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The Great Sphinx of Giza, Giza, Egypt.

The Great Sphinx of Giza is a statue of a reclining lion with a human head that stands on the Giza Plateau in Giza on the west bank of the Nile, near modern-day Cairo, in Egypt. It is the largest monolith statue in the world, standing 73.5 metres (241 ft) long, 6 metres (20 ft) wide, and 20.22 m (66.34 ft) high.[1] It is the oldest known monumental sculpture, and is commonly believed to have been built by ancient Egyptians of Old Kingdom in 2555 BC to 2532 BC.[1][2]


Origin and identity

The Great Sphinx is one of the world's largest and oldest statues, but basic facts about it, such as who was the model for the face, when it was built, and by whom, are still debated. These questions have resulted in the popular idea of the "Riddle of the Sphinx,"[3] although this phrase should not be confused with the original Greek legend of The Riddle of the Sphinx.


Names of the Sphinx

It is not known by what name the original creators called their statue, as the Great Sphinx does not appear in any known inscription of the Old Kingdom, and there are no inscriptions anywhere describing its construction or its original purpose. The commonly used name Sphinx was given to it in Classical antiquity, about 2000 years after the accepted date of its construction, by reference to a Greek mythological beast with a lion's body, a woman's head and the wings of an eagle (although like most Egyptian sphinxes, the Great Sphinx has a man's head and no wings). The English word sphinx comes from the Ancient Greek Σφιγξ (sphinx), apparently from the verb σφιγγω (sphingo, English: I strangle), after the Greek sphinx who strangled anyone who failed to answer her riddle.

The Great Sphinx in about 1880, partly under the sand
The Great Sphinx partially excavated

The name may alternatively be a corruption of the Ancient Egyptian Ssp-anx (in MdC), a name given to royal statues of the Fourth Dynasty (25752467 BC and later) in the New Kingdom (circa 15701070 BC) to the Great Sphinx more specifically, although phonetically the two names are far from identical.

In the New Kingdom, the Sphinx was also called Hor-em-akhet (Horus of the Horizon) (Hellenized: Harmachis), and the Pharaoh Thutmose IV (14011391 or 13971388 BC)[4] specifically referred to it as such in his Dream Stele.

Medieval Arab writers, including al-Maqrīzī, call the Sphinx balhib and bilhaw, which suggest a Coptic influence. The modern Egyptian Arabic name is أبو الهول (transliteration: Abū al-Hūl; English: Father of Terror).

Builder and timeframe

Despite conflicting evidence and viewpoints over the years, the traditional view held by modern Egyptologists at large remains that the Great Sphinx was built in approximately 2500 BC by the pharaoh Djedefre, the supposed builder of the second pyramid at Giza.[5]

Selim Hassan, writing in 1949 on recent excavations of the Sphinx enclosure, summed up the problem:

Taking all things into consideration, it seems that we must give the credit of erecting this, the world’s most wonderful statue, to Khafre, but always with this reservation that there is not one single contemporary inscription which connects the Sphinx with Khafre, so sound as it may appear, we must treat the evidence as circumstantial, until such time as a lucky turn of the spade of the excavator will reveal to the world a definite reference to the erection of the Sphinx.[6]

The Sphinx against Khafra’s pyramid

The "circumstantial" evidence mentioned by Hassan includes the Sphinx's location in the context of the funerary complex surrounding the Second Pyramid, which is traditionally connected with Khafra.[7] Apart from the Causeway, the Pyramid and the Sphinx, the complex also includes the Sphinx Temple and the Valley Temple, both of which display the same architectural style, with 200-tonne stone blocks quarried out of the Sphinx Enclosure.

A diorite statue of Khafra, which was discovered buried upside down along with other debris in the Valley Temple, is claimed as support for the Khafra theory.

