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Not to be confused with Rapeseed oil.

Grape seed oil in clear glass vial

Grape seed oil (also called grapeseed oil or grape oil) is a vegetable oil pressed from the seeds of various varieties of Vitis vinifera grapes, an abundant by-product of winemaking. Grape seed oil is used for salad dressings, marinades, deep frying, flavored oils, baking, massage oil, sunburn repair lotion, hair products, body hygiene creams, lip balm and hand creams. Most grape seed oil is produced in Italy, with other producing nations including France, Spain, and Argentina. Although known to Europeans for centuries, grape seed oil was not produced or used on a large scale until the 20th century, largely because grape seeds contain a lower percentage of oil as compared to other oil-producing seeds, nuts, or beans.

Contents

Uses

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Cooking

Grape seed oil is extracted from grape seeds and has a relatively high smoke point, approximately 420 °F (216 °C), so it can be safely used to cook at high temperature. Grape seed oil can be used for stir-fries, sautéing and fondue. In addition to its high smoking point, grape seed oil has other positive attributes in relation to cooking. It has a clean, light taste that has been described as 'nutty'. Because of its 'neutral' taste, grape seed oil is often used as an ingredient in salad dressings or as a base for infusing or flavoring with garlic, rosemary, or other herbs or spices. It is also used as an ingredient in homemade mayonnaise.

The metabolic energy density of grape seed oil is comparable to that of other oils: about 120 kcal per tablespoon (34 kJ/ml). However, because less oil is needed for cooking, it can be used within a low-fat diet especially when combined with good frying techniques (such as using enough oil, not overcrowding the pan, and having the oil at the correct temperature) which reduces the amount of absorbed oil.

Cosmetics

Grape seed oil is a preferred cosmetic ingredient for damaged and stressed tissues, possessing regenerative and restructuring qualities which allow for strong control of skin moisturization. It can help skin retain the normal structure of epithelium cells and nerve cells via supporting the cell membranes. It is noted to be especially effective for repair of the skin around the eyes. Used as an all-over skin moisturizer, grape seed oil is known to reduce the look of stretch marks.   A light, thin oil, grape seed oil leaves a glossy film over the skin when used as a carrier oil for essential oils in aromatherapy. It contains more linoleic acid than many other carrier oils. Grape seed oil is also usable as a lubricant for face shaving. In addition, grape seed oil applied to the feet each morning clears up many foot problems such as itching, scaly flaking and odor.  

One is able to use less grape seed oil for precisely the same reasons that the cosmetics industry likes it, the emollient and film-forming virtues.

Possible medicinal benefits

Grape seeds contain several antioxidants, including polyphenols, including proanthocyanidins, which show some health benefits.[1] In particular, sufficiently high amounts of resveratrol occur that it can be extracted commercially.[2] Despite this, these antioxidants are not likely to be present in significant amounts in the cold-pressed grape seed oil itself,[3] since proanthocyanidins are polar molecules and therefore insoluble in lipids. Antioxidants from grape skins and seeds are more concentrated in products such as grape juice and red wine.

A 1993 study suggested that grape seed oil may increase HDL-C levels and reduce LDL levels.[4]

Composition

Grape seeds (Nr. 7 and 8) and grapes

The following table lists a typical fatty acid composition of grape seed oil:[5]

Acid Type Percentage
Linoleic acid ω−6 unsaturated 72%
Oleic acid ω−9 unsaturated 16%
Palmitic acid
(Hexadecanoic acid)
Saturated 7%
Stearic acid
(Octadecanoic acid)
Saturated 4%
α-Linolenic Acid ω−3 unsaturated less than 1%
Palmitoleic acid
(9-Hexadecenoic acid)
ω−7 unsaturated less than 1%

Grape seed oil also contains 0.8 to 1.5% unsaponifiables rich in phenols (tocopherols) and steroids (campesterol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol).[6] Grapeseed oil contains small amounts of Vitamin E, but not as much as safflower oil, cottonseed oil or rice bran oil.[7]

See also

References

  1. ^ Joshi, SS; Kuszynski C. A., Bagchi D. (2001). "The cellular and molecular basis of health benefits of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract". Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2 (2): 187–200. doi:10.2174/1389201013378725. PMID 11480422.  
  2. ^ Yilmaz, Y; Toledo, RT (February 2006). "Oxygen radical absorbance capacities of grape/wine industry byproducts and effect of solvent type on extraction of grape seed polyphenols". Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 19 (1): 41–48. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2004.10.009.  
  3. ^ Nakamura, Y; Tsuji S; Tonogai Y (2003). "Analysis of proanthocyanidins in grape seed extracts, health foods and grape seed oils". Journal of Health Science 49 (1): 45–54. doi:10.1248/jhs.49.45.  
  4. ^ Nash, DT (2004). "Cardiovascular risk beyond LDL-C levels: Other lipids are performers in cholesterol story". Postgraduate Medicine 116 (3): 11–5.  
  5. ^ Kamel, B. S.; Dawson H., Kakuda Y. (1985). "Characteristics and composition of melon and grape seed oils and cakes". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 62 (5): 881–883. doi:10.1007/BF02541750.  
  6. ^ Oomah, B. D.; Liang J., Godfrey D., Mazza G. (1998). "Microwave Heating of Grapeseed: Effect on Oil Quality". J. Agric. Food Chem., 46 (10): 4017–4021. doi:10.1021/jf980412f.  
  7. ^ Herting, D. C.; Drury, E. J. E. (1963). "Vitamin E Content of Vegetable Oils and Fats". J. Nutr. 81: 4017–4021.  

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