Great Pacific Garbage Patch: Wikis

  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Great Pacific Garbage Patch

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Map showing the oceans' five major gyres
The Garbage Patch is located within the North Pacific Gyre, one of the five major oceanic gyres.
.The Great Pacific Garbage Patch, also described as the Pacific Trash Vortex, is a gyre of marine litter in the central North Pacific Ocean located roughly between 135° to 155°W and 35° to 42°N.^ The Great Garbage Patch lies in the North Pacific Ocean, specifically in the center of a region known as the North Pacific Gyre.
  • The Great Pacific Garbage Patch | Scienceray 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.scienceray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The “Great Pacific Garbage Patch” is an area of high concentration of debris in the northeastern corner of the vortex, or center, of North Pacific Subtropical Gyre.
  • 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC algalita.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He will be sailing towards the Great Pacific Garbage Patch .

.Most current estimates state that it is larger than the state of Texas, with some estimates claiming that it is larger than the continental United States, however the exact size is not known.^ It is larger now, by some reports twice the size of Texas.
  • Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch, the Continent of Garbage 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ One is much larger than the size of Texas, in fact.
  • Satellite imagery of the great Pacific garbage patch? - Science Forums, The Original 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.scienceforums.net [Source type: General]

^ The size is estimated to be as "small" as the state of Texas up to twice the size of the United States.

[1] [2]
.The Patch is characterized by exceptionally high concentrations of pelagic plastics, chemical sludge, and other debris that have been trapped by the currents of the North Pacific Gyre.^ The “Great Pacific Garbage Patch” is an area of high concentration of debris in the northeastern corner of the vortex, or center, of North Pacific Subtropical Gyre.
  • 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC algalita.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They found concentrations highest in the North Pacific Gyre.
  • The Sargasso Sea and the Pacific Garbage Patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC skeptoid.com [Source type: General]
  • The Sargasso Sea and the Pacific Garbage Patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC skeptoid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This garbage patch is formed by the rotational pattern of currents created by the North Pacific Gyre.
  • Conservation with The Downtown Aquarium with A-1 Scuba Colorado 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.divedowntown.com [Source type: General]

.Despite its size and density, the patch is not visible from satellite photography since it primarily consists of suspended particulate in the upper water column.^ In the Pacific Ocean, the North Pacific Gyre is home to the “ Great Pacific Garbage Patch ”, a large area that is approximately the size of Texas with debris extending 20 feet (6 meters) down into the water column.

^ The plastic trash is difficult to visualize from satellites since much of it consists of tiny plastic flecks beneath the surface of the ocean.
  • Ole Nielsen - Great Pacific Garbage Patch #2 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC my.opera.com [Source type: General]

^ The new landmass, invisible to satellite photography, consists of high concentrations of suspended plastic and other debris trapped by the North Pacific Gyre.
  • Great Pacific Garbage Patch Target of Researchers - Santa Cruz News 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC news.santacruz.com [Source type: News]

.Since plastics break down to ever smaller polymers, concentrated particulate is not visible from space nor appears as a continuous debris field.^ The plastic slowly breaks down into ever smaller bits.
  • Scientists Set to Study the Great Pacific Garbage Patch : EcoWorldly 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC ecoworldly.com [Source type: General]

^ "The material is breaking down continually.
  • Marine Depot Blog: "Trash Island" discovered in the Pacific Ocean 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC blog.marinedepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since plastics do not biodegrade, debris continually accumulates in this ever-expanding mass.
  • 2Dolphins - Plastics Wrap 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.2dolphins.com [Source type: General]

.Instead, the patch is defined as an area in which the mass of plastic debris in the upper water column is significantly higher than average.^ Remember that plastic debris occurs throughout the water column.

^ Instead, the plastic breaks down into smaller and smaller pieces in the patch that extends thousands of miles, from California’s coast to China.
  • Media Watch | Good Morning America Show Us The Pacific Garbage Patch « G Living | Dark Twisted Space Monkies Go Green 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC gliving.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Great Pacific Garbage Patch is a swirling mass of plastic waste and garbage that has accumulated in the Pacific Ocean due to Ocean currents and is impacting all life.
  • The GP2 Project: Global Green Expeditions Cleaning Up the Great Pacific Garbage Patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.thegp2project.org [Source type: General]

.The patch is not easily visible because it consists of very small pieces, almost invisible to the naked eye [3], most of its contents are suspended beneath the surface of the ocean[4], and the relatively low density of the plastic debris at, in one scientific study, 5.1 kilograms of plastic per square kilometer of ocean area.^ Relatively little sampling was done beneath the surface.
  • Plastics patch found across 1,700 miles of Pacific| World| Reuters 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC in.reuters.com [Source type: News]
  • Plastics patch found across 1,700 miles of Pacific| Green Business| Reuters 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC uk.reuters.com [Source type: News]

^ Richard Thompson is one of the few scientists studying plastic in the oceans.
  • Oceans awash in plastic — Ecojustice (formerly Sierra Legal Defence Fund) 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.ecojustice.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A majority of the debris observed in the “garbage patch” is small plastic pieces.
  • Marine Debris Program - Funding Opportunities 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC marinedebris.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

[5]

Contents

Discovery

Map showing large-scale looping water movements within the Pacific. <a name=.One circles west to Australia, then south and back to Latin America.^ It takes about five years for currents to carry garbage from the west coast of North America and about one year from the east coast of Asia, in order to arrive at the plastic island.
  • Great Pacific Garbage Patch: North Pacific Ocean Gyre is One of Most Polluted Areas on Earth 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC pollution-control.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antarctica and the Arctic Africa Asia Australia Central & South America Europe Middle East North America .
  • Yale Environment 360: Oceanographer Charles Moore Talks About The Pacific Garbage Patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC e360.yale.edu [Source type: News]
  • Yale Environment 360: Plastic Debris in Pacific More Extensive Than Original Estimates 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC e360.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Further north, water moves east to Central America, and then joins a larger movement further north which loops south, west, north and east between North America and Japan.^ The peculiarities of this location arise from the fact that four prevailing ocean currents--the North Pacific Current to the north, the California Current to the east, the North Equatorial Current to the south, and the Kuroshio Current to the west--meet in the North Pacific Gyre.
  • Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For those unfamiliar with the oceanic trash patch, here's a quick primer: The Great Pacific Garbage Patch is located in the North Pacific Gyre, an area of the ocean between North America and Japan made up of large, clockwise currents.
  • Cleaning Up the Great Pacific Garbage Patch - Tonic 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.tonic.com [Source type: General]

^ The gyre actually consists of two large masses of ever-accumulating trash, the Western Pacific patch (located east of Japan and west of Hawaii) and the Eastern Pacific patch (floating between Hawaii and California).
  • Greenwala - Who's To Blame For The Great Pacific Garbage Patch? Look In The Mirror. 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.greenwala.com [Source type: General]
  • Greenwala - Who's To Blame For The Great Pacific Garbage Patch? Look In The Mirror. 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.greenwala.com [Source type: General]

.Two smaller loops circle in the eastern and centeral North Pacific."^ As it moves further into the ocean, it becomes trapped by the strong flow of the North Pacific Gyre, the center of a large-scale system of rotating ocean currents."
  • Great Pacific Garbage Patch | Pacific Ocean, |... - Steven Perez - FriendFeed 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC friendfeed.com [Source type: General]

^ The “soup” is actually two linked areas, either side of the islands of Hawaii, known as the Western and Eastern Pacific Garbage Patches.
  • Giveaways: Go Natural Baby » pacific garbage patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.gonaturalbaby.com [Source type: General]
  • Mikael’s ImpeachforPeace Blog » 2008 » July 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC impeachforpeace.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Mikael’s ImpeachforPeace Blog » Climate Change 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC impeachforpeace.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dubbed the "Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch," the debris at the center of the North Pacific Ocean has the potential to damage marine life and alter the biological environment.
  • SEAPLEX 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC sio.ucsd.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/08/2/0/4/30993683049111510.jpg" width="220" height="160" class="thumbimage" />
The Patch is created in the gyre of the North Pacific Subtropical Convergence Zone
.The existence of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch was predicted in a 1988 paper published by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the United States.^ He will be sailing towards the Great Pacific Garbage Patch .

^ It's been called the Great Pacific Garbage Patch and the world's largest dump.
  • The Nature Conservancy: Ask the Conservationist: Trash in Our Oceans 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC support.nature.org [Source type: General]

^ Great Pacific Garbage Patch (generations, drug, solution, cost) .
  • Great Pacific Garbage Patch (generations, drug, solution, cost) - Politics and Other Controversies - Democrats, Republicans, Libertarians, Conservatives, Liberals, Third Parties, Left-Wing, Right-Wing, Congress, President - City-Data Forum 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The prediction was based on results obtained by several Alaska-based researchers between 1985 and 1988 that measured neustonic plastic in the North Pacific Ocean.^ Pacific Plastic Ocean — 5 comments .
  • Garbage Island — Blogs, Pictures, and more on WordPress 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC en.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ This debris, mostly made of plastic, because they are not biodegradable, travels the ocean for thousand of miles, led by various currents (mostly the North Pacific Gyre) into a vortex of marine litter in the central North Pacific Ocean.