The Dream Stela, erected much later by Pharaoh Thutmose IV (14011391 or 1397-1388 BC), associates the Sphinx with Khafra. When the stela was discovered, its lines of text were already damaged and incomplete, and only referred to Khaf, not Khafra. An extract was translated:

...which we bring for him: oxen ... and all the young vegetables; and we shall give praise to Wenofer ... Khaf ... the statue made for Atum-Hor-em-Akhet.[8]

The Egyptologist Thomas Young, finding the Khaf hieroglyphs in a damaged cartouche used to surround a royal name, inserted the glyph ra to complete Khafra's name. However, the stela offers no indication of the relationship between the Sphinx and 'Khafra' – as its builder, restorer, worshipper or otherwise. When the Stela was re-excavated in 1925, the lines of text referring to Khaf flaked off and were destroyed.

Dissenting hypotheses

Some Egyptologists and geologists have disagreed with the mainstream theories of construction, and have proposed various alternative theories — about the builder or the dating — to explain the Sphinx's construction.

One theory by French Egyptologist Vassil Dobrev states that the builder of the Sphinx may have been Khafre's successor, Djedefre, at some point in his reign of (2528-2520 BC). It is thought to have been made in the likeness of his predecessor and father Khufu.[9]

Early Egyptologists

Many of the early Egyptologists and excavators of the Giza pyramid complex believed the Great Sphinx and other structures in the Sphinx Enclosure predated the traditional date of construction (the reign of Khafra or Khephren, 25202492 BC).

In 1857, Auguste Mariette, founder of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, unearthed the much later Inventory Stela (estimated Dynasty XXVI, c. 678-525 BC), which tells how Khufu came upon the Sphinx, already buried in sand. Although certain tracts on the Stela are considered good evidence,[10] this passage is widely dismissed as Late Period historical revisionism.[11]

Gaston Maspero, the French Egyptologist and second Director of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, conducted a survey of the Sphinx in 1886 and concluded:

The Sphinx stela shows, in line thirteen, the cartouche of Khephren. I believe that to indicate an excavation carried out by that prince, following which, the almost certain proof that the Sphinx was already buried in sand by the time of Khafre and his predecessors [in Dynasty IV, c. 2575-2467 BC].[12]

In 1904, English Egyptologist E. A. Wallis Budge wrote in The Gods of the Egyptians:

This marvelous object [the Great Sphinx] was in existence in the days of Khafre, or Khephren, and it is probable that it is a very great deal older than his reign and that it dates from the end of the archaic period [c. 2686 BC].[13]

Modern revisionist scholars

Rainer Stadelmann, former director of the German Archaeological Institute in Cairo, examined the distinct iconography of the nemes (headdress) and the now-detached beard of the Sphinx and concluded that the style is more indicative of the Pharaoh Khufu (25892566 BC), builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza and Khafra's father.[14] He supports this by suggesting that Khafra’s Causeway was built to conform to a pre-existing structure, which, he concludes, given its location, could only have been the Sphinx.[11]

Colin Reader, an English geologist who independently conducted a more recent survey of the Enclosure, points out that the various quarries on the site have been excavated around the Causeway. Because these quarries are known to have been used by Khufu, Reader concludes that the Causeway (and thus the temples on either end thereof) must predate Khufu, thereby casting doubt on the conventional Egyptian chronology.[11]

In 2004, Vassil Dobrev of the Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale in Cairo announced that he had uncovered new evidence that the Great Sphinx may have been the work of the little-known Pharaoh Djedefre (25282520 BC), Khafra's half brother and a son of Khufu. Dobrev suggests that Djedefre built the Sphinx in the image of his father Khufu, identifying him with the sun god Ra in order to restore respect for their dynasty. Dobrev also notes, like Stadelmann and others, that the causeway connecting Khafre's pyramid to the temples was built around the Sphinx suggesting it was already in existence at the time.[14]

Frank Domingo, a forensic scientist in the New York City Police Department and an expert forensic anthropologist,[15] used detailed measurements of the Sphinx, forensic drawings and computer imaging to conclude that Khafra, as depicted on extant statuary, was not the model for the Sphinx's face.[16]

