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Coordinates: 20°16′23″S 30°56′04″E / 20.273063°S 30.934344°E / -20.273063; 30.934344

Great Zimbabwe National Monument*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Great Zimbabwe: Tower in the Great Enclosure.
State Party Zimbabwe
Type Cultural
Criteria (i)(iii)(vi)
Reference 364
Region** Africa
Inscription history
Inscription 1986  (10th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
** Region as classified by UNESCO.

The Great Zimbabwe, or "stone buildings", is the name given to the twelfth to fifteenth century stone ruins spread out over a 722 hectare (1,784 acre) area within the modern-day country of Zimbabwe, which itself is named after the ruins.[1] It is near the town of Masvingo, which before majority rule was called Fort Victoria. The word "Great" distinguishes the site from the many hundred small ruins, known as Zimbabwes, spread across the Zimbabwe highveld.[2] There are 200 such sites in southern Africa, such as Bumbusi and Manekweni, with monumental, mortarless walls and Great Zimbabwe is the largest.[3]

Contents

Name

Overview of Great Zimbabwe. The large walled construction is the Great Enclosure. Some remains of the valley complex can be seen in front of it.

There are two theories on the origin of the word "Zimbabwe": The first theory holds that the word is derived from Dzimba-dza-mabwe, translated from the Karanga dialect of Shona as "large houses of stone" (dzimba = plural of imba, "house"; mabwe = plural of bwe, "stone").[4] [5] The Karanga-speaking Shona people are found around Great Zimbabwe in the modern–day province of Masvingo and have been known to have inhabited the region since the building of this ancient city. A second theory is that Zimbabwe is a contracted form of dzimba woye which means "venerated houses" in the Zezuru dialect of Shona, and is usually applied to chiefs' houses or graves.[6]

Description

The conical tower inside the Great Enclosure at Great Zimbabwe
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Settlement

The Great Zimbabwe area was settled by the fourth century. Between the fourth and the seventh centuries, communities now identified as Gokomere or Ziwa culture farmed the valley, mined and worked iron, but built no stone structures.[3][7] These are the earliest iron age settlements in the area identified from archaeological diggings.[8]

Construction and growth

Construction of the stone buildings started in the 11th century and continuing for over 300 years[9], the ruins at Great Zimbabwe are some of the oldest and largest structures located in Southern Africa, and are the second oldest after nearby Mapungubwe in South Africa. Its most formidable edifice, commonly referred to as the Great Enclosure, has walls as high as 36 feet (11 m) extending approximately 820 feet (250 m), making it the largest ancient structure south of the Sahara Desert. The city and its state, the Kingdom of Zimbabwe, flourished from 1200 to 1500[10] and its growth has been linked to the decline of Mapungubwe from around 1300, due to climatic change[11] or the greater availability of gold in the hinterland of Great Zimbabwe.[12] At its peak, estimates are that Great Zimbabwe had as many as 18,000 inhabitants.[13] The ruins that survive are built entirely of stone. The ruins span 1,800 acres (7 km²) and cover a radius of 100 to 200 miles (160 to 320 km).

View west from the Eastern Enclosure of the Hill Complex, showing the granite boulder that resembles the Zimbabwe Bird and the balcony.

Features of the ruins

In 1531, Vicente Pegado, Captain of the Portuguese Garrison of Sofala, described Zimbabwe thus:

Among the gold mines of the inland plains between the Limpopo and Zambezi rivers there is a fortress built of stones of marvelous size, and there appears to be no mortar joining them.... This edifice is almost surrounded by hills, upon which are others resembling it in the fashioning of stone and the absence of mortar, and one of them is a tower more than 12 fathoms [22 m] high. The natives of the country call these edifices Symbaoe, which according to their language signifies court.