^ It collects in an area known as the North Pacific Gyre, because of the way trade winds work, extending down into the ocean for up to 300 feet.
  • KentuckianaGreen.com Blog | James Bruggers - Watchdog Earth | Courier-Journal, Louisville, KY 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.courier-journal.com [Source type: General]
  • KentuckianaGreen.com Blog | James Bruggers - Watchdog Earth | Courier-Journal, Louisville, KY 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.courier-journal.com [Source type: News]

[6] .This research found high concentrations of marine debris accumulating in regions governed by particular patterns of ocean currents.^ That aligns with the ocean’s circular current pattern.
  • The Pacific isn't the only ocean collecting plastic trash / The Christian Science Monitor - CSMonitor.com 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.csmonitor.com [Source type: News]

^ This debris, mostly made of plastic, because they are not biodegradable, travels the ocean for thousand of miles, led by various currents (mostly the North Pacific Gyre) into a vortex of marine litter in the central North Pacific Ocean.

^ The Sargasso Sea is a well known slow circulation area in the Atlantic, and research there has also demonstrated high concentrations of plastic particles present in the water.
  • The trash vortex | Greenpeace International 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Extrapolating from findings in the Sea of Japan, the researchers hypothesized that similar conditions would occur in other parts of the Pacific where prevailing currents were favorable to the creation of relatively stable waters.^ The Sargasso Sea is a well known slow circulation area in the Atlantic, and research there has also demonstrated high concentrations of plastic particles present in the water.
  • The trash vortex | Greenpeace International 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The North Pacific Gyre has a clockwise circular pattern and comprises four prevailing ocean currents : the North Pacific Current to the north, the California Current to the east, the North Equatorial Current to the south, and the Kuroshio Current to the west.
  • Article: North Pacific Gyre - WiserEarth 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.wiserearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The plastic and toxins it attracts have become a part of the Pacific Ocean’s ecosystem, killing everything from fish to birds to sea turtles [ San Diego Union-Tribune ].
  • Ships Set Sail to Examine the Vast Patch of Plastic in the Pacific Ocean | 80beats | Discover Magazine 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC blogs.discovermagazine.com [Source type: General]

.They specifically indicated the North Pacific Gyre.^ They found concentrations highest in the North Pacific Gyre.
  • The Sargasso Sea and the Pacific Garbage Patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC skeptoid.com [Source type: General]
  • The Sargasso Sea and the Pacific Garbage Patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC skeptoid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North Pacific Gyre and remains there.
  • Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch, the Continent of Garbage 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ And eventually they make their way to the North Pacific Gyre.
  • GenGreenLife: World's Biggest Landfill... in the Pacific Ocean? 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.gengreenlife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7]
.Charles J. Moore, returning home through the North Pacific Gyre after competing in the Transpac sailing race in 1997, came upon an enormous stretch of floating debris.^ Charles Moore and his crew, who just returned from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyres or Garbage Patch.
  • Crew knows where the ocean trash goes - The Daily Breeze 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.dailybreeze.com [Source type: News]
  • Crew knows where the ocean trash goes - The Daily Breeze 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.dailybreeze.com [Source type: News]

^ North Pacific Gyre and remains there.
  • Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch, the Continent of Garbage 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ For several years ocean researcher Charles Moore has been investigating a concentration of floating plastic debris in the North Pacific Gyre.
  • Texas Size Patch of Trash Floating in Pacific - Unexplained Mysteries Discussion Forums 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.unexplained-mysteries.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Article: North Pacific Gyre - WiserEarth 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.wiserearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Moore alerted the oceanographer Curtis Ebbesmeyer, who subsequently dubbed the region the "Eastern Garbage Patch" (EGP).^ Moore, who stages regular trips to the garbage patch for research.
  • Hidden, a 3.5 Million Trash Heap Lies in the Ocean - ABC News 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC abcnews.go.com [Source type: News]
  • Hidden, a 3.5 Million Trash Heap Lies in the Ocean - ABC News 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC a.abcnews.com [Source type: News]

^ GARBAGE ISLAND For years we've been reading about a patch of garbage the size of Texas floating in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, ingeniously dubbed the Great Pacific Garbage Patch.

^ The Times story doesn't mention the Scripps mission, but it does feature Charles Moore, the ship captain who first discovered the garbage patch about a decade ago.
  • voiceofsandiego.org | News. Investigation. Analysis. Conversation. Intelligence. - Another Take on Garbage Gyres 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.voiceofsandiego.org [Source type: News]

[8] .The area is frequently featured in media reports as an exceptional example of marine pollution.^ The “garbage patch,” as referred to in the media, is an area of marine debris concentration in the North Pacific Ocean.
  • Marine Debris Program - Funding Opportunities 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC marinedebris.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

[9]. .Moore's claim of having discovered a large, visible debris field is, however, a mischaracterization of the polluted region overall, since it primarily consists of particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye.^ Although some large pieces of trash are visible, the majority only exist as tiny plastic fragments that are almost invisible to the naked eye.
  • Great Pacific Garbage Patch Enviro-Quiz 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.earthshare.org [Source type: General]
  • EarthShare: Environmental Quiz 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.earthshare.org [Source type: General]

^ It isn't filled with garbage, but the region is known for accumulating large amounts of waste and debris that get trapped by its large clockwise currents between North America and Japan.
  • Mary Crowley Tackles 'Great Garbage Patch' in North Pacific Gyre 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.gnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Despite its size and density, the patch is not visible from satellite photography because it consists of very small pieces, almost invisible to the naked eye [2] and most of its contents are suspended beneath the surface of the ocean.
  • The Great Pacific Garbage Patch: Floating Heap of Debris Twice the Size of Texas! – Neatorama 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]
  • The Great Pacific Garbage Patch: Floating Heap of Debris Twice the Size of Texas! – » E-MailNeatorama 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

.A similar patch of floating plastic debris is found in the Atlantic Ocean.^ A patch of garbage floats in the Pacific Ocean.
  • CBC News - Technology & Science - Garbage island in Pacific worries researchers 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: News]

^ And each of the other oceans has its own, albeit smaller, floating patches of debris.
  • The World's Largest Dump: The Great Pacific Garbage Patch | Ocean | DISCOVER Magazine 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC discovermagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • GreenStuff 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC bradhinesley.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is there a “garbage patch” in the Atlantic Ocean?
  • Marine Debris Program - Funding Opportunities 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC marinedebris.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

[10][11]

Formation

Map of gyres centered near the south pole
The north pacific garbage patch on a continuous ocean map
.Like other areas of concentrated marine debris in the world's oceans, the Great Pacific Garbage Patch formed gradually as a result of marine pollution gathered by oceanic currents.^ What technology pertains to studying the currents in the area of the garbage patch?
  • Garbage Patch in the Pacific Ocean 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC seagrant.uaf.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The “Great Pacific Garbage Patch” is an area of high concentration of debris in the northeastern corner of the vortex, or center, of North Pacific Subtropical Gyre.
  • 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC algalita.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But did you know about The Great Pacific Garbage Patch ?
  • Princess versus plastic | Spotlight 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC spotlight.rogers.com [Source type: General]

.The garbage patch occupies a large and relatively stationary region of the North Pacific Ocean bound by the North Pacific Gyre (a remote area commonly referred to as the horse latitudes).^ Gyres are found in all the world’s oceans; the garbage debris problem in the North Pacific Gyre has relatives elsewhere.
  • The North Pacific Gyre: 100 Million Tons of Garbage and Growing  | Environmental Graffiti 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.environmentalgraffiti.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Great Garbage Patch lies in the North Pacific Ocean, specifically in the center of a region known as the North Pacific Gyre.
  • The Great Pacific Garbage Patch | Scienceray 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.scienceray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Great Pacific garbage patch growing .
  • Waste | NIMONIK 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.nimonik.ca [Source type: General]

.The gyre's rotational pattern draws in waste material from across the North Pacific Ocean, including coastal waters off North America and Japan.^ North Pacific Ocean Gyre, roughly 1,000 miles off California's coast.
  • University of California - UC Newsroom | Research cruise investigates floating garbage 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.universityofcalifornia.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The North Pacific Gyre is a clockwise rotation of ocean currents in the North Pacific.
  • The Sargasso Sea and the Pacific Garbage Patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC skeptoid.com [Source type: General]
  • The Sargasso Sea and the Pacific Garbage Patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC skeptoid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The currents draw in waste materials from across the North Pacific Ocean, including the coastal waters of the United States and Japan.
  • Conservation with The Downtown Aquarium with A-1 Scuba Colorado 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.divedowntown.com [Source type: General]

.As material is captured in the currents, wind-driven surface currents gradually move floating debris toward the center, trapping it in the region.^ Wind and currents combine to drive floating matter toward its center.
  • The Sargasso Sea and the Pacific Garbage Patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC skeptoid.com [Source type: General]
  • The Sargasso Sea and the Pacific Garbage Patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC skeptoid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As we drifted in the center of this system, doing underwater photography day and night, we began to realize what was happening A paper plate thrown overboard just stayed with us; there was no wind or current to move it away.
  • Great Pacific Garbage Patch: Plastic Turning Vast Area of Ocean intoEcological Nightmare CHARLES MOORE / Santa Barbara News-Press 27oct02 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • News about how plastics are killing the earth 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.sustainablebags.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Debris winds up concentrated there by circular, clockwise ocean currents that form an oblong-shaped "convergence zone."
  • Plastics patch found across 1,700 miles of Pacific| World| Reuters 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC in.reuters.com [Source type: News]

