcheva said the children had been taught not to discuss Rasputin with her and were careful to hide his visits from the nursery staff. Xenia wrote on March 15, 1910 that she couldn't understand "...the attitude of Alix and the children to that sinister Grigory (whom they consider to be almost a saint, when in fact he's only a khlyst!)"[23]

In the spring of 1910, Maria Ivanovna Vishnyakova, a royal governess, claimed that Rasputin had raped her. Vishnyakova said the empress refused to believe her account of the assault, and insisted that "everything Rasputin does is holy."[25] Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna was told that Vishnyakova's claim had been immediately investigated, but instead "they caught the young woman in bed with a Cossack of the Imperial Guard." Vishnyakova was kept from seeing Rasputin after she made her accusation and was eventually dismissed from her post in 1913.[26]

However, rumours persisted and it was later whispered in society that Rasputin had seduced not only the Tsarina but also the four grand duchesses.[27] The gossip was fueled by ardent, yet by all accounts innocent, letters written to Rasputin by the Tsarina and the four grand duchesses which were released by Rasputin and which circulated throughout society. "My dear, precious, only friend," wrote Anastasia. "How much I should like to see you again. You appeared to me today in a dream. I am always asking Mama when you will come...I think of you always, my dear, because you are so good to me ..."[28]

This was followed by circulation of pornographic cartoons, which depicted Rasputin having relations with the Empress, her four daughters and Anna Vyrubova.[29] After the scandal, Nicholas ordered Rasputin to leave St. Petersburg for a time, much to Alexandra's displeasure, and Rasputin went on a pilgrimage to Palestine.[30] Despite the rumors, the imperial family's association with Rasputin continued until his murder on December 17, 1916. "Our Friend is so contented with our girlies, says they have gone through heavy 'courses' for their age and their souls have much developed," Alexandra wrote to Nicholas on December 6, 1916.[31]

In his memoirs, A.A. Mordvinov reported that the four Grand Duchesses appeared "cold and visibly terribly upset" by Rasputin's death, and sat "huddled up closely together" on a sofa in one of their bedrooms on the night they received the news. Mordvinov recalled that the young women were in a gloomy mood and seemed to sense the political upheaval that was about to be unleashed.[32] Rasputin was buried with an icon signed on its reverse by Anastasia, her mother and her sisters. She attended his funeral on December 21, 1916, and her family planned to build a church over the site of Rasputin's grave.[33] After they were killed by the Bolsheviks, it was discovered Anastasia and her sisters were all wearing amulets bearing Rasputin's picture and a prayer.[34]

World War I and revolution

Grand Duchesses Maria and Anastasia Nikolaevna on an official visit to soldiers at their hospital in about 1914. Courtesy: Beinecke Library.

During World War I Anastasia, along with her sister Maria, visited wounded soldiers at a private hospital on the grounds at Tsarskoye Selo. The two teenagers, too young to become Red Cross nurses like their mother and elder sisters, played games of checkers and billiards with the soldiers and tried to uplift their spirits. Felix Dassel, who was treated at the hospital and knew Anastasia, recalled that the grand duchess had a "laugh like a squirrel," and walked rapidly "as though she tripped along."[35]

In February 1917, Nicholas II abdicated the throne and Anastasia and her family were placed under house arrest at the Alexander Palace in Tsarskoye Selo during the Russian Revolution. As the Bolsheviks approached, Alexander Kerensky of the Provisional Government had them moved to Tobolsk, Siberia.[36] After the Bolsheviks seized majority control of Russia, Anastasia and her family were moved to the Ipatiev House, or House of Special Purpose, at Yekaterinburg.[37]

The stress and uncertainty of captivity took their toll on Anastasia as well as her family. "Goodby," she wrote to a friend in the winter of 1917. "Don't forget us."[38] At Tobolsk, she wrote a melancholy theme for her English tutor, filled with spelling mistakes, about Evelyn Hope, a poem by Robert Browning about a young girl: "When she died she was only sixteen years old," Anastasia wrote. "Ther(e) was a man who loved her without having seen her but (k)new her very well. And she he(a)rd of him also. He never could tell her that he loved her, and now she was dead. But still he thought that when he and she will live [their] next life whenever it will be that ..."[38]

Grand Duchess Anastasia sits with her mother, Alexandra, and sister Olga in her mother's sitting room ca. 1916. Courtesy: Beinecke Library

At Tobolsk, she and her sisters sewed jewels into their clothing in hopes of hiding them from their captors, since Alexandra had written to warn them that she, Nicholas and Maria had been searched upon arriving in Ekaterinburg, and had items confiscated. Their mother used predetermined code words "medicines" and "Sednev's belongings" for the jewels. Letters from Demidova to Tegleva gave the instructions.[39] Pierre Gilliard recalled his last sight of the children at Yekaterinburg: "The sailor Nagorny, who attended to Alexei Nikolaevitch, passed my window carrying the sick boy in his arms, behind him came the Grand Duchesses loaded with valises and small personal belongings. I tried to get out, but was roughly pushed back into the carriage by the sentry. I came back to the window. Tatiana Nikolayevna came last carrying her little dog and struggling to drag a heavy brown valise. It was raining and I saw her feet sink into the mud at every step. Nagorny tried to come to her assistance; he was roughly pushed back by one of the commisars ..."[40] Baroness Sophie Buxhoeveden told of her sad last glimpse of Anastasia: "Once, standing on some steps at the door of a house close by, I saw a hand and a pink-sleeved arm opening the topmost pane. According to the blouse the hand must have belonged either to the Grand Duchess Marie or Anastasia. They could not see me through their windows, and this was to be the last glimpse that I was to have of any of them!"[41]

Grand Duchesses Maria and Anastasia making faces for the camera in captivity at Tsarskoe Selo in the spring of 1917.

However, even in the last months of her life, she found ways to enjoy herself. She and other members of the household performed plays for the enjoyment of their parents and others in the spring of 1918. Anastasia's performance made everyone howl with laughter, according to her tutor Sydney Gibbes.[42] In a May 7, 1918 letter from Tobolsk to her sister Maria in Yekaterinburg, Anastasia described a moment of joy despite her sadness and loneliness and worry for the sick Alexei: "We played on the swing, that was when I roared with laughter, the fall was so wonderful! Indeed! I told the sisters about it so many times yesterday that they got quite fed up, but I could go on telling it masses of times ... What weather we've had! One could simply shout with joy."[43] In his memoirs, one of the guards at the Ipatiev House, Alexander Strekotin, remembered Anastasia as "very friendly and full of fun," while another guard said Anastasia was "a very charming devil! She was mischievous and, I think, rarely tired. She was lively, and was fond of performing comic mimes with the dogs, as though they were performing in a circus."[12] Yet another of the guards, however, called the youngest grand duchess "offensive and a terrorist" and complained that her occasionally provocative comments sometimes caused tension in the ranks.[44] In the summer, the privations of the captivity affected her most grievously, and at one point she became so upset about the locked, painted windows that she burst one open to look outside and get fresh air. A sentry saw her and fired, narrowly missing her. She did not try again.[45]

On July 14, 1918, local priests at Yekaterinburg conducted a private church service for the family. They reported that Anastasia and her family, contrary to custom, fell on their knees during the prayer for the dead, and that the girls had become despondent, hopeless, and no longer sang the replies in his service. Noticing this dramatic change in their demeanor since his last visit, one Priest told the other, "Something has happened to them in there".[46]

Anastasia was executed along with her family by a firing squad in the early morning of July 17, 1918. The execution was carried out by forces of the Bolshevik secret police under the command of Yakov Yurovsky.

Captivity and execution

After the Bolshevik revolution in October 1917, Russia quickly disintegrated into civil war. Negotiations for the release of the Romanovs between their Bolshevik (commonly referred to as 'Reds') captors and their extended family, many of whom were prominent members of the Royal Houses of Europe, stalled.[47] As the Whites (loyalists still faithful to the Tsar and the principles of autocracy) advanced toward Yekaterinburg the Reds were in a precarious situation. The Reds knew Yekaterinburg would fall to the better manned and equipped White Army. When the Whites reached Yekaterinburg, the Imperial Family had simply disappeared. The most widely accepted account was that the family had been executed. This was due to an investigation by White Army Investigator Nicholas Sokolov, who came to the conclusion based on items that had belonged to the family being found thrown down a mine shaft at Ganina Yama.[48]

Grand Duchesses Anastasia, Maria, and Tatiana Nikolaevna in captivity at Tsarskoe Selo in the spring of 1917.

