Great Barrier Reef: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Great Barrier Reef

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Great Barrier Reef*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

The Great Barrier Reef lies off the coast of Queensland
State Party  Australia
Type Natural
Criteria vii, viii, ix, x
Reference 154
Region** Asia-Pacific
Inscription history
Inscription 1981  (5th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
** Region as classified by UNESCO.
.The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest reef system[1][2] composed of over 2,900 individual reefs[3] and 900 islands stretching for over 2,600 kilometres (1,600 mi) over an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometres (133,000 sq mi).^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ It’s the largest World Heritage Area in the world at 348,000 kms2 in size.

^ The Great Barrier Reef is the biggest marine Park in the world.

[4][5] .The reef is located in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland in northeast Australia.^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ There are coral reefs off the eastern coast of Africa, off the southern coast of India, in the Red Sea, and off the coasts of northeast and northwest Australia and on to Polynesia.
  • Coral Reef Animal Printouts - EnchantedLearning.com 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.zoomschool.com [Source type: General]

^ Location of the Great Barrier Reef The Great Barrier Reef is located off the east coast of Australia in the Coral Sea.

.The Great Barrier Reef can be seen from outer space and is the world's biggest single structure made by living organisms.^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ The Great Barrier Reef looks majestic when seen from great heights.

^ The Great Barrier Reef is the biggest marine Park in the world.

[6] .This reef structure is composed of and built by billions of tiny organisms, known as coral polyps.^ In reality, it is made up of many millions of tiny organisms, known as coral polyps.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These polyps create a hard surface by producing lime; as they die, their coral "skeletons" remain, which form the reef's white substructure.
  • The Reef | Great Barrier Reef Features | Fodor's Travel Guides 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fodors.com [Source type: General]

^ Crown-of-thorns starfish The crown-of-thorns starfish is a coral reef predator that preys on coral polyps by climbing onto them, extruding the stomach over them, and releasing digestive enzymes to then absorb the liquified tissue.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .This reef supports a wide diversity of life, and was selected as a World Heritage Site in 1981.[1][2] CNN labeled it one of the 7 natural wonders of the world.^ Our Great Barrier Reef is one of the natural wonders of the world, .

^ CNN has labelled it one of the seven natural wonders of the world.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Great Barrier Reef supports a wide diversity of life, and was selected as a World Heritage Site in 1981.
  • Tourism Port Douglas | The Great Barrier Reef Tours | Port Douglas Queensland Australia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.tourismportdouglas.com.au [Source type: General]

[8] .The Queensland National Trust named it a state icon of Queensland.^ This great natural monument has now been named a state icon from the The Queensland National Trust.
  • Tourism Port Douglas | The Great Barrier Reef Tours | Port Douglas Queensland Australia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.tourismportdouglas.com.au [Source type: General]

^ The Queensland National Trust has named it a state icon of Queensland .
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]
.A large part of the reef is protected by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, which helps to limit the impact of human use, such as fishing and tourism.^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ A large part of the reef is protected by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Great Barrier Reef is the biggest marine Park in the world.

.Other environmental pressures on the reef and its ecosystem include runoff, climate change accompanied by mass coral bleaching, and cyclic population outbreaks of the crown-of-thorns starfish.^ Scientists say farming chemical run-off is threatening the Reef, which is also battling climate change, coral bleaching and the crown of thorns starfish.
  • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At every stage corals are subject to periodic bleaching and crown-of-thorns outbreaks.
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crown of thorns starfish, coral bleaching, we've heard it all before, and it's all bullshilt.
  • Life at the Edge: Great Barrier Reef Could Be World's 1st Gobal Ecosystem to Collapse 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.dailygalaxy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Great Barrier Reef has long been known to and used by the Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander peoples, and is an important part of local groups' cultures and spirituality.^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ A large part of the reef is protected by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The reef is a very popular destination for tourists, especially in the Whitsundays and Cairns regions.^ Great Barrier Reef Tourism Due to its vast biodiversity, warm clear waters and its accessibility from the floating guest facilities called 'live aboards', the reef is a very popular destination for tourists, especially scuba divers.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plans of management are also in place for the popular tourist destinations of Cairns and the Whitsunday Islands, which comprise 85% of tourism in the region.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bundaberg's Woongarra Marine Park lies outside the borders of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and is a popular destination for divers visiting the Reef.
  • Major Reef Sites in Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef at Frommer's 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

.Tourism is an important economic activity for the region.^ In economic terms the most significant activity taking place on the reef is tourism, generating an estimated Aus $1 billion (US$750 million) per year.
  • Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, Australia - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As the largest commercial activity in the region, it has been estimated in 2003 that tourism in the Great Barrier Reef generates over AU$4 billion annually.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fishing generates AU$ 1 billion per year.^ In economic terms the most significant activity taking place on the reef is tourism, generating an estimated Aus $1 billion (US$750 million) per year.
  • Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, Australia - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As the largest commercial activity in the region, it has been estimated in 2003 that tourism in the Great Barrier Reef generates over AU$4 billion annually.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fishing in the Great Barrier Reef The fishing industry in the Great Barrier Reef, controlled by the Queensland Government, is worth AU$1 billion annually.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]

Contents

Geology and geography

Satellite image of part of the Great Barrier Reef adjacent to the Queensland coastal areas of Airlie Beach and Mackay.
.The Great Barrier Reef is a distinct feature of the East Australian Cordillera division.^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Great Barrier Reef Flight-seeing .
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It includes the smaller Murray Islands.[11] .It reaches from Torres Strait (between Bramble Cay, its northernmost island, and the south coast of Papua New Guinea) in the north to the unnamed passage between Lady Elliot Island (its southernmost island) and Fraser Island in the south.^ Lady Elliot Island charges   159 .
  • GREAT BARRIER REEF MARINE PARK REGULATIONS 1983 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.austlii.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Diving heaven on Lady Elliot island… .

^ It is more than 3 000 kilometers long, from the town of Bundaberg up to Cape York, nearly reaching Papua New Guinea.
  • Australia trips - Great Barrier Reef Queensland tourist info holidays 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australia-trips.info [Source type: General]

.Lady Elliot Island is located 1,915 km (1,190 mi) southeast of Bramble Cay as the crow flies.^ Lady Elliot Island charges   159 .
  • GREAT BARRIER REEF MARINE PARK REGULATIONS 1983 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.austlii.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Green Island is a 6000 year old coral cay and National Park located right on Australias beautiful Great Barrier Reef.
  • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

^ Farther south of Bunker Group is Lady Elliot Island, which is accessed by air.
  • Major Reef Sites in Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef at Frommer's 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

[12]
Australia has moved northwards at a rate of 7 cm (2.8 in) per year, starting during the Cainozoic.[13] .Eastern Australia experienced a period of tectonic uplift, which moved the drainage divide in Queensland 400 km (250 mi) inland.^ Extending over 2000 km along the Queensland coast, the Great Barrier Reef is a sort of a natural wonder of Australia.
  • Great Barrier Reef, Great Barrier Reef in Australia, Australia's Great Barrier Reef, Australia Tourist Attractions 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.worldtravel4indians.com [Source type: News]

Also during this time, Queensland experienced volcanic eruptions leading to central and shield volcanoes and basalt flows.[14] .Some of these granitic outcrops have become high islands.^ Most of these larger, high-rise islands (tops of partly submerged mountains) also have coral reefs in the water around them.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the windward side of the island it becomes clear to see how these sand covered cays become islands over hundreds of years…here’s a summary: .

^ More common are the platform and smaller patch reefs located along the length of the GBR. Some of these possess sandy 'cays' or islands at their northern ends.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .After the Coral Sea Basin formed, coral reefs began to grow in the Basin, but until about 25 million years ago, northern Queensland was still in temperate waters south of the tropics—too cool to support coral growth.^ Corals have been growing in the region for as long as 25 million years, but have not always formed coral reefs.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the water does not cool within about a month, the coral will die.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The northern part of Queensland has a number of sugar cane farms and a while ago the cane beetle was ravaging them.
  • Great Barrier Reef | Lady Elliot Island | Green Island | Michaelmas Cay 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.micktravels.com [Source type: General]

[16] .The Great Barrier Reef's development history is complex; after Queensland drifted into tropical waters, it was largely influenced by reef growth and decline as sea level changed.^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ The Reef in the Great Barrier Reef is classified into three types: .

^ A large part of the reef is protected by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .They can increase in diameter by 1 to 3 centimetres (0.39 to 1.2 in) per year, and grow vertically anywhere from 1 to 25 cm (0.39 to 9.8 in) per year; however, they grow only above a depth of 150 metres (490 ft) due to their need for sunlight, and cannot grow above sea level.^ They can increase in diameter from 1 to 2 cm/year, and grow vertically anywhere from 1 to 15 cm/year; however, they are limited to a height of 150 meters due to their need for sunlight, and cannot grow above sea level.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At around that time, the sea level was 120 metres lower than it is today.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 20,000 years ago until 6,000 years ago, the sea level rose steadily.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .When Queensland edged into tropical waters 24 million years ago, some coral grew,[19] but a sedimentation regime quickly developed with erosion of the Great Dividing Range; creating river deltas, oozes and turbidites, unsuitable conditions for coral growth.^ Great whites are rare in tropical waters.
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These colonies have hard skeletons which add to the limestone of previous periods of growth, resulting in sequences of reef development and exposure repeated over the past two million or so years.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Environmental Threats of the Great Barrier Reef Water quality The coastline of north eastern Australia has no major rivers, (except during tropical flood events caused by tropical cyclones).
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.10 million years ago, the sea level significantly lowered, which further enabled sedimentation.^ At around that time, the sea level was 120 metres lower than it is today.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 20,000 years ago until 6,000 years ago, the sea level rose steadily.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By around 13,000 years ago the sea level was 60 metres less than the present day, and corals began to grow around the hills of the coastal plain - by then, continental islands.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The reef's substrate may have needed to build up from the sediment until its edge was too far away for suspended sediments to inhibit coral growth.^ But according to a new study, there may yet be hope for our coral reefs.

^ All tours to this location are scheduled around low tide; being surrounded by a reef wall creates a suspended coral lagoon for the aircraft to land.
  • Hayman :: Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.hayman.com.au [Source type: General]

^ In addition there are about 300 low islands, or cays, formed atop coral shoals from reef sediments.
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, approximately 400,000 years ago there was a particularly warm interglacial period with higher sea levels and a 4 °C (39 °F) water temperature change.^ From 20,000 years ago until 6,000 years ago, the sea level rose steadily.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The structure of the current reef is approximately 6,000 to 8,000 years old, and is growing on top of older reefs that formed during a period of higher sea levels [source: CRC ].
  • Howstuffworks "How the Great Barrier Reef Works" 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC adventure.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since then, its growth has been interrupted several times by sea-level changes that occurred during the ice ages.
  • Howstuffworks "How the Great Barrier Reef Works" 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC adventure.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
The Great Barrier Reef is clearly visible from jet planes flying over it
Heron Island, a coral cay in the southern Great Barrier Reef
.The land that formed the substrate of the current Great Barrier Reef was a coastal plain formed from the eroded sediments of the Great Dividing Range with some larger hills (some of which were themselves remnants of older reefs[21] or volcanoes[15]).^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Great Barrier Reef Flight-seeing .
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] .The Reef Research Centre, a Cooperative Research Centre, has found coral 'skeleton' deposits that date back half a million years.^ Geology and Geography The Reef Research Centre, a Cooperative Research Centre, has found coral 'skeleton' deposits that date back half a million years.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These colonies have hard skeletons which add to the limestone of previous periods of growth, resulting in sequences of reef development and exposure repeated over the past two million or so years.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coral reefs form when colonies of tropical marine plants and animals with limestone skeletons rise atop earlier generations.
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] .The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA) considers the earliest evidence of complete reef structures to have been 600,000 years ago.^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ A large part of the reef is protected by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]According to the .GBRMPA, the current, living reef structure is believed to have begun growing on the older platform about 20,000 years ago.^ According to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, the current, living reef structure is believed to have begun growing on an older platform about 20,000 years ago.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reef is a most unusual wilderness, and not just because it's underwater, or that it's the largest living structure on Earth, or that it's populated by a parade of improbable animals.
  • Last best places: Great barrier reef | StarTribune.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.startribune.com [Source type: News]

^ Not to mention hurricanes; a typical reef on the Great Barrier gets hit every 20 to 50 years.
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .The Australian Institute of Marine Science agrees, placing the beginning of the growth of the current reef at the time of the Last Glacial Maximum.^ The Australian Institute of Marine Science agrees, which places the beginning of the growth of the current reef at the time of the Last Glacial Maximum.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientists at the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies in Australia (CoECRS), James Cook University, the Museum of Tropical Queensland and the Australian Institute of Marine Science have released a research paper indicating that at least one rare coral species may actually be able to adapt to climate change.

^ Remember the last glacial - interglacial transition, that showed a temperature > difference of 9C! > This is 15 times the actual 0.6C and corals are fine despite all that.
  • Shameless Lies On The Barrier Reef Exposed! - sci.environment | Google Groups 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Shameless Lies On The Barrier Reef Exposed! - sci.environment | Google Groups 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At around that time, sea level was 120 metres (390 ft) lower than it is today.^ At around that time, the sea level was 120 metres lower than it is today.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Originally Posted by HighlandReefer FWIW, I keep my mag level around that of natural sea water, 1280 ppm.
  • Can magnesium inhibit coral calcification?? - Reef Central Online Community 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.reefcentral.com [Source type: General]

^ By around 13,000 years ago the sea level was 60 metres less than the present day, and corals began to grow around the hills of the coastal plain - by then, continental islands.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]
.From 20,000 years ago until 6,000 years ago, sea level rose steadily.^ From 20,000 years ago until 6,000 years ago, the sea level rose steadily.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By around 13,000 years ago the sea level was 60 metres less than the present day, and corals began to grow around the hills of the coastal plain - by then, continental islands.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the sea level rose, the corals could grow higher on the hills of the coastal plain.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As it rose, the corals could then grow higher on the hills of the coastal plain.^ As the sea level rose, the corals could grow higher on the hills of the coastal plain.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By around 13,000 years ago the sea level was 60 metres less than the present day, and corals began to grow around the hills of the coastal plain - by then, continental islands.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The land that formed the substrate of the Great Barrier Reef was a coastal plain with some larger hills (some of which were themselves remnants of older reefs).
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By around 13,000 years ago the sea level was only 60 metres (200 ft) lower than the present day, and corals began to grow around the hills of the coastal plain, which were, by then, continental islands.^ At around that time, the sea level was 120 metres lower than it is today.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 20,000 years ago until 6,000 years ago, the sea level rose steadily.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By around 13,000 years ago the sea level was 60 metres less than the present day, and corals began to grow around the hills of the coastal plain - by then, continental islands.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the sea level rose further still, most of the continental islands were submerged.^ As the sea level rose further still, most of the continental islands were submerged.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of these larger, high-rise islands (tops of partly submerged mountains) also have coral reefs in the water around them.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 20,000 years ago until 6,000 years ago, the sea level rose steadily.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The corals could then overgrow the hills, to form the present cays and reefs.^ The corals could then overgrow the hills, to form the present cays and reefs.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's the southern tip of the Great Barrier Reef , and you could see all the coral surrounding it.
  • Great Barrier Reef | Lady Elliot Island | Green Island | Michaelmas Cay 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.micktravels.com [Source type: General]

^ Coral reefs form when colonies of tropical marine plants and animals with limestone skeletons rise atop earlier generations.
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sea level here has not risen significantly in the last 6,000 years.^ Sea level on the Great Barrier Reef has not risen significantly in the last 6,000 years.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 20,000 years ago until 6,000 years ago, the sea level rose steadily.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By around 13,000 years ago the sea level was 60 metres less than the present day, and corals began to grow around the hills of the coastal plain - by then, continental islands.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] .The CRC Reef Research Centre estimates the age of the present, living reef structure at 6-8,000 years old.^ The research outcomes funded by the CRC Reef Research Centre estimates the age of the present, living reef structure at 6,000 to 8,000 years old.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mainly Melanesian ni-Vanuatu population of over 160,000 live in the outer islands, where life has changed little over the years.
  • great barrier reef Holiday Travel options - great barrier reef Brochures Delivered Free - Free Travel Brochures Australia 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.travelbrochures.com.au [Source type: General]

^ So will the estimates of 4,000 mollusks and at least 350 hard, or reef-building, corals.
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22]
.The remains of an ancient barrier reef similar to the Great Barrier Reef can be found in The Kimberley, a northern region of Western Australia.^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Australia, Great Barrier Reef, Grey Reef Sharks, underwater view .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24]
.The Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area has been divided into 70 bioregions,[25] of which 30 are reef bioregions.^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Great Barrier Reef Flight-seeing .
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26].[27] .In the northern part of the Great Barrier Reef, ribbon reefs and deltaic reefs have formed; these structures are not found in the rest of the reef system.^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ A large part of the reef is protected by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] .There are no atolls in the system,[28] and reefs attached to the mainland are rare.^ There is no shortage of buildings and roads and large ships can dock in the atoll.
  • Conservationists urge Gordon Brown to create 'Britain's Great Barrier Reef' | Environment | guardian.co.uk 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ There's no point installing all that again on the other side of the atoll.
  • Conservationists urge Gordon Brown to create 'Britain's Great Barrier Reef' | Environment | guardian.co.uk 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ There are also many fringing reefs where the reef growth is established on subtidal rock of the mainland coast or continental islands.
  • Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, Australia - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]

[13]
.Fringing reefs are distributed widely, but are most common towards the southern part of the Great Barrier Reef, attached to high islands, for example, the Whitsunday Islands.^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Australia, Whitsunday Islands, Great Barrier reef, aerial view .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Phil diving the Great Barrier Reef » .