.The patch's size is unknown, as large items readily visible from a boat deck are uncommon.^ Large items readily visible from the deck of a boat are few and far between.
  • The Floating Toxic Garbage Island « Fire Earth 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC feww.wordpress.com [Source type: News]
  • News - Environment: Scientists to study Pacific garbage patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.iol.co.za [Source type: News]
  • Scientists Study Huge Plastic Patch In Pacific | News | Allianz Knowledge 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC knowledge.allianz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Science News and Technology News: Top Stories 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.globalgoodnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The researchers retrieved a variety of items from the “garbage patch,” including a large net entwined with plastic and many plastic bottles that had become home to an assortment of marine creatures.
  • Ocean ‘garbage patch’ shocks even scientists | Resources & Recycling 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.greenbang.com [Source type: News]

^ This giant debris field, commonly known as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch , is estimated to be as large as the state of Texas (some sources say twice the size of Texas).
  • Scientists Set to Study the Great Pacific Garbage Patch : EcoWorldly 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC ecoworldly.com [Source type: General]

.Most debris consists of small plastic particles suspended at or just below the surface, making it impossible to detect by aircraft or satellite.^ In other words plastic floating at or just below the surface.
  • The Sargasso Sea and the Pacific Garbage Patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC skeptoid.com [Source type: General]

^ Most of the plastic is broken up below the surface.
  • FuturePundit: Great Pacific Garbage Patch Keeps Getting Bigger 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.futurepundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ B. A huge area of accumulated marine debris, mostly small plastic particles, floating at or just below the water surface.
  • Great Pacific Garbage Patch Enviro-Quiz 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.earthshare.org [Source type: General]
  • EarthShare: Environmental Quiz 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.earthshare.org [Source type: General]

[12] .Estimates on size range from 700,000 square kilometres (270,000 sq mi) to more than 15,000,000 square kilometres (5,800,000 sq mi) (0.41% to 8.1% of the size of the Pacific Ocean), or up to "twice the size of the continental United States".[13] The area may contain over 100 million tons of debris.^ LONDON: A rubbish dump found floating in the Pacific Ocean is estimated to be twice the size of the United States.
  • Gulf Times – Qatar’s top-selling English daily newspaper - Americas 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.gulf-times.com [Source type: News]

^ The size of this mass believe it or not equivalent to that of the continental United States.
  • The Largest 'Landfill' On Earth; the Great Pacific Garbage Patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.digitaljournal.com [Source type: News]

^ The gyre, or area of spiraling ocean currents, is approximately twice the size of the continental United States.
  • Mary Crowley Tackles 'Great Garbage Patch' in North Pacific Gyre 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.gnn.com [Source type: General]

[13] (However, this figure is not supported by the densities quoted below.) .It has also been suggested that the patch may represent two linked areas.^ The “soup” is actually two linked areas, either side of the islands of Hawaii, known as the Western and Eastern Pacific Garbage Patches.
  • Giveaways: Go Natural Baby » pacific garbage patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.gonaturalbaby.com [Source type: General]
  • Mikael’s ImpeachforPeace Blog » 2008 » July 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC impeachforpeace.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The "soup" is actually two linked areas, either side of the islands of Hawaii, known as the Western and Eastern Pacific Garbage Patches.
  • The world's rubbish dump: a tip that stretches from Hawaii to Japan - Environment - The Independent 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • The Great Pacific Garbage Patch - CareCure Forums 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC sci.rutgers.edu [Source type: General]
  • TheSpec.com - CanadaWorld - 'The Great Pacific Garbage Patch' 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.thespec.com [Source type: News]
  • The World's Dump: Ocean Garbage From Hawaii to Japan | Water | AlterNet 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Daily Kos: Plastic Patch in Pacific Grows to Twice Size of U.S. 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]
  • Daily Kos: State of the Nation 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]
  • The world's rubbish dump: a garbage tip that stretches from Hawaii to Japan 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.californiaskywatch.com [Source type: News]
  • The World's Rubbish Dump: A Garbage Tip That Stretches From Hawaii to Japan | CommonDreams.org 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
  • The world's rubbish dump: a garbage tip that stretches from Hawaii to Japan | The Agonist 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC agonist.org [Source type: News]
  • The World's Dump: Ocean Garbage From Hawaii to Japan 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.xzone-radio.com [Source type: News]

^ The "patch" is in fact two massive, linked areas of circulating rubbish, says Dr Marcus Eriksen, research director of the US-based Algalita Marine Research Foundation, founded by Moore.
  • Litter Prevention News from the QLPA : April 08 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.qldlitter.com [Source type: News]

[14]
.In August 2009, the Scripps Institute / Project Kaisei SEAPLEX survey mission of the Gyre, found that plastic debris was present in 100 consecutive samples taken at varying depths and net sizes along a 1,700 miles (2,700 km) path through the patch.^ Of 132 net tows recorded by the team, 100 consecutive tows had plastic in them.
  • Actual Size of Great Pacific Garbage Patch Shocks Scientists - Earth911.com 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC earth911.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now there is a patch of plastic debris twice the size of Texas!
  • Nature Walks With Mark Fraser - Ban plastic shopping bags! 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.naturewalkswithmark.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Graduate students, and Project Kaisei volunteers, used nets of different shapes and sizes to collect samples of different sizes at various depths.
  • Sailing on the Plastic Seas 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC ucsdnews.ucsd.edu [Source type: News]

[15] .The survey also confirmed that while the debris field does contain large pieces, it is on the whole made up of smaller items which increase in concentration towards the Gyre's centre, and these 'confetti-like' pieces are clearly visible just beneath the surface.^ Other researchers have recently confirmed large concentrations of plastic in the Gyre.
  • Heal the Bay | Marine Debris: The Plastic Plague 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.healthebay.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These currents trap and concentrate debris within the gyre.
  • Jean-Michel Cousteau : Ocean Adventures . Debris Dilemmas Lesson Plan | PBS 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tara M. Clemente Smaller pieces of debris show up in high concentrations.
  • How Big Is That Mass of Plastic? - WSJ.com 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]
  • How Big Is That Mass of Plastic? - WSJ.com 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

[16]

Sources of pollutants

.An estimated 80% of the garbage comes from land-based sources, and 20% from ships.^ It is estimated that land-based sources are responsible for up to 80% of marine debris.
  • 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC algalita.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The figure we use is 80 percent land-based, 20 percent from ships at sea."
  • Garbage Mass Is Growing in the Pacific : NPR 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

^ It's estimated that 20% of the trash came from sailing vessels, while 80% came from land-based sources.
  • The Taylor Group Blog: Our Green Report Card 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.thetaylorgroup.com [Source type: General]

.A typical 3,000 passenger cruise ship produces over eight tons of solid waste weekly, much of which ends up in the patch.^ We produce so much waste every day ...
  • The world's rubbish dump: a tip that stretches from Hawaii to Japan - Environment - The Independent 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Yes, it is a waste that ends up in the ocean.
  • The Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch off the coast of California has researchers worried 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.nydailynews.com [Source type: News]

^ Further, roughly 80% of these plastic water bottles will end up in landfills – not in recycling plants – and will account for 1.5 million tons of plastic waste per year.
  • Berkeley College - Project GreenPath Newsletter 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.berkeleycollege.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .Pollutants range in size from abandoned fishing nets to micro-pellets used in abrasive cleaners.^ In the meantime, let the cleanup begin: The National Oceanographic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is aggressively using satellites to identify and remove "ghost nets," abandoned plastic fishing gear that never stops killing.
  • CDNN :: Plastic Ocean - The Great Pacific Garbage Patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.cdnn.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There have been studies that have found small numbers of birds, as in 2 or 3, that have been killed from getting caught in abandoned nets or other fishing line.
  • FuturePundit: Great Pacific Garbage Patch Keeps Getting Bigger 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.futurepundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Commercial fishing interests can also be affected when fisheries resources are depleted by 'ghost fishing' where lost or abandoned nets and traps continue to capture target and non-target species.
  • EDUCATION - Sand Sifters 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.sandsifters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .Currents carry debris from the west coast of North America to the gyre in about five years, and debris from the east coast of Asia in a year or less.^ Scientists have discovered that currents carry garbage from the west coast of North America to the gyre in about five years, and debris from the east coast of Asia in a year or less.
  • GREAT PACIFIC GARBAGE PATCH | Weekly World News 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC weeklyworldnews.com [Source type: General]

^ This debris, mostly made of plastic, because they are not biodegradable, travels the ocean for thousand of miles, led by various currents (mostly the North Pacific Gyre) into a vortex of marine litter in the central North Pacific Ocean.

