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This article concerns the French government prize. For similarly named prizes aimed at other countries' nationals, see Prix de Rome (disambiguation).
Palazzo Mancini, Rome, the seat of the Académie since 1725. Etching by Giovanni Battista Piranesi, 1752.
The Villa Medici as it looks today.

The Prix de Rome was a scholarship for arts students, principally of painting, sculpture and architecture. It was created, initially for painters and sculptors, in 1663 in France during the reign of Louis XIV. It was an annual bursary for promising artists who proved their talents by completing a very difficult elimination contest. The prize, organised by the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture or the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture, was open to their students. From 1666, the award winner could win a stay of three to five years at the Palazzo Mancini in Rome at the expense of the King of France. In 1720 the Académie Royale d’Architecture began a prize in architecture. Six painters, four sculptors and two architects [1] would be sent to the Académie de France à Rome or the The Academy of France in Rome founded by Jean-Baptiste Colbert from 1666.


Expanded after 140 years into five categories, the contest started in 1663 as two categories; painting and sculpture. Architecture was added in 1720. In 1803 music was added, and in 1804 engraving was added as well. The primary winner took the "First Grand Prize" (called the agréé)[2] and the "Second Prizes" were awarded to the runners up.

In 1803, Napoleon Bonaparte moved the French Academy in Rome to the Villa Medici with the intention of preserving an institution once threatened by the French Revolution. At first, the villa and its gardens were in a sad state, and they had to be renovated in order to house the winners of the Prix de Rome. In this way, he hoped to retain for young French artists the opportunity to see and copy the masterpieces of antiquity and the Renaissance. Well known recipients of the Prix de Rome included the architect, Tony Garnier, who, controversially, instead of concentrating his studies on the ancient ruins, used his time at the Academy (between 1899 and 1904) principally to develop his ideas for the development of a modern industrial city (Une Cité Industrielle, published in 1918), a precursor of later modernist urban and architectural ideas of twentieth century architects such as Le Corbusier.


Edouard Manet, Edgar Degas, Ernest Chausson and Maurice Ravel attempted the Prix de Rome, but did not gain recognition. Jacques-Louis David, having failed three years in a row, considered suicide. Ravel tried a total of five times to win the prize, and the last failed attempt in 1905 was so controversial that it led to a complete reorganization of the administration at the Paris Conservatory.

The Prix de Rome was suppressed in 1968 by André Malraux, who was Minister of Culture at the time. Since then, a number of contests have been created, and the academies, together with The Institute of France, were merged by the State and the Minister of Culture. Selected residents now have an opportunity for study during an 18-month (sometimes 2-year) stay at The Academy of France in Rome which is accommodated in the Villa Medici.

The heyday of the Prix de Rome was during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.[3]

Contents

Winners in the Architecture Category

This is an incomplete list. From 1722 to 1786, a Grand Prix de Rome in architecture was awarded by the Académie d'architecture - its first holder was Jean Michel Chevotet.

Winners in the Painting Category

Winners in the Sculpture Category

Winners in the Engraving Category

The engravery prize was created in 1804 and suppressed in 1968 by André Malraux, the minister of Culture.