Water erosion debate

R. A. Schwaller de Lubicz, a French polymath and amateur Egyptologist, first noticed evidence of water erosion on the walls of the Sphinx Enclosure in the 1950s. Author John Anthony West investigated further and in 1989 sought the opinion of a geologist, Robert M. Schoch, associate professor of natural science at the College of General Studies, Boston University.[17]

From his investigation of the Enclosure's geology, Schoch concluded that the main type of weathering evident on the Sphinx Enclosure walls could only have been caused by prolonged and extensive rain.[18] According to Schoch, the area has experienced a mean annual rainfall of approximately one inch (2.5 cm) since the Old Kingdom (c. 26862134 BC), and since Egypt’s last period of significant rainfall ended between the late fourth and early third millennia BC,[19] he dates the Sphinx's construction to the sixth or fifth millennia BC.[20][21][22]

Colin Reader agrees that the evidence of weathering indicates prolonged water erosion. Reader found, inter alia, that the flow of rainwater causing the weathering had been stemmed by the construction of 'Khufu's quarries',[23] which lie directly "upstream" of the Sphinx Enclosure, and therefore concludes that the Sphinx must predate the reign of Khufu (25892566 BC), and certainly Khafra, by several hundred years. Reader however disagrees with Schoch's palaeometerological estimates, and instead concludes that the Sphinx dates to the Early Dynastic Period (c. 3150-2686 BC).[11]

David Coxill, a geologist working independently of both Schoch and Reader, concludes from the evidence of weathering in the Enclosure:

the Sphinx is at least 5,000 years old and pre-dates dynastic times [before 3100 BC].[3]

Most Egyptologists, dating the building of the Sphinx to Khafra's reign (2520-2492 BC), do not accept the Water Erosion Theory. Alternative explanations for the evidence of weathering, from Aeolian processes and acid rain to exfoliation, haloclasty, thermal expansion, and even the poor quality limestone of the Sphinx, have been put forward by Egyptologists and geologists, including Mark Lehner,[17] James A. Harrell of the University of Toledo,[24] Lal Gauri, John J. Sinai and Jayanta K. Bandyopadhyay,[25] Alex Bordeau,[26] and Lambert Dolphin, a former senior research physicist at SRI International.[27]

The chief proponents of the Water Erosion Theory and others have rejected these alternative explanations. Reader, for example, points to the tombs dug into the Enclosure walls during Dynasty XXVI (c. 600 BC), and notes that the entrances of the tombs have weathered so lightly that original chisel marks are still clearly visible. He points out that if the weathering on the Enclosure walls (up to a metre deep in places) had been created by any of the proposed alternative causes of erosion, the tomb entrances would have been weathered much more severely.[28] Similarly, Schoch points out that the alternative explanations do not account for the absence of similar weathering patterns on other rock surfaces in the complex.[21]

Fringe hypotheses

The Sphinx attracts many theories which are generally not accepted by mainstream Egyptologists or are not supported by scientific evidence.

Orion Correlation Theory

This theory by popular authors Graham Hancock and Robert Bauval[29] is based on the proposed exact correlation of the three pyramids at Giza with the three stars ζ Ori, ε Ori and δ Ori, the stars forming Orion's Belt, in the relative positions occupied by these stars in 10 500 BC. The authors argue that the geographic relationship of the Sphinx, the Giza pyramids and the Nile directly corresponds with Leo, Orion and the Milky Way, respectively. Sometimes cited as an example of pseudoarchaeology, the theory is at variance with mainstream scholarship; Bauval and Hancock in turn say that archaeologists are engaged in a conspiracy to ignore or suppress evidence contradicting the established scholarly consensus.[30][31][32]