^ Continues Below ↓ The debris ends up concentrated by circular, clockwise ocean currents within an oblong-shaped "convergence zone" hundreds of miles (km) across from end to end near the Hawaiian Islands, about midway between Japan and the West Coast of the United States.
  • News - Environment: Scientists to study Pacific garbage patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.iol.co.za [Source type: News]

[19][20] An international research project led by Dr. Hideshige Takada of Tokyo University studying plastic pellets, or nurdles, from beaches around the world may provide further clues about the origins of pelagic plastic.[21]

Plastic photodegradation in the ocean

.The Great Pacific Garbage Patch has one of the highest levels known of plastic particulate suspended in the upper water column.^ In the Great Pacific Garbage Patch photodegraded plastic particulates choke the upper water column.
  • Philip’s Garden Blog » What Is A Nice Garden Doing in A Dump Like This 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC philipsgardenblog.com [Source type: General]

^ But did you know about The Great Pacific Garbage Patch ?
  • Princess versus plastic | Spotlight 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC spotlight.rogers.com [Source type: General]

^ That's the Great Pacific Garbage Patch for most of us.
  • The Great Pacific Garbage Patch - A Primer 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Great Pacific Garbage Patch - A Primer - UnArchived Articles 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC articles.webraydian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result, it is one of several oceanic regions where researchers have studied the effects and impact of plastic photodegradation in the neustonic layer of water.^ Plastic litter in the middle of the oceanic wilderness is shocking because it makes human impacts on the earth explicit, and violates our idea of what is natural.
  • KentuckianaGreen.com Blog | James Bruggers - Watchdog Earth | Courier-Journal, Louisville, KY 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.courier-journal.com [Source type: General]

^ The first thing you didn't know about garbage is a nasty thing to think about: In one region of the Pacific, the discarded plastic garbage bobbing around is so prevalent that it outweighs the surface zooplankton population by a factor of 6 to 1, according to a study by the Algalita Marine Research Foundation (AMRF).
  • 5 Things You Didn't Know: Garbage - AskMen.com Canada 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC ca.askmen.com [Source type: General]
  • AskMen.com UK - 5 Things You Didn't Know: Garbage 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC uk.askmen.com [Source type: General]

^ This past April, the Algalita Marine Research Foundation created its “ JUNKraft ” to expose the effects of plastics pollution in the ocean.
  • Group Sets Sail to Study Pacific Garbage Patch - Earth911.com 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC earth911.com [Source type: General]

[22] .Unlike debris which biodegrades, the photodegraded plastic disintegrates into ever smaller pieces while remaining a polymer.^ Rather than biodegrading, plastic photodegrades, disintegrating in the ocean into smaller and smaller pieces.
  • Texas Size Patch of Trash Floating in Pacific - Unexplained Mysteries Discussion Forums 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.unexplained-mysteries.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Worn down by sunlight and waves, discarded plastic disintegrates into smaller pieces.
  • Mission to break up Pacific island of rubbish twice the size of Texas - Times Online 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.timesonline.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Plastic, as we know, does not biodegrade but it does break down into smaller and smaller pieces.
  • Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch, the Continent of Garbage 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

.This process continues down to the molecular level.^ Also, plastic doesn't biodegrade, it only photodegrades, so no matter how small it breaks down to they are still, at a molecular level, still plastic.
  • nhnenews : Message: Man To Swim Pacific Garbage Patch In Giant Plastic Bottle 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC groups.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Message in bottle - Mal Noble - Open Salon 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC open.salon.com [Source type: General]

.As the plastic flotsam photodegrades into smaller and smaller pieces, it concentrates in the upper water column.^ Rather than biodegrading, plastic photodegrades, disintegrating in the ocean into smaller and smaller pieces.
  • Texas Size Patch of Trash Floating in Pacific - Unexplained Mysteries Discussion Forums 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.unexplained-mysteries.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Plastics break into smaller and smaller pieces, but they don't decompose."
  • Researchers set sail for the Great Pacific Garbage Patch - San Jose Mercury News 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.mercurynews.com [Source type: News]
  • Nation & World | Giant vortex of floating trash swirls in Pacific | Seattle Times Newspaper 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC seattletimes.nwsource.com [Source type: News]
  • Nation & World | Giant vortex of floating trash swirls in Pacific | Seattle Times Newspaper 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC seattletimes.nwsource.com [Source type: News]

^ Plastic, instead of biodegrading, photodegrades—it breaks up into smaller and smaller pieces.
  • Jean-Michel Cousteau : Ocean Adventures . Debris Dilemmas Lesson Plan | PBS 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As it disintegrates, the plastic ultimately becomes small enough to be ingested by aquatic organisms which reside near the ocean's surface.^ It is estimated there are more than 13,000 pieces of plastic litter on every square kilometre of the ocean surface.
  • The plastic killing fields - Environment - smh.com.au 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.smh.com.au [Source type: News]

^ These types of plastic were observed to be ingested by small marine animals, which later on ended up feeding larger fish, and so on.
  • North Pacific Garbage Patch Reveals Junk of All Sizes - Preliminary investigation results have just been released - Softpedia 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC news.softpedia.com [Source type: General]

^ In the North-East Pacific a vortex of plastic rubbish is taking over the ocean, swamping marine ecosystems and ultimately posing a danger to human life.
  • The Institute For Figuring // Gallery 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.theiff.org [Source type: News]

.Plastic waste thus enters the food chain through its concentration in the neuston.^ The toxins that plastics release are now entering the food chain.

^ Along the way, it can trap marine life or is consumed and enters the food chain.
  • E-Waste is a Growing Problem for CIOs 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.govtech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As we move up the food chain, the toxins present in that particle of plastic become more concentrated and deadly.
  • Isn't it Time to Clean Up the Great Pacific Garbage Patch? : Planet Green 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC planetgreen.discovery.com [Source type: General]

.Some plastics decompose within a year of entering the water, leaching potentially toxic chemicals such as bisphenol A, PCBs and derivatives of polystyrene.^ When immersed in water over time plastics leach toxic chemicals.
  • The Great Pacific Garbage Patch | Open Forum | Independent public policy think-tank, blogs & forums | openforum.com.au 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.openforum.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plastic contains many toxic chemicals; it also soaks up other dangerous substances already present in the ocean, like carcinogenic PCBs and DDT. .
  • Continents of garbage adrift in oceans 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.canada.com [Source type: News]
  • Oceans awash in plastic — Ecojustice (formerly Sierra Legal Defence Fund) 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.ecojustice.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plastic decomposes at sea, releasing potentially dangerous chemicals, report says August 20th, 2009 Study says plastic decomposes at seaWASHINGTON — Environmentalists have long denounced plastic as a long-lasting pollutant that doesn't break down.
  • Researchers: Garbage patch in Pacific Ocean that’s bigger than Texas threatening marine life 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: News]

[23]

Density of neustonic plastics

.The patch is not a visibly dense field of floating debris.^ Crossing the Pacific Ocean in 1997 after competing in a trans-Pacific yacht race, Captain Charles Moore discovered “The Great Pacific Garbage Patch”, a floating debris field two times the size of Texas.
  • Philip’s Garden Blog » What Is A Nice Garden Doing in A Dump Like This 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC philipsgardenblog.com [Source type: General]

^ This giant debris field, commonly known as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch , is estimated to be as large as the state of Texas (some sources say twice the size of Texas).
  • Scientists Set to Study the Great Pacific Garbage Patch : EcoWorldly 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC ecoworldly.com [Source type: General]

^ From August 2nd-21st the group will travel thousands of miles off the coast of California to explore and research the “Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch” , an enormous floating debris field in the Pacific.

.The process of disintegration means that the plastic particulate in much of the affected region is too small to be seen.^ We are not sure how much plastic is ingested by fish, for example, and what affects the pollutants have on fish, and the entire food chain.
  • 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC algalita.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though plastic debris degrades on land over a period of decades, the same process takes much longer in the ocean—centuries, in fact.
  • Weekly Reader | Earth Day 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.weeklyreader.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is predicted that much of the plastic will eventually fall to the sea floor where it will affect another part of the marine ecosystem.
  • Medium Online » The Great Pacific Garbage Patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC mediumonline.ca [Source type: General]

.Researchers must estimate the patch's overall extent and debris density from samples.^ This giant debris field, commonly known as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch , is estimated to be as large as the state of Texas (some sources say twice the size of Texas).
  • Scientists Set to Study the Great Pacific Garbage Patch : EcoWorldly 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC ecoworldly.com [Source type: General]

^ The scientists hope their data gives clues as to the density and extent of marine debris, especially since the Great Pacific Garbage Patch may have company in the Southern Hemisphere, where scientists say the gyre is four times bigger.
  • The Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch off the coast of California has researchers worried 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.nydailynews.com [Source type: News]
  • Growth of ocean ‘garbage patch’ alarms experts - World environment- msnbc.com 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]
  • Growth of ocean ‘garbage patch’ alarms experts - World environment- msnbc.com 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]
  • Researchers: Garbage patch in Pacific Ocean that’s bigger than Texas threatening marine life 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: News]
  • Pacific Ocean garbage patch worries researchers | NevadaAppeal.com 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.nevadaappeal.com [Source type: News]
  • Growth of Ocean ‘Garbage Patch’ Alarms Experts | CommonDreams.org 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
  • Pacific Ocean garbage patch worries researchers | KBCI CBS 2 - News, Weather and Sports - Boise, ID Boise, Idaho | Project Green Stories 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.2news.tv [Source type: News]

