The Full Wiki

Graphical user interface: Wikis

  
  
  
  

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A screenshot of a modern GUI (GNOME), taken from Ubuntu version 9.04 Jaunty Jackalope
A beige, boxy computer with a small black and white screen showing a window and desktop with icons.
The Macintosh 128K was the first commercially successful personal computer to use Graphical User Interface
.A graphical user interface (GUI) (sometimes pronounced gooey[1]) is a type of user interface item that allows people to interact with programs in more ways than typing such as computers; hand-held devices such as MP3 Players, Portable Media Players or Gaming devices; household appliances and office equipment with images rather than text commands.^ GUI (Graphical User Interface) Any system that uses graphics to represent the functions of a program.
  • What is a GUI (Graphical User Interface)? | Definition from the Geek.com Tech Glossary 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.geek.com [Source type: General]

^ Being graphics based, a GUI runs more slowly than a text based system.
  • Graphical User Interface 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.openicdl.org.za [Source type: Reference]

^ Graphical user interface (GUI) software tools .

.A GUI offers graphical icons, and visual indicators, as opposed to text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation to fully represent the information and actions available to a user.^ GUI (Graphical User Interface) Any system that uses graphics to represent the functions of a program.
  • What is a GUI (Graphical User Interface)? | Definition from the Geek.com Tech Glossary 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.geek.com [Source type: General]

^ Graphical user interface (GUI) software tools .

^ This is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) library for prototyping and building game user interfaces.
  • OpenGL GUI library for games - bramstein.com 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.bramstein.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The actions are usually performed through direct manipulation of the graphical elements.^ The actions are usually performed through direct manipulations of the graphical elements.

^ See also: Computers & Math Computer Graphics Communications Information Technology Photography Usually the actions are performed through direct manipulation of the graphical elements..

^ The actions are usually performed through direct manipulation of the graphical elements.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • gui embedded 'graphical user interface' 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.eeglossary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Graphical user interface - LinuxReviews 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC en.linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • User Interface 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC it.toolbox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.The term GUI is historically restricted to the scope of two-dimensional display screens with display resolutions capable of describing generic information, in the tradition of the computer science research at Palo Alto Research Center (PARC).^ The term GUI is historically restricted to the scope of two-dimensional display screens with display resolutions capable of describing generic information, in the tradition of the computer science research at Palo Alto Research Center (PARC).
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ GUI of Windows 1.0 OS GUI of Windows Vista Desktop GUI of Original 1984 Macintosh desktopThe term GUI is historically restricted to the scope of two-dimensional display screens with display resolutions capable of describing generic information, in the tradition of the computer science research at Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) (formerly Xerox PARC and still a subsidiary of Xerox).The term GUI earlier might have been applicable to other high-resolution types of interfaces that are non-generic, such as videogames, or not restricted to flat screens, like volumetric displays.
  • gui embedded 'graphical user interface' 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.eeglossary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In computer science terms, the GUI is a visual operating display that the monitor presents on the monitor to the computer operator [9] .
  • The Graphical User Interface: An Introduction 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC jimjansen.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term GUI earlier might have been applicable to other high-resolution types of interfaces that are non-generic, such as videogames, or not restricted to flat screens, like volumetric displays.^ Some also help with other interface types.
  • Software Testing FAQ: GUI Test Drivers 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.testingfaqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A GUI is a type of computer human interface on a computer.
  • The Graphical User Interface: An Introduction 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC jimjansen.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term GUI earlier might have been applicable to other high-resolution types of interfaces that are non-generic, such as videogames , or not restricted to flat screens, like volumetric displays .
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

[3]

Contents

History

An early-1990s style Unix desktop running the X Window System graphical user interface

Precursors

.A precursor to GUIs was invented by researchers at the Stanford Research Institute, led by Douglas Engelbart.^ An early-1990s style Unix desktop running the X Window System graphical user interface The precursor to GUIs was invented by researchers at the Stanford Research Institute , led by Douglas Engelbart .
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1968, Douglas Engelbart showcased the research work that had taken place in the Augmentation Research Center at Stanford Research Institute.
  • All posts tagged 'graphical user interface' 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.sdtimes.com [Source type: General]

^ The honor for producing the first working GUI goes to Doug Englebart – at the time an employee of Stanford Research Institute.
  • History of the first GUI 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC imrl.usu.edu [Source type: General]
  • Wikijunior:How Things Work/GUI (Graphical User Interface) - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: General]

.They developed the use of text-based hyperlinks manipulated with a mouse for the On-Line System.^ GUI Defined by www.atd.ucar.edu/homes/jtanner/guide/app_a.html Any of a number of programs and operating systems, such as windows and Macintosh systems, that are operated by using a mouse input device to move a pointer to various graphics, icons, and menus (versus command-line or other text-based methods).
  • GUI - Graphical User Interface 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.auditmypc.com [Source type: General]

^ We expect to interact with it primarily using a mouse, launch programs by clicking on icons, and manipulate various windows on the screen using graphical controls.
  • A History of the GUI 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC arstechnica.com [Source type: General]

^ An intermediate step in user interfaces between the command line interface and the GUI was the non-graphical menu-based interface , which let you interact by using a mouse rather than by having to type in keyboard commands.
  • What is GUI? - Definition from Whatis.com - see also: graphical user interface 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC searchwindevelopment.techtarget.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is GUI? - Definition from Whatis.com - see also: graphical user interface 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC searchwindevelopment.techtarget.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The concept of hyperlinks was further refined and extended to graphics by researchers at Xerox PARC, who went beyond text-based hyperlinks and used a GUI as the primary interface for the Xerox Alto computer.^ A computer terminal interface, such as Windows, that is based on graphics instead of text.
  • GUI - Graphical User Interface 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.auditmypc.com [Source type: General]

^ The tool uses a Graphical User Interface (GUI) that is familiar and easy to use.

^ The Xerox Star implemented a graphical user interface (GUI).
  • International User Interface Design in Computer-Assisted Cartography 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC maps.unomaha.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Most modern general-purpose GUIs are derived from this system.^ Most modern general-purpose GUIs are derived from this system.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The addition of GUI's to most modern operating systems has revolutionised the populous' ability access pornographic material, and contributed greatly to the happiness of the single geek/male population.