The "Yurovsky Note", an account of the event filed by Yurovsky to his Bolshevik superiors following the execution, was found in 1989 and detailed in Edvard Radzinsky's 1992 book The Last Tsar. According to the note, on the night of the murders the family was awakened and told to dress. They were told they were being moved to a new location to ensure their safety in anticipation of the violence that might ensue when the White Army reached Yekaterinburg. Once dressed, the family and the small circle of servants who had remained with them were herded into a small room in the house's sub-basement and told to wait. Alexandra and Alexei sat in chairs provided by guards at the empress' request. After several minutes, the executioners entered the room, led by Yurovsky. Yurovsky quickly informed the Tsar and his family that they were to be executed. The Tsar had time to say only "What?" and turn to his family before he was killed by several bullets to the chest (not, as is commonly stated, to the head; his skull, recovered in 1991, bears no bullet wounds). The Tsar, the empress and two menservants were killed in the first episode of gunfire; Marie, Dr Botkin and the empress' maid Demidova were wounded. Thick smoke had filled the room from so many weapons being fired at close quarters, as well as from plaster dust released from the walls by bullets. To allow the haze to clear, the gunmen left the room for some minutes, leaving all the victims behind. When the gunman returned, Dr Botkin was shot and the Tsarevich Alexei was slaughtered, one gunman repeatedly trying to shoot or stab the boy in the torso. The jewels sewn in his clothes protected him, and finally another gunman fired two shots into his head. Tatiana and Olga were then killed by single bullets to the head.

The last victims, Maria, Anastasia and the maid Demidova, were on the floor beneath the room's one window. As the gunman approached, Maria stood and struggled with Ermakov as he tried to stab her. The jewels in her clothing shielded her, and Ermakov claimed that he killed her with a shot to the head. Ermakov then struggled with Anastasia, failed to stab her, and said he killed her, too, with a shot to the head. Maria's skull shows no trace of bullet wounds and it is unclear how she died. Ermakov was quite drunk during the murders and possibly his shot only creased Maria's scalp, knocking her unconscious and producing considerable blood flow, but not killing her. Then, as the bodies were taken out of the cellar room, two of the grand duchesses showed signs of life. One sat up and screamed, throwing her arm over her head, while the other, bleeding from the mouth, moaned and moved slightly. Since the head wounds inflicted on Olga and Tatiana were instantly fatal, it is likely that Marie, perhaps only unconscious, was the sister who screamed, while Anastasia may still have been able to move and moan. Although Ermakov's archived statement does not say so, he told his wife that Anastasia was finished off with bayonets, while Yurovsky wrote that as the bodies were carried out, one or more of the girls cried out and were clubbed on the back of the head. But again, the back of Maria's skull shows no traces of violence, and Anastasia's burned and fragmented remains, identified in 2009, offer no clues to the cause of her death.[48]

False reports of survival and identification of Romanov remains

Anastasia's supposed survival was one of the celebrated mysteries of the 20th century. Anna Anderson, the most notorious Anastasia impostor, first surfaced publicly between 1920 and 1922. She contended that she had feigned death amongst the bodies of her family members and servants, and was able to make her escape with the help of a compassionate guard who rescued her from amongst the corpses after noticing that she was still alive.[49] Her legal battle for recognition from 1938 to 1970 continued a lifelong controversy and was the longest running case ever heard by the German courts where it was officially filed. The final decision of the court was that Anderson had not provided sufficient proof to claim the identity of the grand duchess.

Anderson died in 1984 and her body was cremated. DNA tests were conducted in 1994 on a tissue sample from Anderson located in a hospital and the blood of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a grandnephew of Empress Alexandra. According to Dr. Gill who conducted the tests, "If you accept that these samples came from Anna Anderson, then Anna Anderson could not be related to Tsar Nicholas or Tsarina Alexandra." Anderson's mitochondrial DNA was a match with a great-nephew of Franziska Schanzkowska, a missing Polish factory worker.[3] Some supporters of Anderson's claim acknowledged that the DNA tests proving she could not have been the Grand Duchess had "won the day."[50][51]

Anna Anderson was one of at least ten women who claimed to be Anastasia. Some other lesser known claimants were Nadezhda Ivanovna Vasilyeva[52] and Eugenia Smith.[53] Two young women claiming to be Anastasia and her sister Maria were taken in by a priest in the Ural Mountains in 1919 where they lived as nuns until their deaths in 1964. They were buried under the names Anastasia and Maria Nikolaevna.[54]

Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna in captivity at Tobolsk in the spring of 1918.

Rumors of Anastasia's survival were embellished with various contemporary reports of trains and houses being searched for 'Anastasia Romanov' by Bolshevik soldiers and secret police.[55] When she was briefly imprisoned at Perm in 1918, Princess Helena Petrovna, the wife of Anastasia's distant cousin, Prince Ioann Konstantinovich of Russia, reported that a guard brought a girl who called herself Anastasia Romanova to her cell and asked if the girl was the daughter of the Tsar. Helena Petrovna said she did not recognize the girl and the guard took her away.[56] Although other witnesses in Perm later reported that they saw Anastasia, her mother Alexandra Fyodorovna and sisters in Perm after the murder, that story is now widely discredited as nothing more than a rumor.[56] Ironically, it now appears that rumors started to hide the fact that the family was dead actually fueled the rumors they were alive. A few days after they had been executed, the German government sent several telegrams to Russia demanding 'the safety of the princesses of German blood'. Russia had recently signed a peace treaty with the Germans, and did not want to upset them by letting them know the women were dead, so they told them they had been moved to a safer location.[57] This may well be the source of the 'Perm' stories.

In another incident, eight witnesses reported the recapture of a young woman after an apparent escape attempt in September 1918 at a railway station at Siding 37, northwest of Perm. These witnesses were Maxim Grigoyev, Tatiana Sitnikova and her son Fyodor Sitnikov, Ivan Kuklin and Matrina Kuklina, Vassily Ryabov, Ustinya Varankina, and Dr. Pavel Utkin, a physician who treated the girl after the incident.[58] Some of the witnesses identified the girl as Anastasia when they were shown photographs of the grand duchess by White Russian Army investigators. Utkin also told the White Russian Army investigators that the injured girl, whom he treated at Cheka headquarters in Perm, told him, "I am the daughter of the ruler, Anastasia." Utkin obtained a prescription from a pharmacy for a patient named "N" at the orders of the secret police. White Army investigators later independently located records for the prescription.[59] During the same time period in mid-1918 there were several reports of young people in Russia passing themselves off as Romanov escapees. Boris Soloviev, the husband of Rasputin's daughter Maria, defrauded prominent Russian families by asking for money for a Romanov impostor to escape to China. Soloviev also found young women willing to masquerade as one of the grand duchesses to assist in deceiving the families he had defrauded.[59]

Some biographer' accounts speculated that the opportunity for one or more of the guards to rescue a survivor existed. Yakov Yurovsky demanded that the guards come to his office and turn over items they had stolen following the murder. There was reportedly a span of time when the bodies of the victims were left largely unattended in the truck, in the basement and in the corridor of the house. Some guards who had not participated in the murders and had been sympathetic to the grand duchesses were reportedly left in the basement with the bodies.[60]

From left to right, Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna of Russia, Tsar Nicholas II, Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna and Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna in captivity at Tobolsk in the winter of 1917. Courtesy: Beinecke Library

There were also reports from Bulgaria of the survival of Anastasia and her younger brother Tsarevich Alexei. In 1953, Peter Zamiatkin, who was reportedly a member of the guard of the Russian Imperial Family, told a 16-year-old fellow hospital patient that he had taken Anastasia and Alexei to his birth village near Odessa at the request of the Tsar. After the assassination of the rest of the royal family, Zamiatkin reportedly escaped with the children via ship, sailing from Odessa to Alexandria. The alleged survivors, "Anastasia" and "Alexei," reportedly lived out their lives under assumed names in the Bulgarian town of Gabarevo near Kazanlak. The Bulgarian Anastasia claimant called herself Eleonora Albertovna Kruger and died in 1954.[61]