.Lagoonal reefs are found in the southern Great Barrier Reef, and further north, off the coast of Princess Charlotte Bay.^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Great Barrier Reef Flight-seeing .
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cresentic reefs are the most common shape of reef in the middle of the system, for example the reefs surrounding Lizard Island.^ Most of these larger, high-rise islands (tops of partly submerged mountains) also have coral reefs in the water around them.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The diving on this, the southern most of all the Great Barrier Reefs islands, is rumoured to be some of the best along the coastline and had a lot to deliver to uphold this reputation.

^ Lizard Island, for example, is held to be representative of a stingray’s body (with the neighboring islets making up the tail), and has been a place of pilgrimage for the Dingal Warra people for millennia.
  • Printable Queensland & Great Barrier Reef guide 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.mrandmrssmith.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cresentic reefs are also found in the far north of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, and in the Swain Reefs (20-22 degrees south).^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ A large part of the reef is protected by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Planar reefs are found in the northern and southern parts, near Cape York, Princess Charlotte Bay, and Cairns.^ One of the earliest, the wreck of HMS "Pandora" dating from 1791, lies near the reef in the northern sector to which it gave its name.
  • Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, Australia - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The largest number of boat rentals in northern Queensland are found between Shute Harbour and Cairns .
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Extension of compulsory pilotage south of Cairns to the southern limit of the Great Barrier Reef will approximately double the length of pilotage for vessels proceeding to or from southern ports.
  • Great Barrier Reef Review of Ship Safety and Pollution Prevention Measures 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.amsa.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of the islands on the reef are found on planar reefs.^ Most of these larger, high-rise islands (tops of partly submerged mountains) also have coral reefs in the water around them.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The diving on this, the southern most of all the Great Barrier Reefs islands, is rumoured to be some of the best along the coastline and had a lot to deliver to uphold this reputation.

^ Dunk Island Resort Youve just found the most romantic place for the most romantic day of the year..
  • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

[29]

Ecology

.The Great Barrier Reef supports a diversity of life, including many vulnerable or endangered species, some of which may be endemic to the reef system.^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Great Barrier Reef Flight-seeing .
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30][31]
Green sea turtle on the Great Barrier Reef
.Thirty species of whales, dolphins, and porpoises have been recorded in the Great Barrier Reef, including the dwarf minke whale, Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin, and the humpback whale.^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Great Barrier Reef Flight-seeing .
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Large populations of dugongs live there.^ Also, large populations of dugongs live there.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32][33][31]
.Six species of sea turtles come to the reef to breed – the green sea turtle, leatherback sea turtle, hawksbill turtle, loggerhead sea turtle, flatback turtle, and the olive ridley.^ Six species of sea turtle come to the reef to breed Green Sea Turtle, Leatherback Sea Turtle, Hawksbill turtle, Loggerhead Sea Turtle, Flatback Turtle, and Olive Ridley.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We headed back to the pier and were halfway across it ready to board the boat for departure when I spotted a pair of loggerhead sea turtles in the snorkeling area.
  • Great Barrier Reef | Lady Elliot Island | Green Island | Michaelmas Cay 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.micktravels.com [Source type: General]

^ There are 15 species of seagrass near the reef that attract the dugongs and sea turtles.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The green sea turtles on the Great Barrier Reef have two genetically distinct populations, one in the northern part of the reef and the other in the southern part.^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ A large part of the reef is protected by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34] .Fifteen species of seagrass in beds attract the dugongs and turtles,[32] and provide fish habitat.^ There are 15 species of seagrass near the reef that attract the dugongs and sea turtles.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, dugong occurring south of Dunk Island have decreased by 50% over the last eight years, and the various turtle populations are still considered to be threatened by habitat loss, incidental kills in fishing nets, and hunting.
  • Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, Australia - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fishing also impacts the reef through increased pollution from boats, by-catch of unwanted species (such as dolphins and turtles) and reef habitat destruction from trawling, anchors and nets.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35] The most common genera of seagrasses are Halophila and Halodule.[36]
Saltwater crocodiles live in mangrove and salt marshes on the coast near the reef.[37] Nesting has not been reported, and the salt water crocodile population in the GBRWHA is wide-ranging but low density.[38] .Around 125 species of shark, stingray, skates or chimera live on the reef.^ More than 1500 species of fish live on the reef, including the Clownfish, Red Bass, Red-Throat Emperor, and several species of Snapper and Coral Trout.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not to be missed is the 360 degree Oceanarium which houses giant sharks and stingrays witness the incredible live feeding presentations held twice each day.
  • Fraser Island Tour | Great Barrier Reef Holiday Plan Australia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.visitaustralia.com [Source type: News]

^ Over 200 species of birds (including 40 species of waterbirds) live on the Great Barrier Reef, including the White-bellied Sea Eagle and Roseate Tern.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39][40] .Close to 5,000 species of mollusc have been recorded on the reef, including the giant clam and various nudibranchs and cone snails.^ Great Barrier Reef including the Giant Clam and various nudibranches and cone snails.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 1500 species of fish live on the reef, including the Clownfish, Red Bass, Red-Throat Emperor, and several species of Snapper and Coral Trout.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Overfishing The unsustainable overfishing of keystone species, such as the Giant Triton, can cause disruption to food chains vital to life on the reef.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] Forty-nine species of pipefish and nine species of seahorse have been recorded.[38] At least seven species of frog inhabit the islands.[41]
.215 species of birds (including 22 species of seabirds and 32 species of shorebirds) visit the reef or nest or roost on the islands,[42] including the white-bellied sea eagle and roseate tern.^ Over 200 species of birds (including 40 species of waterbirds) live on the Great Barrier Reef, including the White-bellied Sea Eagle and Roseate Tern.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 1500 species of fish live on the reef, including the Clownfish, Red Bass, Red-Throat Emperor, and several species of Snapper and Coral Trout.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six species of sea turtle come to the reef to breed Green Sea Turtle, Leatherback Sea Turtle, Hawksbill turtle, Loggerhead Sea Turtle, Flatback Turtle, and Olive Ridley.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] .Most nesting sites are on islands in the northern and southern regions of the Great Barrier Reef, with 1.4-1.7 million birds using the sites to breed.^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lonely Planet's guide to the Islands of the Great Barrier Reef was indispensable.

[43][44] .The islands of the Great Barrier Reef also support 2,195 known plant species; three of these are endemic.^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lonely Planet's guide to the Islands of the Great Barrier Reef was indispensable.

.The northern islands have 300-350 plant species which tend to be woody, whereas the southern islands have 200 which tend to be herbaceous; the Whitsunday region is the most diverse, supporting 1,141 species.^ The diving on this, the southern most of all the Great Barrier Reefs islands, is rumoured to be some of the best along the coastline and had a lot to deliver to uphold this reputation.

^ The review recommends that shipping be further discouraged from transiting the Whitsunday Islands region by removing "preferred" routes for shipping through the area from charts.
  • Great Barrier Reef Review of Ship Safety and Pollution Prevention Measures 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.amsa.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The review supports the establishment of an integrated traffic management regime for vessels in the Whitsunday Islands region through the declaration of a Pilotage Area under the Queensland Transport Operations (Marine Safety) Act 1994 .
  • Great Barrier Reef Review of Ship Safety and Pollution Prevention Measures 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.amsa.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The plants are propagated by birds.[41]
.Seventeen species of sea snake live on the Great Barrier Reef in warm waters up to 50 metres (164 ft) deep and are more common in the southern than in the northern section.^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Great Barrier Reef Flight-seeing .
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.None found in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area are endemic, nor are any endangered.^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Great Barrier Reef Flight-seeing .
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Facts about the Great Barrier Reef: .

[38]
.More than 1,500 fish species live on the reef, including the clownfish, red bass, red-throat emperor, and several species of snapper and coral trout.^ More than 1500 species of fish live on the reef, including the Clownfish, Red Bass, Red-Throat Emperor, and several species of Snapper and Coral Trout.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like an underwater jungle, it supports an incredibly diverse and dense population of 10,000 species of sponge, 350 different species of coral, 4,000 species of molluscs, 350 species of echinoderm and more than 1,500 species of fish.
  • The Great Barrier Reef : Scuba Diving Sites : Divetime.com 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.divetime.com [Source type: General]

^ The World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef is the worlds largest expanse of living coral reef, and extends along Queensland's coastline for more than 2,000 km (1,243 miles) from Cape York at the very tip of mainland Australia, to Gladstone in the South.
  • The Great Barrier Reef : Scuba Diving Sites : Divetime.com 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.divetime.com [Source type: General]

[32] Forty-nine species mass spawn, while eighty-four other species spawn elsewhere in their range.[45]
.There are at least 330 species of ascidians on the reef system, ranging in size from 1–10 cm (0.39–3.9 in) in diameter.^ There are 15 species of seagrass near the reef that attract the dugongs and sea turtles.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reefs’ coral cover wasn’t as dense as before, and there were fewer fish species, though the place was still a Mardi Gras of fins and scales.
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One volleyball-size coral chunk there yielded 1,441 worms from 103 species.
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Between 300-500 species of bryozoans live on the reef.^ More than 1500 species of fish live on the reef, including the Clownfish, Red Bass, Red-Throat Emperor, and several species of Snapper and Coral Trout.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over 200 species of birds (including 40 species of waterbirds) live on the Great Barrier Reef, including the White-bellied Sea Eagle and Roseate Tern.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An individual adult of this species can wipe out up to 6 square metres of living reef in a single year.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40]
.Four hundred coral species, both hard corals and soft corals inhabit the reef.^ More than 1500 species of fish live on the reef, including the Clownfish, Red Bass, Red-Throat Emperor, and several species of Snapper and Coral Trout.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So will the estimates of 4,000 mollusks and at least 350 hard, or reef-building, corals.
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other fish produce half a dozen—a stronger clue as to how scores of species around a coral knoll can look like hundreds.
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] .The majority of these spawn gametes, breeding in mass spawning events that are triggered by the rising sea temperatures of spring and summer, the lunar cycle, and the diurnal cycle.^ Abnormally high sea temperatures during the summer of 2005-2006 have caused massive coral bleaching in the Keppel Island group.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Reefs in the inner Great Barrier Reef spawn during the week after the full moon in October, while the outer reefs spawn in November and December.^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Great Barrier Reef Flight-seeing .
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46] Its common soft corals belong to 36 genera.[47] .Five hundred species of marine algae or seaweed live on the reef,[32] including thirteen species of genus Halimeda, which deposit calcareous mounds up to 100 metres (110 yd) wide, creating mini-ecosystems on their surface which have been compared to rainforest cover.^ More than 1500 species of fish live on the reef, including the Clownfish, Red Bass, Red-Throat Emperor, and several species of Snapper and Coral Trout.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In July 2004, a new zoning plan was brought into effect for the entire Marine Park, and has been widely acclaimed as a new global benchmark for the conservation of marine ecosystems.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As of the middle of 2004, approximately one-third of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park is protected from species removal of any kind, including fishing, without written permission.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48]

Environmental threats

Sea temperature and bleaching of the Great Barrier Reef
.Climate change, pollution, crown-of-thorns starfish and fishing are the primary threats to the health of this reef system.^ "It's just that when you combine run-off and fertiliser and pesticides and climate change and human interaction and coastal erosion and coastal development and fishing and overfishing...
  • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reef is believed to have deteriorated significantly since European settlement in 1788, after enduring coral disease, toxic blue-green algae and infestation by pestilent species such as the crown-of-thorns starfish.
  • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientists say farming chemical run-off is threatening the Reef, which is also battling climate change, coral bleaching and the crown of thorns starfish.
  • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other threats include shipping accidents, oil spills, and tropical cyclones.^ Oil drilling is not permitted on the Great Barrier Reef, yet oil spills are still considered "one of the biggest threats to the reef", with a total of 282 oil spills between 1987-2002.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ None of the incidents in the past 15 years has resulted in significant oil spill pollution, loss of life or structural damage to the ship.
  • Great Barrier Reef Review of Ship Safety and Pollution Prevention Measures 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.amsa.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49] Skeletal Eroding Band, a disease of bony corals caused by the protozoan Halofolliculina corallasia, affects 31 coral species.[50]

Climate change

.The most significant threat to the Great Barrier Reef is climate change.^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dive into the Great Barrier Reef .

^ Most come for a look at the Great Barrier.
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51][52] Mass coral bleaching events due to elevated ocean temperatures occurred in the summers of 1998, 2002 and 2006,[53] and coral bleaching is expected to become an annual occurrence.[54] .Climate change has implications for other forms of reef life—some fish's preferred temperature range leads them to seek new habitat, thus increasing chick mortality in predatory seabirds.^ Its survived ice ages, various climate change events, various levels of CO2, crown of thorns starfish invasions and now the filth merchant watermelons are claiming it won't survive because of some bullshit or other.
  • Shameless Lies On The Barrier Reef Exposed! - sci.environment | Google Groups 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Shameless Lies On The Barrier Reef Exposed! - sci.environment | Google Groups 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When conditions change, the coral expell them and then over time take in other zooxanthellae that are better adapted to higher or lower temperatures or higher or lower acidity.
  • Shameless Lies On The Barrier Reef Exposed! - sci.environment | Google Groups 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Shameless Lies On The Barrier Reef Exposed! - sci.environment | Google Groups 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 3 day 2 night cruise visits Thetford, Moore and Briggs Reef, each offering a good variety of coral formations and featuring a multitude of tropical fish life.
  • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

.Climate change will also affect the population and sea turtle's available habitat.^ No sign of any climate change affecting them.
  • Shameless Lies On The Barrier Reef Exposed! - sci.environment | Google Groups 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Shameless Lies On The Barrier Reef Exposed! - sci.environment | Google Groups 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[55]

Pollution

.Another key threat faced by the Great Barrier Reef is pollution and declining water quality.^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Facts about the Great Barrier Reef: .

^ Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' .
  • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rivers of north eastern Australia pollute the Reef during tropical flood events.^ The close proximity to the Reef and River Systems make Far North Queensland a fisherman's dream destination...
  • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

^ From its home base in Cairns, Tropical North Queensland, Big Cat Green Island Reef Cruises operates full day and half day cruises to famous Green Island.
  • Great Barrier Reef Tours & Activities • Search & Book Online • Cairns Connect Pty Ltd 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC cairnsconnect.tourstogo.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reef Ecosystems Education For North Eastern Schools Trainees (REEFNEST) .
  • Can magnesium inhibit coral calcification?? - Reef Central Online Community 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.reefcentral.com [Source type: General]
  • Great Barrier Reef WARNING LOTS OF PHOTOS! - Page 4 - Reef Central Online Community 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.reefcentral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Over 90% of this pollution comes from farm runoff.[56] .Farm run-off is polluted by overgrazing, excessive fertilizer use and pesticide use.^ "It's just that when you combine run-off and fertiliser and pesticides and climate change and human interaction and coastal erosion and coastal development and fishing and overfishing...
  • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I would suspect chemical run-off > > > from farming and industry.
  • Shameless Lies On The Barrier Reef Exposed! - sci.environment | Google Groups 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Shameless Lies On The Barrier Reef Exposed! - sci.environment | Google Groups 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientists say farming chemical run-off is threatening the Reef, which is also battling climate change, coral bleaching and the crown of thorns starfish.
  • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The runoff problem is exacerbated by the loss of coastal wetlands which act as a natural filter for toxins and help deposit sediment.^ Cane fields, other croplands, and development along Queensland’s coastal plain have replaced many seaside wetlands, the natural filters for fresh water coming from the continent.
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57][58][59] It is thought that the poor water quality is due to increased light and oxygen competition from algae.[60]

Crown of thorns

.The crown-of-thorns starfish preys on coral polyps.^ Also..."The reef is believed to have deteriorated significantly since European settlement in 1788, after enduring coral disease, toxic blue-green algae and infestation by pestilent species such as the crown-of-thorns starfish."
  • Shameless Lies On The Barrier Reef Exposed! - sci.environment | Google Groups 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Shameless Lies On The Barrier Reef Exposed! - sci.environment | Google Groups 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reef is believed to have deteriorated significantly since European settlement in 1788, after enduring coral disease, toxic blue-green algae and infestation by pestilent species such as the crown-of-thorns starfish.
  • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crown-of-thorns starfish The crown-of-thorns starfish is a coral reef predator that preys on coral polyps by climbing onto them, extruding the stomach over them, and releasing digestive enzymes to then absorb the liquified tissue.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Large outbreaks of these starfish can devastate reefs. .In 2000, an outbreak contributed to a loss of 66% of live coral cover on sampled reefs in a study by the CRC (Reefs Research Centre.^ Fitzroy Island is covered in pristine rainforest and surrounded by cool crystal waters teeming with topical fish and coral reefs...
  • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

^ Seaweeds take over reefs ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies Science Alert 6 Jan 10; A new scientific study has found that seaweeds have claimed large areas of the coastal shelf of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef (GBR).
  • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reefs’ coral cover wasn’t as dense as before, and there were fewer fish species, though the place was still a Mardi Gras of fins and scales.
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)[61] Outbreaks are believed to occur in natural cycles, worsened by poor water quality and overfishing of the starfish's predators.[61][62]

Fishing

.The unsustainable overfishing of keystone species, such as the Giant Triton, can disrupt food chains vital to reef life.^ From there it goes to the student holding the card illustrating the species that eats that herbivore and so on until it reaches the end of the food chain.
  • The Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.primarymath.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I wanted a professional opinion as to why reef life was such a parade of forms and hues.
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fishing also impacts the reef through increased water pollution from boats, by-catch of unwanted species (such as dolphins and turtles) and habitat destruction from trawling, anchors and nets.^ Ships have the right of innocent passage through territorial waters, subject to such passage being "not prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the coastal state".
  • Great Barrier Reef Review of Ship Safety and Pollution Prevention Measures 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.amsa.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With fish stocks around the world declining rapidly, I believe it is more important than ever to create a network of marine reserves where fish can breed and help to restore depleted sotcks, as well as protecting other species such as turtles.
  • Conservationists urge Gordon Brown to create 'Britain's Great Barrier Reef' | Environment | guardian.co.uk 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Fitzroy Island is covered in pristine rainforest and surrounded by cool crystal waters teeming with topical fish and coral reefs...
  • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

[63] .As of the middle of 2004, approximately one-third of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park is protected from species removal of any kind, including fishing, without written permission.^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The protection of its outstanding natural qualities was enhanced with the establishment of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park in 1975.
  • Great Barrier Reef Review of Ship Safety and Pollution Prevention Measures 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.amsa.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[64]

Human use

.The Great Barrier Reef has long been known to and used by the Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander peoples.^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Facts about the Great Barrier Reef: .

^ Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' .
  • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Aboriginal Australians have been living in the area for at least 40,000 years,[65] and Torres Strait Islanders since about 10,000 years ago.^ There was a report 2-3 years ago, about coastal sugar cane farms dumping > > their > > overfertilized sewage into the ocean.
  • Shameless Lies On The Barrier Reef Exposed! - sci.environment | Google Groups 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Shameless Lies On The Barrier Reef Exposed! - sci.environment | Google Groups 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was a report 2-3 years ago, about coastal sugar cane farms dumping > > > > their > > > > overfertilized sewage into the ocean.
  • Shameless Lies On The Barrier Reef Exposed! - sci.environment | Google Groups 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Shameless Lies On The Barrier Reef Exposed! - sci.environment | Google Groups 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was a report 2-3 years ago, about coastal sugar cane farms dumping their > overfertilized sewage into the ocean.
  • Shameless Lies On The Barrier Reef Exposed! - sci.environment | Google Groups 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Shameless Lies On The Barrier Reef Exposed! - sci.environment | Google Groups 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66] .For these 70 or so clan groups, the reef is also an important cultural feature.^ In addition to its environmental and cultural significance, the Great Barrier Reef has important economic significance.
  • Great Barrier Reef Review of Ship Safety and Pollution Prevention Measures 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.amsa.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67]
Portuguese explorers were probably the first Europeans to encounter the reef, in the sixteenth century, probably led by Cristóvão de Mendonça. Willem Jansz, sailing the Duyfken charted the western coast of Cape York. .In 1768, Louis de Bougainville found the reef during an exploratory mission, but did not claim the area for the French.^ Seaweeds take over reefs ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies Science Alert 6 Jan 10; A new scientific study has found that seaweeds have claimed large areas of the coastal shelf of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef (GBR).
  • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[68] .On June 11, 1770, the HM Bark Endeavour, captained by explorer James Cook, ran aground on the Great Barrier Reef, sustaining considerable damage.^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Facts about the Great Barrier Reef: .

^ Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' .
  • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Lightening the ship and re-floating it during an incoming tide eventually saved it.[69] .One of the most famous wrecks was the HMS Pandora, which sank on August 29, 1791, killing 35. The Queensland Museum has led archaeological digs to the Pandora since 1983.[70] Because the reef had no atolls, it was largely unstudied in the 19th century.^ Down Under Helicopters is one of the most experienced operators in Tropical North Queensland, being proudly locally owned and operated.
  • Great Barrier Reef Tours & Activities • Search & Book Online • Cairns Connect Pty Ltd 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC cairnsconnect.tourstogo.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] .During this time, some of the reef's islands were mined for deposits of guano, and lighthouses were built as beacons throughout the system.^ The diving on this, the southern most of all the Great Barrier Reefs islands, is rumoured to be some of the best along the coastline and had a lot to deliver to uphold this reputation.

^ Of course time back on the island, in between the trips up and down the reef, is also time to catch up on the blog and do the usual household chores….like doing the washing: .

^ Fly over some of the most beautiful tropical islands in the world, or see the amazing Great Barrier Reef the way it is meant to be seen – from the air!
  • Great Barrier Reef Tours & Activities • Search & Book Online • Cairns Connect Pty Ltd 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC cairnsconnect.tourstogo.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[71] as in Raine Island, the earliest example.[72] .In 1922, the Great Barrier Reef Committee began carrying out much of the early research on the reef.^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dive into the Great Barrier Reef .

^ Facts about the Great Barrier Reef: .

[73]
Starfish on coral. Tourists often photograph the natural beauty of the reef.

Management

.After the Royal Commissions' findings, in 1975 the Government of Australia created the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and prohibited various activities.^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The protection of its outstanding natural qualities was enhanced with the establishment of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park in 1975.
  • Great Barrier Reef Review of Ship Safety and Pollution Prevention Measures 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.amsa.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Facts about the Great Barrier Reef: .

[74] .The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park does not include the entire Great Barrier Reef Province.^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Facts about the Great Barrier Reef: .

^ Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' .
  • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .The park is managed, in partnership with the Government of Queensland, through the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority to ensure that it is used in a sustainable manner.^ Facts about the Great Barrier Reef: .

^ Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' .
  • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Great Barrier Reef is internationally recognised as a unique marine environment.
  • Great Barrier Reef Review of Ship Safety and Pollution Prevention Measures 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.amsa.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A combination of zoning, management plans, permits, education and incentives (such as eco-tourism certification) are employed in the effort to conserve the reef.^ The plan should address the capacity for introducing a vessel management system within the Great Barrier Reef.
  • Great Barrier Reef Review of Ship Safety and Pollution Prevention Measures 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.amsa.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After a day sailing with us and exploring the reef you will understand why Eco-Tourism is so important to this part of the world.
  • Great Barrier Reef Tours & Activities • Search & Book Online • Cairns Connect Pty Ltd 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC cairnsconnect.tourstogo.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The review recommends that the GBR Shipping Management Group prepare a Shipping Management Plan as part of a three year rolling program of management for shipping in the Great Barrier Reef and Torres Strait.
  • Great Barrier Reef Review of Ship Safety and Pollution Prevention Measures 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.amsa.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49][75]
.In July 2004, a new zoning plan took effect for the entire Marine Park, and has been widely acclaimed as a new global benchmark for marine ecosystem conservation.^ Marine life · Coral · Conservation · Oceans · Fishing · Endangered habitats · Endangered species · Wildlife UK news .
  • Conservationists urge Gordon Brown to create 'Britain's Great Barrier Reef' | Environment | guardian.co.uk 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[76] The rezoning was based on the application of systematic conservation planning techniques, using MARXAN software.[77] .While protection across the Marine Park was improved, the highly protected zones increased from 4.5% to over 33.3%.^ Green Island is part of the Great Barrier Reef and is a protected Marine Park.
  • Great Barrier Reef Tours & Activities • Search & Book Online • Cairns Connect Pty Ltd 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC cairnsconnect.tourstogo.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[78] .At the time, it was the largest marine protected area in the world, although in 2006, the new Northwestern Hawaiian Islands National Monument became the largest.^ It’s the largest World Heritage Area in the world at 348,000 kms2 in size.

^ In the Great Barrier Reef, this regulatory framework is further overlaid by legislation for management, protection and development of the marine park, which encompasses most of the Reef area.
  • Great Barrier Reef Review of Ship Safety and Pollution Prevention Measures 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.amsa.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are actually the main roads here; the island is a national park and also listed as a World Heritage site which helps to maintain its beauty and unique features and attractions.

[79]
.In 2006, a review of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act 1975 recommended are that there should be no further zoning plan changes until 2013, and that every five years, a peer-reviewed Outlook Report should be published, examining the reef's health, management, and environmental pressures.^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ The plan should address the capacity for introducing a vessel management system within the Great Barrier Reef.
  • Great Barrier Reef Review of Ship Safety and Pollution Prevention Measures 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.amsa.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5][80]

Tourism

.Due to its vast biodiversity, warm clear waters and accessibility from the tourist boats called 'live aboards', the reef is a very popular destination, especially scuba divers.^ Perhaps snorkel from the beach and swim in the warm crystal clear reef waters.
  • 5 Night Packages | Cairns & the Great Barrier Reef at the Colonial Club Resort 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.hsptravel.com.au [Source type: General]

^ Compass Cruises outer barrier reef trip is a great day for young travellers on a budget, and is very popular with backpackers that visit Cairns.
  • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

^ Since it sprawls close to the mainland, the waters aren’t very clear.
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tourism on the Great Barrier Reef is concentrated in the Whitsundays and Cairns due to their accessibility.^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Facts about the Great Barrier Reef: .

^ Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' .
  • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These areas make up 7% of the Park's area.^ We make our way down to the pontoon and into the dive area, kit up and prepare to enter that hugely exciting underwater world once more.

[49] The Whitsundays and Cairns have their own Plans of Management.[81] .Many cities along the Queensland coast offer daily boat trips.^ It’s the largest coral reef system in the world and stretches 2300kms along Queensland’s coast.

.Several continental and coral cay islands are now resorts, including the pristine Lady Elliot Island.^ Diving heaven on Lady Elliot island… .

^ Green Island is a 6000 year old coral cay and National Park located right on Australias beautiful Great Barrier Reef.
  • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

^ Fitzroy Island is covered in pristine rainforest and surrounded by cool crystal waters teeming with topical fish and coral reefs...
  • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

.As of 1996, 27 islands on the Great Barrier Reef supported resorts.^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Dive into the Great Barrier Reef .

^ Facts about the Great Barrier Reef: .

[49]
A scuba diver looking at a giant clam on the Great Barrier Reef
.Domestic tourism made up most of the tourism in the region as of 1996, and the most popular visiting times were in the Australian winter.^ Sort By: Most Popular (based on bookings made in last 30 days) .
  • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

^ After the most amazing storms I’ve seen in a long time, California has been cleaning up the mess whilst the hills surrounding Los Angeles have been reaping the rewards.

^ Wendy Wu has put together a selection of its most popular tours at excellent discounted prices that will allow you to discover China during its winter time, making your trip of a lifetime an affordable reality.
  • great barrier reef Holiday Travel options - great barrier reef Brochures Delivered Free - Free Travel Brochures Australia 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.travelbrochures.com.au [Source type: General]

.It was estimated that tourists to the Great Barrier Reef contributed $AU 776 million per annum at this time.^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Facts about the Great Barrier Reef: .

^ In total the Great Barrier Reef is estimated to contribute around $2 billion per annum to the Queensland economy.
  • Great Barrier Reef Review of Ship Safety and Pollution Prevention Measures 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.amsa.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[82]
.As the largest commercial activity in the region, it was estimated in 2003 that tourism in the Great Barrier Reef generates over AU$4 billion annually.^ Dive into the Great Barrier Reef .

^ Facts about the Great Barrier Reef: .

^ Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' .
  • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[83] (A 2005 estimate puts the figure at AU$5.1 billion.[81]) .Approximately two million people visit the Great Barrier Reef each year.^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Facts about the Great Barrier Reef: .

^ Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' .
  • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[84] .Although most of these visits are managed in partnership with the marine tourism industry, there is a concern amongst the general public that tourism is harmful to the Great Barrier Reef.^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most come for a look at the Great Barrier.
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Facts about the Great Barrier Reef: .

[49]
.A variety of boat tours and cruises are offered, from single day trips, to longer voyages.^ The luxury Coral Sea Dreaming offers an alternative for those wanting a shorter liveaboard tour of 2 days/1 night.
  • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

^ River Cruise & Island Day Trip Shortest open water crossing River & Reef Cruise from $121 per adult .
  • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

^ With the choice of three daily departures, this Green Island cruise is perfect for visitors with limited time, offering a half or full day experience.
  • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

Boat sizes range from dinghies to superyachts.[85] .Glass-bottomed boats and underwater observatories are also popular, as are helicopter flights.^ Fast & Comfortable with flexible ferry times Glass Bottom Boat or Snorkelling Frequent ferry departures from $73 per adult .
  • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

^ View the coral reef and prolific tropical fish from the semi-submarine and glass bottom boat - get acquainted with clams, reef sharks and anemones!
  • 5 Night Packages | Cairns & the Great Barrier Reef at the Colonial Club Resort 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.hsptravel.com.au [Source type: General]

^ Watch the fish feeding from Quicksilver's unique underwater observatory, or fly in a helicopter over the reef.
  • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

[86][87] .By far, the most popular tourist activities on the Great Barrier Reef are snorkelling and diving, for which pontoons are often used, and the area is often enclosed by nets.^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most come for a look at the Great Barrier.
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Facts about the Great Barrier Reef: .

.The outer part of the Great Barrier Reef is favoured for such activities, due to water quality.^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Facts about the Great Barrier Reef: .

^ Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' .
  • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Management of tourism in the Great Barrier Reef is geared towards making tourism ecologically sustainable.^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Facts about the Great Barrier Reef: .

^ Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' .
  • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A daily fee is levied that goes towards research of the Great Barrier Reef.^ Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' .
  • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Facts about the Great Barrier Reef: .

^ Shipping in the Great Barrier Reef region .
  • Great Barrier Reef Review of Ship Safety and Pollution Prevention Measures 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.amsa.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[81] This fee ends up being 20% of the GBRMPA's income.[88] .Policies on cruise ships, bareboat charters, and anchorages limit the traffic on the Great Barrier Reef.^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Facts about the Great Barrier Reef: .

[81]

Fishing

.The fishing industry in the Great Barrier Reef, controlled by the Queensland Government, is worth AU$1 billion annually.^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
  • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Facts about the Great Barrier Reef: .

^ Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' .
  • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] .It employs approximately 2000 people, and fishing in the Great Barrier Reef is pursued commercially, for recreation, and as a traditional means for feeding one's family.^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Facts about the Great Barrier Reef: .