Recent research on climate change

Recent studied by Rudolph Kuper and Stefan Kröpeli, German climatologists, and geologist Judith Bunbury suggest that the change from a green Sahara to a much drier climate occurred later than had been thought, and thus the Sphinx was built during a period of heavy rainfall. Mark Lehner now suggests that this may have resulted in the limestone of the Sphinx crumbling and flaking, which he refers to as the "scouring" of the Sphinx. “If I’m right, this episode could represent a kind of ‘tipping point’ between different climate states—from the wetter conditions of Khufu and Khafre’s era to a much drier environment in the last centuries of the Old Kingdom.”[33]

Racial characteristics

The face of the Sphinx has been damaged over the millennia, making conclusive racial identification difficult. However, several authors have commented on its apparent "Negroid" or Ethiopian characteristics.[34][35] This issue has become part of the Ancient Egyptian race controversy, with respect to the ancient population as a whole.[36]


After the Giza Necropolis was abandoned, the Sphinx became buried up to its shoulders in sand. The first documented attempt at an excavation dates to c. 1400 BC, when the young Thutmose IV (1401-1391 or 1397-1388 BC) gathered a team and, after much effort, managed to dig out the front paws, between which he placed a granite slab, known as the Dream Stela, inscribed with the following (an extract):

...the royal son, Thothmos, being arrived, while walking at midday and seating himself under the shadow of this mighty god, was overcome by slumber and slept at the very moment when Ra is at the summit [of heaven]. He found that the Majesty of this august god spoke to him with his own mouth, as a father speaks to his son, saying: Look upon me, contemplate me, O my son Thothmos; I am thy father, Harmakhis-Khopri-Ra-Tum; I bestow upon thee the sovereignty over my domain, the supremacy over the living ... Behold my actual condition that thou mayest protect all my perfect limbs. The sand of the desert whereon I am laid has covered me. Save me, causing all that is in my heart to be executed.[37]

Later, Ramesses II the Great (1279-1213 BC) may have undertaken a second excavation.

Mark Lehner, an Egyptologist, originally asserted that there had been a far earlier renovation during the Old Kingdom (c. 2686-2184 BC),[38] although he has subsequently recanted this "heretical" viewpoint.[39]

In AD 1817, the first modern archaeological dig, supervised by the Italian Captain Giovanni Battista Caviglia, uncovered the Sphinx’s chest completely. The entire Sphinx was finally excavated in 1925.

Missing nose and beard

Limestone fragments of the Sphinx's beard

The one-metre-wide nose on the face is missing. The Egyptian Arab historian al-Maqrīzī, writing in the fifteenth century AD, attributes the loss to iconoclasm by Muhammad Sa'im al-Dahr, a Sufi Muslim fanatic from the khanqah of Sa'id al-Su'ada. In AD 1378, upon finding the Egyptian peasants making offerings to the Sphinx in the hope of increasing their harvest, Sa'im al-Dahr was so outraged that he destroyed the nose, and was hanged for vandalism. Al-Maqrīzī describes the Sphinx as the “talisman of the Nile” on which the locals believed the flood cycle depended. Some legends claim that the nose was broken off by a cannonball fired by Napoléon’s soldiers and that legend still lives on today. Other variants indict British troops, the Mamluks, and others. However, sketches of the Sphinx by the Dane Frederic Louis Norden, made in 1737 and published in 1755, illustrate the Sphinx already without a nose.

In addition to the lost nose, a ceremonial pharaonic beard is thought to have been attached, although this may have been added in later periods after the original construction. Egyptologist Vassil Dobrev has suggested that had the beard been an original part of the Sphinx, it would have damaged the chin of the statue upon falling.[14] The lack of visible damage supports his theory that the beard was a later addition.


Colin Reader has proposed that the Sphinx was probably the focus of solar worship in the Early Dynastic Egypt, before the Giza Plateau became a necropolis in the Old Kingdom (26862134 BC).[28] He ties this in with his conclusions that the Sphinx, the Sphinx temple, the Causeway and the Khafra Mortuary Temple are all part of a complex which predates the 4th Dynasty. The lion has long been a symbol associated with the sun in ancient Near Eastern civilizations. Images depicting the Egyptian king in the form of a lion smiting his enemies date as far back as the Early Dynastic.