Romanov graves

In 1991, the presumed burial site of the Imperial family and their servants was excavated in the woods outside Yekaterinburg. The grave had been found nearly a decade earlier, but was kept hidden by its discoverers from the Communists who still ruled Russia when the grave was originally found. The grave only held nine of the expected eleven sets of remains. DNA and skeletal analysis matched these remains to Tsar Nicholas II, Tsarina Alexandra, and three of the four Grand Duchesses (Olga, Tatiana and Maria). The other remains, with unrelated DNA, correspond to the family's doctor (Yevgeny Botkin), their valet (Alexei Trupp), their cook (Ivan Kharitonov) and Alexandra's maid (Anna Demidova). The late forensic expert Dr. William Maples decided that the Tsarevitch Alexei and Anastasia's bodies were missing from the family's grave. Russian scientists contested this conclusion, however, claiming that it was the body of Maria that was missing. The Russians identified Anastasia by using a computer program to compare photos of the youngest grand duchess with the skulls of the victims from the mass grave. They estimated the height and width of the skulls where pieces of bone were missing. American scientists found this method inexact.[62]

American scientists thought the missing body to be Anastasia because none of the female skeletons showed the evidence of immaturity, such as an immature collarbone, undescended wisdom teeth, or immature vertebrae in the back, that they would have expected to find in a seventeen year old. In 1998, when the remains of the Imperial Family were finally interred, a body measuring approximately 5'7" was buried under the name of Anastasia. Photographs taken of her standing beside her three sisters up until six months before the murders demonstrate that Anastasia was several inches shorter than all of them.

Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia aboard the Rus, the ship that ferried her to Yekaterinburg in May 1918. This is the last known photograph of Anastasia.

The account of the "Yurovsky Note" indicated that two of the bodies were removed from the main grave and cremated at an undisclosed area in order to further disguise the burials of the Tsar and his retinue, if the remains were discovered by the Whites, since the body count would not be correct. Searches of the area in subsequent years failed to turn up a cremation site or the remains of the two missing Romanov children.[63] However, on August 23, 2007, a Russian archaeologist announced the discovery of two burned, partial skeletons at a bonfire site near Yekaterinburg that appeared to match the site described in Yurovsky's memoirs. The archaeologists said the bones are from a boy who was roughly between the ages of ten and thirteen years at the time of his death and of a young woman who was roughly between the ages of eighteen and twenty-three years old. Anastasia was seventeen years, and one month old at the time of the assassination, while her sister Maria was nineteen years, one month old and her brother Alexei was two weeks shy of his fourteenth birthday. Anastasia's elder sisters Olga and Tatiana were twenty-two and twenty-one years old at the time of the assassination. Along with the remains of the two bodies, archaeologists found "shards of a container of sulfuric acid, nails, metal strips from a wooden box, and bullets of various caliber." The bones were found using metal detectors and metal rods as probes.[64]

DNA testing by multiple international laboratories such as the Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory and Innsbruck Medical University confirmed that the remains belong to the Tsarevich Alexei and to one of his sisters, proving once and for all that every member of the family, including Anastasia, died in 1918. The parents and all five children are now accounted for, and each has his or her own unique DNA profile.[65][66]

Sainthood

For more information, see Canonization of the Romanovs

In 2000, Anastasia and her family were canonized as passion bearers by the Russian Orthodox Church. The family had previously been canonized in 1981 by the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad as holy martyrs. The bodies of Tsar Nicholas II, Tsarina Alexandra, and three of their daughters were finally interred in the St. Catherine Chapel at St. Peter and Paul Cathedral in St. Petersburg on July 17, 1998, eighty years after they were murdered.[67]

Influence on culture

A forensic facial reconstruction of Grand Duchess Anastasia by S.A. Nikitin, 1994.

The purported survival of Anastasia has been the subject of both theatrical and made-for-television films. The earliest, made in 1928, was called Clothes Make the Woman. The story followed a woman who turns up to play the part of a rescued Anastasia for a Hollywood film, and ends up being recognized by the Russian soldier who originally rescued her from her would-be assassins.

The most famous is probably the highly fictionalized 1956 Anastasia starring Ingrid Bergman as Anna Anderson, Yul Brynner as General Bounine (a fictional character based on several actual men), and Helen Hayes as the Dowager Empress Marie, Anastasia's paternal grandmother. The film tells the story of a woman from an asylum who appears in Paris in 1928 and is captured by several Russian émigrés who feed her information so that they can fool Anastasia's grandmother into thinking Anderson actually is her granddaughter in order to obtain a Tsarist fortune. As time goes by they begin to suspect that this "Madame A. Anderson" really is the missing Grand Duchess.

The story served as the basis for the short-lived 1965 musical Anya.

In 1986, NBC broadcast a mini-series loosely based on a book published in 1983 by Peter Kurth called Anastasia: The Riddle of Anna Anderson. The movie, Anastasia: The Mystery of Anna was a two-part series which began with the young Anastasia Nicholaievna and her family being sent to Yekaterinburg, where they are executed by Bolshevik soldiers. The story then moves to 1923, and while taking great liberties, fictitiously follows the claims of the woman known as Anna Anderson. Amy Irving portrays the adult Anna Anderson.

The most recent film is 1997's Anastasia, an animated musical adaptation of the story of Anastasia's fictional escape from Russia and her subsequent quest for recognition. The film took greater liberties with historical fact than the 1956 film of the same name.

In The Romanov Prophecy, a 2004 novel by Steve Berry, the wounded Anastasia and Alexei are rescued by guards and spirited away to the United States, where they live under assumed names with a family of loyalists paid by Felix Yusupov. In the novel, both children died of illnesses in the 1920s, but not before Alexei married and fathered a son.

Ancestry

References

  • Bokhanov Alexander, Knodt Manfred, Oustimenko Vladimir, Peregudova Zinaida, Tyutynnik Lyubov (1993). The Romanovs: Love, Power, and Tragedy. Leppi Publications. ISBN 0-9521-6440-X
  • Christopher Peter, Kurth Peter, Radzinsky Edvard (1995). Tsar: The Lost World of Nicholas and Alexandra. Little Brown and Co. ISBN 0-3165-0787-3
  • Dehn, Lili (1922). The Real Tsaritsa. alexanderpalace.org.
  • Eagar, Margaret (1906). Six Years at the Russian Court. alexanderpalace.org.
  • Gilliard, Pierre. Thirteen Years at the Russian Court alexanderpalace.org.
  • King Greg, Wilson Penny (2003). The Fate of the Romanovs. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-20768-3
  • Kurth, Peter (1983). Anastasia: The Riddle of Anna Anderson. Back Bay Books. ISBN 0-316-50717-2
  • Lovell, James Blair (1991). Anastasia: The Lost Princess. Regnery Gateway. ISBN 0-89526-536-2
  • Mager, Hugo (1998). Elizabeth: Grand Duchess of Russia. Carroll and Graf Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-7867-0678-3
  • Massie, Robert K. (1967). Nicholas and Alexandra. Dell Publishing Co. ISBN 0-4401-6358-7
  • Massie, Robert K. (1995). The Romanovs: The Final Chapter. Random House. ISBN 394-58048-6
  • Maylunas Andrei, Mironenko Sergei (eds), Galy, Darya (translator) (1997). A Lifelong Passion, Nicholas and Alexandra: Their Own Story. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-48673-1
  • Occleshaw, Michael (1993). The Romanov Conspiracies: The Romanovs and the House of Windsor. Orion Publishing Group Ltd. ISBN 1-85592-518-4
  • Radzinsky, Edvard (1992). The Last Tsar. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-42371-3
  • Radzinsky, Edvard (2000). The Rasputin File. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-48909-9
  • Sams, Ed. Victoria's Dark Secrets. curiouschapbooks.com.
  • Shevchenko, Maxim. The Glorification of the Royal Family. Nezavisemaya Gazeta, May 31, 2000.
  • Vorres, Ian (1965). The Last Grand Duchess. Scribner. ASIN B-0007-E0JK-0
  • Vorres, Ian (1985). The Last Grand Duchess London, Finedawn Press (3rd edition)
  • Vyrubova, Anna. Memories of the Russian Court. alexanderpalace.org.
  • Zeepvat, Charlotte (2004). The Camera and the Tsars: A Romanov Family Album. Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-3049-7