Winners in the Musical Composition Category

  • 1803 - Albert Androt
  • 1804 - no Grand Prize awarded
  • 1805 - Victor Dourlen ("first" First Grand Prize) and Ferdinand Gasse ("second" First Grand Prize)
  • 1806 - Guillaume Bouteiller("first" First Grand Prize) and Gustave Dugazon ("second" First Grand Prize)
  • 1807 - no Grand Prize awarded
  • 1808 - Pierre-Auguste-Louis Blondeau
  • 1809 - Louis Joseph Daussoigne-Méhul and Jean Vidal
  • 1810 - Désiré Beaulieu
  • 1811 - Hippolyte André Jean Baptiste Chélard
  • 1812 - Louis Joseph Ferdinand Hérold ("first" First Grand Prize) and Félix Cazot ("second" First Grand Prize)
  • 1813 - Auguste Mathieu Panseron
  • 1814 - Pierre-Gaspard Roll
  • 1815 - François Benoist
  • 1816 - no Grand Prize awarded
  • 1817 - Désiré-Alexandre Batton
  • 1818 - no Grand Prize awarded
  • 1819 - Fromental Halévy ("first" First Grand Prize) and Jean Massin dit Turina ("second" First Grand Prize)
  • 1820 - Aimé Ambroise Simon Leborne
  • 1821 - Victor Rifaut
  • 1822 - Joseph-Auguste Lebourgeois and Hyppolyte de Fontmichel
  • 1823 - Edouard Boilly and Louis Ermel
  • 1824 - Auguste Barbereau
  • 1825 - Albert Guillion
  • 1826 - Claude Paris and Emile Bienaimé
  • 1827 - Jean-Baptiste Guiraud
  • 1828 - Guillaume Ross dit Despréaux
  • 1829 - no Grand Prize awarded
  • 1830 - Hector Berlioz ("first" First Grand Prize) and Alexandre Montfort ("second" First Grand Prize)
  • 1831 - Eugène-Prosper Prévost
  • 1832 - Ambroise Thomas
  • 1833 - Alphonse Thys (1807-1879)
  • 1834 - Antoine Elwart and Hippolyte Colet
  • 1835 - Ernest Boulanger (1815–1900)
  • 1836 - Xavier Boisselot (1811 - 1893)
  • 1837 - Louis Désiré Besozzi
  • 1838 - Georges Bousquet; Edme Deldevez; and Charles Dancla
  • 1839 - Charles Gounod
  • 1840 - François Bazin and Édouard Batiste
  • 1841 - Aimé Maillart; Théodore Mozin; and Alexis de Garaudé
  • 1842 - Alexis Roger (1814-1846)
  • 1843 - no Grand Prize awarded
  • 1844 - Victor Massé (1822-1884)
  • 1845 - no Grand Prize awarded
  • 1846 - Léon Gastinel
  • 1847 - Pierre-Louis Deffès
  • 1848 - Jules Duprato
  • 1849 - no Grand Prize awarded
  • 1850 - Joseph Charlot
  • 1851 - Jean-Charles-Alfred Deléhelle
  • 1852 - Léonce Cohen
  • 1853 - Pierre-Christophe-Charles Galibert
  • 1854 - Adrien Grat-Nobert Barthe
  • 1855 - Jean Conte
  • 1856 - no Grand Prize awarded
  • 1857 - Georges Bizet
  • 1858 - Samuel David
  • 1859 - Ernest Guiraud
  • 1860 - Émile Paladilhe
  • 1861 - Théodore Dubois
  • 1861 - Théodore Salomé ("first" Second Grand Prize)
  • 1861 - Eugène Anthiome and Titus Constantin ("second" Second Grand Prize)
  • 1862 - Louis-Albert Bourgault-Ducoudray
  • 1863 - Jules Massenet
  • 1864 - Victor Sieg
  • 1865 - Charles Ferdinand Lenepveu
  • 1866 - Émile Louis Fortuné Pessard (1843-1917)
  • 1867 - no prize awarded
  • 1868 - Alfred Pelletier-Rabuteau and Eugène Wintzweiller
  • 1869 - Antoine Taudou
  • 1870 - Charles Edouard Lefebvre and Henri Maréchal
  • 1871 - Gaston Serpette
  • 1872 - Gaston Salvayre
  • 1873 - Paul Puget
  • 1874 - Léon Erhart
  • 1875 - André Wormser
  • 1876 - Paul Joseph Guillaume Hillemacher
  • 1877 - no Grand Prize awarded
  • 1878 - Clément Broutin
  • 1879 - Georges Hüe
  • 1880 - Lucien Joseph Edouard Hillemacher
  • 1881 - no Grand Prize awarded
  • 1882 - Georges Marty
  • 1882 - Gabriel Pierné - "Second Prize"