^ Sunset from Dunk Island, one of the Great barrier Reef Islands .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

[67] Wonky holes in the reef provide particularly productive fishing areas.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1980). "Protected Areas and World Heritage - Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area". Department of the Environment and Heritage. http://www.unep-wcmc.org/protected_areas/data/wh/gbrmp.html. Retrieved 14 March 2009. 
  2. ^ a b "The Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Values". http://www.environment.gov.au/heritage/places/world/great-barrier-reef/values.html. Retrieved 3 September 2008. 
  3. ^ The Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, which is 348,000 km squared, has 2900 reefs. However, this does not include the reefs found in the Torres Strait, which has an estimated area of 37,000 km squared and with a possible 750 reefs and shoals. (Hopley et al., 2007, p.1)
  4. ^ Fodor's. "Great Barrier Reef Travel Guide". http://www.fodors.com/miniguides/mgresults.cfm?destination=great_barrier@230&cur_section=ove. Retrieved 8 August 2006. 
  5. ^ a b Department of the Environment and Heritage. "Review of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act 1975". http://www.deh.gov.au/coasts/publications/gbr-marine-park-act.html. Retrieved 2 November 2006. 
  6. ^ Sarah Belfield (8 February 2002). "Great Barrier Reef: no buried treasure". Geoscience Australia (Australian Government). http://www.ga.gov.au/media/releases/2002/1013133456_20385.jsp. Retrieved 11 June 2007. 
  7. ^ Sharon Guynup (4 September 2000). "Australia's Great Barrier Reef". Science World. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1590/is_1_57/ai_65370824. Retrieved 11 June 2007. 
  8. ^ CNN (1997). "The Seven Natural Wonders of the World". http://www.cnn.com/TRAVEL/DESTINATIONS/9711/natural.wonders/. Retrieved 6 August 2006. 
  9. ^ National Trust Queensland. "Queensland Icons". http://www.nationaltrustqld.org/qldicons.htm. Retrieved 17 October 2006. 
  10. ^ a b Access Economics Pty Ltd (2005). "Measuring the economic and financial value of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park". http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/about_us/documents/economic_values_report.pdf. Retrieved 16 March 2007.  (PDF)
  11. ^ Physiographic Diagram of Australia, A.K. Lobeck, by The Geological Press, Columbia University, New York, 1951. ... "to accompany text description and geological sections which were prepared by Joseph Gentili and R.W. Fairbridge of the University of Western Australia"
  12. ^ a b "Great Barrier Reef General Reference Map". .Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.^ Osprey V offers a fun, memorable reef experience to the true outer edge of the Great Barrier Reef.
    • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Not to mention hurricanes; a typical reef on the Great Barrier gets hit every 20 to 50 years.
    • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "The reality is, the reef is not that far gone, we can save the Great Barrier Reef, we've just got to get the water quality right."
    • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    September 2004. http://www.reefed.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/18783/SDC2004120620Sept200420General20Reference.pdf. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
     
  13. ^ a b c Hopley, David; Smithers, Scott G.; Parnell, Kevin E. (2007). The geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef : development, diversity, and change. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. p. 18. ISBN 0521853028. 
  14. ^ Hopley, David; Smithers, Scott G.; Parnell, Kevin E. (2007). The geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef : development, diversity, and change. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. p. 19. ISBN 0521853028. 
  15. ^ a b Hopley, David; Smithers, Scott G.; Parnell, Kevin E. (2007). The geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef : development, diversity, and change. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. p. 26. ISBN 0521853028. 
  16. ^ Hopley, David; Smithers, Scott G.; Parnell, Kevin E. (2007). The geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef : development, diversity, and change. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. p. 27. ISBN 0521853028. 
  17. ^ Hopley, David; Smithers, Scott G.; Parnell, Kevin E. (2007). The geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef : development, diversity, and change. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. p. 27–28. ISBN 0521853028. 
  18. ^ MSN Encarta (2006). "Great Barrier Reef". Great Barrier Reef. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761575831/Great_Barrier_Reef.html. Retrieved 11 December 2006. 
  19. ^ Hopley, David; Smithers, Scott G.; Parnell, Kevin E. (2007). The geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef : development, diversity, and change. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. p. 29. ISBN 0521853028. 
  20. ^ Hopley, David; Smithers, Scott G.; Parnell, Kevin E. (2007). The geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef : development, diversity, and change. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. p. 37. ISBN 0521853028. 
  21. ^ a b c Tobin, Barry (1998, revised 2003). "How the Great Barrier Reef was formed". Australian Institute of Marine Science. http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/research/project-net/reefs/apnet-reefs00.html. Retrieved 22 November 2006. 
  22. ^ a b c CRC Reef Research Centre Ltd. "What is the Great Barrier Reef?". http://www.reef.crc.org.au/discover/coralreefs/coralgbr.html. Retrieved 28 May 2006. 
  23. ^ a b Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2006). "A "big picture" view of the Great Barrier Reef" (PDF). Reef Facts for Tour Guides. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/12437/Reef-Facts-01.pdf. Retrieved 18 June 2007. 
  24. ^ Western Australia's Department of Environment and Conservation (2007). "The Devonian 'Great Barrier Reef'". http://www.naturebase.net/content/view/668/96/. Retrieved 12 March 2007. 
  25. ^ .Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.^ Osprey V offers a fun, memorable reef experience to the true outer edge of the Great Barrier Reef.
    • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Not to mention hurricanes; a typical reef on the Great Barrier gets hit every 20 to 50 years.
    • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "The reality is, the reef is not that far gone, we can save the Great Barrier Reef, we've just got to get the water quality right."
    • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "Representative Areas in the Marine Park". Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070928020635/http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/key_issues/conservation/rep_areas. Retrieved 23 March 2007.
     
  26. ^ Great Barrier Marine Park Authority. "Protecting the Bioregions of the Great Barrier Reef". http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/7329/reef.pdf. 
  27. ^ .Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.^ Osprey V offers a fun, memorable reef experience to the true outer edge of the Great Barrier Reef.
    • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Not to mention hurricanes; a typical reef on the Great Barrier gets hit every 20 to 50 years.
    • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "The reality is, the reef is not that far gone, we can save the Great Barrier Reef, we've just got to get the water quality right."
    • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "Bio-region Information Sheets". http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/key_issues/conservation/rep_areas/consultation/bio-region_information_sheets_test. Retrieved 23 March 2007.
     
  28. ^ a b Hopley, David; Smithers, Scott G.; Parnell, Kevin E. (2007). The geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef : development, diversity, and change. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. p. 7. ISBN 0521853028. 
  29. ^ Hopley, David; Smithers, Scott G.; Parnell, Kevin E. (2007). The geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef : development, diversity, and change. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. p. 158–160. ISBN 0521853028. 
  30. ^ CSIRO (2006). "Snapshot of life deep in the Great Barrier Reef". http://www.csiro.au/news/ps19x.html. Retrieved 13 March 2007. 
  31. ^ a b Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2000). "Fauna and Flora of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area". http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/publications/misc_pub/fauna_flora. Retrieved 24 November 2006. 
  32. ^ a b c d e f g CRC Reef Research Centre Ltd. "Reef facts: Plants and Animals on the Great Barrier Reef". http://www.reef.crc.org.au/discover/plantsanimals/facts_plantanimal.htm. Retrieved 14 July 2006. 
  33. ^ Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2004). "Environmental Status: Marine Mammals". The State of the Great Barrier Reef Report - latest updates. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/publications/sotr/latest_updates/marine_mammals. Retrieved 13 March 2007. 
  34. ^ Dobbs, Kirstin (2007). Marine turtle and dugong habitats in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park used to implement biophysical operational principles for the Representative Areas Program. Great Barrier Marine Park Authority. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/18799/rap_turtle_and_dugong_bop.pdf. 
  35. ^ Hopley, David; Smithers, Scott G.; Parnell, Kevin E. (2007). The geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef : development, diversity, and change. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. p. 133. ISBN 0521853028. 
  36. ^ Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2005). "Environmental Status: Seagrasses". The State of the Great Barrier Reef Report - latest updates. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/publications/sotr/latest_updates/seagrasses. Retrieved 23 May 2007. 
  37. ^ Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2005). "Environmental Status: Marine Reptiles". http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/publications/sotr/latest_updates/marine_reptiles. 
  38. ^ a b c "Appendix 2 - Listed Marine Species". Fauna and Flora of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. 2000. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/publications/misc_pub/fauna_flora/appendix_02.html. Retrieved 23 May 2007. 
  39. ^ "Environmental Status: Sharks and rays". The State of the Great Barrier Reef Report - latest updates. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/publications/sotr/latest_updates/sharks_rays. Retrieved 23 May 2007. 
  40. ^ a b "Appendix 4- Other species of conservation concern". Fauna and Flora of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. 2000. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/publications/misc_pub/fauna_flora/appendix_04.html. Retrieved 13 September 2007. 
  41. ^ a b "Appendix 5- Island Flora and Fauna". Fauna and Flora of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. 2000. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/publications/misc_pub/fauna_flora/appendix_05.html. Retrieved 13 September 2007. 
  42. ^ Hopley, David; Smithers, Scott G.; Parnell, Kevin E. (2007). The geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef : development, diversity, and change. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. p. 450–451. ISBN 0521853028. 
  43. ^ .Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.^ Osprey V offers a fun, memorable reef experience to the true outer edge of the Great Barrier Reef.
    • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Not to mention hurricanes; a typical reef on the Great Barrier gets hit every 20 to 50 years.
    • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "The reality is, the reef is not that far gone, we can save the Great Barrier Reef, we've just got to get the water quality right."
    • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "Environmental status: birds". The State of the Great Barrier Reef Report - latest updates. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/publications/sotr/latest_updates/seabirds/. Retrieved 23 May 2007.
     
  44. ^ "Environmental status: birds Condition". The State of the Great Barrier Reef Report - latest updates. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/publications/sotr/latest_updates/seabirds/condition. Retrieved 23 May 2007. 
  45. ^ .Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.^ Osprey V offers a fun, memorable reef experience to the true outer edge of the Great Barrier Reef.
    • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Not to mention hurricanes; a typical reef on the Great Barrier gets hit every 20 to 50 years.
    • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "The reality is, the reef is not that far gone, we can save the Great Barrier Reef, we've just got to get the water quality right."
    • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "Fish Spawning Aggregation Sites On The Great Barrier Reef". http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/key_issues/fisheries/spawning_sites. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
     
  46. ^ Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2006). "Information Fact Sheets #20 Coral Spawning" (PDF). http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/8879/Fact_Sheet_20_Coral_Spawning.pdf. Retrieved 27 May 2007. 
  47. ^ Australian Institute of Marine Science (2002). "Soft coral atlas of the Great Barrier Reef". http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/research/soft-corals/soft-corals00.html. Retrieved 27 May 2007. 
  48. ^ Hopley, David; Smithers, Scott G.; Parnell, Kevin E. (2007). The geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef : development, diversity, and change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 185. ISBN 0521853028. 
  49. ^ a b c d e Harriott, V.J. (2002). "Marine tourism impacts and their management on the Great Barrier Reef". CRC Reef Research Centre Technical Report No. 46. CRC Reef Research Centre. http://www.reef.crc.org.au/publications/techreport/pdf/Harriott46.pdf. Retrieved 8 March 2009. 
  50. ^ "AIMS Longterm Monitoring - Coral Diseases on the Great Barrier Reef - Skeletal Eroding Band". www.aims.gov.au. http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/research/reef-monitoring/coral-diseases/hcd-gbr-04.html. Retrieved 2009-08-22. 
  51. ^ Rothwell, Don; Stephens, Tim (19 November 2004). "Global climate change, the Great Barrier Reef and our obligations". The National Forum. http://www.150.theage.com.au/view_bestofarticle.asp?straction=update&inttype=1&intid=1850. Retrieved 26 September 2007. 
  52. ^ .Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.^ Osprey V offers a fun, memorable reef experience to the true outer edge of the Great Barrier Reef.
    • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Not to mention hurricanes; a typical reef on the Great Barrier gets hit every 20 to 50 years.
    • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "The reality is, the reef is not that far gone, we can save the Great Barrier Reef, we've just got to get the water quality right."
    • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "Our changing climate". http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/publications/misc_pub/climate_change_vulnerability_assessment/our_changing_climate. Retrieved 26 September 2007.
     
  53. ^ .Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.^ Osprey V offers a fun, memorable reef experience to the true outer edge of the Great Barrier Reef.
    • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Not to mention hurricanes; a typical reef on the Great Barrier gets hit every 20 to 50 years.
    • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "The reality is, the reef is not that far gone, we can save the Great Barrier Reef, we've just got to get the water quality right."
    • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "Coral Bleaching and Mass Bleaching Events". http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/science/climate_change/coral_bleaching.html. Retrieved 30 May 2006.
     
  54. ^ The The Daily Telegraph - 30 January 2007 - Online version
  55. ^ .Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.^ Osprey V offers a fun, memorable reef experience to the true outer edge of the Great Barrier Reef.
    • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Not to mention hurricanes; a typical reef on the Great Barrier gets hit every 20 to 50 years.
    • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "The reality is, the reef is not that far gone, we can save the Great Barrier Reef, we've just got to get the water quality right."
    • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "Climate change and the Great Barrier Reef". http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/science/climate_change. Retrieved 16 March 2007.
     
  56. ^ "Coastal water quality" (PDF). The State of the Environment Report Queensland 2003. Environment Protection Agency Queensland. 2003. http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/register/p01258bs.pdf. Retrieved 7 June 2007. 
  57. ^ .Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.^ Osprey V offers a fun, memorable reef experience to the true outer edge of the Great Barrier Reef.
    • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Not to mention hurricanes; a typical reef on the Great Barrier gets hit every 20 to 50 years.
    • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "The reality is, the reef is not that far gone, we can save the Great Barrier Reef, we've just got to get the water quality right."
    • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "Wetlands". http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/key_issues/water_quality/wetlands. Retrieved 13 March 2007.
     
  58. ^ Brodie, J. (2007). "Nutrient management zones in the Great Barrier Reef Catchment: A decision system for zone selection" (PDF). Australian Centre for Tropical Freshwater Research. http://www.actfr.jcu.edu.au/idc/groups/public/documents/technical_report/jcudev_015424.pdf. Retrieved 14 March 2009. 
  59. ^ Australian Government Productivity Commission (2003). "Industries, Land Use and Water Quality in the Great Barrier Reef Catchment - Key Points". http://www.pc.gov.au/projects/study/gbr/docs/finalreport/keypoints. Retrieved 14 March 2009. 
  60. ^ Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2006). "Principal water quality influences on Great Barrier Reef ecosystems". http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/key_issues/water_quality/principal_influences.html. Retrieved 22 October 2006. 
  61. ^ a b "CRC Reef Research Centre Technical Report No. 32 — Crown-of-thorns starfish(Acanthaster planci) in the central Great Barrier Reef region. Results of fine-scale surveys conducted in 1999-2000.". http://www.reef.crc.org.au/publications/techreport/techrept32.htm. Retrieved 7 June 2007. 
  62. ^ RRC Reef Research Centre. "Crown-of-thorns starfish on the Great Barrier Reef". http://www.reef.crc.org.au/publications/brochures/COTS_web_Nov2003.pdf. Retrieved 28 August 2006.  (PDF)
  63. ^ CSIRO Marine Research (1998). "Environmental Effects of Prawn Trawling". Archived from the original on 25 January 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080125100359/http://www.marine.csiro.au/LeafletsFolder/26trawl/26.html. Retrieved 28 May 2006. 
  64. ^ .Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.^ Osprey V offers a fun, memorable reef experience to the true outer edge of the Great Barrier Reef.
    • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Not to mention hurricanes; a typical reef on the Great Barrier gets hit every 20 to 50 years.
    • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "The reality is, the reef is not that far gone, we can save the Great Barrier Reef, we've just got to get the water quality right."
    • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "Marine Park Zoning". http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/management/zoning/index.html. Retrieved 8 August 2006.
     
  65. ^ Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2006 date). "Fact Sheet No. 4 - Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People and the Great Barrier Reef. Region". http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/2142/Fact_Sheet_04_IPLU.pdf. Retrieved 28 May 2006. 
  66. ^ .Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.^ Osprey V offers a fun, memorable reef experience to the true outer edge of the Great Barrier Reef.
    • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Not to mention hurricanes; a typical reef on the Great Barrier gets hit every 20 to 50 years.
    • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "The reality is, the reef is not that far gone, we can save the Great Barrier Reef, we've just got to get the water quality right."
    • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "reefED - GBR Traditional Owners". http://www.reefed.edu.au/home/explorer/hot_topics/gbr_traditional_owners. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
     
  67. ^ a b .Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.^ Osprey V offers a fun, memorable reef experience to the true outer edge of the Great Barrier Reef.
    • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Not to mention hurricanes; a typical reef on the Great Barrier gets hit every 20 to 50 years.
    • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "The reality is, the reef is not that far gone, we can save the Great Barrier Reef, we've just got to get the water quality right."
    • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Culture & Dugongs and Turtles". Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070928021214/http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/key_issues/conservation/natural_values/indigenous. Retrieved 23 May 2007.
     