Notes and sources

  1. ^ DNA Confirms Remains Of Czar's Children - http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/04/30/tech/main4057567.shtml
  2. ^ "Mystery Solved: The Identification of the Two Missing Romanov Children Using DNA Analysis". Plos One. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004838. http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0004838. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  3. ^ a b Massie (1995), pp. 194–229
  4. ^ Massie (1967), p. 153
  5. ^ a b Eagar, Margaret (1906). ""Six Years at the Russian Court"". alexanderpalace.org. http://www.alexanderpalace.org/eagar/eagar.html/. Retrieved December 11, 2006. 
  6. ^ Zeepvat, (2004), p. xiv
  7. ^ Kurth (1983), p. 309
  8. ^ Massie (1967), p. 134
  9. ^ a b c Vyrubova, Anna. ""Memories of the Russian Court"". alexanderpalace.org. http://www.alexanderpalace.org/russiancourt2006/. Retrieved December 13, 2006. 
  10. ^ Gilliard, Pierre. ""Thirteen Years at the Russian Court"". alexanderpalace.org. http://www.alexanderpalace.org/pierre2006/. Retrieved December 13, 2006. 
  11. ^ Dehn, Lilli (1922). ""The Real Tsaritsa"". alexanderpalace.org. http://www.alexanderpalace.org/realtsaritsa/. Retrieved December 13, 2006. 
  12. ^ a b King and Wilson (2003), p. 250
  13. ^ King and Wilson (2003), p. 50
  14. ^ Lovell (1991), pp. 35–36
  15. ^ Christopher, Kurth, Radzinsky (1995), pp. 88–89
  16. ^ Kurth (1983), p. 106
  17. ^ Maylunas, Andrei, Mironenko, et al. (1997), p. 327
  18. ^ Vorres (1965), p. 115
  19. ^ Zeepvat (2004), p. 175
  20. ^ Price, Michael (2009). ""Case Closed: Famous Royals Suffered from Hemophilia"". Science. http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2009/10/08-02.html. Retrieved March 17, 2010. 
  21. ^ Massie (1967), pp. 199–200
  22. ^ Maylunas, Andrei, Mironenko, et al. (1997), p. 321
  23. ^ a b Maylunas, Andrei, Mironenko, et al. (1997), p. 330
  24. ^ Massie (1967), p. 208
  25. ^ Moss, Vladimir (2005). "The Mystery of Redemption". St. Michael's Press. Retrieved on February 21, 2007
  26. ^ Radzinsky (2000), pp. 129–130
  27. ^ Mager, Hugo. "Elizabeth: Grand Duchess of Russia," Carroll and Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998
  28. ^ Sams, Ed. ""Victoria's Dark Secrets"". alexanderpalace.org. http://www.curiouschapbooks.com/Catalog_of_Curious_Chapbooks/Victoria_s_Dark_Secrets/body_victoria_s_dark_secrets.html. Retrieved 2006-12-31. 
  29. ^ Christopher, Kurth, Radzinsky (1995), p. 115
  30. ^ Christopher, Kurth, Radzinsky (1995), p. 116
  31. ^ Maylunas, Andrei, Mironenko, et al. (1997), p. 489
  32. ^ Maylunas and Mironenko (1997), p. 507
  33. ^ Maylunas and Mironenko (1997), p. 511
  34. ^ Robert K. Massie, "The Romanovs: The Final Chapter" p.8
  35. ^ Kurth (1983), p. 187
  36. ^ King and Wilson (2003), pp. 57–59
  37. ^ King and Wilson (2003), pp. 78–102
  38. ^ a b Kurth (1983), p. xiv
  39. ^ Robert Wilton, "Last Days of the Romanovs", 1920, p.30
  40. ^ Bokhanov, Knodt, Oustimenko, Peregudova, Tyutynnik (1993), p. 310
  41. ^ "Left Behind - Chapter VII - Journey to Ekaterinburg". Alexanderpalace.org. http://www.alexanderpalace.org/leftbehind/VII.html. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  42. ^ Christopher, Kurth, Radzinsky (1995), p. 177
  43. ^ Maylunas and Mironenko (1997), p. 619
  44. ^ King and Wilson (2003), p. 251
  45. ^ Robert Wilton, "Last Days of the Romanovs", p.407
  46. ^ Helen Rappaport, "Last Days of the Romanovs, Tragedy at Ekaterinburg," p.162-163
  47. ^ King and Wilson (2003), p. 203
  48. ^ a b King and Wilson (2003), pp. 353-367
  49. ^ Kurth (1983), pp. 33–39
  50. ^ Christopher, Kurth, and Radzinsky (1995), p. 218
  51. ^ "Anastasia: Dead or Alive". Michael Barnes,(screenwriter) & Michael Barnes (director) & Paula S. Apsell, (executive producer) & Michael Barnes {producer} & Julia Cort & Julian Nott {co-producers}. NOVA. 1995-10-10. Season 23 Ep. 1.
  52. ^ Massie (1995), pp. 145–146
  53. ^ Massie (1995), p. 157
  54. ^ Massie (1995), p. 146
  55. ^ Kurth (1983), p. 44
  56. ^ a b Kurth (1983), p. 43
  57. ^ Alexeev, V.V., "Last Act of a Tragedy", documents from German gov't files discovered by Sokolov.
  58. ^ Occleshaw (1993), p. 46
  59. ^ a b Occleshaw (1993), p. 47
  60. ^ King and Wilson (2003), p. 314
  61. ^ ""Gabarevo"". http://www.bnr.bg/RadioBulgaria/Emission_English/Theme_History_And_Religion/Material/Gabarevo.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-25. 
  62. ^ Massie (1995), p. 67
  63. ^ King and Wilson (2003), p. 469
  64. ^ Gutterman, Steve (2007). ""Remains of tzar's heir may have been found"". "Guardian". http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/aug/24/russia. Retrieved August 24, 2007. 
  65. ^ Coble, Michael D.; Loreille, Odile M.; Wadhams, Mark J.; Edson, Suni M.; Maynard, Kerry; Meyer, Carna E.; Niederstätter, Harald; Berger, Cordula; Berger, Burkhard; Falsetti, Anthony B.; Gill, Peter; Parson, Walther; Finelli, Louis N. (March 11, 2009), "Mystery Solved: The Identification of the Two Missing Romanov Children Using DNA Analysis", PLoS ONE 4 (3): e4838, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004838, http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0004838, retrieved September 8, 2009 
  66. ^ Rogaev, Evgeny I.; Grigorenko, Anastasia P.; Moliaka, Yuri K.; Faskhutdinova, Gulnaz; Goltsov, Andrey; Lahti, Arlene; Hildebrandt, Curtis; Kittler, Ellen L. W.; Morozova, Irina (March 31, 2009), "Genomic identification in the historical case of the Nicholas II royal family", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (13): 5258–5263, doi:10.1073/pnas.0811190106, http://www.pnas.org/content/106/13/5258.abstract, retrieved September 8, 2009 
  67. ^ Shevchenko, Maxim (2000). ""The Glorification of the Royal Family"". Nezavisimaya Gazeta. http://www.struggler.org/GlorificationOfTheRoyalFamily.html. Retrieved December 10, 2006. 

External links


Simple English

Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna
File:Grand Duchess Anastasia
Grand Duchess Anastasia, ca. 1914.
House House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Father Nicholas II of Russia
Mother Alexandra Fyodorovna
(Alix of Hesse)
Born June 18, 1901(1901-06-18)
Petergof, Russian Empire
Died July 17, 1918
Yekaterinburg, Russian SFSR
Burial Peter and Paul Cathedral, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation
Signature File:Anasig-1-.gif
Religion Eastern Orthodox

Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia[1] was the youngest daughter of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and his wife Alexandra Fyodorovna. Anastasia was murdered with her family on 17 July 1918 by the Bolshevik secret police.[2] She was a sister of Grand Duchess Olga, Grand Duchess Tatiana, Grand Duchess Maria, and Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia.

During the years of Communist rule nobody knew where she was buried. This led to many stories that she could have escaped and still be alive.[2] The bodies of the Tsar, Tsarina, and three daughters were found in a grave near Yekaterinburg in 1991; however, the bodies of Alexei Nikolaevich and one of his sisters (either Anastasia or Maria) were not there.

In January 2008, Russian scientists said that the remains of a young boy and woman found near Yekaterinburg in August 2007 might be the missing bodies. On 30 April 2008, Russian scientists used DNA testing to prove that they were the Tsarevich Alexei and his sister.[3] In March 2009, the last results of the DNA testing were published by Dr. Michael Coble of the US Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory. This proved that all four Grand Duchesses were murdered.[4]

Several women have claimed to have been Anastasia.[2] The most famous was Anna Anderson. However, DNA testing in 1994 on pieces of Anderson's tissue and hair showed that she was not related to the Imperial family.[5]

Contents

Biography

Life and childhood

[[File:|left|thumb||Grand Duchess Anastasia knitting in her mother's boudoir. Courtesy: Beinecke Library.]]