^ Pioneered by Xerox and developed by Apple computers , GUI is now employed by all modern operating systems and application programs .

.As a result, some people call this class of interface a PARC User Interface (PUI) (note that PUI is also an acronym for perceptual user interface).^ Acronym for graphical user interface .
  • What is GUI? - A Word Definition From the Webopedia Computer Dictionary 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.webopedia.com [Source type: General]
  • What is GUI? - A Word Definition From the Webopedia Computer Dictionary 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC webopedia.internet.com [Source type: General]

^ As a result, some people call this class of interface a PARC User Interface (PUI) (note that PUI is also an acronym for perceptual user interface).
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Glug call it...Graphical User Interface.
  • Sitepoint : New Articles, Fresh Thinking for Web Developers and Designers 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC articles.sitepoint.com [Source type: General]

.Ivan Sutherland developed a pointer-based system called the Sketchpad in 1963. It used a light-pen to guide the creation and manipulation of objects in engineering drawings.^ In 1963 Ivan Sutherland, a graduate student at MIT, developed a program for his Ph.D. dissertation called Sketchpad , which allowed the direct manipulation of graphic objects on a CRT screen using a light pen.
  • GUI Definition 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.linfo.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Ivan Sutherland developed a pointer-based system called the Sketchpad in 1963.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Sketchpad is developed at MIT by Ivan Sutherland.
  • Section 16b: GUI Timeline 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC design.osu.edu [Source type: General]

PARC User Interface

.The PARC User Interface consisted of graphical elements such as windows, menus, radio buttons, check boxes and icons.^ Graphical User Interfaces Next: 17.
  • 16.6 Other Graphical User Interface Packages 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.python.org [Source type: Reference]

^ GUIdebook: Graphical User Interface gallery .
  • GUIdebook: Graphical User Interface gallery | MetaFilter 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: General]

^ Acronym for graphical user interface .
  • What is GUI? - A Word Definition From the Webopedia Computer Dictionary 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.webopedia.com [Source type: General]
  • GUI - Ecommerce Guide - Terms You Need to Know to Do Business on the Internet 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC e-comm.webopedia.com [Source type: General]
  • GUI definition - isp.webopedia.com - The Glossary for Internet Service Providers 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC isp.webopedia.com [Source type: General]
  • What is GUI? - A Word Definition From the Webopedia Computer Dictionary 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC webopedia.internet.com [Source type: General]
  • GUI - Webopedia.com 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC serverwatch.webopedia.com [Source type: General]

.The PARC User Interface employs a pointing device in addition to a keyboard.^ The PARC User Interface employs a pointing device in addition to a keyboard.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The use of graphical elements in a user interface was pioneered at Xerox Corporation's Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) in the early 1970s.
  • Definition: Graphical User Interface - GROK Knowledge Base 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC grok.lsu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Although a keyboard is used to enter text, the primary way to command the computer is with a mouse or touchpad pointing device.
  • Programmable Logic DesignLine : Design Resource for Automotive Engineering 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.pldesignline.com [Source type: General]
  • Video/Imaging DesignLine : Design Resource for Automotive Engineering 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.videsignline.com [Source type: General]
  • DSP DesignLine : Design Resource for Automotive Engineering 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.dspdesignline.com [Source type: General]
  • Power Management DesignLine : Design Resource for Automotive Engineering 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.powermanagementdesignline.com [Source type: General]
  • Wireless Net DesignLine : Design Resource for Automotive Engineering 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.wirelessnetdesignline.com [Source type: General]
  • http://www.planetanalog.com/encyclopedia/defineterm.jhtml?term=GUI&x=&y= 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.planetanalog.com [Source type: General]
  • bMighty.com | TechEncyclopedia 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC bmighty.informationweek.com [Source type: General]
  • Network Systems DesignLine 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.networksystemsdesignline.com [Source type: General]

.These aspects can be emphasized by using the alternative acronym WIMP, which stands for Windows, Icons, Menus and Pointing device.^ These aspects can be emphasized by using the alternative acronym WIMP , which stands for Windows, Icons, Menus and Pointing device .
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ No pointing device is used .
  • GCSE ICT - operating systems and user interfaces 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.klbschool.org.uk [Source type: Reference]

^ The alternative to a GUI is a console or command-line interface, where the user must type commands as text rather than using visual controls such as menus and buttons.
  • SitePoint: Glossary 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.sitepoint.com [Source type: General]

Evolution

The Xerox Star Workstation introduced the first GUI operating systems as shown above.
Following PARC the first GUI-centric computer operating model was the Xerox 8010 Star Information System in 1981,[4] followed by the Apple Lisa (which presented the concept of menu bar as well as window controls) in 1983, the Apple Macintosh 128K in 1984, and the Atari ST and Commodore Amiga in 1985.
.The GUIs familiar to most people today are Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows, and X Window System interfaces.^ States with the most people named "Gui": .

^ The GUIs familiar to most people today are Microsoft Windows , Mac OS X , and the X Window System interfaces.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ All Windows operating systems are GUIs.
  • What is a GUI (Graphical User Interface)? | Definition from the Geek.com Tech Glossary 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.geek.com [Source type: General]

Apple, IBM and Microsoft used many of Xerox's ideas to develop products, and IBM's Common User Access specifications formed the basis of the user interface found in Microsoft Windows, IBM OS/2 Presentation Manager, and the Unix Motif toolkit and window manager. .These ideas evolved to create the interface found in current versions of Microsoft Windows, as well as in Mac OS X and various desktop environments for Unix-like operating systems, such as Linux.^ System Requirements: Microsoft Windows operating system version 3.1.