  68. ^ Bell, Peter. "A history of exploration and research on the Great Barrier Reef". Australian Institute of Marine Science. http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/reflib/af25/af25y-01.html. Retrieved 11 January 2010. 
  69. ^ Captain Cook's Journal During the First Voyage Round the World at Project Gutenberg
  70. ^ Queensland Museum. "HMS Pandora". http://www.qm.qld.gov.au/features/pandora/pandora.asp. Retrieved 12 October 2006. 
  71. ^ Hopley, David; Smithers, Scott G.; Parnell, Kevin E. (2007). The geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef : development, diversity, and change. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. p. 452. ISBN 0521853028. 
  72. ^ "Raine Island Corporation". http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/environmental_management/coast_and_oceans/great_barrier_reef/raine_island_corporation/. Retrieved 20 November 2007. 
  73. ^ Hopley, David; Smithers, Scott G.; Parnell, Kevin E. (2007). The geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef : development, diversity, and change. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. p. 9. ISBN 0521853028. 
  74. ^ Commonwealth of Australia (1975). "Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act 1975". http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/gbrmpa1975257/index.html. Retrieved 30 August 2006. 
  75. ^ "Rewards Program". Onboard: The Tourism Operator's Handbook for the Great Barrier Reef. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/onboard/home/rewards_program. Retrieved 14 March 2009. 
  76. ^ Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2003). "Zoning Plan 2003". http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/10591/Zoning_Plan.pdf. Retrieved 14 March 2009.  (PDF)
  77. ^ Fernandes et al. (2005) Establishing representative no-take areas in the Great Barrier Reef: large-scale implementation of theory on marine protected areas, Conservation Biology, 19(6), 1733-1744.
  78. ^ World Wildlife Fund Australia. "Great Barrier Reef - WWF-Australia". http://www.wwf.org.au/ourwork/oceans/gbr/. Retrieved 10 November 2006. 
  79. ^ BBC News (15 June 2006). "Bush creates new marine sanctuary". http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/5083974.stm. Retrieved 28 December 2008. 
  80. ^ "Great Barrier Reef Outlook Report". .Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.^ Osprey V offers a fun, memorable reef experience to the true outer edge of the Great Barrier Reef.
    • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Not to mention hurricanes; a typical reef on the Great Barrier gets hit every 20 to 50 years.
    • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "The reality is, the reef is not that far gone, we can save the Great Barrier Reef, we've just got to get the water quality right."
    • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    2007. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/about_us/great_barrier_reef_outlook_report. Retrieved 31 August 2007.
     
  81. ^ a b c d Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2005). "Protecting Biodiversity Brochure 2005". http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/publications/brochures/index.html. Retrieved 11 November 2006. 
  82. ^ "Ecological Economics Criteria for Sustainable Tourism: Application to the Great Barrier Reef and Wet Tropics World Heritage Areas, Australia". Journal of Sustainable Tourism 4 (1). 1996. http://www.multilingual-matters.net/jost/004/0003/jost0040003.pdf. Retrieved 31 October 2008. 
  83. ^ Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2003). "Summary report of the social and economic impacts of the rezoning of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.". http://www.ens.gu.edu.au/2281aes/docs/TEV_GBR.pdf. Retrieved 14 March 2009.  (PDF)
  84. ^ .Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.^ Osprey V offers a fun, memorable reef experience to the true outer edge of the Great Barrier Reef.
    • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Not to mention hurricanes; a typical reef on the Great Barrier gets hit every 20 to 50 years.
    • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "The reality is, the reef is not that far gone, we can save the Great Barrier Reef, we've just got to get the water quality right."
    • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "Number of Tourists Visiting The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park". http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/key_issues/tourism/gbr_visitation/numbers. Retrieved 12 October 2006.
     
  85. ^ Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2005). "What You Do". Onboard - The Tourism Operator's Handbook for the Great Barrier Reef. http://www.tourismoperators.reefhq.com.au/yourproduct/index.html. Retrieved 14 November 2006. 
  86. ^ Saltzer, Rebecca (February 2002). "Uunderstanding Great Barrier Reef visitors preliminary results". CRC Reef Project B2.1.1: Understanding Tourist Use of the GBRWHA. Cooperative Research Centre for the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. http://www.reef.crc.org.au/research/sustainable_tourisim/pdf/B211prelimreport2001.pdf. Retrieved 14 March 2009. 
  87. ^ Hildebrandt, Amy (January 2003). "Understanding Tourist Use of the Great Barrier Reef: The Whitsundays Visitor". CRC Reef Project B2.1.1: Understanding Tourist Use of the GBRWHA. Cooperative Research Centre for the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. http://www.reef.crc.org.au/research/sustainable_tourisim/pdf/B2.1/Whitsundays.pdf. Retrieved 14 March 2009. 
  88. ^ Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2005). "How is the Money Used?". Onboard - The Tourism Operator's Handbook for the Great Barrier Reef. http://www.tourismoperators.reefhq.com.au/emc/use_of/index.html. Retrieved 11 November 2006. 

Further reading

  • Bell, Peter (1998). AIMS: The First Twenty-five Years. Townsville: Australian Institute of Marine Science. ISBN 9780642322128. 
  • Bowen, James; Bowen, Margarita (2002). .The Great Barrier Reef : history, science, heritage.^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
    • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Facts about the Great Barrier Reef: .

    ^ Scuba dive Great Barrier Reef .
    • Great Barrier Reef Sailing, Scuba and Snorkelling Safari | Scuba dive Great Barrier Reef | Gourmet cuisine sailing Whitsunday’s | Great Barrier Reef | Australia outfitter | Australia sailing services | snorkeling tour Australia | Australia sailing gourmet cuisine 19 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.infohub.com [Source type: General]

    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521824303.
     
  • Done, T.J. (1982). ."Patterns in the distribution of coral communities across the central Great Barrier Reef". Coral Reefs 1 (2): 95–107. doi:10.1007/BF00301691. 
  • Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research Publications
  • Hutchings, Pat; Kingsford, Mike; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove (2008).^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
    • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Coral reef starfish and clams in Great Barrier Reef .
    • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Facts about the Great Barrier Reef: .

    .The Great Barrier Reef: Biology, Environment and Management.^ Osprey V offers a fun, memorable reef experience to the true outer edge of the Great Barrier Reef.
    • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Not to mention hurricanes; a typical reef on the Great Barrier gets hit every 20 to 50 years.
    • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "The reality is, the reef is not that far gone, we can save the Great Barrier Reef, we've just got to get the water quality right."
    • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    CSIRO Publishing. ISBN 9780643095571. 
  • Lucas, P.H.C. et al. (1997). .The outstanding universal value of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area.^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
    • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Facts about the Great Barrier Reef: .

    ^ The reef waters surrounding the Frankland Islands are within the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area.
    • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

    .Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.^ Osprey V offers a fun, memorable reef experience to the true outer edge of the Great Barrier Reef.
    • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Not to mention hurricanes; a typical reef on the Great Barrier gets hit every 20 to 50 years.
    • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "The reality is, the reef is not that far gone, we can save the Great Barrier Reef, we've just got to get the water quality right."
    • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0642230285.
     
  • Mather, P.; Bennett, I., ed (1993). .A Coral Reef Handbook: A Guide to the Geology, Flora and Fauna of the Great Barrier Reef (3rd ed.^ Osprey V offers a fun, memorable reef experience to the true outer edge of the Great Barrier Reef.
    • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ "The reality is, the reef is not that far gone, we can save the Great Barrier Reef, we've just got to get the water quality right."
    • wildsingapore news: Great Barrier Reef 'overrun by weeds' 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC wildsingaporenews.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In 2006, he warned high temperatures meant "between 30 and 40 per cent of coral on Queensland's great Barrier Reef could die within a month".
    • Shameless Lies On The Barrier Reef Exposed! - sci.environment | Google Groups 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Shameless Lies On The Barrier Reef Exposed! - sci.environment | Google Groups 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ). Chipping North: Surrey Beatty & Sons Pty Ltd. ISBN 0949324477.
     

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

.The Great Barrier Reef is a coral formation, the largest in the world, located off the Pacific coast of Queensland, Australia.^ Great Barrier Reef Australia’s Great Barrier Reef is the world’s largest coral reef, covering over 350,000 square kilometres of the sea off the Tropical North Queensland Coast of Australia in the Coral Sea.
  • Reef Experience on the Great Barrier Reef 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.reefexperience.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Great Barrier Reef is the largest reef formation on the planet and in it you can find the greatest variety of coral reefs.
  • Australia trips - Great Barrier Reef Queensland tourist info holidays 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australia-trips.info [Source type: General]

^ What you can do to look after the great barrier reef .
  • Sunlover Reef Cruises | Great Barrier Reef Cruises | Ocean Hotels 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.qldtravel.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is home to a spectacular array of marine life and offers awesome diving opportunities.^ The Barrier Reef is home to spectacular marine life and bird populations.
  • Queensland Great Barrier Reef holidays 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.austtravel.com.au [Source type: General]

^ The Great Barrier Reef is home to an awesome array of sea life.
  • Great Barrier Reef Visitor Information, Reef Tours & Sightseeing, Travel Information & Attractions By Travel Online 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.greatbarriereef.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ACTIVITIES: -Snorkel or dive among the Great Barrier Reef's spectacular coral gardens and diverse marine life as you moor at this 3 level Great Barrier Reef outer reef Pontoon with a day full of activities.

Get in

By day trip reef boat

.Day trips to the reef run from most of the length of the Queensland Coast.^ Day trips to the reef are also available.
  • Great Barrier Reef Gladstone Travel Guide - Flight Centre 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.flightcentre.com.au [Source type: News]
  • Great Barrier Reef Gladstone Information - Maps, photos and things to do 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.pleasetakemeto.com [Source type: General]

^ Trips are usually 5 days in length and include the Ribbon reefs as well.
  • Cairns Great Barrier Reef - Cairns Attractions The Cairns Region Guide 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsattractions.com.au [Source type: General]

^ A trip to these reefs is usually around 4 to 5 days in length.
  • Cairns Great Barrier Reef - Cairns Attractions The Cairns Region Guide 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsattractions.com.au [Source type: General]

.Generally speaking, the further north you leave from, the shorter the trip to the reef, as it approaches the coast near Cape Tribulation.^ Spanning more than 1,243 miles (2,000 km) along the north-eastern coast of Australia, the Great Barrier Reef is the largest coral reef in the world.
  • Great Barrier Reef | Picutre | Seven Natural Wonders of the World | Information | Australia | Coral 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.kidzworld.com [Source type: General]

^ It begins near Papua New Guinea in the north, and continues south along the Queensland coast to Bundaberg (just north of Brisbane).

^ The Reef is closer to the coast in northern Queensland - as near as nine miles from Port Douglas and Cairns - while at its southern end it is nearly 100 miles away.
  • The Great Barrier Reef - Australia - Goway Travel 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.goway.com [Source type: News]

.The general trip plan for the major operators provides for a early morning departure, Tie up a few hours later off a pontoon or cay where they have purchased rights, usually lunch is available (or included) and a late afternoon return to port.^ This is monsoon season, and rain is typical in the early mornings and late afternoons.
  • Summer Camp Scorecard » Blog Archive » Australia’s Great Barrier Reef Is a Trip to Remember 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.summercampscorecard.com [Source type: General]

^ Tea is provided to warm up after the first dive, and lunch is included.
  • The Great Barrier Reef and Beyond - New York Times 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC travel.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Pontoon trips operate offshore from Cairns, Port Douglas and the Whitsundays...
  • Great Barrier Reef Info.com - Great Barrier Reef Accommodation, Activities & Info 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.greatbarrierreefinfo.com [Source type: General]

.They always return to one or two specific locations, and it is not unusual for several boats to be within a few hundred metres of each other.^ Why not go to Fraser Island for two days or head to Noosa for a few days The Island is a popular Scuba diving and snorkelling location due to its interesting dive sites .
  • Brisbane and Great Barrier Reef for Five Nights in Frommers.com Australia Forums 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

^ Cruise to a tropical island, sail to a secluded sand cay, fly or cruise to a Reef pontoon, or escape on one of the several day boats that visit spectacular reef locations.
  • Great Barrier Reef - Reeftrip.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC reeftrip.com [Source type: General]

^ Other amenities may include a festive evening luau once the boat returns to shore or the opportunity to purchase a personalized video of one's snorkeling experiences.
  • Hawaii Snorkeling Packages Article 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.christianet.com [Source type: Original source]

.These types of trips are offered (at least) from the mainland coastal towns out of Cape Tribulation, Port Douglas, Cairns, Townsville, Airlie Beach (Shute Harbour), Mackay, Gladstone, and 1770 (from north to south).^ Port Douglas, Queensland - a 1 hour drive north of Cairns.
  • Snorkelling On The Great Barrier Reef, Port Douglas, Queensland - RedBalloon Days - Australia 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.redballoondays.com.au [Source type: General]

^ This vessel operates from Port Douglas but offers transfers from Cairns as well.
  • Port Douglas Reef Charters - Small Group Snorkel Tours of the Great Barrier Reef from Port Douglas Australia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.portdouglasreefcharters.com [Source type: General]

^ Cairns is an hour south of Port Douglas.
  • Summer Camp Scorecard » Blog Archive » Australia’s Great Barrier Reef Is a Trip to Remember 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.summercampscorecard.com [Source type: General]

.Check destination guides for more information, as not all trips run every day from every town.^ Big Cat is a family run company that is completely carbon-neutral, which means they pay to offset all your trip’s carbon emissions.
  • Best Great Barrier Reef Trips - Travel Guide by Laurie Pritchard - Ruba.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.ruba.com [Source type: General]

^ Guided snorkelling tours Tropical Buffet lunch, tea, coffee & chilled water available all day.
  • Day Trip To Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australearn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ You could dive on the world's largest marine park every day for the rest of your life and still not see it all.
  • Great Barrier Reef Luxury Yacht Charters - Sailing a Charter Boat Great Barrier Reef Australia - Yacht Cruising 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.marcrista.com.au [Source type: General]
  • Dive Global Destination :: Australia - Great Barrier Reef / Coral Sea 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.diveglobal.com [Source type: General]

Charter or independent boat

.It is possible to hire a yacht or launch, or to do an independent charter.^ It is also possible to hire a yacht with a captain, and crew if needed.
  • The Great Barrier Reef | Open Travel Info 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.opentravelinfo.com [Source type: General]

.The seas inland from the reef tend to be calm.^ Sweetpeeps wrote 1 day ago : Bordered by the Great Barrier Reef in the calm waters of the Coral Sea, the 74 tropical islands of t … more → .
  • Great Barrier Reef — Blogs, Pictures, and more on WordPress 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC en.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ The reef acts as a barrier to the sea and reduces ocean swells so that the seas within the reef are quite calm making for comfortable cruising and the best scuba diving Australia can offer.
  • Diving Australia - GREAT BARRIER REEF DIVING - Barrier Reef Information 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.whitsunday-island.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is possible to hire a boat as a group with no boat licence.^ Skipper yourself-Cruisers, Yachts-NO Licence reqd – Fraser Island ESCAPE Bareboat Charters offers luxury bare boat, yacht,...
  • Great Barrier Reef Holiday Accommodation Resorts & Apartments 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.totaltravel.com.au [Source type: General]

Lady Elliot Island
Lady Elliot Island
.There are many islands scattered off the Queensland Coast in several different island groups.^ Hinchinbrook is the largest island off the Queensland Coast.
  • The Great Barrier Reef | Open Travel Info 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.opentravelinfo.com [Source type: General]

^ The reef stretches most of the length of the tropical northeastern state of Queensland, from Lady Elliot Island off Bundaberg to just south of Papua New Guinea.
  • Great Barrier Reef Beach Travel Guide | Away.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC vacation.away.com [Source type: General]

^ This exclusive island getaway has fewer rooms than many of the resorts at the nearby Whitsunday Group of Islands, and is a great place to unwind and relax.
  • Cairns Tourist Accommodation & Tour Information Centre 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC barrier-reef-holidays.com [Source type: General]

.Many cater for day trips, overnight stays, or both, offering widely varying standards of facilities accommodation.^ You can do a day trip or stay a while .
  • The Great Barrier Reef | Open Travel Info 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.opentravelinfo.com [Source type: General]

^ We choose 2 days trip to the reef, with overnight stay on the ship.
  • Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.ozshots.com [Source type: General]

^ You can arrive on a day trip, or stay for as many days as you please.
  • Great Barrier Reef, Queensland Australia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.holidayoz.com.au [Source type: General]

.Not all islands off the coast are on the reef.^ Fringe reef : This reef is seen off the coast of islands and alongside the mainland.

^ The Great Barrier Reef, off the east coast of Australia is the only living organic collective on earth visible from outer space.
  • Scuba Diving In The Great Barrier Reef - Australia | StudyinAustralia.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.studyinaustralia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reef, which is treasured as the world's largest living organism, stretches for 133,000 square miles off Australia's northeast coast.
  • 'Lucky Escape' for Great Barrier Reef : Discovery News 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC dsc.discovery.com [Source type: General]

.Some are continental islands, some coral cays.^ Several continental and coral cay islands have been turned into resorts.