When Anastasia was born, her family was disappointed. They had hoped for a son who would be heir to the throne.[6] In honor of her birth, her father forgave the students who had been put in prison for joining in riots in St. Petersburg and Moscow.[7] Because of this, Anastasia's name means "the breaker of chains" or the "prison opener".[7] It can also mean "of the resurrection". People often spoke of this when there were stories that she had not died. Anastasia was a Grand Duchess. Because this made Anastasia an "Imperial Highness", she was higher in rank than other Princesses in Europe who were "Royal Highnesses".

The Tsar's children lived very simply. They slept on hard camp cots without pillows when they were healthy, took cold baths in the morning, and had to clean their rooms and sometimes sew. Most of their servants usually called Anastasia by her first name instead of calling her "Her Imperial Highness". Sometimes they called her "Anastasie", "Nastya", "Nastas", or "Nastenka". Anastasia was also called "Malenkaya", meaning "little (one)",[8] or "shvibzik", the Russian word for "imp".[8]

[[File:|thumb|Grand Duchess Anastasia enjoying the outdoors at Tsarskoe Selo in about 1910. Courtesy: Beinecke Library.]] Anastasia was a bright, lively child. People described her as short and plump, with blue eyes[9] and blonde hair.[10] Margaretta Eagar, Anastasia's governess, said that somebody had once called young Anastasia the most charming child he had ever seen.[7] Lili Dehn said that Anastasia was "pretty", but had "more of a clever face, and her eyes were wells of intelligence".[11]

Anastasia was clever, but she was never much interested in studying. Pierre Gilliard, Sydney Gibbes, and ladies-in-waiting Lili Dehn and Anna Vyrubova said that Anastasia was funny and good at acting.[11] Some people did not like her sharp, quick remarks.[10][12]

Anastasia's playful behavior was often punished. According to Gieb Botkin, "in naughtiness she was a true genius".[13] He was the son of the court doctor Yevgeny Botkin, who later died with the family at Ekaterinburg.[13] Anastasia tripped the servants, tricked her teachers, and climbed trees and refused to come down. Once at a snowball fight, she rolled a rock into a snowball and threw it at her older sister, Tatiana.[10] Princess Nina Georgievna, Anastasia's cousin, said that "Anastasia was nasty to the point of being evil". She said that Anastasia would get angry when her friends won games, or when the younger Nina was taller than she was.[14] She also cared less about her looks than her sisters. Hallie Erminie Rives, an American writer, described how Anastasia ate chocolates without taking off her white opera gloves at the St. Petersburg opera house when she was 10-years-old.[15]

[[File:|left|thumb|Grand Duchess Anastasia with her brother Alexei. Courtesy: Beinecke Library.]] Anastasia's family called Anastasia and her older sister Maria "The Little Pair". This was because they shared a room, often wore the same dress, and played together a lot. Their older sisters Olga and Tatiana were known as "The Big Pair", because they shared a room as well. The four girls sometimes signed letters with their nickname, OTMA.[16] They made this nickname from the first letters of their first names, Olga, Tatiana, Maria, and Anastasia.[16]

Anastasia was very energetic, but she was often sick. She had hallux valgus (bunions), which hurt both of her big toes.[17] Anastasia also had a weak muscle in her back. Because of this, she had to be massaged twice every week. She disliked this, and when it was time to be massaged, she would hide under her bed or in cupboards.[18] Anastasia's older sister, Maria, is said to have hemorrhaged in December 1914 during an operation to remove her tonsils. The doctor performing the operation was so shocked that Maria's mother, Tsarina Alexandra, had to order him to continue. Olga Alexandrovna said all four of her nieces bled more than was normal. She believed they had the hemophilia gene, like their mother.[19] Some carriers of the gene are not hemophiliacs themselves, but they can have signs of hemophilia, like bleeding more than most people.[20] DNA testing on the remains of the royal family proved in 2009 that Alexei suffered from Hemophilia B. His mother and one of his sisters were carriers. The Russians thought this sister was Maria, and Americans thought it was Anastasia. If Anastasia had lived, she could have passed on the disease to her children.[21] Anastasia, like everyone else in her family, loved "Baby" Tsarevich Alexei very much. Alexei often had attacks of hemophilia and nearly died several times.

Connection with Grigori Rasputin

File:Anastasia in court gown 1910.
Grand Duchess Anastasia in court dress in 1910.

Her mother trusted Grigori Rasputin, a Russian peasant and wandering "holy man". She thought his prayers had saved her son when he was sick many times. Anastasia and her sisters were told to treat Rasputin as "Our Friend" and to tell him their secrets. In the autumn of 1907, Anastasia's aunt Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia went to the nursery with the Tsar to meet Rasputin. Anastasia, her sisters and brother Alexei were all wearing their long white nightgowns.

"All the children seemed to like him," Olga Alexandrovna said later. "They were completely at ease (comfortable) with him."[22] Rasputin's friendship with the Imperial children can be seen in some of the messages he sent to them. In February 1909, Rasputin sent them a telegram, saying, "Love the whole of God's nature, the whole of His creation in particular this earth. The Mother of God was always occupied with flowers and needlework."[23]

But in 1910, Sofia Ivanovna Tyutcheva told other people in the family that Rasputin was allowed to see the four girls when they were wearing their nightgowns.[24] Rasputin's visits to the children were completely innocent, but the family was shocked and angry. Tyutcheva told Nicholas's sister, Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna of Russia, that Rasputin visited and talked to the girls while they were getting ready for bed, and hugged and patted them. Tyutcheva said the children did not talk about Rasputin with her and kept his visits a secret. Tatiana wrote to her mother on 8 March 1910, that she was "so afr(aid) that S.I. (governess Sofia Ivanovna Tyutcheva) can speak ... about our friend something bad".[25] Xenia wrote on 15 March 1910 that she did not understand "the attitude (behavior) of Alix and the children to that sinister Grigory".[25] Nicholas asked Rasputin not to go into the nursery after that, and Alexandra later fired Tyutcheva.

In the spring of 1910, Maria Ivanovna Vishnyakova, a royal governess, said that Rasputin had raped her. The empress did not believe her, saying that "everything Rasputin does is holy".[26] Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna was told that they had made an investigation to see if what Vishnyakova said was true, but that "they caught the young woman in bed with a Cossack of the Imperial Guard." Vishnyakova was kept from seeing Rasputin after she claimed that he raped her.[27] She was fired in 1913.[27]

[[File:|left|thumb|Grand Duchess Anastasia with her mother, Tsarina Alexandra, in about 1908. Courtesy: Beinecke Library.]] But rumors still spread. People suggested that Rasputin had seduced the Tsarina and her four daughters.[28] Rasputin had written warm, but completely innocent letters to the Tsarina and her four daughters. He released the letters, which made people gossip even more. "My dear, precious, only friend," wrote Anastasia. "How much I should like to see you again. You appeared to me today in a dream. I am always asking Mama when you will come ... I think of you always, my dear, because you are so good to me ..."[29]

Soon after, pornographic cartoons were printed about Rasputin having relations with the Empress, her four daughters and Anna Vyrubovna.[30] After the scandal, Nicholas asked Rasputin to leave St. Petersburg for a time. Rasputin went on a pilgrimage to Palestine.[31] Alexandra was very angry at this. However, though the rumors continued, the imperial family continued to be friendly with Rasputin until he was murdered on 17 December 1916. "Our Friend is so contented (happy) with our girlies, says ... their souls have much developed," Alexandra wrote to Nicholas on December 6, 1916.[32]

Later, A.A. Mordvinov reported in his memoirs that the four Grand Duchesses looked "cold and visibly terribly upset" by Rasputin's death. He added that they sat "huddled up closely together" on a sofa on the night they heard he was killed. Mordvinov remembered that they were sad and seemed to feel the beginning of great political troubles.[33] Rasputin was buried with an icon signed on the back by Anastasia, her mother and her sisters. Anastasia went to his funeral on December 21, 1916. Her family planned to build a church over Rasputin's grave.[34] After they were killed by the Bolsheviks, it was discovered Anastasia and her sisters were all wearing amulets with Rasputin's picture and a prayer on it.[35]

World War I and revolution

[[File:|left|thumbnail|Grand Duchesses Maria and Anastasia Nikolaevna on an official visit to soldiers at their hospital in about 1914. Courtesy: Beinecke Library.]]