^ Tagged Desktop Environment , window manager .
  • Desktop GUI 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC wgo.wolf911.us [Source type: General]

^ If it looks like MAC OS/Windows it's KDE. .
  • Which Graphical User Interface (desktop environment) do you primarily use on your Linux desktop? | TUX 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.tuxmagazine.com [Source type: General]

.Thus most current GUIs have largely common idioms.^ Thus most current GUIs have largely common idioms.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Common information needs to be in common locations across windows and GUI. The most important information needs to precede the lesser important information.
  • The Graphical User Interface: An Introduction 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC jimjansen.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most common use of highlighting is reverse video to indicate an item that is currently selected.
  • The Graphical User Interface: An Introduction 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC jimjansen.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Components

.A GUI uses a combination of technologies and devices to provide a platform the user can interact with, for the tasks of gathering and producing information.^ The player will provide an easy to use GUI. .
  • Proposal to Design and Implement a Graphical User Interface for 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC users.ece.utexas.edu [Source type: General]

^ Main article: Elements of graphical user interfaces A GUI uses a combination of technologies and devices to provide a platform the user can interact with, for the tasks of gathering and producing information.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ On the whole, a desktop environment is to be an intuitive way for the user to interact with the computer using concepts which are similar to those used when interacting with the physical world, such as buttons and windows.
  • Desktop GUI 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC wgo.wolf911.us [Source type: General]

.A series of elements conforming a visual language have evolved to represent information stored in computers.^ Using the object driven Language Visual Basic I made a ( trivial ) computing tool to calculate probabilities and entropy; in doing this I became familiar with the problem I was solving and the Language I was using.
  • Graphical User Interface Research Project - GUI 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.donotenter.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Computer display systems generally represent pixel information in a three component RGB format wherein the three components specify the amount of Red (R), Green (G), and Blue (B) required to represent a pixel.
  • COLOR LEVEL GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE - Patent application - graphical user interface for performing color correction and methods for implementing the color correction are 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ LisaTerminal’s icon contains two connected telephone poles which represent LisaTerminal’s use of the telephone to transfer information from one computer to another.
  • GUIdebook > Articles > “Apple Lisa Graphical Object-Oriented User Interface” 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.guidebookgallery.org [Source type: Reference]

.This makes it easier for people with few computer skills to work with and use computer software.^ Work was done using AWT on Apple computers.
  • Steve Ford - Java/GUI Consultant 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.jasiri.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Is it necessary to use the GUI to run WRFSI? No, but the GUI was developed to make running WRFSI easier and a more efficient method to manipulate the software and modify files.
  • WRFSI GUI FAQ 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.wrf-model.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Basically a GUI is the method of working with your computer through direct use of graphics, graphical images, widgets and some forms of text.
  • GUI - WorldStart Computer Tips and Computer Help 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.worldstart.com [Source type: General]

.The most common combination of such elements in GUIs is the WIMP ("window, icon, menu, pointing device") paradigm, especially in personal computers.^ GUI usually have common characteristic such as windows, icons, menus, and push-buttons (WIMP).
  • The Graphical User Interface: An Introduction 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC jimjansen.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Figure 1 illustrates a typical X-Windows GUI with three common icons.
  • The Graphical User Interface: An Introduction 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC jimjansen.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most common combination in GUIs is the WIMP paradigm, especially in personal computers .
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.The WIMP style of interaction uses a physical input device to control the position of a cursor and presents information organized in windows and represented with icons.^ Icons representing physical hardware components .
  • GUIdebook > Articles > “Apple Lisa Graphical Object-Oriented User Interface” 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.guidebookgallery.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A cursor 82 is positioned at coordinates that are specified by a user using a coordinate input device.
  • Scheme for graphical user interface using polygonal-shaped slider - Patent 6542171 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Further information: WIMP (computing) This style of interaction uses a physical input device to control the position of a cursor and presents information organized in windows and represented with icons.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Available commands are compiled together in menus, and actions are performed making gestures with the pointing device.^ Available commands are compiled together in menus and actioned through the pointing device.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Although a keyboard is used to enter text, the primary way to command the computer is with a mouse or touchpad pointing device.
  • Programmable Logic DesignLine : Design Resource for Automotive Engineering 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.pldesignline.com [Source type: General]
  • Video/Imaging DesignLine : Design Resource for Automotive Engineering 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.videsignline.com [Source type: General]
  • DSP DesignLine : Design Resource for Automotive Engineering 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.dspdesignline.com [Source type: General]
  • Power Management DesignLine : Design Resource for Automotive Engineering 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.powermanagementdesignline.com [Source type: General]
  • Wireless Net DesignLine : Design Resource for Automotive Engineering 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.wirelessnetdesignline.com [Source type: General]
  • ChannelWeb Encyclopedia 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.crn.com [Source type: General]
  • Network Systems DesignLine 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.networksystemsdesignline.com [Source type: General]

^ Rather than learning a complex set of commands, you need only point to a selection on a menu and click a mouse button.
  • The Graphical User Interface - Time for a Paradigm Shift? 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.sensomatic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A window manager facilitates the interactions between windows, applications, and the windowing system.^ A window manager facilitates the interactions between windows, applications, and the windowing system .
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Small systems (no window manager) .
  • emWin: LCD Graphical User Interface Software 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC microcontrollershop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Window manager · Window decorator · Dock (computing) · Title bar · Task bar · System tray · Pager (GUI) .
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.The windowing system handles hardware devices such as pointing devices and graphics hardware, as well as the positioning of the cursor.^ The windowing system handles hardware devices such as pointing devices and graphics hardware, as well as the positioning of the cursor.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ They work in conjunction with the underlying windowing system which provides required functionality such as support for graphics hardware, pointing devices, and a keyboard, and are often written and created using a widget toolkit.
  • Desktop GUI 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC wgo.wolf911.us [Source type: General]

^ Pointing Devices Book article from: Computer Sciences ...that utilize a graphical user interface (GUI) , the cursor still...click concept required the user to move something that...button device.
  • X user interface – Dictionary definition of X user interface | Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.In personal computers all these elements are modeled through a desktop metaphor, to produce a simulation called a desktop environment in which the display represents a desktop, upon which documents and folders of documents can be placed.^ Further information: Window manager In personal computers all these elements are modelled through a desktop metaphor , to produce a simulation called a desktop environment in which the display represents a desktop, upon which documents and folders of documents can be placed.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ All of the Desktop Environments are bloated.
  • Which Graphical User Interface (desktop environment) do you primarily use on your Linux desktop? | TUX 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.tuxmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the whole, a desktop environment is to be an intuitive way for the user to interact with the computer using concepts which are similar to those used when interacting with the physical world, such as buttons and windows.
  • Desktop GUI 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC wgo.wolf911.us [Source type: General]