The ruins form three distinct architectural groups. They are known as the Hill Complex, the Valley Complex and the Great Enclosure. The Hill Complex is the oldest, and was occupied from the nineth to thirteenth centuries. The Great Enclosure was occupied from the thirteenth to fifteenth centuries and the Valley Complex from the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries.[3] Notable features of the Hill Complex include the Eastern Enclosure, in which it is thought the Zimbabwe Birds stood, a high balcony enclosure overlooking thae Eastern Enclosure, and a huge boulder in a shape similar to that of the Zimbabwe Bird.[14] The Great Enclosure is composed of an inner wall, encircling a series of structures and a younger outer wall. The Conical Tower, 18 ft in diameter and 30 ft high, was constructed between the two walls.[15] The Valley Complex is divided into the Upper and Lower Valley Ruins, with different periods of occupation.[3]

The Valley Complex

There are different archaeological interpretations of these groupings. It has been suggested that the complexes represent the work of successive kings: some of the new rulers founded a new residence.[10] The focus of power moved from the Hill Complex in the twelfth century, to the Great Enclosure, the Upper Valley and finally the Lower Valley in the early sixteenth century.[3] The alternative "structuralist" interpretation holds that the different complexes had different functions: the Hill Complex as a temple, the Valley complex was for the citizens, and the Great Enclosure was used by the king. Structures that were more elaborate were probably built for the kings, although it has been argued that the dating of finds in the complexes does not support this interpretation[16]. Some researchers claim that the ruins may have housed an astronomy observatory, although the significance of the alignments upon which these claims are based is contested.[17]

Copy of Zimbabwe Bird soapstone sculpture

Notable artifacts

The most important artifacts recovered from the Monument are the eight Zimbabwe Birds. These were carved from a micaceous schist (soapstone) on the tops of monoliths the height of a person.[18] Slots in a platform in the Eastern Enclosure of the Hill Complex appear designed to hold the monoliths with the Zimbabwe birds, but as they were not found in situ it cannot be determined which monolith and bird were where.[19] Other artifacts include soapstone figurines, pottery, iron gongs, elaborately worked ivory, iron and copper wire, iron hoes, bronze spearheads, copper ingots and crucibles and gold beads, bracelets, pendants and sheaths.[20][21]

Trade

Archaeological evidence suggests that Great Zimbabwe became a center for trading, with artifacts suggesting that the city formed part of a trade network linked to Kilwa[22] and extending as far as China. This international trade, mainly in gold and ivory, was in addition to the local agricultural trade, in which cattle were especially important.[12] The large cattle herd that supplied the city moved seasonally and was managed by the court.[23] Chinese pottery shards, coins from Arabia, glass beads and other non-local items have been excavated at Zimbabwe. Despite these strong international trade links, there is no evidence to suggest exchange of architectural concepts between Great Zimbabwe and centres such as Kilwa.[24]

Decline

Causes for the decline and ultimate abandonment of the site have been suggested as due to a decline in trade compared to sites further north, political instability and famine and water shortages enduced by climatic change.[12][25] The Mutapa state arose in the fifteenth century from the northward expansion of the Great ZImbabwe tradition.[26] Great Zimbabwe also predates the Khami and Nyanga cultures.[27]

History of research and the origins of the ruins

Exterior wall of the Great Enclosure. Picture taken by David Randall-MacIver in 1906.

Portuguese traders were the first Europeans to visit the remains of the ancient city in the early 16th century. The ruins were rediscovered during a hunting trip by Adam Renders in 1867, who then showed the ruins to Karl Mauch in 1871.

J. Theodore Bent's season at Zimbabwe, under Cecil Rhodes's patronage, resulted in publications which introduced the ruins to English readers. Bent, whose archaeological experience had all been in Greece and Asia Minor, stated in The Ruined Cities of Mashonaland (1891) that the ruins revealed either the Phoenicians or the Arabs as builders. In contrast, Karl Mauch favored a legend that the structures were built to replicate the palace of the Queen of Sheba in Jerusalem.[28] Other theories on the origin of the ruins, among both white settlers and academics, had the common view that the original buildings were probably not made by sub-Saharan Africans.[29] The Sheba legend, as promoted by Mauch, was so pervasive in the white settler community as to cause Bent to say

The names of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba were on everybody's lips, and have become so distasteful to us that we never expect to hear them again without an involuntary shudder[30]