During World War I Anastasia and her sister Maria visited hurt soldiers at a hospital at Tsarskoye Selo. Because they were too young to become Red Cross nurses like their mother and older sisters, they played checkers and billiards with the soldiers and tried to make them happy instead. Felix Dassel, who was treated at the hospital, remembered that Anastasia had a "laugh like a squirrel", and walked quickly "as though she tripped along."[36]

In February 1917, Nicholas II resigned from the throne. Anastasia and her family were placed under house arrest at the Alexander Palace in Tsarskoye Selo during the Russian Revolution. As the Bolsheviks came nearer, Alexander Kerensky moved them to Tobolsk, Siberia.[37] The Bolsheviks grew more and more powerful. Anastasia and her family were moved to the Ipatiev House (House of Special Purpose), at Yekaterinburg.[38]

Anastasia felt sad about her captivity. "Goodby," she wrote to a friend in the winter of 1917. "Don't forget us."[39] At Tobolsk, she wrote a sad theme for her English teacher, filled with spelling mistakes, about Evelyn Hope, a poem by Robert Browning about a young girl. "When she died she was only sixteen years old," Anastasia wrote. "Ther(e) was a man who loved her without having seen her but (k)new her very well. And she he(a)rd of him also. He never could tell her that he loved her, and now she was dead. But still he thought that when he and she will live [their] next life whenever it will be that ..."[39]

[[File:|right|thumb|Grand Duchess Anastasia sits with her mother, Alexandra, and sister Olga in her mother's sitting room in about 1916. Courtesy: Beinecke Library]]

At Tobolsk, she and her sisters sewed jewels into their clothes. This was because Alexandra, Nicholas and Maria had had their things taken away when they arrived in Ekaterinburg. Demidova wrote to Tegleva about this, using code words for the jewels such as "medicines" and "Sednev's belongings".[40] Anastasia and her sisters dressed simply, and all three had their hair cut short.[41] It had been cut when they were ill with measles in 1917, and they had kept it short.[41] Pierre Gilliard remembered his last sight of the children: "The sailor Nagorny, who attended to Alexei Nikolaevitch, passed my window carrying the sick boy in his arms, behind him came the Grand Duchesses loaded with valises and small personal belongings. I tried to get out, but was roughly pushed back into the carriage by the sentry. I came back to the window. Tatiana Nikolayevna came last carrying her little dog and struggling to drag a heavy brown valise. It was raining and I saw her feet sink into the mud at every step. Nagorny tried to come to her assistance (help); he was roughly pushed back by one of the commisars ..."[42] Baroness Sophie Buxhoeveden, too, spoke of her last sad memory of Anastasia: "Once, standing on some steps at the door of a house close by, I saw a hand and a pink-sleeved arm opening the topmost (highest) pane. According to the blouse the hand must have belonged either to the Grand Duchess Marie or Anastasia. They could not see me through their windows, and this was to be the last glimpse that I was to have of any of them!"[41]

[[File:|left|thumb|
Grand Duchesses Anastasia, Maria, and Tatiana Nikolaevna at Tsarskoe Selo in the spring of 1917.]]

But even in the last months of her life, Anastasia could be happy. She and other members of her family performed plays for their parents and others in the spring of 1918. Her tutor Sydney Gibbes said that Anastasia's acting made everyone laugh.[43] On 7 May 1918, Anastasia wrote a letter from Tobolsk to her sister Maria in Yekaterinburg. In the letter, she described a moment of joy, even though she was sad, lonely, and worried about her sick brother Alexei: "We played on the swing, that was when I roared with laughter (laughed loudly), the fall was so wonderful! Indeed! I told the sisters about it so many times yesterday that they got quite fed up (tired)", adding, "One could simply shout with joy."[44] In his memoirs, Alexander Strekotin, one of the guards at the Ipatiev House, called Anastasia "very friendly and full of fun". Another guard said Anastasia was "a very charming devil! She was mischievous and, I think, rarely (not often) tired. She was lively, and was fond of (enjoyed) performing comic mimes with the dogs, as though they were performing in a circus."[13] Another guard, however, called her "offensive and a terrorist" and complained about some of her sharp remarks.[45] Anastasia and her sisters learned to wash their own clothes and make bread at the Ipatiev House.

In the summer, however, the whole family became much sadder. According to some accounts, Anastasia once became so unhappy about the locked, painted windows that she opened one to get fresh air. A guard is said to have seen her and fired, almost hitting her. She did not try to open the windows again.[46]

On 14 July 1918, local priests at Yekaterinburg held a private church service for the family. They later said that Anastasia and her family fell on their knees during the prayers for the dead, which they had not done before. They also noted that the girls had become very sad and did not reply to the service. One of the priests said, "Something has happened to them in there."[47] But the next day, on 15 July 1918, Anastasia and her sisters seemed happier. They joked and helped move the beds in their shared bedroom so that the cleaning women could clean the floors. Helping the women scrub the floors, they whispered to them when the guards were not watching. Anastasia even stuck her tongue out at Yakov Yurovsky, the head of the guards, when he turned his back and left the room.[48]

Anastasia was executed with her family by a firing squad in the early morning of 17 July 1918. They had been killed by the Bolshevik secret police, commanded by Yurovsky.

Captivity and execution

[[File:|left|thumb|Grand Duchesses Maria and Anastasia making faces for the camera in captivity at Tsarskoe Selo in the spring of 1917.]]

In October 1917, the Bolshevik revolution struck Russia. A civil war began shortly after that. Plans to release the Romanovs slowed down.[49] As the Whites (people who were still faithful to the Tsar and autocracy) came more toward Yekaterinburg, the Reds felt afraid. They knew that the well-prepared White Army would win. When the Whites reached Yekaterinburg, the Imperial Family were gone. It is thought that the family had been executed.[50]

The "Yurovsky Note" was found in 1989 and described in Edvard Radzinsky's 1992 book The Last Tsar. The "Yurovsky Note" was a description of the event by Yurovsky after the execution. According to the note, on the night of the murders the family was awakened and told to dress. They were told they were moving to a new place for their safety. They claimed it was because of the possible violence which might happen when the White Army reached Yekaterinburg. When they were dressed, the family and the few servants were led to a small room in the house's basement. They were told to wait there. Alexandra asked for chairs for herself and Alexei, and she sat next to her son. After a short time, the executioners entered the room, led by Yurovsky. Yurovsky quickly told the Tsar and his family that they were going to die. The Tsar cried "What?" and turned to his family, but was immediately killed when several bullets hit his chest. The Tsar, the empress, and two servants were killed in the first round of shooting. Maria, Dr. Botkin and Alexandra's maid Demidova were hurt. Thick smoke and dust filled the room from the shooting, so the gunmen left the room for a few minutes. They soon came back and shot Dr. Botkin. A gunman named Ermakov tried to shoot Tsarevich Alexei, but the jewels in the boy's clothes protected him. Ermakov tried to kill Alexei with a bayonet but failed again. At last, Yurovsky fired two shots into the boy's head. Tatiana and Olga were near the wall. They were holding onto each other and crying for their mother. Tatiana was killed by a shot to her head. Olga died when Ermakov shot her in the jaw.[51][52]

Maria, Anastasia, and the maid Demidova were on the floor under the room's one window. Ermakov said that he killed Maria by shooting her head. Ermakov then tried to stab Anastasia, failed, and said he killed her by shooting her head. Maria's skull does not have any bullet wounds, though. It is unclear how she died. Ermakov was drunk during the murders, and it is possible his shot did not go entirely through her head. She might have become unconscious and bled greatly, but remained alive. Then, as the bodies were taken away, two of the grand duchesses moved. One sat up and screamed, throwing her arm over her head. The other, bleeding from the mouth, moaned and moved. When Olga and Tatiana were shot, they were killed instantly, so Maria was probably the one who screamed. Anastasia might still have been able to move.[53] Ermakov told his wife that Anastasia was killed by a bayonet, and Yurovsky wrote that as the bodies were carried out, one or more of the girls cried out and were hit on the back of the head with a club. However, the back of Maria's skull does not show any signs of having been clubbed. The remains of Anastasia's burnt body do not show details of how she died.[50]

False reports of still being alive and Romanov remains

One of the greatest mysteries of the 20th century was if Anastasia had survived or not. From 1920 to 1922, Anna Anderson, the most famous person who pretended to be Anastasia, grew very famous. She claimed that she had pretended to be dead, then escaped with the help of a kind guard that saved her from the dead bodies after seeing she was still alive.[54] Her legal struggle to be recognized as Anastasia from 1938 to 1970 was a a controversy for her whole life. It was the longest running case ever heard by the German courts. At last, the courts decided that there was not enough proof.