^ The Great Barrier Reef is scattered with beautiful islands and pristine coral cay's and covers more than 300,000 square kilometres.
  • Great Barrier Reef Facts- Snorkeling the Outer Barrier Reef with Wavelength, Port Douglas Australia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.wavelength-reef.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rain forests and mountains are predominant in the northern islands, while the southern islands are composed mainly of Coral Cay.
  • 7 wonders of the Natural world - The great barrier reef Australia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.7wonders.info [Source type: General]

.Some of the continental islands have coral gardens off the beach, others do not.^ Also, several continental and coral islands have been turned into attractive resorts for example the pristine resort island of Lady Elliot Island.

^ Some reefs have islands of sharp sand from the coral, or cays (also spelled keyes) which are long sandy islands, while other run like a garland along the coast of the mainland.
  • Great Barrier Reef: Victim of Global Warming | Scienceray 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC scienceray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apart from a walk along the walking tracks of the pristine rainforest, visitors can enjoy the spectacular fringing corals and other marine life surrounding these islands.

.Some islands are teaming with marine life, and others have little.^ Enjoy the rare opportunity for a close up look at sea cucumbers, colourful starfish and other marine life living on this part of the reef.
  • Captain Cook Cruises - Great Barrier Reef Cruise - 7 Nights 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.captaincook.com.au [Source type: General]

^ Apart from a walk along the walking tracks of the pristine rainforest, visitors can enjoy the spectacular fringing corals and other marine life surrounding these islands.

^ The reef contains an abundance of marine life and comprises of over 3000 individual reef systems and coral cays and literally hundreds of picturesque tropical islands with some of the worlds most beautiful sun-soaked, golden beaches.
  • The Great Barrier Reef - a world heritage listed, natural inspiration 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC greatbarrierreef.org [Source type: General]

.Check the specific destination guides, to see if the island you are thinking of visiting is a snorkeller's paradise, or just a nice place to pull up a deckchair and relax.^ See our guide to Lizard Island .
  • CNTraveller.com's guide to where to stay in Great Barrier Reef (Condé Nast Traveller) 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cntraveller.com [Source type: General]

^ Snorkel or just relax on the beach… .
  • Cairns Reef Tours: Great Barrier Reef, Snorkelling & Island Cruises in Tropical North Queensland 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.thetourspecialists.com [Source type: General]

^ In just 35 minutes you have arrived and are free to relax and discover an unpretentious island and an underwater world of brilliantly coloured species of marine life, by snorkelling, scuba diving or viewing through our glass bottom boat.

.The islands that are not on the reef, generally run some sort of day trip by boat to the reef.^ Island/reef Day trips .

^ Day trips to the reef are also available.
  • Great Barrier Reef Gladstone Information - Maps, photos and things to do 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.pleasetakemeto.com [Source type: General]

^ Great Barrier Reef day trip » .

.Some of these trips, especially those in the Whitsundays, can pick up from the mainland prior to picking up from one or two islands, servicing daytrippers from the islands to the coast, coast to islands, and coast and islands to the reef.^ Island/reef Day trips .

^ "He might have one or two reefs somewhere.
  • Great Barrier Reef // Current 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC current.com [Source type: News]

^ You can also explore the Reef from the Whitsundays Islands.
  • Australia trips - Great Barrier Reef Queensland tourist info holidays 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australia-trips.info [Source type: General]

.In these cases, prices are usually similar to what you would pay from the coast.^ Visitors to the reef are liable to pay their percentage of the charge but it is usually included in the price of the reef trip or dive tour.
  • Cairns Attractions - Visitor Information � Highlights, Activities, Destinations, Accommodation, Maps, all about Travel and Tourism in Cairns, Australia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC tools.cairns.com.au [Source type: News]

^ We were referred to one website that consolidated all these airline tickets and gave you a great price and schedule comparison called WebJet ...
  • Australia - Cairns (Great Barrier Reef) - on the Go with Bo! 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.gowithbo.info [Source type: General]

^ For instance, if you would like to see your results listed from the lowest price to the highest price, click on the underlined column header titled "From Price".
  • Sydney to The Great Barrier Reef 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.all-travel.com [Source type: General]

.However, there are some islands (typically the premium ones) that offer their own trips, and these can cost considerably more.^ There are more resort islands than the above, of course, but these are the main ones.
  • Great Barrier Reef, Queensland Australia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.holidayoz.com.au [Source type: General]

^ Each boat has its own pontoon and there are even glass-bottomed boats for the ones who don’t want to get into the water.
  • Australia trips - Great Barrier Reef Queensland tourist info holidays 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australia-trips.info [Source type: General]

^ Although most of these visits are highly regulated, there are some very popular areas near shore, like Green Island that have suffered damage from tourist activity.
  • Great Barrier Reef, Attractions of Australia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.magicaljourneys.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  • Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.^ Notes The first thing we noticed about diving on the Great Barrier Reef was how cold the water was!
    • Dive 112 : Briggs Reef, Great Barrier Reef, Australia 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.gagme.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Great Barrier Reef Pontoon Tours .
    • Helicopter Tours & Expeditions in Great Barrier Reef - FNQ Travel Pty Ltd 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC active.fnqtravel.com.au [Source type: General]
    • Tours in Great Barrier Reef - FNQ Travel Pty Ltd 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC active.fnqtravel.com.au [Source type: General]

    ^ The Great Barrier Reef is also the habitat of several endangered species including the large Green Sea Turtle and Dugong (Sea Cow).
    • Great Barrier Reef, Queensland Australia. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.auinfo.com [Source type: General]

    There are many places to depart from to get to the reef.
.Cairns is considered the gateway to the reef but boats also leave from Cooktown, Port Douglas, Mission Beach, Townsville & Yeppoon.^ Cairns is an hour south of Port Douglas.
  • Summer Camp Scorecard » Blog Archive » Australia’s Great Barrier Reef Is a Trip to Remember 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.summercampscorecard.com [Source type: General]

^ Day trips to the reef : Day trips to the Reef are organized from Port Douglas and Cairns.

^ Thala Beach Resort :  north of Cairns, on the way to Port Douglas .
  • Australia - Cairns (Great Barrier Reef) - on the Go with Bo! 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.gowithbo.info [Source type: General]

.
  • Pumpkin Island Eco Retreat (Pumpkin Island), Yeppoon, Keppel Bay Islands (Situated between Great Keppel & North Keppel Islands), +61 7 4939-4413, [1].^ Great Keppel Island, for a tropical island experience .
    • Exotic getaways|Great Barrier Reef-Australia's exotic vacation islands 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.exotic-australia.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Middle Percy, the largest of the three islands in the group, is a favorite stop for cruising yachtsmen en route between the tropical north and southern seas.

    ^ Forming the border between the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal, Indias Andaman Islands offer a rare glimpse of islands and reefs in their natural state.
    • SY Siren Andaman Islands Liveaboards Andaman Islands 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC reefrainforest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    8AM - 18PM. .Pumpkin Island off the Capricorn Coast near Yeppoon is a sparkling jewel nestled within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.^ Tell a friend about Hamilton Island - the Great Barrier Reef .
    • Hidden Travel Gems: Hamilton Island - the Great Barrier Reef 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.hidden-travel-gems.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
    • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Major Airports near Great Barrier Reef .
    • Great Barrier Reef Beach Travel Guide | Away.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC vacation.away.com [Source type: General]
    • Great Barrier Reef Travel Guide | Away.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC vacation.away.com [Source type: General]

    .Here you will find just five very stylish, eco-friendly self-catering cottages powered by wind and sun, overlooking a crystalline beach.^ It’s a very unusual experience trying to dance underwater in a helmet, as all you hear is bubbles, No music and your self counting out the moves in a 4/4 count just hoping that every one around you are in time.
    • Great Barrier Reef | New Horizon Sail & Dive 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC blog.reefcharter.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Here you can swim straight off the beach into a World Heritage Listed area where no...
    • Great Barrier Reef Islands Hotels | Hotels in Great Barrier Reef Islands 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.dialaflight.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It's such a vast area that you can find your own space to investigate and spend weeks just poking around a variety of dives.
    • Great Barrier Reef, Great Barrier Reef, Australia | World Reviewer 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.worldreviewer.com [Source type: General]

    .Each accommodates between four and eight guests (with a maximum of 30) and is fully self-contained, very contemporary in flair and nicely separate from each other. $300.
    ^ Tourist pontoons in the Great Barrier Reef are fully self-contained and permanently anchored which means they are not causing anchor damage.
    • Great Barrier Reef, Australia Vacations and Luxury Travel Packages 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.travelwizard.com [Source type: News]

    ^ A maximum of just 32 guests are accommodated in 16 secluded Villas, each hidden in the rainforest, only minutes from the beach...
    • Great Barrier Reef Info.com - Great Barrier Reef Accommodation, Activities & Info 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.greatbarrierreefinfo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Air temperatures vary between an average maximum of approximately 30°C in January and 23°C in July and an average minimum of approximately 24°C in January and 18°C in July.
    • Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, Australia - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]

    .(-23.091612,150.902367) edit
  • Cruise Whitsundays [2] offers a reef trip at Queensland's a reef pontoon located at Knuckle Reef.^ Experience Queensland's most innovative and spacious reef pontoon located at Knuckle Reef.
    • Great Barrier Reef Adventures Whitsunday Islands - Cruise Whitsundays 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cruisewhitsundays.com [Source type: General]
    • Whitehaven beach - Attractions - Coral Sea Resort - Luxury Airlie Beach North Queensland Resort Accommodation Great Barrier Reef Australia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.coralsearesort.com [Source type: General]
    • Great Barrier Reef Day Tour Whitsundays 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC sailing-whitsundays.com [Source type: General]
    • Great Barrier Reef Day Tour Whitsundays 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC sailing-whitsundays.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Next page - Knuckle Reef Pontoon .
    • Great Barrier Reef Adventures Whitsunday Islands - Cruise Whitsundays 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cruisewhitsundays.com [Source type: General]

    ^ A glass-bottomed boat on the Great Barrier Reef A variety of boat tours and cruises are offered, from single day trips, to longer voyages.

    .Knuckle Reef Pontoon features an underwater viewing chamber and a giant waterslide.^ Knuckle Reef Pontoon features Queensland's largest and most spectacular underwater viewing chamber and is the only reef pontoon in Australia with a giant waterslide.

    ^ KNUCKLE REEF LAGOON Knuckle Reef Lagoon is an underwater paradise.

    ^ Knuckle Reef Pontoon features Queensland's largest and most spectacular underwater viewing chamber and a giant waterslide.
    • Great Barrier Reef Adventures Whitsunday Islands - Cruise Whitsundays 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cruisewhitsundays.com [Source type: General]

    offers a reef trip at .Queensland's a reef pontoon located at Knuckle Reef.^ Experience Queensland's most innovative and spacious reef pontoon located at Knuckle Reef.
    • Great Barrier Reef Adventures Whitsunday Islands - Cruise Whitsundays 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cruisewhitsundays.com [Source type: General]
    • Whitehaven beach - Attractions - Coral Sea Resort - Luxury Airlie Beach North Queensland Resort Accommodation Great Barrier Reef Australia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.coralsearesort.com [Source type: General]
    • Great Barrier Reef Day Tour Whitsundays 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC sailing-whitsundays.com [Source type: General]
    • Great Barrier Reef Day Tour Whitsundays 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC sailing-whitsundays.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Next page - Knuckle Reef Pontoon .
    • Great Barrier Reef Adventures Whitsunday Islands - Cruise Whitsundays 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cruisewhitsundays.com [Source type: General]

    ^ About the location Stretching for 2,600 kilometres, and composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands, the Great Barrier Reef in Queensland, Australia is the world’s largest coral reef system.
    • Island Caretaker Great Barrier Reef Job Description 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: General]

    .Knuckle Reef Pontoon features an underwater viewing chamber and a giant waterslide.
  • Great Barrier Reef Liveaboards [3].^ What you can do to look after the great barrier reef .
    • Sunlover Reef Cruises | Great Barrier Reef Cruises | Ocean Hotels 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.qldtravel.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
    • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The mid-shelf reefs of the Great Barrier Reef .
    • The Geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef - Cambridge University Press 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Large range of Great Barrier Reef liveaboards and Coral Sea dive trips.^ What you can do to look after the great barrier reef .
    • Sunlover Reef Cruises | Great Barrier Reef Cruises | Ocean Hotels 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.qldtravel.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
    • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Coral reef starfish and clams in Great Barrier Reef .
    • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

    .Great Barrier Reef trips from Whitsunday Islands can be found here.
  • Passions Of Paradise: From Cairns to the Great Barrier Reef on a 25 metre custom designed sailing catamaran.^ What you can do to look after the great barrier reef .
    • Sunlover Reef Cruises | Great Barrier Reef Cruises | Ocean Hotels 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.qldtravel.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
    • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Boats Catamarans and ferry boats shuttle between the Great Barrier Reef’s assorted islands.
    • Printable Queensland & Great Barrier Reef guide 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.mrandmrssmith.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Depart daily to beautiful Michaelmas Cay and Paradise Reef, giving you the choice of two destinations where you can sunbathe, snorkel, scuba dive, glass bottom boat ride or simply sail.^ It offers a number of attractions including diving and a glass bottom boat.
    • The Great Barrier Reef | Open Travel Info 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.opentravelinfo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Swim, snorkel, dive, sail, kayak or enjoy the views from the safety of your glass bottom boat.
    • Cairns Hotels, Travel, Tours, Great Barrier Reef, Activities, Accommodation - Everything Cairns 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.everythingcairns.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Snorkelling and diving on the Reef .
    • The Great Barrier Reef | Open Travel Info 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.opentravelinfo.com [Source type: General]

    .The trip is suitable for all ages.^ From here there is a glass bottom boat trip that people of all ages enjoy.
    • Cairns Today - Great Barrier Reef - Barrier Reef Day Tours 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairns.aust.com [Source type: General]

    ^ REEF PONTOON TRIPS: A pontoon trip is ideal for people of all ages with many activities onboard to maximize your experience both above and below the water.
    • Great Barrier Reef Info.com - Great Barrier Reef Accommodation, Activities & Info 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.greatbarrierreefinfo.com [Source type: General]

    [5] or +61 .7 4041-1600 , for free in Australia : 1800 111 346
  • New Horizon Sail and Dive [6] PO Box 5957, Cairns, Qld 4870, +61-7-4055-6130 (, fax: +61-7-4055-6315).^ Select your destination city from drop-down menu (for example choose " Cairns, QLD, Australia " as your destination city).
    • Great Barrier Reef Holidays with Australian Discount Travel & Tours. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.knowhowtravel.com.au [Source type: General]

    ^ TUSA Dive have access to more than 15 sites on the outer reefs from Cairns, and visit 2 new sites daily, selected as the optimum sites for the days conditions...
    • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Pro Dive Cairns News .
    • Great Barrier Reef Diving FAQ - Pro Dive Cairns - Diver Training Australia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.prodivecairns.com [Source type: General]

    .New Horizon Sail and Dive operates two classic sailing boats, Santa Maria and Coral Sea Dreaming, to the outer Great Barrier Reef.^ What you can do to look after the great barrier reef .
    • Sunlover Reef Cruises | Great Barrier Reef Cruises | Ocean Hotels 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.qldtravel.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
    • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Coral reef starfish and clams in Great Barrier Reef .
    • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

    .They allow you to experience the reef in a smaller more intimate affair with a maximum of ten (10) passengers on each trip. The tours are priced from $380 per person for a two day liveaboard and from $540 for a three day liveaboard, all equipment included..
  • Sunsea Cruises Great Barrier Reef Trip [7] Breakwater Terminal, Sir Leslie Thiess Drive, Townsville, QLD 4810, +61-7-4771-3855 (, fax: +61-7-4771-3955).^ What you can do to look after the great barrier reef .
    • Sunlover Reef Cruises | Great Barrier Reef Cruises | Ocean Hotels 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.qldtravel.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
    • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Reef in the Great Barrier Reef is classified into three types: .