  • 1883 - Paul Vidal
  • 1884 - Claude Debussy
  • 1885 - Xavier Leroux
  • 1886 - Augustin Savard
  • 1886 - André Gedalge - "Second Prize"
  • 1887 - Gustave Charpentier
  • 1891 - Paul-Henri-Joseph Lebrun (1861-1920)
  • 1894 - Henri Rabaud
  • 1899 - François Rasse
  • 1900 - Florent Schmitt
  • 1901 - André Caplet (against Maurice Ravel, 3rd Prize)
  • 1901 - Gabriel Dupont - "Second Prize"
  • 1902 - Aymé Kunc
  • 1902 - Jean Roger-Ducasse - "Second Prize"
  • 1902 - Albert Bertelin - "Third Prize"
  • 1903 - Raoul Laparra
  • 1904 - Raymond-Jean Pech
  • 1904 - Paul Pierné - "Second Prize"
  • 1904 - Hélène Fleury-Roy - "Third Prize"
  • 1905 - Victor Gallois
  • 1905 - Marcel Samuel-Rousseau - "Second Prize"
  • 1905 - Philippe Gaubert - "Third Prize"
  • 1906 - Louis Dumas
  • 1907 - Maurice Le Boucher
  • 1908 - André Gailhard
  • 1908 - Louis Dumas
  • 1908 - Nadia Boulanger - "Second Prize"
  • 1908 - Édouard Flament
  • 1909 - Jules Mazellier
  • 1909 - Marcel Tournier - "Second Prize"
  • 1913 - Lili Boulanger
  • 1914 - Marcel Dupré
  • 1919 - Jacques Ibert - "First Grand Prize"
  • 1923 - Jeanne Leleu - "First Grand Prize"
  • 1923 - Robert Bréard - "Second Prize"
  • 1934 - Eugène Bozza
  • 1936 - Kent Kennan
  • 1938 - Henri Dutilleux
  • 1939 - Pierre Maillard-Verger, Jean-Jacques Grunenwald
  • 1940 - No competition
  • 1941 - No competition
  • 1942 - Alfred Desenclos, Rolande Falcinelli
  • 1943 - Pierre Sancan
  • 1944 - Raymond Gallois Montbrun
  • 1945 - Claude Pascal, Marcel Bitsch, Gérard Calvi (Krettly), Charles Jay
  • 1950 - Éveline Plicque-Andrani, Serge Lancen
  • 1951 - Charles Chaynes, Ginette Keller
  • 1952 - Alain Weber, Jean-Michel Defay, Jacques Albrespic
  • 1953 - Jacques Castérède, Pierick Houdy
  • 1954 - Roger Boutry
  • 1955 - Pierre Max Dubois, René Maillard
  • 1956 - Jean Aubain, Pierre Gabaye
  • 1960 - Gilles Boizard, Jean-Claude Henry
  • 1961 - Christian Manen, Pierre Durand
  • 1962 - Alain Petitgirard, Antoine Tisné
  • 1963 - Yves Cornière, Michel Decoust
  • 1964 - no first prize, Xavier Darasse
  • 1965 - Thérèse Brenet, Lucie Diessel-Robert
  • 1966 - Monique Cecconi-Botella, Michel Merlet
  • 1967 - Michel Rateau, Philippe Dugroz
  • 1968 - Alain Louvier, Edith Lejet

After 1968, the Prix de Rome changed formats and the competition was no longer organised.

See also

References

  1. ^ Lee, S. "Prix de Rome", Grove Dictionary of Art online
  2. ^ Clarke, Michael. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms, Oxford University Press, 2001
  3. ^ Lee, ibid
  4. ^ [ http://www.artnet.com/library/02/0241/t024141.asp artnet.com: Resource Library: Durameau, Louis-Jacques] Obtido em 25 de outubro de 2009 (English)
  5. ^ The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature, Pierre Bourdieu, p. 215, ISBN 0231082878, 1993, Columbia University Press
  6. ^ 1911 Encyclopedia
  7. ^ The Legacy of Homer: Four Centuries of Art from the Ecole Nationale Superieure Des Beaux-arts, Paris, 2005, Yale University Press, ISBN 0300109180
  8. ^ The New International Year Book, Published 1966. Dodd, Mead and Co. P 86
  9. ^ "Jagger, Charles Sargeant". Grove Art Online. 2007. http://www.groveart.com/shared/views/article.html?from=search&section=art.992332&authstatuscode=202. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  

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