.Window managers and other software combine to simulate the desktop environment with varying degrees of realism.^ I myself use a Desktop Environment of Gnome with the window manager awesome .
  • Desktop GUI 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC wgo.wolf911.us [Source type: General]

^ Most window managers are designed to help provide a desktop environment.
  • Desktop GUI 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC wgo.wolf911.us [Source type: General]

^ Window managers and other software combine to simulate the desktop environment with varying degrees of realism.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

Post-WIMP interfaces

.Smaller mobile devices such as PDAs and smartphones typically use the WIMP elements with different unifying metaphors, due to constraints in space and available input devices.^ Main article: Post-WIMP Smaller mobile devices such as PDAs and smartphones typically use the WIMP elements with different unifying metaphors, due to constraints in space and available input devices.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The person running your program could redirect the standard input to another input device, such as a file.

^ The GUI is usually WIMP-based, although occasionally other metaphors surface, such as those used in Microsoft Bob , 3dwm or File System Visualizer (FSV).
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Applications for which WIMP is not well suited may use newer interaction techniques, collectively named as post-WIMP user interfaces.^ Applications for which WIMP is not well suited may use newer interaction techniques , collectively named as post-WIMP user interfaces.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Lack of a keyboard may require a redesign of the application user interface.
  • Touch panel graphical user interface for test applications 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.pxionline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Interesting user interface technique.
  • user interface 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC rdrop.com [Source type: General]

[5]
.Some touch-screen-based operating systems such as Apple's iPhone OS currently use post-WIMP styles of interaction.^ Some touch-screen-based devices such as Apple's iPhone currently use post-WIMP styles of interaction.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ An intermediate step in user interfaces between the command line interface and the GUI was the non-graphical menu-based interface, which let you interact by using a mouse rather than by having to type in keyboard commands.Today's major operating systems provide a graphical user interface.
  • GUI White Papers ( Graphical Interfaces, Graphical User Interfaces ) Software Downloads, Definition and Webcasts - Bitpipe 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: General]

^ The V system is freely available for use by anyone under the terms of the GNU Library General Public License.  To give you some idea of the capabilities of V, a screen shot of a V-based application demonstrating the built-in OpenGL canvas is shown here running on OS/2.
  • EDM/2 - V - A Free C++ Graphical User Interface Framework 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.edm2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The iPhone's use of more than one finger in contact with the screen allows actions such as pinching and rotating, which are not supported by a single pointer and mouse.^ There can be more than one view.
  • GUI Development with Java 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In windowing systems, more than one application can be displayed on the screen.
  • THE GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC codi.buffalo.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than one Window   .
  • Robert May / Win32-GUI - search.cpan.org 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC search.cpan.org [Source type: General]

[6]
.A class of GUIs sometimes referred to as post-WIMP include 3D compositing window manager such as Compiz, Desktop Window Manager, and LG3D.[citation needed] Some post-WIMP interfaces may be better suited for applications which model immersive 3D environments, such as Google Earth.^ Some additional tweaking may be needed.
  • Porting GUI to GTK - Open Watcom 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.openwatcom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A task which occurs in the 2 D desktop GUI is window management.
  • Elements of a Three-dimensional Graphical User Interface 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC goanna.cs.rmit.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

^ I myself use a Desktop Environment of Gnome with the window manager awesome .
  • Desktop GUI 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC wgo.wolf911.us [Source type: General]

[7]

User interface and interaction design

.Designing the visual composition and temporal behavior of GUI is an important part of software application programming.^ Main article: User interface design Designing the visual composition and temporal behavior of GUI is an important part of software application programming.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The visual programming process begins with the design of the application interface, where the components (e.g.

^ It allows the developer to develop Rich Internet Applications with GUI using the Qt programming style for the server and to implement it as easily as possible.
  • 28 projects tagged "GUI" | freshmeat.net 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC freshmeat.net [Source type: Original source]
  • 28 projects tagged "GUI" | freshmeat.net 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC themes.freshmeat.net [Source type: Original source]

.Its goal is to enhance the efficiency and ease of use for the underlying logical design of a stored program, a design discipline known as usability.^ Its goal is to enhance the efficiency and ease of use for the underlying logical design of a stored program , a design discipline known as usability .
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ To avoid a lot of clicks, our designers create the most efficient use of space without overcrowding the screen.
  • Learn why an intuitive usability is imperative. 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.microarts.com [Source type: General]

^ It was designed with portability and simplicity of programming as the primary goals with some trade-offs in the area of completeness, i.e.

.Techniques of user-centered design are used to ensure that the visual language introduced in the design is well tailored to the tasks it must perform.^ Techniques of user-centered design are used to ensure that the visual language introduced in the design is well tailored to the tasks it must perform.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ However, all major GUIs still include a command line interface that lets programmers and power users perform common as well as complicated tasks much faster than by clicking menus with a mouse (see command line ).

^ CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) is most important language technique for web designing and development, we mostly prefer in our modern designs where some...
  • dzone.com - Popular links: gui 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.dzone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Typically, the user interacts with information by manipulating visual widgets that allow for interactions appropriate to the kind of data they hold.^ Typically, the user interacts with information by manipulating visual widgets that allow for interactions appropriate to the kind of data they hold.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These innovations allowed information to be manipulated in a more flexible, natural manner than the prevalent method of typing one of a limited set of commands.
  • graphical user interface (GUI) (computing) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ SkinCrafter ActiveX Component allows developers to create unique looking style applications and fully interactive user interfaces.
  • Best free graphical user interface gui development downloads. CD GUI Builder allows you to design custom CD-ROM Graphical User Interfaces. Ranorex is a Windows GUI test and automation framework for C++, Python and .NET. 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.freedownloadmanager.org [Source type: General]

.The widgets of a well-designed interface are selected to support the actions necessary to achieve the goals of the user.^ The widgets of a well-designed interface are selected to support the actions necessary to achieve the goals of the user.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Design and build grahical user interfaces.
  • GUI downloads on CNET 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC ces.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ This user interface supports: .
  • Cisco Configuration Engine Administration Guide - Graphical User Interface  [Cisco Configuration Engine] - Cisco Systems 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.cisco.com [Source type: General]

.A Model-view-controller allows for a flexible structure in which the interface is independent from and indirectly linked to application functionality, so the GUI can be easily customized.^ A Model-view-controller allows for a flexible structure in which the interface is independent from and indirectly linked to application functionality, so the GUI can be easily customized.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The view is the GUI or display of the model's data.
  • GUI Development with Java 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Connect the Model, View, and Controller objects using Interface Builder.
  • Learning Cocoa with Objective-C/Single-Window Applications/Graphical User Interfaces - WikiContent 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC commons.oreilly.com [Source type: Reference]

.This allows the user to select or design a different skin at will, and eases the designer's work to change the interface as the user needs evolve.^ There also are design features which allow the user to change the look of the notebook.
  • Graphical user interface for creating a new notebook with a dragged page - Patent 5668964 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It has changed how we think of user interfaces.
  • International User Interface Design in Computer-Assisted Cartography 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC maps.unomaha.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The intuitive user interface allows the user to learn as they get work done.

.Nevertheless, good user interface design relates to the user, not the system architecture.^ Nevertheless, good user interface design relates to the user, not the system architecture.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Design and build grahical user interfaces.
  • GUI downloads on CNET 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC ces.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Graphical User Interface architecture designed with embedded systems in mind.
  • The GUI Toolkit, Framework Page 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.atai.org [Source type: Academic]

.The visible graphical interface features of an application are sometimes referred to as "chrome".[8] Larger widgets, such as windows, usually provide a frame or container for the main presentation content such as a web page, email message or drawing.^ As DHTML was created for web page interface, XUL has been created for interface of applications.
  • XUL, graphical user interface in XML for applications 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.xul.fr [Source type: Reference]

^ Larger widgets, such as windows, usually provide a frame or container for the main presentation content such as a web page, email message or drawing.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Each application is also referred to as a page in the notebook.
  • Graphical user interface for creating a new notebook with a dragged page - Patent 5668964 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Smaller ones usually act as a user-input tool.^ Smaller ones usually act as a user-input tool.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the cursor is activated over any one of the user interaction bars 104 (menu, tool, etc.
  • Graphical user interface for creating a new notebook with a dragged page - Patent 5668964 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Then user can choose the right one.  user can input his/her data, through a J-Link-like interactive option, then save it as his/her dedicated 'cfg' file.

.A GUI may be designed for the rigorous requirements of a vertical market.^ A GUI may be designed for the rigorous requirements of a vertical market .
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Depending on the Java Development Kit (JDK) version you are using, you may be required to take extra actions in order to run and use the WBI Gui.
  • WBI Development Kit -- Graphical User Interface (GUI) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC alme1.almaden.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, when presented with no graphs designated top-level, the GUI may arbitrarily designate one.
  • CSIM GUI Document 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.atl.lmco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is known as an "application specific graphical user interface."^ Design and implement Java graphic user interfaces for your applications.
  • GUI downloads on CNET 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.cnet.com [Source type: General]
  • GUI downloads on CNET 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC ces.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Viscosity 1.0.8 Graphical user interface for OpenVPN. .
  • Download Viscosity for Mac - Graphical user interface for OpenVPN. MacUpdate Mac Software Downloads 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.macupdate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Touch panel graphical user interface for test applications .
  • Touch panel graphical user interface for test applications 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.pxionline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Among early application specific GUIs was Gene Mosher's 1986 Point of Sale touchscreen GUI.^ Examples of an application specific GUI are: .
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Get on application developers' beta test programs so that problems with active point tracking specific to those applications can be caught before they become products.
  • Problems and Challenges of the Graphical User Interface 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC people.rit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The latest cell phones and handheld game systems also employ application specific touchscreen GUIs.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

Other examples of an application specific GUIs are:
  • Self-service checkouts used in a retail store
  • Automated teller machines (ATM)
  • Airline self-ticketing and check-in
  • Information kiosks in a public space, like a train station or a museum
  • Monitors or control screens in an embedded industrial application which employ a real time operating system (RTOS).
.The latest cell phones and handheld game systems also employ application specific touchscreen GUIs.^ The latest cell phones and handheld game systems also employ application specific touchscreen GUIs.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Examples of an application specific GUI are: .
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In some cases, companies developing an application with an integrated GUI can employ a graphic artist in this process to produce effective results.
  • (Features) Integrating a Graphical User Interface into an Existing Medical Device (MEM archive, Oct 03) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.devicelink.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Newer automobiles use GUIs in their navigation systems and touch screen multimedia centers.^ Newer automobiles use GUIs in their navigation systems and touch screen multimedia centers.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ September 13th, 2009 Nifty can be used as a standalone GUI. So when your game enters its menu or option screens Nifty is all there is on the screen and all user input is handled by Nifty.

^ A landmark on a GUI can be something as simple as the edge of the screen , the center of the screen or even an isolated icon.
  • Landmarks to Aid Navigation in a Graphical User Interface 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.almaden.ibm.com [Source type: Academic]

Comparison to other interfaces

Command-line interfaces

Modern CLI
.GUIs were introduced in reaction to the steep learning curve of command-line interfaces (CLI),[9][10][10] which require commands to be typed on the keyboard.^ See the section on interactions between the GUI and the Command Line Interface .