Anderson died in 1984 and her body was cremated. In 1994, a tissue sample from Andersen in a hospital was used for DNA tests with the blood of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Prince Philip was a grandnephew of Empress Alexandra. Dr. Gill, who did the tests, decided that if "you accept that these samples came from Anna Anderson, then Anna Anderson could not ... [have been] related to Tsar Nicholas or Tsarina Alexandra." Anderson's DNA matched with a great-nephew of Franziska Schanzkowska, a missing Polish factory worker.[5] Some people who supported Anderson agreed that the DNA tests showed she could not have been the Grand Duchess.[55][56]

At least 10 women claimed to be Anastasia. Less famous people who pretended to be Anastasia were Nadezhda Ivanovna Vasilyeva[57] and Eugenia Smith.[58] A priest took care of two young women who said that they were Anastasia and her sister Maria in the Ural Mountains in 1919. They lived there as nuns until they died in 1964. They were buried with the names Anastasia and Maria Nikolaevna.[59]

People reported that trains and houses were being searched for 'Anastasia Romanov' by soldiers and secret police.[60] When she was put in prison for a short time at Perm in 1918, Princess Helena Petrovna, the wife of Anastasia's distant cousin, Prince Ioann Konstantinovich of Russia, said that a guard took a girl who called herself Anastasia Romanova to her cell and asked her if the girl was the Tsar's daughter. When she did not recognize the girl, the guard took her away.[61] Others in Perm later said that they saw Anastasia, her mother and sisters in Perm after they were killed, but this was only a rumor.[61] Surprisingly, the rumors that had started to hide the fact that the family was dead helped the rumors that they were alive. A few days after they had been killed, the German government sent telegrams to Russia asking for "the safety of the princesses of German blood". Russia had signed a peace treaty with the Germans and did not want to tell them that the women were dead. Instead, they told them they had been moved to a safer place.[62] This could have been why the 'Perm stories' began.

Another time, eight people said that they saw a young woman being captured at a railway station at Siding 37 in September 1918 after trying to escape. These people were Maxim Grigoyev, Tatiana Sitnikova and her son Fyodor Sitnikov, Ivan Kuklin and Matrina Kuklina, Vassily Ryabov, Ustinya Varankina, and Dr. Pavel Utkin.[63] Some of these people said that the girl was Anastasia when they saw photographs of the grand duchess by White Russian Army investigators. Dr. Pavel Utkin also told the investigators that the girl, whom he had helped in Perm when she was hurt, had said, "I am the daughter of the ruler, Anastasia." During that time, there were similar stories of young people in Russia saying that they were Romanovs who had escaped. Boris Soloviev, the husband of Rasputin's daughter Maria, defrauded many important Russian families by asking for money for a Romanov to escape to China. Soloviev was helped by young women who pretended to be one of the grand duchesses to help trick the families.[64]

Some suggest that there might have been a way for a guard to save anyone in the family who still lived. Yakov Yurovsky ordered the guards to come to his office and give him the things they had stolen after the murder. At that time, it is said that there was a short time when the killed bodies were left in the truck and in the basement of the house. Some guards who had not joined in the murders and had felt sorry for the grand duchesses were left in the basement with the bodies.[65]

There were also stories from Bulgaria that Anastasia and her brother were still alive. In 1953, Peter Zamiatkin told a 16-year-old person being treated at a hospital that he had taken Anastasia and Alexei to the village where he was born near Odessa. He said he was a member of the guard of the Romanovs, and that the Tsar had asked him to do this. Zamiatkin said that after the rest of the family had been killed, he escaped with the children on a ship. "Anastasia" and "Alexei" lived under false names in the Bulgarian town of Gabarevo. The Bulgarian "Anastasia" called herself Eleonora Albertovna Kruger. She died in 1954.[66]

Romanov graves

In 1991, the place where the Imperial family and their servants were supposedly buried as found in the woods outside Yekaterinburg. It had actually been found almost ten years earlier, but had been kept hidden by the people who discovered it. They did not want the Communists, who still ruled Russia at that time, to know where the grave was. The grave only had nine bodies instead of 11. DNA and studies on their skeletons showed that they were the bodies of Tsar Nicholas II, his wife, and three of the Grand Duchesses (Olga, Tatiana, and Maria). The other remains had different DNA. They were the bodies of the family's doctor (Yevgeny Botkin), valet (Alexei Trupp), cook (Ivan Kharitonov) and Alexandra's maid (Anna Demidova). Dr. William Maples decided that the Tsarevitch Alexei and Anastasia's bodies were missing. Russian scientists did not agree with this. They claimed that it was the body of Maria was missing, not Anastasia's. The Russians used a computer program to compare photos of Anastasia with the skulls from the grave. When some of the pieces of bone in the skulls were missing, they guessed how long or wide it was instead. American scientists thought this way of studying the bodies was wrong.[67]

[[File:|right|thumb|

Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia on the Rus, a ship that took her to Yekaterinburg in May 1918. This is the last known photograph of Anastasia.]] American scientists thought the missing body was Anastasia's. This was because none of the female skeletons showed signs that it was not fully grown yet. The remains of the Imperial Family were buried in 1998. At that time, a body that measured about 5 feet, 7 inches (170 cm) was buried as the body of Anastasia. Photographs of her standing next to her sisters six months before she died show that Anastasia was a few inches shorter than all of them.

The "Yurovsky Note" showed that two of the bodies were taken from the main grave and burned secretly to hide the burials of the Imperial family. However, people could not find the place where the bodies were burnt for many years.[68] However, on 23 August 2007, a Russian archaeologist declared that he had found two burned skeletons near Yekaterinburg, at a place which seemed to match what was described in Yurovsky's writings. The archaeologists said that the bones were from a boy who was about 10 to 13, and a young woman who was between 18 and 23 years old. Anastasia was 17 years and one month old when she was killed; Maria was 19 years, one month old, and Alexei was just two weeks before his fourteenth birthday. Anastasia's older sisters, Olga and Tatiana, were 22 and 23 when they died. They used metal detectors to find the bones.[69]

Many international laboratories such as the Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory and Innsbruck Medical University did DNA tests. They proved that the remains were from the body of Tsarevich Alexei and one of his sister.[70] They agreed that everyone in the family, including Anastasia, died in 1918. All the parents and children has his or her own special DNA.[71]

Sainthood

In 2000, Anastasia and her family were canonized as passion bearers by the Russian Orthodox Church. In 1981, they had already been canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad as holy martyrs. The bodies of Tsar Nicholas II, Tsarina Alexandra, and three of their daughters were buried in the St. Catherine Chapel at St. Peter and Paul Cathedral in St. Petersburg on 17 July 1998. This was 80 years after they had been murdered.[72]

In culture

The stories of how Anastasia might have escaped became the subject of theatrical and television films. The earliest, made in 1928, was called Clothes Make the Woman. The story was about a woman who acts the character of Anastasia in a Hollywood film, and is later recognized by the Russian soldier who saved her.

In 1956, a movie called Anastasia was made. Ingrid Bergman acted Anna Anderson, Yul Brynner was General Bounine (a fictional character based on several real men), and Helen Hayes as the Dowager Empress Marie, Anastasia's grandmother. The film is about a woman from an asylum who came to Paris in 1928 and was captured by some Russian émigrés who use her so that they can fool Anastasia's grandmother into thinking Anderson actually is her granddaughter. This is because they want to get a Tsarist fortune. After some time, they begin wondering if "Madame A. Anderson" really is the missing Grand Duchess. This story was also used for the short 1965 musical Anya.