    Sunsea Cruises day trip includes morning and afternoon tea, tropical buffet lunch, unlimited snorkeling with equipment, marine biology presentation and glass bottom boat tours. Adults $139 per person..
Wheeler Reef coral
Wheeler Reef coral
.The Great Barrier Reef is a famed diving destination, although divers with experience of the tropics find parts of it overused and damaged.^ What you can do to look after the great barrier reef .
  • Sunlover Reef Cruises | Great Barrier Reef Cruises | Ocean Hotels 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.qldtravel.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ A large part of the reef is protected by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.
  • Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Queensland, Australia at Australia Adventures 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiaadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most travellers learn to dive in Townsville, Cairns or Port Douglas: all have a very competitive dive industry.^ It can be reached by boat from Cairns or Port Douglas.
  • Great Barrier Reef, Queensland Australia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.holidayoz.com.au [Source type: General]

^ More products in category : Travel tours › Oceania › Australia › Queensland › Cairns and Port Douglas .
  • Great Barrier Reef Scenic Flight - Tour from Cairns in Australia - Book Online at Isango 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.isango.com [Source type: General]

^ Airlie Beach, Townsville and Cairns are three of the most popular learning locations, with enough operators to ensure competitive rates.
  • The Great Barrier Reef | Open Travel Info 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.opentravelinfo.com [Source type: General]

.Most students prefer to do a two day pool and classroom course, followed by a two or three day liveaboard visiting the reef to the east of Cairns.^ The reef is sometimes characterized as having three major sections: Far Northern, Cairns/Central , and Mackay/Capricorn (farthest south).
  • Howstuffworks "How the Great Barrier Reef Works" 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC adventure.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reef is of course not one big reef, but made up of about 2900 separate reefs and Cairns is the main gateway to a bewildering amount of reef tours.
  • Great Barrier Reef « Flemming Bo Jensen Photography blog 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC flemmingbo.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cruise to a tropical island, sail to a secluded sand cay, fly or cruise to a Reef pontoon, or escape on one of the several day boats that visit spectacular reef locations.

.It's possible to learn with some of the operators that travel to the Coral Sea, but check first about the difficulty of their dive sites.^ Liveaboard dive trip to the Great Barrier Reef - Great Barrier Reef, Australia Dive with the giant Potato Cod at the Cod Hole, feed the sharks in the crystal clear waters of Osprey Reef in the Coral Sea, and visit some truly amazing sites up and down the Ribbons Reefs .
  • Great Barrier Reef honeymoon packages - Great Barrier Reef, Australia travel specials 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.thebigday.com [Source type: General]

^ The coral on the reef dates back to around 18 million years old, and is thought to be about 500 metres in some places.

^ Both mad about tropical fish and super excited at the possibility of seeing them in a coral wonderland for the first time we sampled...
  • Great Barrier Reef Vacations, Tourism and Great Barrier Reef, Australia Travel Reviews - TripAdvisor 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Land based learn to dive courses cost about $500, dive courses including a liveaboard start at about $700.
.Some day trips to the reef are available from Cairns and Port Douglas diving operators.^ Island/reef Day trips .

^ Day trips to the reef : Day trips to the Reef are organized from Port Douglas and Cairns.

^ Day Trips operate from Cairns and Port Douglas with transfers available from Palm Cove and surrounds.
  • Great Barrier Reef Tours & Activities - Snorkeling, Diving, Cruising, Sightseeing, Cruises 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.great-barrier-reef.com [Source type: General]

.These trips involve about 2 hours boat travel in each direction and will cost $170-$200. Most operators do three day liveaboards to the reefs east of Cairns, starting about about $500 for 3 days diving and 2 nights on the boat, meals included.^ Island/reef Day trips .

^ Day trips to the reef : Day trips to the Reef are organized from Port Douglas and Cairns.

^ This is why night diving on the reef is so spectacular.
  • Tourism Port Douglas | The Great Barrier Reef Tours | Port Douglas Queensland Australia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.tourismportdouglas.com.au [Source type: General]
  • Everyone must see the Great Barrier Reef Whitsundays 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.bushvillage.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Snorkelers can travel on these trips for reduced prices, but check first about the suitability of their sites for snorkeling.^ Be the first to write a trip report about the Capricorn (south) region of the Great Barrier Reef .

^ We headed immediately to the snorkel area and were surprisingly the first ones to get our equipment (included in the tour price).
  • Great Barrier Reef | Lady Elliot Island | Green Island | Michaelmas Cay 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.micktravels.com [Source type: General]

^ These sites are rarely visited by other vessels, so divers and snorkellers get the exclusive opportunity to view magnificent corals and fish life without the crowds.
  • Great Barrier Reef Diving FAQ - Pro Dive Cairns - Diver Training Australia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.prodivecairns.com [Source type: General]

.Serious divers generally prefer the five or seven day liveaboards visiting the Coral Sea to the north.^ Further north are around 300 Cays, which are created when the reef lies above sea level causing the waves to ground the coral into sand.

^ Kangaroo Island should definitely be visited by any serious scuba diver, as the myriad species of fish has to be seen to be believed.
  • Diving Australia - SCUBA Dive the Great Barrier Reef, Cairns. Diving Liveaboard Trips - Australia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC diving-australia.org [Source type: News]

^ Despite the fact that the Coral Sea is not a part of the Reef’s Marine Park, there are some live-aboard tours that visit the Coral Sea, the Ribbon Reefs and Cod Hole (around 7 days).
  • Australia trips - Great Barrier Reef Queensland tourist info holidays 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australia-trips.info [Source type: General]

.Most boat trips, particularly liveaboards, may be up to 40% cheaper if booked at the last possible moment on standby rates.^ Regards Bob & Claire, Queensland Kimberley Cruise, May 2008 My wife and I have just completed a most memorable and enjoyable trip on the Oceanic Discoverer.
  • Coral Princess Cruises - Cairns, Great Barrier Reef, Cape York, Arnhem Land And The Kimberley Expedition Cruises 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.coralprincess.com.au [Source type: General]

^ Save up to 40 per cent and have your ski equipment ready on arrival by booking in advance at Skiset.
  • Great Barrier Reef 'will die' unless carbon emissions slashed - Telegraph 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ However, due to the unpredictability of winds, we may arrive at the Town of 1770, and be told by the boat company that the trip has been cancelled.
  • Australian Sunset Safaris - Fraser Island Great Barrier Reef 5-Day Package in Brisbane, Australia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.hostelworld.com [Source type: General]

.A certain amount of risk is involved in doing this: you must arrive at the destination hoping that a booking will become available, you need to be able to be somewhat flexible about your date of departure, and you may not be able to travel with your first choice operator.^ Check Availability Enter your travel dates (optional): Arriving Departure Guests 1 .
  • http://www.lhw.com/property.aspx?id=23 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.lhw.com [Source type: General]
  • http://www.lhw.com/property.aspx?id=23&tcscode=L08 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.lhw.com [Source type: General]

^ Check Availability Enter your travel dates: Arriving Departure Guests 1 .
  • http://www.lhw.com/property.aspx?id=23 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.lhw.com [Source type: General]
  • http://www.lhw.com/property.aspx?id=23&tcscode=L08 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.lhw.com [Source type: General]

^ Discover all you need to know about South Africa and enter our competiton to win a trip to the western Cape.
  • Great Barrier Reef 'will die' unless carbon emissions slashed - Telegraph 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

.However, most divers report that they are able to find at least one standby trip when they try this.^ Q. If a friend/partner is a certified diver or non-diver, can they come on the same trip with me whilst I'm on the course?
  • Great Barrier Reef Diving FAQ - Pro Dive Cairns - Diver Training Australia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.prodivecairns.com [Source type: General]

^ One of the most popular live-aboard trips on the Great Barrier Reef is the combination visit to the Ribbon Reefs and Osprey Reef.
  • Underwater Australia - Great Barrier Reef - Neville Coleman : Neville Coleman 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.nevillecoleman.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ None of the dives seem to be similar and even the most hardened diver will find total underwater joy.
  • great barrier reef Holiday Travel options - great barrier reef Brochures Delivered Free - Free Travel Brochures Australia 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.travelbrochures.com.au [Source type: General]

.Dive travel agents may also be able to advise you.^ During this course you will learn all the necessary skills and gain the confidence to handle many situations that may occur while diving.
  • Cairns Reef Tours: Great Barrier Reef, Snorkelling & Island Cruises in Tropical North Queensland 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.thetourspecialists.com [Source type: General]

^ There is plenty of time throughout the whole trip to snorkel and socialise with a non-diver if you are travelling with someone who doesn't dive/snorkel.
  • Great Barrier Reef Diving FAQ - Pro Dive Cairns - Diver Training Australia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.prodivecairns.com [Source type: General]

^ You may even dive with Manta Rays and giant turtles.
  • Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia Dive Locations 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.divefishsnow.co.nz [Source type: General]

.Some of the islands have a fringing reef, and it is possible to dive or snorkel from shore.^ For an island alternative to the Great Barrier Reef that still allows snorkelling and diving on ocean reefs - experience Fiji holidays - full of beach fun and relaxation.
  • Great Barrier Reef, Great Barrier Reef in Australia, Australia's Great Barrier Reef, Australia Tourist Attractions 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.worldtravel4indians.com [Source type: News]

^ Why not go to Fraser Island for two days or head to Noosa for a few days The Island is a popular Scuba diving and snorkelling location due to its interesting dive sites .
  • Brisbane and Great Barrier Reef for Five Nights in Frommers.com Australia Forums 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

^ You can experience one the of the “7” wonders of the world with a Day Trip to one of the pontoons with underwater viewing platforms with optional Diving and Snorkelling or you can experience the reef and islands on a Sailing and Diving charter boat, “highly recommended”.
  • Great Barrier Reef Information 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.whitsundaybb.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The southern part of the reef off Townsville is known mostly for the wreck of the Yongala, visited on both liveaboards and day trip operators from Townsville, Ayr and Magnetic Island.^ Magnetic Island is off the coast of Townsville and accessible by ferry boat.

^ Island/reef Day trips .

^ Great Barrier Reef day trip » .

.The Yongala sank in 1911 in about 30 metres (100 feet) of water.^ Visibility is about 30 metres.
  • The Great Barrier Reef : Scuba Diving Sites : Divetime.com 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.divetime.com [Source type: General]

^ The water must be salty, clear and not lower in temperature than 17.5 degrees and lower in depth than 30 metres.

^ There are also about 30 species of whales, dolphins and porpoises that visit or live in reef waters.
  • The Great Barrier Reef: Will It Still Be Great Next Century? by Louise Goggin : Articles : Terrain.org 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.terrain.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the bottom is otherwise featureless in this area, it is a haven for fish and coral.^ The reef provides a habitat for over 1,500 species of fish and 400 species of coral, while buffering coastal areas from storm damage and erosion.
  • Ocean acidification is killing the Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC news.mongabay.com [Source type: General]

^ View the coral reef and prolific tropical fish from the semi-submarine and glass bottom boat - get acquainted with clams, reef sharks and anemones!
  • 5 Night Packages | Cairns & the Great Barrier Reef at the Colonial Club Resort 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.hsptravel.com.au [Source type: General]

^ Join our Marine Biologist for a glass bottom boat tour over the colourful coral gardens before gathering on the snorkel deck to participate in a fish feed.

.However, as the site is unprotected many trips have to be cancelled if weather conditions are not favourable.^ All dive and snorkel trips are subject to availability and weather conditions.
  • Hayman :: Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.hayman.com.au [Source type: General]

.
  • Seafood at the Great Barrier Reef islands and nearby coastal areas are delicious.^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
    • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Star Great Barrier Reef Islands hotels...
    • Great Barrier Reef Islands Hotels | Hotels in Great Barrier Reef Islands 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.dialaflight.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Great Barrier Reef Click to enlarge > > .
    • Great Barrier Reef @ nationalgeographic.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC ngm.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .There are restricted fishing areas, although it would be better if you go a restaurant.^ If you get the chance to go to outer space, look out for The Great Barrier Reef as you can see it from there.
    • Tourism Port Douglas | The Great Barrier Reef Tours | Port Douglas Queensland Australia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.tourismportdouglas.com.au [Source type: General]

    ^ "How are you going to tell them to stop fishing with dynamite?"
    • Last best places: Great barrier reef | StarTribune.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.startribune.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Don't book with others who are going to wave you off at the airport, book with a team that's going to be there enjoying your Japanese holiday experience with you!
    • great barrier reef Holiday Travel options - great barrier reef Brochures Delivered Free - Free Travel Brochures Australia 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.travelbrochures.com.au [Source type: General]

    Reef fish are also available in fish and chip shops.

Drink

.Reef day trips sell alcohol on board.^ Island/reef Day trips .

^ Great Barrier Reef day trip » .

^ A glass-bottomed boat on the Great Barrier Reef A variety of boat tours and cruises are offered, from single day trips, to longer voyages.

.Reef islands nearly always have at least one bar, usually much at the centre of island life.^ Cruise to a tropical island, sail to a secluded sand cay, fly or cruise to a Reef pontoon, or escape on one of the several day boats that visit spectacular reef locations.

^ It’s a really new role I’ve taken on and hadn’t really done much before, bar at a wedding a few years ago, and one that becomes easier the more I do it.

^ As most of the action in Barrier Reef centred around the regular cast, guest parts were usually limited to one or two roles, with some episodes having no guest cast at all.

Some have innovative pool bars. .Some have a young party scene, others have cocktails by the pool, and others close early, targeting the demographic that prefers to wake early to see the dawn, rather seeing it through the haze of the night before.^ Hook isnt as much family orientated as some of the others but still nice to see.
  • The Great Barrier Reef | Open Travel Info 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.opentravelinfo.com [Source type: General]

Check the destination guides.

Stay safe

.There are marine threats on the reef, from Stonefish to Sharks, Sea Snakes to Jellyfish.^ Although surface sea temperatures are rising fastest in tropical regions the other big threat to coral reefs comes from the higher latitudes.
  • Great Barrier Reef will be gone in 20 years, says Charlie Veron - Times Online 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.timesonline.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Coral reefs are under threat globally from climate change warming the temperature of the sea and causing bleaching and the increasing CO2 in the ocean raising the acidity of the water.
  • Get Paid 100 Grand to See the Great Barrier Reef | EcoSalon 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.ecosalon.com [Source type: General]

^ Around 125 species of shark, stingray, skates or chimera live on the reef, [26] [27] including the irukandji jellyfish .
  • Dive Cairns Great Barrier Reef Australia Coral seven Natural wonder marine park 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.diveincairns.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many trips to the reef are made all year around, and injuries due to any of these causes on the reef are rare.^ A trip to these reefs is usually around 4 to 5 days in length.
  • Cairns Great Barrier Reef - Cairns Attractions The Cairns Region Guide 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsattractions.com.au [Source type: General]

^ From jellyfish to whales and a wide variety of fish, the reef supports such a diversity of life, including many rare, endangered species.
  • Color + Design Blog / Landmark Colors: The Great Barrier Reef by COLOURlovers 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.colourlovers.com [Source type: General]

^ Further north are around 300 Cays, which are created when the reef lies above sea level causing the waves to ground the coral into sand.

.Still, take advice from authorities, obey all signs, and pay close attention to safety warnings.^ In fact underwater filming was still taking place when all other filming of the series had been completed.

^ Then the authority closed 33 percent of the marine park to fishing of any kind, drawing up a checkerboard map of no-take areas that includes patches of all 70 zones.
  • Last best places: Great barrier reef | StarTribune.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.startribune.com [Source type: News]

^ Stay with a friend and pay attention to each other to make sure you are in contact, it is very easy to get separated while taking photos.
  • Great Barrier Reef Trips, Scuba Diving, Snorkeling and Sailing, Cairns, Australia. The smallest groups on the reef. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC blog.reefcharter.com [Source type: General]

.
  • Box jellyfish are occur near beaches and near river estuaries from October to April north of 1770.^ The box jellyfish is found in the coastal waters of North Queensland during summer months (October to March).
    • Tourism Port Douglas | The Great Barrier Reef Tours | Port Douglas Queensland Australia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.tourismportdouglas.com.au [Source type: General]

    ^ Wear protective footwear at all times During stinger or box jellyfish season, October to April, wear protective leg gear.
    • The Great Barrier Reef | Open Travel Info 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.opentravelinfo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Potentially deadly marine stingers (tropical Jellyfish) inhabit shallow tropical coastal waters, mainly from October through to April.
    • The Great Barrier Reef | Open Travel Info 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.opentravelinfo.com [Source type: General]

    They can occasionally be found outside these times. .They are usually not found in deep water or over coral, and most people snorkelling on the reef do so without stinger protection.^ Coral reefs are under threat globally from climate change warming the temperature of the sea and causing bleaching and the increasing CO2 in the ocean raising the acidity of the water.
    • Get Paid 100 Grand to See the Great Barrier Reef | EcoSalon 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.ecosalon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Coral skeleton deposits date back over half a million years have been found by the Reef Research Centre a cooperative Reseach Centre.
    • Great Barrier Reef - Reeftrip.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC reeftrip.com [Source type: General]

    ^ This section of the reef offers some of the most colourful coral gardens found anywhere along the length of the reef, allowing us to view many of the 400 different species of coral living in this World Heritage-listed wonderland.

