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Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein
Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine

1806–1918
Flag Coat of arms
Grand Ducal Hesse within the German Empire
Capital Darmstadt
Government Monarchy
Grand Duke
 - 1806–30 Louis I
 - 1830–48 Louis II
 - 1848–77 Louis III
 - 1877–92 Louis IV
 - 1892–1918 Ernest Louis
History
 - Established 13 August 1806 1806
 - German Revolution 9 November 1918 1918
Area
 - 1910[1] 7,688.36 km2 (2,968 sq mi)
Population
 - 1910[1] est. 1,282,051 
     Density 166.8 /km2  (431.9 /sq mi)

The Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine (German: Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein), or, between 1806 and 1816, Grand Duchy of Hesse (German: Großherzogtum Hessen)—as it was also known after 1816—was a member state of the German Confederation from 1806, when the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt was elevated to a Grand Duchy, until 1918, when all the German monarchies were overthrown. Before 1866, its northern neighbour was its former sister Landgraviate, since 1803 an Electorate, of Hessen-Kassel – for this reason, this state was sometimes colloquially known as Hesse-Darmstadt.

Contents

History

Due to Hesse-Darmstadt's membership of Napoleon's Confederation of the Rhine, it was forced to cede a considerable amount of territory at the 1815 Congress of Vienna. The territory of the Duchy of Westphalia, which Hesse-Darmstadt received from the 1803 German Mediatisation, was ceded to the Kingdom of Prussia. However, it received some territory on the western bank of the Rhine, including the important federal fortress at Mainz.

Residenzschloss (city palace) of the Grand Dukes in Darmstadt

The Grand Duchy changed its name to the Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine (German: Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein) in 1816.

In 1867, the northern half of the Grand Duchy (Upper Hesse) became a part of the North German Confederation, while the half of the Grand Duchy south of the Main (Starkenburg and Rhenish Hesse) remained outside. In 1871, it became a constituent state of the German Empire. The last Grand Duke, Ernst Ludwig (a grandson of Queen Victoria and brother to Empress Alexandra of Russia), was forced from his throne at the end of World War I, and the state was renamed the Volksstaat Hessen (People's State of Hesse).

The majority of the state combined with Frankfurt am Main, the Waldeck area (Rhine-Province) and the former Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau to form the new state of Hesse following the Second World War. Excepted was the Montabaur district from Hessen-Nassau and that part of Hessen-Darmstadt on the left bank of the Rhine (Rhenish Hesse) became part of the Rhineland-Palatinate state. (Bad) Wimpfen - an exclave of Hessen-Darmstadt - became part of Baden-Württemberg, district of Sinsheim.

Transport

Because of the disjointed nature of the state, it did not develop its own state railway to begin with, but set up joint railway projects with its neighbouring states: These were the:

  • Main-Neckar Railway with Frankfurt and Baden
  • Main-Weser line with Frankfurt and Kurhessen
  • Frankfurt-Offenbach Railway with the Free City of Frankfurt

In addition the state encouraged numerous other projects by the privately-owned Hessian Ludwig Railway Company. Finally, in 1876 the state founded its own company, the Grand Duchy of Hesse State Railways, which continued to expand the network until it was finally merged into the Prussian-Hessian Railway Company in 1897.

Subdivisions of Hesse

The three provinces of the Grand Duchy of Hesse: Upper Hesse, Starkenburg and Rhenish Hesse

The Grand Duchy of Hesse was divided into three provinces:

See also

External links

References

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Simple English

Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein
Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine
1806 – 1918

File:Flagge Großherzogtum Hessen ohne

Flag

Capital Darmstadt
49°52′N 8°39′E
Government Monarchy
Grand Duke
 - 180630 Louis I
 - 183048 Louis II
 - 184877 Louis III
 - 187792 Louis IV
 - 18921918 Ernest Louis
History
 - Established 13 August 1806
 - German Revolution 9 November 1918
Area
 - 1910[1] 7,688.36 km2
2,968 sq mi
Population
 - 1910[1] est. 1,282,051 
     Density 166.8 /km² 
431.9 /sq mi

The Grand Duchy of Hesse (German: Großherzogtum Hessen) was a former state that existed in modern-day Germany. It was formed in 1806 after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire as a result of the actions of Napoleon, who then elevated the former Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt to the level of grand duchy. For this reason, this state was occasionally known simply as Hesse-Darmstadt.

Contents

History

Because Hesse-Darmstadt was a member of Napoleon's Confederation of the Rhine, it was forced to give up a considerable amount of territory at the 1815 Congress of Vienna. The territory of the Duchy of Westphalia, which Hesse-Darmstadt received from the 1803 Reichsdeputationshauptschluss, was given to the Kingdom of Prussia. However, it received some territory on the western bank of the Rhine, including the important federal fortress at Mainz.

The Grand Duchy changed its name to the Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine (German: Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein) in 1816.

Subdivisions of Hesse

The Grand Duchy of Hesse was divided into three provinces:

  • Starkenburg: (Capital: Darmstadt) Right bank of the Rhine, south of the Main
  • Rhenish Hesse, (Capital: Mainz) Left bank of the Rhine, territory gained from the Congress of Vienna
  • Upper Hesse (Capital: Giessen) North of the Main, separated from Starkenburg by the Free City of Frankfurt, which was later annexed by Prussia in 1866.

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References


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