In 1986, NBC began a mini-series inspired by a book published in 1983 by Peter Kurth called Anastasia: The Riddle of Anna Anderson. The movie, Anastasia: The Mystery of Anna, was a series with two parts. It began with the young Anastasia Nicholaievna and her family being sent to Yekaterinburg, where they are killed by Bolshevik soldiers. The story then moves to 1923, saying that Anna Anderson is Anastasia. Amy Irving was the actress for Anna Anderson.[73]

The most recent film is 1997's Anastasia. This was an animated musical adaptation of the story of Anastasia's fictional (not real) escape from Russia and how she tried to be recognized. The film often used wrong historical facts.

In The Romanov Prophecy, a 2004 novel by Steve Berry, Anastasia and Alexei are saved by guards and taken away to the United States. There, they live under false names with a family paid by Felix Yusupov. In the novel, both children died in the 1920s because they became sick. However, before they died, Alexei married and had a son.

Notes and sources

  1. Russian: Великая Княжна Анастасия Николаевна Романова, Velikaya Knyazhna Anastasia Nikolaevna Romanova) (18 June [O.S. 5 June] 1901 – 17 July 1918)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Anastasia (Russian duchess) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia". britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/22824/Anastasia. Retrieved 1 June 2010. 
  3. DNA Confirms Remains Of Czar's Children - http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/04/30/tech/main4057567.shtml
  4. "Mystery Solved: The Identification of the Two Missing Romanov Children Using DNA Analysis". Plos One. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004838. http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0004838. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Massie (1995), pp. 194–229
  6. Massie (1967), p153
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Eagar, Margaret (1906). ""Six Years at the Russian Court"". alexanderpalace.org. http://www.alexanderpalace.org/eagar/eagar.html/. Retrieved December 14, 2010. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Kurth (1983), p. 309
  9. Massie (1967), p. 134
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Vyrubova, Anna. ""Memories of the Russian Court"". alexanderpalace.org. http://www.alexanderpalace.org/russiancourt2006/. Retrieved December 13, 2006. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 Dehn, Lilli (1922). "The Real Tsaritsa". alexanderpalace.org. http://www.alexanderpalace.org/realtsaritsa/. Retrieved December 14, 2010. 
  12. Gilliard, Pierre. ""Thirteen Years at the Russian Court"". alexanderpalace.org. http://www.alexanderpalace.org/pierre2006/. Retrieved December 13, 2006. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 King and Wilson (2003), p. 250
  14. King and Wilson (2003), p. 50
  15. Lovell (1991), pp. 35–36
  16. 16.0 16.1 Christopher, Kurth, Radzinsky (1995), pp. 88–89
  17. Kurth (1983), p. 106
  18. Maylunas, Andrei, Mironenko, et al. (1997), p. 327
  19. Vorres (1965), p. 115
  20. Zeepvat (2004), p. 175
  21. Price, Michael (2009). ""Case Closed: Famous Royals Suffered from Hemophilia"". Science. http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2009/10/08-02.html. Retrieved December 14, 2010. 
  22. Massie (1967), pp. 199–200
  23. Maylunas, Andrei, Mironenko, et al. (1997), p. 321
  24. Massie (1967), p. 208
  25. 25.0 25.1 Maylunas, Andrei, Mironenko, et al. (1997), p. 330
  26. Moss, Vladimir (2005). "The Mystery of Redemption". St. Michael's Press. Retrieved on February 21, 2007
  27. 27.0 27.1 Radzinsky (2000), pp. 129–130
  28. Mager, Hugo. "Elizabeth: Grand Duchess of Russia," Carroll and Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998
  29. Sams, Ed. ""Victoria's Dark Secrets"". alexanderpalace.org. http://www.curiouschapbooks.com/Catalog_of_Curious_Chapbooks/Victoria_s_Dark_Secrets/body_victoria_s_dark_secrets.html. Retrieved 2006-12-31. 
  30. Christopher, Kurth, Radzinsky (1995), p. 115
  31. Christopher, Kurth, Radzinsky (1995), p. 116
  32. Maylunas, Andrei, Mironenko, et al. (1997), p. 489
  33. Maylunas and Mironenko (1997), p. 507
  34. Maylunas and Mironenko (1997), p. 511
  35. Robert K. Massie, "The Romanovs: The Final Chapter" p.8
  36. Kurth (1983), p. 187
  37. King and Wilson (2003), pp. 57–59
  38. King and Wilson (2003), pp. 78–102
  39. 39.0 39.1 Kurth (1983), p. xiv
  40. Robert Wilton, "Last Days of the Romanovs", 1920, p.30
  41. 41.0 41.1 41.2 "Left Behind - Chapter VII - Journey to Ekaterinburg". Alexanderpalace.org. http://www.alexanderpalace.org/leftbehind/VII.html. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  42. Bokhanov, Knodt, Oustimenko, Peregudova, Tyutynnik (1993), p. 310
  43. Christopher, Kurth, Radzinsky (1995), p. 177
  44. Maylunas and Mironenko (1997), p. 619
  45. King and Wilson (2003), p. 251
  46. Robert Wilton, "Last Days of the Romanovs", p.407
  47. Helen Rappaport, "Last Days of the Romanovs, Tragedy at Ekaterinburg," p.162-163
  48. Helen Rappaport, The Last Days of the Romanovs, St. Martin's Griffin, 2008, p. 172.
  49. King and Wilson (2003), p. 203
  50. 50.0 50.1 King and Wilson (2003), pp. 353-367
  51. King and Wilson, p. 303
  52. Rappaport, p. 190.
  53. King and Wilson (2003), pp. 353-367
  54. Kurth (1983), pp. 33–39
  55. Christopher, Kurth, and Radzinsky (1995), p. 218
  56. "Anastasia: Dead or Alive". Michael Barnes,(screenwriter) & Michael Barnes (director) & Paula S. Apsell, (executive producer) & Michael Barnes {producer} & Julia Cort & Julian Nott {co-producers}. NOVA. 1995-10-10. Season 23 Ep. 1.
  57. Massie (1995), pp. 145–146
  58. Massie (1995), p. 157
  59. Massie (1995), p. 146
  60. Kurth (1983), p. 44
  61. 61.0 61.1 Kurth (1983), p. 43
  62. Alexeev, V.V., "Last Act of a Tragedy", documents from German government files found by Sokolov.
  63. Occleshaw (1993), p. 46
  64. Occleshaw (1993), p. 47
  65. King and Wilson (2003), p. 314
  66. "Gabarevo". http://www.bnr.bg/RadioBulgaria/Emission_English/Theme_History_And_Religion/Material/Gabarevo.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-25. 
  67. Massie (1995), p. 67
  68. King and Wilson (2003), p. 469
  69. Gutterman, Steve (August 24, 2007). "Remains of tzar's heir may have been found". "Guardian" (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/aug/24/russia. Retrieved December 14, 2010. 
  70. Rogaev, Evgeny I.; Grigorenko, Anastasia P.; Moliaka, Yuri K.; Faskhutdinova, Gulnaz; Goltsov, Andrey; Lahti, Arlene; Hildebrandt, Curtis; Kittler, Ellen L. W.; Morozova, Irina (March 31, 2009). "Genomic identification in the historical case of the Nicholas II royal family". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (13): 5258–5263. doi:10.1073/pnas.0811190106. PMID 19251637. PMC 2664067. http://www.pnas.org/content/106/13/5258.abstract. Retrieved December 14, 2010 
  71. Coble, Michael D.; Loreille, Odile M.; Wadhams, Mark J.; Edson, Suni M.; Maynard, Kerry; Meyer, Carna E.; Niederstätter, Harald; Berger, Cordula; Berger, Burkhard; Falsetti, Anthony B.; Gill, Peter; Parson, Walther; Finelli, Louis N. (March 11, 2009). "Mystery Solved: The Identification of the Two Missing Romanov Children Using DNA Analysis". PLoS ONE 4 (3): e4838. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004838. PMID 19277206. PMC 2652717. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0004838. Retrieved December 14, 2010 
  72. Shevchenko, Maxim (2000). "The Glorification of the Royal Family". Nezavisimaya Gazeta. http://www.struggler.org/GlorificationOfTheRoyalFamily.html. Retrieved December 10, 2006. 
  73. Plander, Judy. "'Anastasia' Is Marvelous". Ocala Star-Banner, December 8, 1986. Retrieved December 9, 2010.

References

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  • Christopher Peter, Kurth Peter, Radzinsky Edvard (1995). Tsar: The Lost World of Nicholas and Alexandra. Little Brown and Co. ISBN 0-3165-0787-3
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