^ Modern CLI GUIs were introduced in reaction to the steep learning curve of command-line interfaces (CLI) [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] , which require commands to be typed on the keyboard .
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Command-line interfaces .
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Since the commands available in command line interfaces can be numerous, complicated operations can be completed using a short sequence of words and symbols.^ Command-line interfaces .
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Since the commands available in command line interfaces can be numerous, complicated operations can be completed using a short sequence of words and symbols.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ However, all major GUIs still include a command line interface that lets programmers and power users perform common as well as complicated tasks much faster than by clicking menus with a mouse (see command line ).
  • Video/Imaging DesignLine : Design Resource for Automotive Engineering 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.videsignline.com [Source type: General]
  • EETimes Encyclopedia 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.eetimes.com [Source type: General]

.This allows for greater efficiency and productivity once many commands are learnt,[9][10][10] but reaching this level takes some time because the command words are not easily discoverable and not mnemonic.^ This allows for greater efficiency and productivity once many commands are learnt, [ 8 ] [ 9 ] [ 10 ] but reaching this level takes some time because the command words are not easily discoverable and not mnemonic.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Once you record your actions for testing, you can play them back at the speed you desire and loop as many times as you like.
  • Software Testing FAQ: GUI Test Drivers 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.testingfaqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ GUI two separate times, once for the parent and once again for a nest (because creating nests was not part of the NMM SI GUI design).
  • WRFSI GUI FAQ 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC wrfsi.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.WIMPs ("window, icon, menu, pointing device"), on the other hand, present the user with numerous widgets that represent and can trigger some of the system's available commands.^ Available commands are compiled together in menus and actioned through the pointing device.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ WIMPs ("window, icon, menu, pointing device"), on the other hand, present the user with numerous widgets that represent and can trigger some of the system's available commands.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Accordion · Disclosure widget · Menu bar · Panel · Ribbon · Tab · Toolbar · Window .
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.WIMPs extensively use modes as the meaning of all keys and clicks on specific positions on the screen are redefined all the time.^ As shown in Figure 2 , the log ratios (to base 2) computed with the robust intensities estimated using RAMA for all 13 positive controls are all greater than one.
  • Genome Biology | Full text | MeV+R: using MeV as a graphical user interface for Bioconductor applications in microarray analysis 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC genomebiology.com [Source type: Academic]

^ September 13th, 2009 Nifty can be used as a standalone GUI. So when your game enters its menu or option screens Nifty is all there is on the screen and all user input is handled by Nifty.

^ If you also want to avoid the Syntax menu: :let did_install_syntax_menu = 1 The first item in the Syntax menu can be used to show all available filetypes in the menu (which can take a bit of time to load).

.Command line interfaces use modes only in limited forms, such as the current directory and environment variables.^ Does it have a 'batch' mode and is it possible to use it from the windows command line?
  • AutoX264 (Multi Encoder GUI for H.264) v. 0.18 (windows/linux) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC forum.videohelp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This interface might be useful for systems where it's inconvenient to use the command-line interface (such as Windows).

^ Command-line interfaces .
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Most modern operating systems provide both a GUI and some level of a CLI, although the GUIs usually receive more attention.^ Most modern operating systems provide both a GUI and some level of a CLI, although the GUIs usually receive more attention.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Most modern general-purpose GUIs are derived from this system.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) is most important language technique for web designing and development, we mostly prefer in our modern designs where some...
  • dzone.com - Popular links: gui 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.dzone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The GUI is usually WIMP-based, although occasionally other metaphors surface, such as those used in Microsoft Bob, 3dwm or File System Visualizer (FSV).^ The GUI is usually WIMP-based, although occasionally other metaphors surface, such as those used in Microsoft Bob , 3dwm or File System Visualizer (FSV).
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ On the whole, a desktop environment is to be an intuitive way for the user to interact with the computer using concepts which are similar to those used when interacting with the physical world, such as buttons and windows.
  • Desktop GUI 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC wgo.wolf911.us [Source type: General]

^ Boot loader · PXE · API · Virtual file system · Virtual tape library · Computer network · CLI · TUI · GUI · HAL .
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Applications may also provide both interfaces, and when they do the GUI is usually a WIMP wrapper around the command-line version.^ You can also launch the application from the command line.
  • Introduction to GUI Building - NetBeans IDE 6.8 Tutorial 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC netbeans.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See the section on interactions between the GUI and the Command Line Interface .

^ To launch the application from the command line: .
  • Introduction to GUI Building - NetBeans IDE 6.8 Tutorial 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC netbeans.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is especially common with applications designed for Unix-like operating systems.^ This is especially common with applications designed for Unix-like operating systems.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Web Applications There’s a complementary set of elements specifically designed for Web applications that you can use with some of the common controls.
  • GUI Design and Software Prototyping : News and events from Caretta Software about GUI Design Studio and software prototyping 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC gui-design-prototyping.com [Source type: General]

^ And since Beans and applications based on them can run on any UNIX, Linux or *BSD system, this can be only good news for Linux developers.
  • GUI Development with Java 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The latter used to be implemented first because it allowed the developers to focus exclusively on their product's functionality without bothering about interface details such as designing icons and placing buttons.^ The latter used to be implemented first because it allowed the developers to focus exclusively on their product's functionality without bothering about interface details such as designing icons and placing buttons.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Todo: Recreate this functionality without the need for this function, only necessary because the inputhandler needs to check if the start or stop buttons were clicked.
  • Ars Physica: GUI Class Reference 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.acm.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SkinCrafter ActiveX Component allows developers to create unique looking style applications and fully interactive user interfaces.
  • Best free graphical user interface gui development downloads. CD GUI Builder allows you to design custom CD-ROM Graphical User Interfaces. Ranorex is a Windows GUI test and automation framework for C++, Python and .NET. 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.freedownloadmanager.org [Source type: General]

.Designing programs this way also allows users to run the program non-interactively, such as in a shell script.^ A user interface is the way someone interacts with a program.