^ And the closer they sailed to the garbage patch, which some researchers have estimated to be twice the size of Texas, the more plastic pieces per gallon they found.
  • Shunya's Notes: Plastic, Plastic Everywhere 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC blog.shunya.net [Source type: General]

.In a 2001 study, researchers (including Moore) found concentrations of plastics at 334,721 pieces per km2 with a mean mass of 5,114 grams (11.27 lbs) per km2.^ Because the plastic has broken down into tiny pieces, it is virtually impossible to recover, meaning that it has essentially become a permanent part of the ecosystem.
  • The Pacific isn't the only ocean collecting plastic trash / The Christian Science Monitor - CSMonitor.com 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.csmonitor.com [Source type: News]

^ Marcus Eriksen, a research director of the US-based Algalita Marine Research Foundation , which Mr Moore founded, said yesterday: "The original idea that people had was that it was an island of plastic garbage that you could almost walk on.
  • FuturePundit: Great Pacific Garbage Patch Keeps Getting Bigger 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.futurepundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles Moore of the Algalita Marine Research Foundation first discovered the Great Pacific Garbage Patch -- an endless floating waste of plastic trash.
  • Capt. Charles Moore on the seas of plastic | Video on TED.com 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.ted.com [Source type: General]
  • TED Blog: Sailing the Great Pacific Garbage Patch: Capt. Charles Moore on TED.com 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC blog.ted.com [Source type: General]

.Assuming each particle of plastic averaged 5 mm x 5 mm, this would amount to only 8m2 per km2.^ The UN estimates that there are 18,000 pieces of plastic per square km of ocean, but in the North Pacific gyre the average density is much greater — an estimated 334,271 pieces per square kilometre.
  • The Great Pacific Garbage Patch is trapped in an oceanic vortex - Times Online 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.timesonline.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ It has a higher-than-normal amount of very fine plastic particles, which despite their size are quite dangerous for marine life, but you can't see it from the boat.
  • Can anyone find the great pacific garbage patch on google maps? : science 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.reddit.com [Source type: General]

^ It’s a huge area of ocean with higher-than-average concentrations of mostly-microscopic plastic particles.

.In many areas the overall concentration of plastics was seven-fold greater than the concentration of zooplankton.^ Plastic concentrates poisons such as PCBs at levels a million times higher than found in the water, according to Japanese researchers.
  • Junk journey highlights 'plastic soup' of Pacific Ocean | Green Tech - CNET News 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ "We found more than we anticipated, and in many ways a worse problem than we expected," Crowley said about the overall journey.
  • How our plastic use is coming back at us in waves | SURFLINE.COM 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.surfline.com [Source type: General]

^ Their studies found up to six times more plastic in the water than zooplankton , the small organisms normally found floating near the ocean's surface.
  • Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch: where world's trash collects-英语点津 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.chinadaily.com.cn [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Samples collected at deeper points in the water column found much lower levels of debris (primarily monofilament fishing line), confirming earlier observations that most plastic waste concentrates in the upper water column.^ Most of the plastic is photodegradable (breaks down in sunlight) and over time it collects in the middle of oceanic gyres and resembles a soupy, plastic-goop.
  • The Great Pacific Garbage Patch: Floating Heap of Debris Twice the Size of Texas! – Neatorama 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]
  • The Great Pacific Garbage Patch: Floating Heap of Debris Twice the Size of Texas! – » E-MailNeatorama 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

^ At any rate, the AMRF believes that the whole world's oceans may contain as much as 100 million tons of plastic debris.
  • 5 Things You Didn't Know: Garbage - AskMen.com Canada 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC ca.askmen.com [Source type: General]

^ The expedition will study how much debris - mostly tiny plastic fragments - is collecting in an expanse of sea known as the North Pacific Ocean Gyre, how that material is distributed and how it affects marine life.
  • News - Environment: Scientists to study Pacific garbage patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.iol.co.za [Source type: News]
  • Scientists study massive garbage patch at sea -- china.org.cn 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.china.org.cn [Source type: News]

[5]

Effect on wildlife

The remnants of a Laysan Albatross chick which was fed plastic by its parents resulting in death
.Some of these long-lasting plastics end up in the stomachs of marine birds and animals baby chicks,[8] including sea turtles, and the Black-footed Albatross.^ But it ended up in the sea.
  • The World's Rubbish Dump: A Garbage Tip That Stretches From Hawaii to Japan | CommonDreams.org 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Birds eat plastic scraps and it ends up killing them.
  • FuturePundit: Great Pacific Garbage Patch Keeps Getting Bigger 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.futurepundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sea turtle to eat plastic bag?

[24] .Besides the particles' danger to wildlife, the floating debris can absorb organic pollutants from seawater, including PCBs, DDT, and PAHs.^ These floating fragments can absorb organic pollutants in the water.
  • EarthShare: Environmental Quiz 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.earthshare.org [Source type: General]

^ Plastic contains many toxic chemicals; it also soaks up other dangerous substances already present in the ocean, like carcinogenic PCBs and DDT. .
  • Continents of garbage adrift in oceans 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.canada.com [Source type: News]
  • Oceans awash in plastic — Ecojustice (formerly Sierra Legal Defence Fund) 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.ecojustice.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Often, these plastic pieces have absorbed toxins and pollutants (such as PCBs and DDT) from the seawater, causing poisoning and endocrine disruption that works its way up the food chain.
  • Photographer Chris Jordan Leads Journey to Midway Atoll 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.yesmagazine.org [Source type: General]

[25] .Aside from toxic effects,[26] when ingested, some of these are mistaken by the endocrine system as estradiol, causing hormone disruption in the affected animal.^ Many of these chemicals have hormone disrupting properties that affect both animals and humans.
  • Plastic Waste is Turning the North Pacific Ocean Into a Garbage Dump 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.naturalnews.com [Source type: General]

^ These types of plastic were observed to be ingested by small marine animals, which later on ended up feeding larger fish, and so on.
  • North Pacific Garbage Patch Reveals Junk of All Sizes - Preliminary investigation results have just been released - Softpedia 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC news.softpedia.com [Source type: General]

^ Common chemicals in this group are proven endocrine disrupters, or gender benders, which interfere with the function of natural hormones.
  • The Planet Magazine - ARCHIVES - SPRING 2008 - "Great Pacific Garbage Patch" 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC planet.wwu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .These toxin-containing plastic pieces are also eaten by jellyfish, which are then eaten by larger fish.^ These fish are sometimes eaten, and then their predators and eaten by a yet larger animal.
  • Isn't it Time to Clean Up the Great Pacific Garbage Patch? : Planet Green 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC planetgreen.discovery.com [Source type: General]

^ The plastic and toxins it attracts have become a part of the Pacific Ocean’s ecosystem, killing everything from fish to birds to sea turtles [ San Diego Union-Tribune ].
  • Ships Set Sail to Examine the Vast Patch of Plastic in the Pacific Ocean | 80beats | Discover Magazine 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC blogs.discovermagazine.com [Source type: General]

^ The plastic pieces in the Great Pacific Garbage Patch contain toxic elements able to absorb other chemicals such as DDT and PCBs, and these components can persist in the environment for decades.
  • Greenwala - Who's To Blame For The Great Pacific Garbage Patch? Look In The Mirror. 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.greenwala.com [Source type: General]
  • Greenwala - Who's To Blame For The Great Pacific Garbage Patch? Look In The Mirror. 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.greenwala.com [Source type: General]

.Many of these fish are then consumed by humans, resulting in their ingestion of toxic chemicals.^ Plastic contains many toxic chemicals; it also soaks up other dangerous substances already present in the ocean, like carcinogenic PCBs and DDT. .
  • Continents of garbage adrift in oceans 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.canada.com [Source type: News]
  • Oceans awash in plastic — Ecojustice (formerly Sierra Legal Defence Fund) 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.ecojustice.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These tiny bits of plastic, which can absorb any number of toxic chemicals from ocean water, often are ingested by marine organisms that are themselves eaten by bigger fish that may be caught by commercial fishermen and eaten by American consumers as well as people from other countries.
  • Ohio.com - An ocean of a landfill, the Great Pacific Garbage Patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.ohio.com [Source type: News]
  • toledoblade.com -- 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.toledoblade.com [Source type: News]

^ These organisms are in turn eaten by fish and then, certainly in many cases, by humans.
  • Great Pacific Garbage Patch: Plastic Turning Vast Area of Ocean intoEcological Nightmare CHARLES MOORE / Santa Barbara News-Press 27oct02 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] .Marine plastics also facilitate the spread of invasive species that attach to floating plastic in one region and drift long distances to colonize other ecosystems.^ The North Pacific central gyre is a region of the Pacific Ocean between California and Hawaii in which ocean currents and wind patterns gather plastic and other debris into a central area.
  • blogfish: Ocean garbage mess and possible solutions 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC blogfishx.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ As small pieces of plastic are mistaken for fish eggs and other food by marine life, these toxins enter the food chain."
  • The Great Pacific Garbage Patch: A Continent of Plastic and Trash Threatens Birds and Marine Life 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC wildlifepreservation.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There has been research conducted and published on marine debris in the Atlantic, mainly on ingestion in Atlantic species of sea turtles and seabirds or nearshore trawls for plastic particles.
  • De-mystifying the "Great Pacific Garbage Patch" or "Trash Vortex" | Environment/Nature |Axisoflogic.com 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC axisoflogic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18]