In the New Kingdom, the Sphinx became more specifically associated with the god Hor-em-akhet (Hellenized: Harmachis) or Horus at the Horizon, which represented the pharaoh in his role as the Shesep-ankh (Living Image) of Atum. Pharaoh Amenhotep II (1427-1401 or 1397 BC) built a temple to the north east of the Sphinx nearly 1000 years after its construction, and dedicated it to the cult of Hor-em-akhet.

Mysterious Chamber Under the Sphinx Paw

In 1996, a team of archaeologist found a hidden chamber underneath the paws of the sphinx by using ultrasound from the surface. The last known investigation into this was done in 1998 and nothing more came of it. Supposedly, this chamber may have held a pool or was flooded and this was one reason why Dr. Zahi Hawass did not pursue opening it because of possible risk to the structural integrity of the Sphinx. To this day, no one knows what this chamber contains.

Images over the centuries

In the last 700 years there have been a proliferation of travelers and reports from Lower Egypt, unlike Upper Egypt, which was seldom reported from prior to the mid-18th century. Alexandria, Rosetta, Damietta, Cairo and the Giza Pyramids are described repeatedly, but not necessarily comprehensively. Many travellers, such as George Sandys, André Thévet, Athanasius Kircher, Balthasar de Monconys, Jean de Thévenot, John Greaves, Johann Michael Vansleb, Benoît de Maillet, Cornelis de Bruijn, Paul Lucas, Richard Pococke, Frederic Louis Norden and others, gained fame and fortune due to their often highly popular works. But there is an even larger crowd of more anonymous people who wrote obscure and little-read works, sometimes only unpublished manuscripts in libraries or private collections, including Henry Castela, Hans Ludwig von Lichtenstein, Michael Heberer von Bretten, Wilhelm von Boldensele, Pierre Belon du Mans, Vincent Stochove, Christophe Harant, Gilles Fermanel, Robert Fauvel, Jean Palerne Foresien, Willian Lithgow, Joos van Ghistele, etc.

Over the centuries, writers and scholars have recorded their impressions and reactions upon seeing the Sphinx. The vast majority were concerned with a general description, often including a mixture of science, romance and mystique. A typical description of the Sphinx by tourists and leisure travelers throughout the 19th and 20th century was made by John Lawson Stoddard;

It is the antiquity of the Sphinx which thrills us as we look upon it, for in itself it has no charms. The desert’s waves have risen to its breast, as if wrap the monster in a winding-sheet of gold. The face and head have been mutilated by Moslem fanatics. The mouth, the beauty of whose lips was once admired, is now expressionless. Yet grand in its loneliness, - veiled in the mystery of unnamed ages, - the relic of Egyptian antiquity stands solemn and silent in the presence of the awful desert – symbol of eternity. Here it disputes with Time the empire of the past; forever gazing on and on into a future which will still be distant when we, like all who have preceded us and looked upon its face, have lived our little lives and disappeared. John L. Stoddard's Lectures (1898) 2, 111.

From the 16th century far into the 19th century, observers repeatedly noted that the Sphinx has the face, neck and breast of a woman. Examples included Johannes Helferich (1579), George Sandys (1615), Johann Michael Vansleb (1677), Benoît de Maillet (1735) and Elliot Warburton (1844).