The first scientific archaeological excavations at the site were undertaken by David Randall-MacIver in 1905–1906. In Medieval Rhodesia, he wrote of the existence in the site of objects that were of Bantu origin.[31][32] In 1929, Gertrude Caton-Thompson concluded that the site was indeed created by Bantu.[33]

Examination of all the existing evidence, gathered from every quarter, still can produce not one single item that is not in accordance with the claim of Bantu origin and medieval date[30]

Since the 1950s, there has been consensus among archaeologists as to the African origins of Great Zimbabwe [34][35] Artifacts and radiocarbon dating indicate settlement in at least the fifth century, with continuous settlement of Great Zimbabwe between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries[1] and the bulk of the finds from the fifteenth century [36]. The radiocarbon evidence is a suite of 28 measurements, for which all but the first four, from the early days of the use of that method and now viewed as inaccurate, support the twelfth to fifteenth centuries chronology,[1][37]In the 1970s, a beam that produced some of the anomalous dates in 1952 was reanalysed and gave a fourteenth century date.[38] as do dated finds such as Chinese, Persian and Syrian artifacts also support the twelfth and fifteenth century dates.[39]

Archaeologists generally agree that the builders probably spoke one of the Shona languages[40][41], based upon evidence of pottery[42][43], oral traditions[44][36] and anthropology[10]. They were probably of the Gokomere culture[37]. People of the Gokomere culture lived in the area from around 500 AD and is believed, from archaeological evidence, to constitute an early phase of the Great Zimbabwe culture.[45][3][36] The Gokomere culture also likely gave rise to both the Rozwi culture, and the modern Mashona people.

The construction of Great Zimbabwe is claimed too by the Lemba, an ethnic group with a tradition of ancient Jewish descent through their male line and female ancestry derived from the Karanga subgroup of the Shona.[46] This tradition was recently substantiated by DNA analysis[47] - although it had been opposed on ethnographic grounds by researchers such as Ruwitah.[48] The Lemba claim is supported by Gayre, who suggests that the Shona artefacts which were found in the ruins, were placed there only after they conquered the country and drove out or absorbed the previous inhabitants;[49] he adds that the ones who remained would have passed some of their skills and knowledge to the invaders. Arguing that the South African Lemba are probably descended from the remnant which fled southwards, Gayre[49] and Murdock[50] point out that they were regarded by neighbouring tribes as exceptionally skilled miners and metal workers;[46] (those were of course talents shared with the Ancient Zimbabweans). The discovery of models of circumcised male organs in some of the ancient ruins, is interpreted by Gayre as evidence of a direct link between the Lemba and Great Zimbabwe. Gayre[49] and Murdock[50] also mention that the Lemba buried their dead in an extended rather than a crouched position, i.e., in the same style as in certain Zimbabwean graves which contained gold jewellery. However, this interpretation is not supported by the more recent work of Garlake[51], Beach and others and Gayre's work has been heavily criticised. Pikirayi, for example, dismisses Gayre's work on the origins of Great Zimbabwe, criticising some of his architectural comparisons as "simple"[52] and Garlake describes it as "worthless polemic".[53] Parfitt described Gayre's work as having a having a clear objective to "show that black people had never been capable of building in stone or of governing themselves", although he does add that "The fact that Gayre... got most of his facts wrong, does not in itself vitiate the claims of the Lemba to have been involved in the Great Zimbabwe civilisation".[54]

More recent archaeological work has been carried out by Peter Garlake, who has produced the comprehensive descriptions of the site,[55][56][57], David Beach and Thomas Huffman, who have worked on the chronology and development of Great Zimbabwe[36][10] and Gilbert Pwiti, who has published extensively on trade links.[12]

Damage to the ruins has been caused both by the removal of gold and artefacts in destructive diggings by early colonial antiquarians, notably Richard Nicklin Hall,[30] and reconstruction attempts since independence, leading to alienation of the local communities from the site.[58][59]