Flotsam microhabitat

.On the other hand there are certain species of algae, crustaceans and fish that thrive on the microhabitat provided by floating junk.^ The beaches on those islands, because of their proximity to the currents known as the North Pacific Gyre, often are littered with cigarette lighters, fishing line, floats, toothbrushes, bottle caps and other floating junk, some of which is decades old.
  • Nation & World | Giant vortex of floating trash swirls in Pacific | Seattle Times Newspaper 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC seattletimes.nwsource.com [Source type: News]
  • Nation & World | Giant vortex of floating trash swirls in Pacific | Seattle Times Newspaper 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC seattletimes.nwsource.com [Source type: News]

^ There have been studies that have found small numbers of birds, as in 2 or 3, that have been killed from getting caught in abandoned nets or other fishing line.
  • FuturePundit: Great Pacific Garbage Patch Keeps Getting Bigger 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.futurepundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I just wish that the video had retained its credibility throughout: it ended with a line "it may be that in our lifetimes we see that there are no more fish species in the ocean."
  • Video: 20,000 Detergent Bottles Under the Sea | Mother Jones 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: General]

.Certain flotsam fishes, like the ocean triggerfish (Canthidermis), spend their larval or juvenile stage in the ocean and seek for flotsam thereafter.^ [Open-ocean] fish live under things like Styrofoam cups.
  • Visiting the Eastern Pacific Garbage Patch - Boing Boing 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: General]

^ Tags: derelict fishing nets , Great Pacific Garbage Patch , ocean garbage , Project Kaisei , recycling , robot You might also like: .
  • Hawaiian Garbage-to-Energy Plant Recycles Derelict Fishing Nets for Electricity : CleanTechnica 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC cleantechnica.com [Source type: General]
  • Hawaiian Garbage-to-Energy Plant Recycles Derelict Fishing Nets for Electricity : CleanTechnica 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC cleantechnica.com [Source type: General]

^ In the ocean, nurdles are easily mistaken for fish eggs by creatures that would very much like to have such a snack.
  • CDNN :: Plastic Ocean - The Great Pacific Garbage Patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.cdnn.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] .Before the abundance of present-day plastic-based debris many these organisms were associated with natural flotsam items, like floating dead trees or sargassum.^ Plastic contains many toxic chemicals; it also soaks up other dangerous substances already present in the ocean, like carcinogenic PCBs and DDT. .
  • Continents of garbage adrift in oceans 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.canada.com [Source type: News]
  • Oceans awash in plastic — Ecojustice (formerly Sierra Legal Defence Fund) 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.ecojustice.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a growing problem lurking off the Pacific Coast - a large floating island of debris, two times the size of Texas created from an abundance of plastics and trash.
  • A Look at the Great Pacific Garbage Patch: What to Tell Your Children about the Growing Isle of Ocean Garbage 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC parentingresources.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Estimates place the size of this floating island of garbage, debris or flotsam to be two to three times the size of Texas or 5 million square miles containing 100 million tons of debris.
  • A Look at the Great Pacific Garbage Patch: What to Tell Your Children about the Growing Isle of Ocean Garbage 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC parentingresources.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29]

Research and cleanup

Plastics harvesting nets mounted on a vessel
.In April 2008, Richard Sundance Owen, a building contractor and scuba dive instructor, formed the Environmental Cleanup Coalition to address the issue of North Pacific pollution.^ Many efforts, notably led by Richard Owen, a building contractor and scuba dive instructor, have been invested to clean up the Pacific Trash Vortex, but it is obvious that it would take many years before we see a significant reduction in its size.

^ Issue 4 April 2008 Welcome to the fourth issue of the QLPA CatchUp!
  • Litter Prevention News from the QLPA : April 08 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.qldlitter.com [Source type: News]

^ Some of the highest concentrations of plastic pollution in the environment are found floating in an area of the Pacific Ocean called the North Pacific Gyre.
  • Heal the Bay | Marine Debris: The Plastic Plague 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.healthebay.org [Source type: Academic]

.ECC collaborates with other groups to identify methods to safely remove plastic and persistent organic pollutants from the oceans.^ Q: How bad is plastic pollution in the oceans?
  • Message In A Bottle | Popular Science 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.popsci.com [Source type: General]

^ This past April, the Algalita Marine Research Foundation created its “ JUNKraft ” to expose the effects of plastics pollution in the ocean.
  • Group Sets Sail to Study Pacific Garbage Patch - Earth911.com 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC earth911.com [Source type: General]

^ Persistent Organic Pollutants Carried by Synthetic Polymers in the Ocean Environment.” Marine Pollution Bulletin , 54, 1230–1237.
  • Heal the Bay | Marine Debris: The Plastic Plague 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.healthebay.org [Source type: Academic]

[1][30]
.The JUNK raft project was a trans-Pacific sailing voyage from June to August 2008 made to highlight the plastic in the patch, organized by the Algalita Marine Research Foundation.^ By the way, as to photos, the Algalita Marine Research Foundation is documenting their research on their blog .
  • Newsvine - Giant garbage patch floating in Pacific 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.newsvine.com [Source type: General]

^ Voyage to the Plastic Frontier: the Alguita sails the Pacific .
  • Culture Change - Voyage to the Plastic Frontier: the Alguita sails the Pacific 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.culturechange.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sailing plastics to the Garbage Patch .
  • San Francisco Business Times: Sailing plastics to the Garbage Patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC sanfrancisco.bizjournals.com [Source type: News]

[31][32][33]
.Project Kaisei is a project to study and clean up the garbage patch launched in March 2009. In August 2009 two project vessels, the New Horizon and the Kaisei, embarked on a voyage to research the patch and determine the feasibility of commercial scale collection and recycling.^ It might be possible to clean up the Great Pacific Garbage patch .
  • Isn't it Time to Clean Up the Great Pacific Garbage Patch? : Planet Green 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC planetgreen.discovery.com [Source type: General]

^ This research collaboration was launched a month ago when two ships embarked to study the site.

^ In addition, Scripps partnered with Project Kaisei, an organization dedicated to studying the garbage patch and cleaning it up.
  • Sailing on the Plastic Seas 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC ucsdnews.ucsd.edu [Source type: News]

[34]
.The SEAPLEX expedition, a group of researchers from Scripps Institution of Oceanography, spent 19 days on the ocean in August, 2009 researching the patch.^ Ocean Champions » 2009 » August .

^ The concern is what kind of impact those plastic bits are having on the small critters on the low end of the ocean food chain,” Bob Knox, deputy director of research at Scripps, said on Monday after the ship had spent its first full day at sea.
  • The Floating Toxic Garbage Island « Fire Earth 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC feww.wordpress.com [Source type: News]

^ The expedition was led by a team of Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) graduate students, with support from University of California Ship Funds, the National Science Foundation (NSF) and Project Kaisei.
  • nsf.gov - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Scientists Find "Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch" - US National Science Foundation (NSF) 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.nsf.gov [Source type: News]
  • nsf.gov - National Science Foundation (NSF) News - Scientists Find "Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch" - US National Science Foundation (NSF) 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.nsf.gov [Source type: News]

.They took samples and spread awareness; two steps essential to the cleaning-up process.^ I hope they clean it up.
  • The Great Pacific Garbage Patch - CareCure Forums 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC sci.rutgers.edu [Source type: General]

^ I wish they could clean everything up but "free" market economics doesn't work that way.
  • The World's Rubbish Dump: A Garbage Tip That Stretches From Hawaii to Japan | CommonDreams.org 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ "They haven't finished processing the samples, but there was an exponential increase in the plastic," said Anna Cummins, who was also aboard and serves as Algalita's education adviser.
  • Junk journey highlights 'plastic soup' of Pacific Ocean | Green Tech - CNET News 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

[35]
.The Plastiki is a boat-building project by David Mayer de Rothschild hoping to highlight cleanup issues and sustainable plastic technologies.^ De Rothschild's passionate about plastic.
  • San Francisco Business Times: Sailing plastics to the Garbage Patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC sanfrancisco.bizjournals.com [Source type: News]

^ Posts Tagged ‘David de Rothschild’ .
  • David De Rothschild | Current Green Blog 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC blogs.current.com [Source type: General]

^ Human ingenuity has devised many fine applications for recycled plastic, but boat-building has not so far been one of them.
  • Drowning in plastic: The Great Pacific Garbage Patch is twice the size of France - Telegraph 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

[36]