    .However wearing a wetsuit (available on all the dive boats) will give you added buoyancy, and also some protection against stingers.^ A dive guide is available on some dives.
    • Great Barrier Reef Diving FAQ - Pro Dive Cairns - Diver Training Australia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.prodivecairns.com [Source type: General]

    ^ When snorkeling for long periods It is best to wear protective clothing as stingers, sunburn and wind chill effect must be considered.
    • Underwater Australia - Great Barrier Reef - Neville Coleman : Neville Coleman 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.nevillecoleman.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ You can fly then dive the same day, however not dive then fly.
    • Great Barrier Reef Diving FAQ - Pro Dive Cairns - Diver Training Australia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.prodivecairns.com [Source type: General]

    .They are very rare, but deadly.
  • Sharks are only smaller species which are no threat to divers or snorkellers.^ What we most commonly encounter are smaller species which pose no threat to divers or snorkellers.
    • Great Barrier Reef Diving FAQ - Pro Dive Cairns - Diver Training Australia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.prodivecairns.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Above the surface, the plant life of the cays is very restricted, consisting of only some 30 to 40 species.
    • Great Barrier Reef (reef, Australia) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sharks Sharks are a type of fish that have no bones, only cartilage.
    • Coral Reef Animal Printouts - EnchantedLearning.com 27 January 2010 23:58 UTC www.zoomschool.com [Source type: General]

    .The Great White Shark does not inhabit Far North Queensland.
  • Saltwater Crocodiles.^ The close proximity to the Reef and River Systems make Far North Queensland a fisherman's dream destination...
    • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Monday, November 17th, 2008 Satellite tracking has revealed that Great White Sharks travel large distances to unlikely places.

    ^ The shark that Australia is infamous for, the Great White Shark does not exist in Far North Queensland.
    • Great Barrier Reef Diving FAQ - Pro Dive Cairns - Diver Training Australia 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.prodivecairns.com [Source type: General]

    .Crocodiles do not actively live in the ocean, their primary habitat is in river estuaries north from Rockhampton They can use the ocean as a means of travel between river systems and islands.^ Middle Percy, the largest of the three islands in the group, is a favorite stop for cruising yachtsmen en route between the tropical north and southern seas.

    ^ Give the locals an income so they do not have to make a living that involves destroying the local habitats.
    • Conservationists urge Gordon Brown to create 'Britain's Great Barrier Reef' | Environment | guardian.co.uk 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ The close proximity to the Reef and River Systems make Far North Queensland a fisherman's dream destination...
    • Cairns Info.com - Tours | Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.cairnsinfo.com [Source type: General]

    It is very rare for them to enter the coral reef areas.
This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.GREAT BARRIER REEF, a vast coral reef extending for 1200 m.^ Australia, Queensland, great barrier reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Coral reef starfish and clams in Great Barrier Reef .
  • Great barrier reef Stock Photo Images. 485 Great barrier reef royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Why is the great barrier named the great barrier reef?
  • WikiAnswers - How did the great barrier reef get its name 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

along the north-east coast of Australia. .The channel within it is protected from heavy seas by the reef, and is a valuable route of communication for coasting steamers.^ The Great Barrier Reef is located in the Coral Sea, just off the northeast coast of the Australian state of Queensland.
  • Getting to the Great Barrier Reef | Australia Travel Guide 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.australiablog.com [Source type: News]

^ Undeniably the largest coral reef in the world, the Great Barrie Reef is situated in the Coral Sea which is off the coast of Queensland in north eastern Australia.
  • Snorkeling in Great Barrier Reef : getscubadiving.com 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC getscubadiving.com [Source type: General]

^ The report is also critical of Queensland’s poor contribution to Reef management, with its failure to police rising illegal fishing, protect sharks or protect islands and coasts from developers’ concrete.
  • ABC Carbon » Blog Archive » Spotlight on Great Barrier Reef 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC abccarbon.com [Source type: News]

.The reef itself is also traversed by a number of navigable passages.^ The hazards of navigation in the Great Barrier Reef resulted in the construction of a large number of lighthouses, some of which have particular historical importance.
  • Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, Australia - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]



Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Proper noun

Singular
Great Barrier Reef
Plural
-
  1. A massive system of coral reefs, found in the Coral Sea off the coast of Australia.

Simple English

The Great Barrier Reef*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
State Party
Type Natural
Criteria vii, viii, ix, x
Reference 154
Region Asia-Pacific
Inscription History
Inscription 1981  (5th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
Region as classified by UNESCO.

[[File:|thumb|right|250px|Satellite picture of part of the Great Barrier Reef]] The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef. It is located close to the coast of Queensland, Australia. It is 2,300 km long. It is made up of nearly 3000 coral reefs and over 600 islands.[1] It has been listed an important World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The Great Barrier Reef is the largest structure made by living things. It can be seen from outer space.[2]

Contents

Captain Cook

James Cook discovered the reef by accident on 11 June 1770, when his ship, the "Endeavour", crashed into it. The coral ripped a large hole in the bottom of his ship. Cook and the crew were able to keep the ship from sinking. They were able to get the ship onto a beach at what is now called Cooktown.[3] His crew took seven weeks to repair the ship and continue the voyage.

Geology

The Reef Research Centre has found the remains of coral that are half a million years old.[1] Corals have been growing in the region for as long as 25 million years. The corals have not always formed coral reefs.[4]

It is difficult to work out the age of the Great Barrier Reef. This is because of the way a reef can grow and shrink as the sea level changes. A coral reef can grow in diameter, that is how wide they are, from 1 to 2 cm per year. They can also grow upwards from 1 to 15 cm per year. Coral can not grow if the water is too deep (150 metres or more) because it needs light from the sun. They cannot grow out of the water (above sea level).[5]

The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority and Australian Institute of Marine Science say the current, living reef started growing about 20,000 years ago. It started to grow on an older reef.[4] This makes the beginning of the reef during the Last Glacial Maximum. At that time, the sea level was 120 metres lower than it is today. The land that forms the bottom of the Great Barrier Reef was a coastal plain. The plain had some large hills. Some of these hills were parts of older reefs.[6]

File:Heron Island, Australia - View of Island from
Heron Island, a coral cay in the southern Great Barrier Reef.

From 20,000 years ago until 6,000 years the sea level began to rise. As it rose, the corals could grow higher on the hills of the coastal plain. By 13,000 years ago the sea level was 60 metres lower than the present day. Corals began to grow around the hills of the coastal plain. These became continental islands. As the sea level rose higher, most of these continental islands were covered by water. The corals could then grow over the hills. This formed the present cays and reefs. Sea level on the Great Barrier Reef has not risen much in the last 6,000 years.[6]The CRC Reef Research Centre has worked out that the present, living reef is 6,000 to 8,000 years old.[1]

The remains of a very old barrier reef has been found in the Kimberley area. This is in the northern part of Western Australia.[7]

The Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area has been divided into 70 different areas. These are called bioregions. Each bioregion has its own special plants and animals.[8] There are 30 reef bioregions,[9] and 40 are non-reef bioregions.[10] In the northern part of the Great Barrier Reef, there are ribbon reefs and deltaic reefs. These kinds of reef are not found in the rest of the Great Barrier Reef system.[1]

Ecology

The Great Barrier Reef has 14000 different plants and animals. This includes many vulnerable or endangered species. Some of these can only be found on this reef system.[11][12] [[File:|left|thumb|Green sea turtle on the Great Barrier Reef]]

Mammals

Thirty species of whales, dolphins, and porpoises have been seen in the Great Barrier Reef. This includes the dwarf minke whale, Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin, and the humpback whale. Many dugongs live there.[13][14][12]

Turtles and Dugongs

Six species of sea turtles come to the reef to breed. These are the green sea turtle, leatherback sea turtle, hawksbill turtle, loggerhead sea turtle, flatback turtle, and the olive ridley. There are two different groups of green sea turtles on the Great Barrier Reef. One group lives in the northern part of the reef and the other in the south.[15] Fifteen species of seagrass attract the dugongs and turtles.[13] They also provide a food and shelter for fish.[16] The most common kinds of seagrasses are Halophila and Halodule.[17]

Other sea animals

Saltwater Crocodiles live in mangrove and salt marshes on the coast near the reef.[18] No crocodile nests have been found on the reef. The salt water crocodiles on the reef travel long distances. There are not many living around the reef.[19] Around 125 species of shark, stingray, skates or chimera live on the reef.[20][21] About 5,000 species of mollusc have been found on the reef. These include the giant clam, nudibranchs and cone snails.[13] Forty-nine species of pipefish and nine species of seahorse have been found.[19] Seven species of frogs have be found on the islands.[22]

Birds

215 species of birds come to the reef or nest or roost on the islands. This includes 22 species of seabirds and 32 species of shorebirds.[23] These include the white-bellied sea eagle and roseate tern.[13] Most nesting sites are on islands in the northern and southern regions of the Great Barrier Reef. About 1.7 million birds use the sites to breed.[24][25]

Plants

The islands of the Great Barrier Reef also have 2,195 known plant species. Three of these are not found anywhere else. The northern islands have 300-350 plants which are woody. The southern islands have 200 plants which are herbaceous. The Whitsunday region has the most (1,141) plant speciess. The plant species are spread by birds.[22]

Sea snakes

Seventeen types of sea snake live on the Great Barrier Reef. They take about 4 years to become old enough to breed. They usually live on the sea floor. They live in warm waters up to 50 metres (164 ft) deep. They are more common in the southern part of the reef.[19]

Fish, ascidians and bryozoans

More than 1,500 species of fish live on the reef. These include the clownfish, red bass, red-throat emperor, and several types of snapper and coral trout.[13] There are at least 330 species of sea squirts (ascidians) found on the reef. These vary in size from 1 mm-10 cm in diameter. Between 300-500 species of bryozoans are found on the reef system.[21] These are small water animals that look like moss, or branches.

Corals

[[File:|thumb|220px|right|Coral on Mackay Reef]] Four hundred species of corals, both hard corals and soft corals are found on the reef.[13] Most of these spawn, releasing thousands of eggs, in huge events. This spawning is controlled by the rising sea temperatures. This happens in spring and summer, as part of the moons lunar cycle, and the day/night diurnal cycle. Reefs in the inner Great Barrier Reef spawn during the week after the full moon in October. Outer reefs spawn in November and December.[26] The common soft corals on the Great Barrier Reef belong to 36 different types.[27] Five hundred species of marine algae or seaweed live on the reef.[13] This includes thirteen types of Halimeda. These deposit chalky (calcareous) mounds up to 100 metres wide. They have mini-ecosystems on their surface which have been compared to rainforest cover.[28]

Climate change

A new report, the Reef Outlook Report, says that climate change will cause huge damage to the reef.[29] The report was written by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. Warmer and more acidic water around the coral reef will slow down calcification, which is how the coral grows and becomes strong. The corals will become bleached (lose their colours) and many species that live on and around the reef will be in danger. The Australian government has already spent AU$325 million to improve the health of the reef in the last two years.[29]

Other dangers

The Reef Outlook Report also warned of other dangers to the reef.[30] These included poor quality water running into the sea from the mainland. This water is polluted with farm insecticides and rubbish from nearby towns. The increasing amount of development on the coast is destroying natural marine and coastal habitats. There is also some damage from fishing.[30]

Other websites

Error creating thumbnail: sh: convert: command not found
Wikimedia Commons has images, video, and/or sound related to:

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 CRC Reef Research Centre Ltd. "What is the Great Barrier Reef?". http://www.reef.crc.org.au/discover/coralreefs/coralgbr.html. Retrieved 2006-05-28. 
  2. Bellfield, Sarah (February 8, 2002). "Great Barrier Reef: no buried treasure". Geoscience Australia. http://www.ga.gov.au/media/releases/2002/1013133456_20385.jsp. Retrieved December 1, 2008. 
  3. "Cape Tribulation". Rainforest Hideaway. http://www.rainforesthideaway.com/capetribulation/cape-tribulation.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-01. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2006). "Fact Sheet 1 - Reef Facts For Tour Guides - The Big Picture". http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/12437/Reef-Facts-01.pdf. Retrieved 2006-12-02.  (PDF)
  5. MSN Encarta (2006). "Great Barrier Reef". http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761575831/Great_Barrier_Reef.html. Retrieved 2006-12-11. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Tobin, Barry (1998, revised 2003). "How the Great Barrier Reef was formed". Australian Institute of Marine Science. http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/research/project-net/reefs/apnet-reefs00.html. Retrieved 2006-11-22. 
  7. Western Australia's Department of Environment and Conservation (2007). "The Devonian 'Great Barrier Reef'". http://www.naturebase.net/content/view/668/96/. Retrieved 2007-03-12. 
  8. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. "Representative Areas in the Marine Park". http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/key_issues/conservation/rep_areas. Retrieved 2007-03-23. 
  9. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. "Reef Bioregions of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area". http://www.reefed.edu.au/rap/bioregions/index.html. Retrieved 2007-03-23. 
  10. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. "Non-Reef Bioregions of the Great Barrier Reef". http://www.reefed.edu.au/rap/bioregions/nonreefbioregions.html. Retrieved 2007-03-23. 
  11. CSIRO (2006). "Snapshot of life deep in the Great Barrier Reef". http://www.csiro.au/news/ps19x.html. Retrieved 2007-03-13. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2000). "Fauna and Flora of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area". http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/publications/misc_pub/fauna_flora. Retrieved 2006-11-24. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 CRC Reef Research Centre Ltd. "REEF FACTS: Plants and Animals on the Great Barrier Reef". http://www.reef.crc.org.au/discover/plantsanimals/facts_plantanimal.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-14. 
  14. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2004). "Environmental Status: Marine Mammals". The State of the Great Barrier Reef Report - latest updates. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/publications/sotr/latest_updates/marine_mammals. Retrieved 2007-03-13. 
  15. Dobbs, Kirstin (2007). Marine turtle and dugong habitats in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park used to implement biophysical operational principles for the Representative Areas Program. Great Barrier Marine Park Authority. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/18799/rap_turtle_and_dugong_bop.pdf. 
  16. Hopley, David; Smithers, Scott G.; Parnell, Kevin E. (2007). The geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef : development, diversity, and change. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. p. pp.133. ISBN 0521853028. 
  17. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2005). "Environmental Status: Seagrasses". The State of the Great Barrier Reef Report - latest updates. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/publications/sotr/latest_updates/seagrasses. Retrieved 2007-05-23. 
  18. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2005). "Environmental Status: Marine Reptiles". http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/publications/sotr/latest_updates/marine_reptiles. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 "Appendix 2 - Listed Marine Species". Fauna and Flora of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. 2000. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/publications/misc_pub/fauna_flora/appendix_02.html. Retrieved 2007-05-23. 
  20. "Environmental Status: Sharks and rays". The State of the Great Barrier Reef Report - latest updates. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/publications/sotr/latest_updates/sharks_rays. Retrieved 2007-05-23. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 "Appendix 4- Other species of conservation concern". Fauna and Flora of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. 2000. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/publications/misc_pub/fauna_flora/appendix_04.html. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 "Appendix 5- Island Flora and Fauna". Fauna and Flora of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. 2000. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/publications/misc_pub/fauna_flora/appendix_05.html. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  23. Hopley, David; Smithers, Scott G.; Parnell, Kevin E. (2007). The geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef : development, diversity, and change. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. p. pp.450-451. ISBN 0521853028. 
  24. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. "Environmental status: birds". The State of the Great Barrier Reef Report - latest updates. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/publications/sotr/latest_updates/seabirds/. Retrieved 2007-05-23. 
  25. "Environmental status: birds Condition". The State of the Great Barrier Reef Report - latest updates. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/publications/sotr/latest_updates/seabirds/condition. Retrieved 2007-05-23. 
  26. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2006). "Information Fact Sheets #20 Coral Spawning" (PDF). http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/8879/Fact_Sheet_20_Coral_Spawning.pdf. Retrieved 2007-05-27. 
  27. Australian Institute of Marine Science (2002). "Soft coral atlas of the Great Barrier Reef". http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/research/soft-corals/soft-corals00.html. Retrieved 2007-05-27. 
  28. Hopley, David; Smithers, Scott G.; Parnell, Kevin E. (2007). The geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef : development, diversity, and change. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. p. pp.185. ISBN 0521853028. 
  29. 29.0 29.1 Arup, Tom (September 3 2009). "Great Barrier Reef faces catastrophic harm". The Age: pp. 8. 
  30. 30.0 30.1 "Great Barrier Reef Outlook Report". Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. June 30 2009. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/about_us/great_barrier_reef_outlook_report. Retrieved 2009-10-13. 

Coordinates: 18°17′10″S 147°42′00″E / 18.28611°S 147.7°E / -18.28611; 147.7krc:Уллу барьер риф

rue:Великый барєрний ріф



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 23, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Great Barrier Reef, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message