Political implications

A closeup of Great Zimbabwe ruins, 2006

Martin Hall writes that the history of Iron Age research south of the Zambezi shows the prevalent influence of colonial ideologies, both in the earliest speculations about the nature of the African past and in the adaptations that have been made to contemporary archeological methodologies.[60] When European colonialists like Cecil Rhodes first saw the ruins, it was seen as a sign of the great riches that the area would yield to its new masters. When it was finally proven that the builders were Africans, the site was then characterized as "product of an infantile mind" built by a subjugated society. The Rhodesian government confirmed this condescending view and refused to accept that Great Zimbabwe could have been a product of internal processes, but rather had to be the result of outside stimulus. Thus the official line in colonial Rhodesia was that the structures were built by non-blacks. According to Paul Sinclair, interviewed for None But Ourselves:[61]

I was the archaeologist stationed at Great Zimbabwe. I was told by the then-director of the Museums and Monuments organization to be extremely careful about talking to the press about the origins of the [Great] Zimbabwe state. I was told that the museum service was in a difficult situation, that the government was pressurizing them to withhold the correct information. Censorship of guidebooks, museum displays, school textbooks, radio programes, newspapers and films was a daily occurrence. Once a member of the Museum Board of Trustees threatened me with losing my job if I said publicly that blacks had built Zimbabwe. He said it was okay to say the yellow people had built it, but I wasn't allowed to mention radio carbon dates... It was the first time since Germany in the thirties that archaeology has been so directly censored.

This suppression of archaeology culminated in the departure from the country of prominent archaeologists of Great Zimbabwe, including Peter Garlake, Senior Inspector of Monuments for Rhodesia, and Roger Summers of the National Museum.[62]

The Zimbabwe Bird, depicted in Zimbabwe's flag

To black anti-colonialist groups, Great Zimbabwe became an important symbol of achievement by black Africans. Reclaiming its history was a major aim for those wanting independence. In 1980 the newly independent country was renamed for the site, and its famous soapstone bird carvings was retained from the Rhodesian flag and Coat of Arms as a national symbol and depicted in the new Zimbabwe flag. After the independence of the modern state of Zimbabwe in 1980, Great Zimbabwe has been employed to mirror and legimitize shifting policies of the ruling regime. At first it was argued that it represented a form of pre-colonial "African socialism" and later the focus shifted to stressing the natural evolution of an accumulation of wealth and power within a ruling elite.[63]

Some of the carvings had been taken from Great Zimbabwe around 1890 and sold to Cecil Rhodes, who was intrigued and had copies made which he gave to friends. Most of the carvings have now been returned to Zimbabwe, but one remains at Rhodes' old home, Groote Schuur, in Cape Town.

Great Zimbabwe has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1986.