References

  1. ^ a b Bradshaw, Kate (January 29, 2009), "The Great Garbage Swirl", Maui Time Weekly (Maui: Linear Publishing), http://www.mauitime.com/Articles-i-2009-01-29-68584.113117_The_great_garbage_swirl.html, retrieved April 26, 2009 
  2. ^ Burns, Judith (August 27, 2009), "Voyage confirms plastic pollution", BBC News (London: BBC), http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8225125.stm, retrieved February 26, 2010 
  3. ^ Cecil Adams Why don't we ever see pictures of the floating island of garbage? Straight Dope / Chicago Reader
  4. ^ Steve Gorman Scientists study huge plastic patch in Pacific Reuters
  5. ^ a b Moore, Charles; Moore, S. L.; Leecaster, M. K.; Weisberg, S. B. (4), "A Comparison of Plastic and Plankton in the North Pacific Central Gyre" (PDF), Marine Pollution Bulletin 42 (12): 1297–1300, 2001-12-01, doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(01)00114-X, http://www.alguita.com/gyre.pdf 
  6. ^ Day, Robert H.; Shaw, David G.; Ignell, Steven E. (4) (PDF), Quantitative distribution and characteristics of neustonic plastic in the North Pacific Ocean. Final Report to US Department of Commerce, National Marine Fisheries Service, Auke Bay Laboratory. Auke Bay, AK (published 1988), pp. 247–266, http://swfsc.noaa.gov/publications/TM/SWFSC/NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154_P247.PDF 
  7. ^ "After entering the ocean, however, neuston plastic is redistributed by currents and winds. For example, plastic entering the ocean in Japan is moved eastward by the Subarctic Current (in Subarctic Water) and the Kuroshio (in Transitional Water, Kawai 1972; Favorite et al. 1976; Nagata et al. 1986). In this way, the plastic is transported from high-density areas to low-density areas. In addition to this eastward movement, Ekman stress from winds tends to move surface waters from the subarctic and the subtropics toward the Transitional Water mass as a whole (see Roden 1970: fig. 5). Because of the convergent nature of this Ekman flow, densities tend to be high in Transitional Water. In addition, the generally convergent nature of water in the North Pacific Central Gyre (Masuzawa 1972) should result in high densities there also." Day, etc... 1988, p. 261 (Emphasis added)
  8. ^ a b Moore, Charles (November 2003), Across the Pacific Ocean, plastics, plastics, everywhere, Natural History Magazine, http://www.mindfully.org/Plastic/Ocean/Moore-Trashed-PacificNov03.htm 
  9. ^ Berton, Justin (October 19, 2007), "Continent-size toxic stew of plastic trash fouling swath of Pacific Ocean", San Francisco Chronicle (San Francisco: Hearst): W–8, Friday, October 19, http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/10/19/SS6JS8RH0.DTL, retrieved 2007-10-22 
  10. ^ Lovett, Richard A. (2 March 2010). "Huge Garbage Patch Found in Atlantic Too". National Geographic News. National Geographic Society. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/03/100302-new-ocean-trash-garbage-patch/. 
  11. ^ Victoria Gill (24 February 2010). "Plastic rubbish blights Atlantic Ocean". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/8534052.stm. Retrieved 16 March 2010. 
  12. ^ http://www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSN03543992
  13. ^ a b http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/the-worlds-rubbish-dump-a-garbage-tip-that-stretches-from-hawaii-to-japan-778016.html
  14. ^ La Canna, Xavier (February 4, 1999), "Floating rubbish dump 'bigger than US'", News.com.au (Australia: news.com.au), Friday, February 4, http://www.news.com.au/story/0,23599,23156399-2,00.html, retrieved 2008-02-26 
  15. ^ "Plastics patch found across 1,700 miles of Pacific". Reuters UK. 2009-08-28. Archived from the original on 2009-09-30. http://www.webcitation.org/5kAx7wmnL. Retrieved 2009-09-30. 
  16. ^ "'Pacific Garbage Patch' expedition finds plastic, plastic everywhere". Silicon Valley Mercury News. 2009-09-01. Archived from the original on 2009-09-30. http://www.webcitation.org/5kB6VsX7f. Retrieved 2009-09-30. 
  17. ^ Clemmitt, Marcia. "New Rules Sought for 'Floating Cities.'" Saving the Oceans 15.39 (4 Nov. 2005): n. pag. CQ Researcher Online. Web. 5 Oct. 2009. <http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre2005110420&type=hitlist>.
  18. ^ a b Ferris, David (May/June 2009), "Message in a bootttttllleeee", Sierra (San Francisco: Sierra Club), http://sierraclub.org/sierra/200905/message.aspx, retrieved August 13, 2009 
  19. ^ Faris, J. and Hart, K. (1994), Seas of Debris: A Summary of the Third International Conference on Marine Debris, N.C. Sea Grant College Program and NOAA 
  20. ^ Garbage Mass Is Growing in the Pacific, National Public Radio, 2008-03-28, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=89099470 
  21. ^ "International Pellet Watch". Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Dr. Hideshige Takada. http://www.tuat.ac.jp/~gaia/ipw/index.html. Retrieved 2009-05-27. 
  22. ^ Thompson, Richard C. (2004-05-07). "Lost at Sea: Where Is All the Plastic?,". Science 304 (5672): 843. doi:10.1126/science.1094559. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/304/5672/838/DC1. Retrieved 2008-07-19. 
  23. ^ Barry, Carolyn (2009-08-20). "Plastic Breaks Down in Ocean, After All -- And Fast". National Geographic News. National Geographic Society. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/08/090820-plastic-decomposes-oceans-seas.html. Retrieved 2009-08-30. 
  24. ^ a b Moore, Charles (2002-10-02), Great Pacific Garbage Patch, Santa Barbara News-Press 
  25. ^ Rios, L.M.; Moore, C. and Jones, P.R. (2007), "Persistent organic pollutants carried by Synthetic polymers in the ocean environment", Marine Pollution Bulletin 54: 1230–1237, doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2007.03.022 
  26. ^ Tanabe, S.; Watanabe, M., Minh, T.B., Kunisue, T., Nakanishi, S., Ono, H. and Tanaka, H. (2004), "PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs in albatross from the North Pacific and Southern Oceans: Levels, patterns, and toxicological implications", Environmental Science & Technology 38: 403–413, doi:10.1021/es034966x 
  27. ^ Rogers, Paul. "'Pacific Garbage Patch' expedition finds plastic, plastic everywhere." The Contra Costa Times [Walnut Creek, CA] 1 Sept. 2009: n. pag. Web. 4 Oct. 2009. <http://www.contracostatimes.com/search/ ci_13258216?nclick_check=1>.
  28. ^ Flotsam Ichthyofauna in the Tropical Waters of the West Pacific Ocean
  29. ^ Fedoryako, B.I. 1980 The Ichthyofauna of the surface waters of Sargasso sea south-west of Bermuda. J.Ichthyol. 20(4):1-9.
  30. ^ The Environmental Cleanup Coalition's "Gyre Cleanup" plan
  31. ^ "A raft made of junk crosses Pacific in 3 months". USA Today. 2008-08-28. Archived from the original on 2009-09-30. http://www.webcitation.org/5kBAZoJrO. Retrieved 2009-09-30. 
  32. ^ "Raft made of junk bottles crosses Pacific". msnbc. 2008-08-28. Archived from the original on 2009-09-30. http://www.webcitation.org/5kBAjTVWI. Retrieved 2009-09-30. 
  33. ^ "Mid-ocean dinner date saves rower". BBC News. 2008-08-20. Archived from the original on 2009-09-30. http://www.webcitation.org/5kBAnV1JI. Retrieved 2009-09-30. 
  34. ^ Walsh, Bryan (1 August 2009). "Expedition Sets Sail to the Great Plastic Vortex". Time. http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1914145,00.html. Retrieved 2 August 2009. 
  35. ^ Staff Writers. "Scientists Find 'Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch.'" Space Daily 2 Sept. 2009: n. pag. Gale. Web. 12 Oct. 2009. <http://find.galegroup.com>.
  36. ^ Maria L. La Ganga "Trash floats eco-warrior's boat" Los Angeles Times 21 Feb 2010 http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-plastiki21-2010feb21,0,728915.story.