When one looks at the pencil and paint renderings by European travellers (see the gallery below), one realizes that it took Europeans some time to focus accurately on the image of the Sphinx. Seven years after visiting Giza, André Thévet (Cosmographie de Levant, 1556) described the Sphinx as "the head of a colossus, cause to be made by Isis, daughter of Inachus, then so beloved of Jupiter". He pictured it as a curly-haired monster with a grassy dog collar. Athanasius Kircher (who never visited Egypt) depicted the Sphinx as a Roman statue, reflecting his ability to conceptualize (Turris Babel, 1679). Johannes Helferich's (1579) Sphinx is a pinched-face, round-breasted woman with straight hair; the only edge over Thevet is that the hair suggests the flaring lappets of the headdress. George Sandys stated that the Sphinx was a harlot; Balthasar de Monconys interpreted the headdress as a kind of hairnet, while François de La Boullaye-Le Gouz's Sphinx had a rounded hairdo with bulky collar.

Richard Pococke's Sphinx was an adoption of Cornelis de Bruijn's drawing of 1698, featuring only minor changes, but is closer to the actual appearance of the Sphinx than anything previous. Norden made the first nearly true drawing of the Sphinx (Voyage d'Egypte et de Nubie, 1755) and he was the first known to depict clearly that the nose was missing.

In 2008, the film 10,000 BC showed a supposed original Sphinx with a lion's head. Before the film, the theory was presented on earlier documentary films about the origin of the Sphinx.