^ Designing programs this way also allows users to run the program non-interactively, such as in a shell script .
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Users are allowed to run D scripts from the GUI, even those that are embedded in shell scripts.
  • OpenSolaris Forums : DTrace Graphical User Interface (GUI) ... 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.opensolaris.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Three-dimensional user interfaces

.For typical computer displays, three-dimensional is a misnomer—their displays are two-dimensional.^ Computer display systems generally represent pixel information in a three component RGB format wherein the three components specify the amount of Red (R), Green (G), and Blue (B) required to represent a pixel.
  • COLOR LEVEL GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE - Patent application - graphical user interface for performing color correction and methods for implementing the color correction are 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Method and apparatus for generating three dimensional effects in a two dimensional graphical user interface .
  • Graphical user interface - Google Patent Search 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For exemple, the array cost defined previously is displayed as a two dimensional structure indexed by factories (left) and customers (top).
  • Ateji - OptimJ GUI, a graphical user interface for LP/MIP solvers 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.ateji.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Three-dimensional images are projected on them in two dimensions.^ Method and apparatus for generating three dimensional effects in a two dimensional graphical user interface .
  • Graphical user interface - Google Patent Search 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ US Patent References: Three-dimensional graphic system with an editor for generating a textrue mapping image Sakai et al.
  • Scheme for graphical user interface using polygonal-shaped slider - Patent 6542171 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Stereo mode: There's a technology of providing pseudo three dimensional images by playing back two video tracks that have been filmed from slightly different positions simultaneously.
  • A guide to mkvmerge GUI 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.bunkus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since this technique has been in use for many years, the recent use of the term three-dimensional must be considered a declaration by equipment marketers that the speed of three dimension to two dimension projection is adequate to use in standard GUIs.^ Three-dimensional images are projected on them in two dimensions.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Pekwm rocks, been using it for two years.
  • Which Graphical User Interface (desktop environment) do you primarily use on your Linux desktop? | TUX 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.tuxmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since this technique has been in use for many years, the recent use of the term three-dimensional must be considered a declaration by equipment marketers that the speed of three dimension to two dimension projection is adequate to use in standard GUIs.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

[citation needed]

Motivation

.Three-dimensional GUIs are quite common in science fiction literature and movies, such as in Jurassic Park, which features Silicon Graphics' three-dimensional file manager, "File system navigator", an actual file manager that never got much widespread use as the user interface for a Unix computer.^ User interface with individually configurable panel interfaces for use in a computer system .
  • Graphical user interface - Google Patent Search 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A graphical user interface for a computer system that includes a memory for storing application programs and application files.
  • Graphical user interface - Google Patent Search 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Method and system for customizing a user interface in a computer system .
  • Multiple theme engine graphical user interface architecture (US6188399) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.delphion.com [Source type: Academic]

.In fiction, three-dimensional user interfaces are often immersible environments like William Gibson's Cyberspace or Neal Stephenson's Metaverse.^ In fiction, three-dimensional user interfaces are often immersible environments like William Gibson's Cyberspace or Neal Stephenson's Metaverse .
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Three-dimensional user interfaces .
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Elements of a Three-dimensional Graphical User Interface .
  • Elements of a Three-dimensional Graphical User Interface 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC goanna.cs.rmit.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

.Three-dimensional graphics are currently mostly used in computer games, art and computer-aided design (CAD).^ Jade allows the designer to use a graphical editor to edit the generated interface if it is not good enough.
  • GUI Builder Tools 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.cc.gatech.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of the type of computer system that uses the graphical user interface of the present invention.
  • Graphical user interface for creating a new notebook with a dragged page - Patent 5668964 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Method and apparatus for generating three dimensional effects in a two dimensional graphical user interface .
  • Graphical user interface - Google Patent Search 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

.There have been several attempts at making three-dimensional desktop environments like Sun's Project Looking Glass or SphereXP from Sphere Inc.^ This is a goal of the Croquet project and Project Looking Glass .
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ There have been several attempts at making three-dimensional desktop environments like Sun's Project Looking Glass or SphereXP from Sphere Inc.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, scientists could study three-dimensional models of molecules in a virtual reality environment, or engineers could work on assembling a three-dimensional model of an airplane.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.A three-dimensional computing environment could possibly be used for collaborative work.^ Work was done using AWT on Apple computers.
  • Steve Ford - Java/GUI Consultant 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.jasiri.com [Source type: Reference]

^ I love the way it looks too, it could use some work on making a shadow for it, and maybe shine the edges a bit, but otherwise its awesome!

^ Lighting.html // An effect that simulates a light source shining on the given content, // which can be used to give flat objects a more realistic, three-dimensional // appearance.
  • LAB-5714: JavaFX GUI Basics I 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.javapassion.com [Source type: Reference]

.For example, scientists could study three-dimensional models of molecules in a virtual reality environment, or engineers could work on assembling a three-dimensional model of an airplane.^ A three-dimensional computing environment could possibly be used for collaborative work.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, scientists could study three-dimensional models of molecules in a virtual reality environment, or engineers could work on assembling a three-dimensional model of an airplane.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Another branch in the three-dimensional desktop environment is the three-dimensional GUIs that take the desktop metaphor a step further, like the BumpTop , where a user can manipulate documents and windows as if they were "real world" documents, with realistic movement and physics.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

This is a goal of the Croquet project and Project Looking Glass.[11]

Technologies

.The use of three-dimensional graphics has become increasingly common in mainstream operating systems, from creating attractive interfaces—eye candy— to functional purposes only possible using three dimensions.^ Create the interface using Interface Builder.
  • Learning Cocoa with Objective-C/Single-Window Applications/Graphical User Interfaces - WikiContent 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC commons.oreilly.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Programmers use both libraries to create a graphical interface to their programs.
  • Page 2 - Graphical User Interface 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.devarticles.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Elements of a Three-dimensional Graphical User Interface .
  • Elements of a Three-dimensional Graphical User Interface 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC goanna.cs.rmit.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

.For example, user switching is represented by rotating a cube whose faces are each user's workspace, and window management is represented in the form or via a Rolodex-style flipping mechanism in Windows Vista (see Windows Flip 3D).^ For example, a user can specify via a preferences dialog box one or more web sites (e.g., www.consumerreports.org) and/or reviewers (e.g., Roger Ebert) preferred by the user.
  • United States Patent Application: 0060143158 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC appft1.uspto.gov [Source type: General]

^ To prevent the user from interacting with the owner while one of its owned window is visible, disable the owner via Gui +Disabled .

