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Grapes, the seeds of which are used to produce grape seed extract

Grape seed extracts are industrial derivatives from whole grape seeds. Typically, the commercial opportunity of extracting grape seed constituents has been for chemicals known as polyphenols, including oligomeric proanthocyanidins recognized as antioxidants.

Contents

Potential anti-disease effects

Human case reports and results from laboratory and animal studies show that grape seed extract may be useful to treat heart diseases such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol.[1] By limiting lipid oxidation, phenolics in grape seeds may reduce risk of heart disease, such as by inhibiting platelet aggregation and reducing inflammation.[2] While such studies are promising, more research including long-term studies in humans is needed to confirm initial findings.

A polyphenol contained in grape seeds is resveratrol which may interfere with cancer cell growth and proliferation, as well as induce apoptosis, among a variety of potential chemopreventive effects.[3][4]

Grape seed components may also be active against HIV by inhibiting virus expression and replication.[5]

Preliminary research shows that grape seed extract may have other possible anti-disease properties, such as in laboratory models of

Currently, there are four clinical trials underway to assess the effect of grape seed extracts on human breast cancer, blood estrogen levels in postmenopausal women, and coronary artery disease.[11]

Dosage, precautions and interactions

Oral grape seed extract is typically used as capsules or tablets usually containing 50 mg or 100 mg, or as a liquid to add drops to water and/or other drinks. Insufficient scientific information is known, however, about how long-term use of grape seed extract might affect health or any disease.

In a 12-month study, the safety of dietary intake of grape seed proanthocyanidins in a dose of 100 mg per kg per day was demonstrated in rodents.[12]

The US National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) reports that oral administration of grape seed extract was well tolerated in people over 8 weeks of a clinical trial.[13] In one completed clinical trial, grape seed extract did not alleviate the hardening of breast tissue in female patients undergoing radiation therapy to treat breast cancer.[14]

Other NCCAM advisories

  • side effects most often include headache, a dry, itchy scalp, dizziness or nausea
  • interactions between grape seed extract and medicines or other supplements have not been carefully studied

Due to the action of proanthocyanidins on limiting platelet adhesion,[15] grape seed extract may increase the clotting time of blood.

References

  1. ^ Bagchi D, Sen CK, Ray SD, et al. (Feb-Mar 2003). "Molecular mechanisms of cardioprotection by a novel grape seed proanthocyanidin extract". Mutat Res. 523-524: 87–97. PMID 12628506. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S002751070200324X.  
  2. ^ Vitseva O, Varghese S, Chakrabarti S, Folts JD, Freedman JE (October 2005). "Grape seed and skin extracts inhibit platelet function and release of reactive oxygen intermediates". J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 46 (4): 445–51. doi:10.1097/01.fjc.0000176727.67066.1c. PMID 16160595. http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=0160-2446&volume=46&issue=4&spage=445.  
  3. ^ Kundu JK, Surh YJ (October 2008). "Cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of resveratrol: mechanistic perspectives". Cancer Lett. 269 (2): 243–61. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2008.03.057. PMID 18550275.  
  4. ^ BBC news - December 2008 - Grape extract kills cancer cells
  5. ^ Nair MP, Kandaswami C, Mahajan S, et al. (2002). "Grape seed extract proanthocyanidins downregulate HIV-1 entry coreceptors, CCR2b, CCR3 and CCR5 gene expression by normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells". Biol Res. 35 (3-4): 421–31. doi:10.4067/S0716-97602002000300016. PMID 12462994.  
  6. ^ Khanna S, Venojarvi M, Roy S, et al. (October 2002). "Dermal wound healing properties of redox-active grape seed proanthocyanidins". Free Radic Biol Med. 33 (8): 1089–96. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(02)00999-1. PMID 12374620. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0891584902009991.  
  7. ^ Smullen J, Koutsou GA, Foster HA, Zumbé A, Storey DM (2007). "The antibacterial activity of plant extracts containing polyphenols against Streptococcus mutans". Caries Res. 41 (5): 342–9. doi:10.1159/000104791. PMID 17713333.  
  8. ^ Yahara N, Tofani I, Maki K, Kojima K, Kojima Y, Kimura M (June 2005). "Mechanical assessment of effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins extract on tibial bone diaphysis in rats". J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 5 (2): 162–9. PMID 15951633. http://www.ismni.org/jmni/pdf/20/10YAHARA.pdf.  
  9. ^ Katiyar SK (June 2008). "Grape seed proanthocyanidines and skin cancer prevention: inhibition of oxidative stress and protection of immune system". Mol Nutr Food Res. 52 Suppl 1: S71–6. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200700198. PMID 18384090.  
  10. ^ Baliga MS, Katiyar SK (February 2006). "Chemoprevention of photocarcinogenesis by selected dietary botanicals". Photochem Photobiol Sci. 5 (2): 243–53. doi:10.1039/b505311k. PMID 16465310.  
  11. ^ Search results for grape seed extracts, ClinicalTrials.gov, a service of the US National Institutes of Health
  12. ^ Ray S, Bagchi D, Lim PM, et al. (2001). "Acute and long-term safety evaluation of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract". Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 109 (3-4): 165–97. PMID 11758648.  
  13. ^ Grape Seed Extract, Herbs at a Glance, US National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine
  14. ^ Brooker S, Martin S, Pearson A, et al. (April 2006). "Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised phase II trial of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in patients with radiation-induced breast induration". Radiother Oncol. 79 (1): 45–51. doi:10.1016/j.radonc.2006.02.008. PMID 16546280.  
  15. ^ Shanmuganayagam D, Beahm MR, Osman HE, Krueger CG, Reed JD, Folts JD (1 December 2002). "Grape seed and grape skin extracts elicit a greater antiplatelet effect when used in combination than when used individually in dogs and humans". J Nutr.n 132 (12): 3592–8. PMID 12468593. http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=12468593.  

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