See also


  1. ^ a b Emporis - Great Sphinx of Giza
  2. ^ Dunford, Jane; Fletcher, Joann; French, Carole (ed.) (2007). Egypt: Eyewitness Travel Guide. London: Dorling Kindersley, 2007. ISBN 978-0756628758.
  3. ^ a b Coxill, David (1998). "The Riddle of the Sphinx", InScription: Journal of Ancient Egypt, 2 (Spring 1998), 17; cited in Schoch, Robert M. (2000). “New Studies Confirm Very Old Sphinx” in Dowell, Colette M. (ed). Circular Times.
  4. ^ See Thutmose IV#Dates and length of reign
  5. ^ "Why Sequence is Important", Lehner, Mark; Hunt, Brian V. link
  6. ^ Hassan, Selim (1949). The Sphinx: Its history in the light of recent excavations. Cairo: Government Press, 1949.
  7. ^ Lehner, Mark (Spring 2002). "Unfinished Business: The Great Sphinx" in AERAGRAM, 5:2 (Spring 2002), 10-14. Retrieved 23 December 2008.
  8. ^ Colavito, Jason (2001). "Who Built the Sphinx?" at Lost Civilizations Discovered. Retrieved 19 December 2008.
  9. ^ Riddle of the Sphinx
  10. ^ Hawass, Zahi. (The Khufu at The Plateau. Retrieved 6 January 2009.
  11. ^ a b c d Reader, Colin (2002). "Giza Before the Fourth Dynasty", Journal of the Ancient Chronology Forum, 9 (2002), 5-21. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  12. ^ The Great Sphinx at The Global Education Project. Retrieved 23 December 2008.
  13. ^ Wallis Budge, E. A. (1904). The Gods of the Egyptians: Studies in Egyptian Mythology. Courier Dover Publications, 1969. 2 volumes. ISBN 0486220559.
  14. ^ a b c Fleming, Nic (2004-12-14). “I have solved riddle of the Sphinx, says Frenchman” in The Daily Telegraph. Updated 14 December 2004. Retrieved 28 June 2005.
  15. ^ Taylor, Karen T., History of the IAI Forensic Art Discipline at the International Association for Identification. Retrieved 5 January 2009.
  16. ^ West, John Anthony (1993). Serpent in the Sky: The High Wisdom of Ancient Egypt, 232. Wheaton: Quest Books, 1993. ISBN 0835606910.
  17. ^ a b Lehner, Mark (1991). Archaeology of an image: The Great Sphinx of Giza, doctoral dissertation, Yale University, 1991. Retrieved 17 December 2008.
  18. ^ Schoch, Robert M. (1992). "Redating the Great Sphinx of Giza" in Circular Times, ed. Collette M. Dowell. Retrieved 17 December 2008.
  19. ^ Palaeoclimate and environment, Fezzan Project, Climate Research Unit, Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of East Anglia. Retrieved 17 December 2008.
  20. ^ Schoch, Robert M. (1995), "Response in Archaeology Magazine to Zahi Hawass and Mark Lehner" in Dowell, Colette M. (ed.). Circular Times.
  21. ^ a b Schoch, Robert M. (1999-2000), "Geological Evidence pertaining to the Age of the Great Sphinx", in Spedicato, Emilio; Notarpietro, Adalberto (ed.) (2002). New Scenarios on the Evolution of the Solar System and Consequences on History of Earth and Man, Proceedings of the Conference. Milan and Bergamo, 07-09 June 1999. Università degli Studi di Bergamo, Quaderni del Dipartmento di Matematica, Statistica, Informatica ed Applicazion, Serie Miscellanea. 3 (2002), 171-203.
  22. ^ Michael Brass. "The Antiquity of Man Robert Schoch". Retrieved 2009-05-26. 
  23. ^ Löhner, Franz; Zuberbühler, Teresa (2006). Building the Great Pyramid: Quarries in Ancient Egypt. Updated 2006. Retrieved 5 January 2009.
  24. ^ Harrell, James A. (Summer 1994). "The Sphinx Controversy: Another Look at the Geological Evidence," KMT: A Modern Journal of Ancient Egypt, 5:2 (Summer 1994), 70-74.
  25. ^ Gauri, K. Lal; Sinai, John J.; Bandyopadhyay, Jayanta K. (1995-04). "Geologic Weathering and Its Implications on the Age of the Sphinx," Geoarchaeology: an International Journal, 10:2 (April 1995), 119-133. ISSN 0883-6353.
  26. ^ Bordeau, Alex. The Origins of the Sphinx at In the Hall of Maat, ed. Katherine Reece. Retrieved 6 January 2009.
  27. ^ Dolphin, Lambert (1996-04-20). Letter to Larry Orcut at Catchpenny Mysteries of Ancient Egypt.
  28. ^ a b Reader, Colin (2000-03-17). Further considerations on the Age of the Sphinx at Rational Spirituality. Retrieved 6 January 2009.
  29. ^ Hancock, Graham; Bauval, Robert (2000-12-14). Atlantis Reborn Again. Horizon. BBC. Aired 2000-12-14.
  30. ^ Orser, Charles E. (2003). Race and practice in archaeological interpretation. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 73. ISBN 9780812237504. 
  31. ^ Hancock, Graham; Bauval, Robert (1997). The Message of the Sphinx: A Quest for the Hidden Legacy of Mankind. Three Rivers Press. p. 271. ISBN 978-0517888520. 
  32. ^ Fagan, Garrett G. (ed.) (2006). Archaeological fantasies: how pseudoarchaeology misrepresents the past and misleads the public. Routledge. pp. 20, 38–40, 100–103, 127, 197–201, 238, 241–255. ISBN 9780415305938. 
  33. ^ Haddingham, Evan "Uncovering Secrets of the Sphinx" Smithsonian magazine, February 2010[1]
  34. ^ Sphinx May Really Be a black African. Sheldon Peck Op Ed New York Times July 1992 [2]
  35. ^ Regier, Willis G. (ed.) (2004). Book of the Sphinx. U of Nebraska Press. pp. 157. ISBN 9780803239562. 
  36. ^ Irwin, Graham W. (1977). Africans abroad, Columbia University Press, p. 11
  37. ^ Mallet, Dominique, The Stele of Thothmes IV: A Translation, at Retrieved 3 January 2009.
  38. ^ "The ARCE Sphinx Project — A Preliminary Report". Hall of Maat. Retrieved 2009-05-26. 
  39. ^ "'Khufu Knew the Sphinx' by Colin Reader". Retrieved 2009-05-26. 

External links

Coordinates: 29°58′31″N 31°08′16″E / 29.97528°N 31.13778°E / 29.97528; 31.13778


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