^ Keywords: User management , user manager , nt admin , windows administration .
  • Enhanced graphical user interface downloads at VicMan 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.vicman.net [Source type: General]

.In both cases, the operating system transforms windows on-the-fly while continuing to update the content of those windows.^ In both cases, the operating system transforms windows on-the-fly while continuing to update the content of those windows.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A Windows desktop is an overview of the operating system.
  • Graphical User Interface Research Project - GUI 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.donotenter.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This system operates in a Windows™ environment.
  • Graphical user interface for creating a new notebook with a dragged page - Patent 5668964 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Interfaces for the X Window System have also implemented advanced three-dimensional user interfaces through compositing window managers such as Beryl, Compiz and KWin using the AIGLX or XGL architectures, allowing for the usage of OpenGL to animate the user's interactions with the desktop.^ User interface with individually configurable panel interfaces for use in a computer system .
  • Graphical user interface - Google Patent Search 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A window manager facilitates the interactions between windows, applications, and the windowing system .
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ I myself use a Desktop Environment of Gnome with the window manager awesome .
  • Desktop GUI 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC wgo.wolf911.us [Source type: General]

.Another branch in the three-dimensional desktop environment is the three-dimensional GUIs that take the desktop metaphor a step further, like the BumpTop, where a user can manipulate documents and windows as if they were "real world" documents, with realistic movement and physics.^ The desktop metaphor GUI is described as a direct manipulation interface.
  • Elements of a Three-dimensional Graphical User Interface 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC goanna.cs.rmit.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Another branch in the three-dimensional desktop environment is the three-dimensional GUIs that take the desktop metaphor a step further, like the BumpTop , where a user can manipulate documents and windows as if they were "real world" documents, with realistic movement and physics.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Three-dimensional user interfaces .
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.The Zooming User Interface (ZUI) is a related technology that promises to deliver the representation benefits of 3D environments without their usability drawbacks of orientation problems and hidden objects.^ Last December I discussed usability principles that applied to any user interface, but concentrated on those with knobs, buttons, and switches (" Principles of User Interface Design ," p.
  • Embedded.com - Usability for Graphical User Interfaces 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.embedded.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Graphical user interface (center) provided courtesy of Amulet Technologies (Santa Clara, CA).
  • (Features) Integrating a Graphical User Interface into an Existing Medical Device (MEM archive, Oct 03) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.devicelink.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Actions are special methods, indicated with the IBAction keyword, which are defined by a class and triggered by user-interface objects.
  • Learning Cocoa with Objective-C/Single-Window Applications/Graphical User Interfaces - WikiContent 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC commons.oreilly.com [Source type: Reference]

.It is a logical advancement on the GUI, blending some three-dimensional movement with two-dimensional or "2.5D" vector objects.^ It is a logical advancement on the GUI, blending some three-dimensional movement with two-dimensional or " 2.5D " vector objects.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Another branch in the three-dimensional desktop environment is the three-dimensional GUIs that take the desktop metaphor a step further, like the BumpTop , where a user can manipulate documents and windows as if they were "real world" documents, with realistic movement and physics.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Since this technique has been in use for many years, the recent use of the term three-dimensional must be considered a declaration by equipment marketers that the speed of three dimension to two dimension projection is adequate to use in standard GUIs.
  • GUI (Linux Reviews) 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Graphical User Interface (Linux Reviews) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

See also

References

External links


Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

.From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!^ GUI alteration - NWNWiki, the Neverwinter Nights Wiki - your guide to the game of NWN Wikia Gaming Create a new wiki Log in Create an account NWNWiki Edit this page History Share this article Article Discussion .
  • GUI alteration - NWNWiki, the Neverwinter Nights Wiki - your guide to the game of NWN 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC nwn.wikia.com [Source type: General]

^ Find out how you can get more traffic, increase your game sales, network with others and get more done in less time: click here .
  • GameProducer.Net » Blog Archive » Keeping Graphical User Interface Clean (GUI) 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.gameproducer.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This tutorial is designed to do nothing more than load a screen, fade it from black and then back to black before loading your game.
  • Gui Builder « Christopher Ross 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.thisismyurl.com [Source type: General]

.Graphical user interface (or GUI) is a modern standard for computer operating systems.^ User interface with individually configurable panel interfaces for use in a computer system .
  • Graphical user interface - Google Patent Search 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Jump to: navigation , search GUI stands for Graphical User Interface.

^ Graphical user interface (GUI) software tools .

.Windows, Macintosh and Linux are the popular window systems for this protocol.^ From Windows to Macintosh, Linux, and the X Window system, typically known as the KDE, Gnome and CDE desktops.

^ Two of the most popular operating systems, Windows and the Mac OS, are GUI-based.
  • Definition of GUI 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.sharpened.net [Source type: General]

^ As with other Java applications, Java GUI applications can be deployed to Microsoft Windows, Linux, Mac OS, OpenSolaris and any other system that contains the Java Runtime Environment.
  • Java and JavaFX GUI Application Learning Trail - NetBeans Tutorials, Guides and Articles 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC netbeans.org [Source type: Reference]

.Many games are developed to utilize graphical user interface.^ This is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) library for prototyping and building game user interfaces.
  • OpenGL GUI library for games - bramstein.com 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.bramstein.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GUIdebook: Graphical User Interface gallery .
  • GUIdebook: Graphical User Interface gallery 6 February 2010 11:25 UTC www.guidebookgallery.org [Source type: General]
  • GUIdebook: Graphical User Interface gallery | MetaFilter 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: General]
  • xBlog: The visual thinking weblog » GUIdebook: Graphical User Interface gallery 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC www.xplane.com [Source type: General]

^ To be able to build graphical user interfaces.
  • esm_deitel_chtp_4|Java Graphical User Interface Components|Objectives 11 January 2010 2:14 UTC wps.prenhall.com [Source type: Reference]


This article uses material from the "Graphical user interface" article on the Gaming wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 12, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Graphical user interface, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message