Further reading

  • Oliver J. Dameron; Michael Parke, Mark A. Albins and Russell Brainard (April 2007). ."Marine debris accumulation in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: An examination of rates and processes". Marine Pollution Bulletin 54 (4): 423–433. 
  • Rei Yamashita; Atsushi Tanimura (2007).^ Marine Pollution Bulletin 54: 1162-1169.
    • Marine Debris Program - Funding Opportunities 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC marinedebris.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Marine Pollution Bulletin 54: 1207-1211.
    • Marine Debris Program - Funding Opportunities 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC marinedebris.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In the peer review journal, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Charles Moore estimated the plastic mass in the Pacific Gyre to be six times that of plankton.
    • Ole Nielsen - Pacific Garbage Patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC my.opera.com [Source type: General]

    ."Floating plastic in the Kuroshio Current area, western North Pacific Ocean". Marine Pollution Bulletin 54 (4): 485–488. 
  • Masahisa Kubota; Katsumi Takayama and Noriyuki Horii (2000).^ Some of the highest concentrations of plastic pollution in the environment are found floating in an area of the Pacific Ocean called the North Pacific Gyre.
    • Heal the Bay | Marine Debris: The Plastic Plague 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.healthebay.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The North Pacific Gyre is a clockwise rotation of ocean currents in the North Pacific.
    • The Sargasso Sea and the Pacific Garbage Patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC skeptoid.com [Source type: General]
    • The Sargasso Sea and the Pacific Garbage Patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC skeptoid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Floating island of garbage pacific ocean?
    • WikiAnswers - How large is the floating island of garbage that collects in the middle of the ocean 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: News]

    ."Movement and accumulation of floating marine debris simulated by surface currents derived from satellite data" (pdf).^ A mechanism for the accumulation of floating marine debris north of Hawaii.
    • Marine Debris Program - Funding Opportunities 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC marinedebris.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The plastic that makes up some 90 percent of the debris breaks down into smaller and smaller pieces that float below the ocean's surface but do not biodegrade.
    • Ohio.com - An ocean of a landfill, the Great Pacific Garbage Patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.ohio.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Most of the debris consists of small plastic particles suspended at or just below the water surface, making it impossible to detect by aircraft or satellite images.
    • The Floating Toxic Garbage Island « Fire Earth 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC feww.wordpress.com [Source type: News]
    • News - Environment: Scientists to study Pacific garbage patch 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.iol.co.za [Source type: News]
    • US scientists study huge plastic patch in Pacific - Mail & Guardian Online: The smart news source 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.mg.co.za [Source type: General]

    .School of Marine Science and Technology, Tokai University.^ On January 12th, he will present at the Marine Science Center at Northeastern University Nahant, Massachusetts.

    ^ On January 12th, he will present at the Marine Science Center at Northeastern University Nahant , Massachusetts.

    .http://www.aviso.oceanobs.com/fileadmin/documents/OSTST/2000/kubota.pdf.
     
  • Gregory, M.R.; Ryan, P.G. (1997).^ Bioaccumulation is the more important issue (described well at http://www.thechicecologist.com/2009/06/pacific-plastic-trash-island/ .
    • Floating toxic plastic garbage island twice the size of Texas - Boing Boing 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: General]

    ^ MNT5T1NER.DTL http://www.physorg.com/news112248742.html http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/ .
    • Are There Really 'Continents' of Floating Garbage? 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.dailygalaxy.com [Source type: General]
    • Are There Really 'Continents' of Floating Garbage? 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.dailygalaxy.com [Source type: General]

    ^ URL (ex: http://www.mydomain.com) .
    • An Ocean of Rubbish - Travel Info 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.been-seen.com [Source type: General]

    ."Pelagic plastics and other seaborne persistent synthetic debris: a review of Southern Hemisphere perspectives". in Coe, J.M., Rogers, D.B..^ But modern plastics do not break down like other oceanic debris, meaning objects half a century old have been found in the North Pacific Gyre.
    • Marine Depot Blog: "Trash Island" discovered in the Pacific Ocean 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC blog.marinedepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Litter Prevention News from the QLPA : April 08 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.qldlitter.com [Source type: News]

    ^ J.G.B. Derraik, “The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review” Marine Pollution Bulletin 44 (2002): 843; Gregory, M.R., Ryan, P.G. “Pelagic plastics and other seaborne persistent synthetic debris: a review of Southern Hemisphere perspectives” in Coe, J.M. Rogers, D.B. (Eds.
    • Heal the Bay | Marine Debris: The Plastic Plague 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.healthebay.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A swirling sea of plastic bags, bottles and other debris is growing in the North Pacific, described by researchers who sailed there this summer as 'shocking.'
    • What is the Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch? | MNN - Mother Nature Network 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.mnn.com [Source type: General]

    .Marine Debris: Sources, Impacts, Solutions.^ D.W. Laist (1997) “Impacts of marine debris: entanglement of marine life in marine debris including a comprehensive list of species with entanglement and ingestion records” In Coe, J.M., Rogers, D.B. (Eds.
    • Heal the Bay | Marine Debris: The Plastic Plague 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.healthebay.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Marine Debris—Sources, Impacts, and Solutions: Springer-Verlag, New York, 99-139.
    • Heal the Bay | Marine Debris: The Plastic Plague 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.healthebay.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It is estimated that 80% of marine debris comes from land-based sources, while only 20% comes from the sea-based sources, such as from ships and boats.
    • Heal the Bay | Marine Debris: The Plastic Plague 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.healthebay.org [Source type: Academic]

    .New York: Springer-Verlag.^ Marine Debris—Sources, Impacts, and Solutions: Springer-Verlag, New York, 99-139.
    • Heal the Bay | Marine Debris: The Plastic Plague 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.healthebay.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Marine Debris—Sources, Impacts and Solutions , (1997) Springer-Verlag, New York, pp.
    • Heal the Bay | Marine Debris: The Plastic Plague 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.healthebay.org [Source type: Academic]

    pp. 49–66. 
  • .
  • A comparison of plastic and plankton in the North Pacific Central Gyre — Charles J Moore, Shelly L Moore, Molly K Leecaster and Stephen B Weisberg
  • Density of plastic particles found in zooplankton trawls from coastal waters of California to the North Pacific Central Gyre — Charles J Moore, Gwen L Lattin and Ann F Zellers
  • The quantitative distribution and characteristics of neuston plastic in the North Pacific Ocean, 1984-1988 — R H Day, D G Shaw and S E Ignell (1988)
  • Thomas Morton, ‘Oh, This is Great, Humans Have Finally Ruined the Ocean’, Vice Magazine, Vol.^ While scientists have documented trash's harmful effects for coastal marine life, there's little research on garbage patches, which were first explored extensively by self-trained ocean researcher Charles Moore just a decade ago.
    • Pacific Ocean garbage patch worries researchers 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.sfgate.com [Source type: News]
    • Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch Worries Researchers - US News and World Report 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.usnews.com [Source type: News]
    • Growth of Ocean ‘Garbage Patch’ Alarms Experts | CommonDreams.org 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Gyres are found in all the world’s oceans; the garbage debris problem in the North Pacific Gyre has relatives elsewhere.
    • The North Pacific Gyre: 100 Million Tons of Garbage and Growing  | Environmental Graffiti 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.environmentalgraffiti.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The toxic soup of refuse was discovered in 1997 when Charles Moore, an oceanographer, decided to travel through the centre of the North Pacific gyre (a vortex or circular ocean current).
    • Mission to break up Pacific island of rubbish twice the size of Texas - Times Online 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.timesonline.co.uk [Source type: News]

    6, No. .2 (2007), pp. 78–81.
  • Hoshaw, Lindsey (2009-11-09).^ Banned Group: Banned Posts: 2,540 Joined: 11-April 06 Posted 09 May 2007 - 05:03 AM .
    • Texas Size Patch of Trash Floating in Pacific - Unexplained Mysteries Discussion Forums 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.unexplained-mysteries.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ."Afloat in the Ocean, Expanding Islands of Trash".^ Afloat in the Ocean, Expanding Islands of Trash (November 10, 2009) Sea of Trash (June 22, 2008) Related Searches .
    • Researchers Explore Growing Ocean Garbage Patches - NYTimes.com 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

    ^ World U.S. N.Y. / Region Business Technology Science Environment Space & Cosmos Health Sports Opinion Arts Style Travel Jobs Real Estate Autos Advertise on NYTimes.com Afloat in the Ocean, Expanding Islands of Trash .
    • Researchers Explore Growing Ocean Garbage Patches - NYTimes.com 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

    ^ I don't know that stats on how much trash is in the ocean, but I'd believe that if it were swirled together in one area, it would easily make a small continent or island.
    • Are There Really 'Continents' of Floating Garbage? 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.dailygalaxy.com [Source type: General]

    .New York Times.^ The New York Times Colin's Headline Grab 4 days ago Islamic Radicalization: Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab .
    • Now this is happening: Pacific garbage patch - Colin Horgan - Yesterday's Weirdness - True/Slant 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC trueslant.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (Or: How the New York Times filleted me on the front page of the Style section) Colin Commented 3 days ago “First of all, this piece was really interesting...
    • Now this is happening: Pacific garbage patch - Colin Horgan - Yesterday's Weirdness - True/Slant 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC trueslant.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Enlarge This Image Lindsey Hoshaw for The New York Times Mr. Moore holds a bottle covered with barnacles and algae, indicating it had been in the water for a long time.
    • Researchers Explore Growing Ocean Garbage Patches - NYTimes.com 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

    .http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/10/science/10patch.html?_r=1&hpw.^ More information and a picture: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2009-08/nsf-sf082709.php .
    • Newsvine - Giant garbage patch floating in Pacific 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.newsvine.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Steve said at November 11, 2009 3:29 AM : Go here to see what this actually means to birds: http://www.chrisjordan.com/current_set2.php?id=11 It's horrifying.
    • FuturePundit: Great Pacific Garbage Patch Keeps Getting Bigger 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC www.futurepundit.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Permalink and just to show how a big country responds to this stuff, see the post at Daily Kos: http://www.dailykos.com/story/2009/10/19/795070/-The-albatross-around-all-our-necks .
    • Roadkill of the week: life & death in the Pacific Garbage Patch – The Northern Myth 11 January 2010 8:54 UTC blogs.crikey.com.au [Source type: General]

    Retrieved 2009-11-10
    . 

External links


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 30, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Great Pacific Garbage Patch, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message