Image gallery

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Garlake (2002) 146
  2. ^ M. Sibanda, H. Moyana et al. 1992. The African Heritage. History for Junior Secondary Schools. Book 1. Zimbabwe Publishing House. ISBN 9780908300006
  3. ^ a b c d e f Shadreck Chirikure; Innocent Pikirayi (2008). "Inside and outside the dry stone walls: revisiting the material culture of Great Zimbabwe". Antiquity 82: 976–993. http://www.antiquity.cc/Ant/082/0976/ant0820976.pdf. 
  4. ^ Michel Lafon (1994). "Shona Class 5 revisited: a case against *ri as Class 5 nominal prefix". Zambezia 21: 51–80. http://archive.lib.msu.edu/DMC/African%20Journals/pdfs/Journal%20of%20the%20University%20of%20Zimbabwe/vol21n1/juz021001005.pdf. 
  5. ^ Lawrence J. Vale (1999). "Mediated monuments and national identity". Journal of Architecture 4: 391–408. doi:10.1080/136023699373774. 
  6. ^ Garlake (1973) 13
  7. ^ Pikirayi (2001) p129
  8. ^ Summers (1970) p163
  9. ^ "Great Zimbabwe (11th–15th century) - Thematic Essay". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/zimb/hd_zimb.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-12. 
  10. ^ a b c d Beach, David (1998). "Cognitive Archaeology and Imaginary History at Great Zimbabwe". Current Anthropology 39: 47. doi:10.1086/204698. 
  11. ^ Huffman, Thomas N. (2008). "Climate change during the Iron Age in the Shashe-Limpopo Basin, southern Africa". Journal of Archaeological Science 35: 2032–2047. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2008.01.005. 
  12. ^ a b c d Gilbert Pwiti (1991). "Trade and economies in southern Africa: the archaeological evidence". Zambezia 18: 119–129. http://archive.lib.msu.edu/DMC/African%20Journals/pdfs/Journal%20of%20the%20University%20of%20Zimbabwe/vol18n2/juz018002004.pdf. 
  13. ^ Kuklick, Henrika (1991). "Contested monuments: the politics of archaeology in southern Africa". in George W. Stocking. Colonial situations: essays on the contextualization of ethnographic knowledge. Univ of Wisconsin Press. pp. 135–170. ISBN 9780299131241. 
  14. ^ Garlake (1973) 27
  15. ^ Garlake (1973) 29
  16. ^ Collett, D. P.; A. E. Vines and E. G. Hughes (1992). The chronology of the Valley Enclosures: implications for the interpretation of Great Zimbabwe. 10. pp. 139-161. doi:10.1007/BF01117699. 
  17. ^ "Eclipse brings claim of medieval African observatory". New Scientist. 4 Dec 2002. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn3137-eclipse-brings-claim-of-medieval-african-observatory.html. Retrieved 2009-01-12. 
  18. ^ Garlake (2002) 158
  19. ^ Garlake (1973) 119
  20. ^ Garlake (2002) 159-162
  21. ^ Summers (1970) p166
  22. ^ Garlake (2002) 184-185
  23. ^ Garlake (2002) 158
  24. ^ Garlake (2002) 185
  25. ^ Karin Holmgren; Helena Öberg (2006). "Climate Change in Southern and Eastern Africa during the past millennium and its implications for societal development". Environment, Development and Sustainability 8: 1573–2975. doi:10.1007/s10668-005-5752-5. 
  26. ^ Gilbert Pwiti (2004). "Economic change, ideology and the development of cultural complexity in northern Zimbabwe". Azania Archaeological Research in Africa 39: 265–282. doi:10.1080/00672700409480403. 
  27. ^ Huffman, Thomas (1972). "The rise and fall of Zimbabwe". The Journal of African History 13: 353-366. 
  28. ^ "Vast Ruins in South Africa- The Ruined Cities of Mashonaland". The New York Times: p. 19. 1892-12-18. 
  29. ^ "Ancient and Medieval Africa:Zimbabwe". Ending Stereotypes For America. 2009. http://www.endingstereotypes.org/zimbabwe.html. Retrieved 2010-01-13. 
  30. ^ a b c Peter Tyson. "Mystery of Great Zimbabwe". Nova Online. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/israel/zimbabwe.html. Retrieved 2010-01-12. 
  31. ^ "Solomon's Mines". The New York Times. 1906-04-14. pp. RB241. 
  32. ^ Randall-MacIver, David (1906). "The Rhodesia Ruins: their probable origins and significance". The Geographical Journal 27 (4): 325–336. doi:10.2307/1776233. 
  33. ^ "Ascribes Zimbabwe to African Bantus". The New York Times. 1929-10-20. p. 2. 
  34. ^ Davidson,, Basil (1959). The Lost Cities of Africa. Boston: Little Brown. pp. 366. ISBN 978-0316174312. 
  35. ^ J. Ki-Zerbo and D.T. Niane, ed (1997). Africa from the twelfth to the sixteenth century. London: James Currey. pp. 320. ISBN 978-0852550946. 
  36. ^ a b c d Huffman, Thomas N.; J. C. Vogel (1991). "The chronology of Great Zimbabwe". The South African Archaeological Bulletin 46 (154): 61–70. doi:10.2307/3889086. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3889086. 
  37. ^ a b Huffman, Thomas N. (2009). "Mapungubwe and Great Zimbabwe: The origin and spread of social complexity in southern Africa". Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 28: 37. doi:10.1016/j.jaa.2008.10.004. 
  38. ^ Garlake (1982) 34
  39. ^ Garlake (1982) 10
  40. ^ Garlake, Peter (1978). "Pastoralism and Zimbabwe". The Journal of African History 19: 479-493. 
  41. ^ Loubser, Jannie H. N.. "Archaeology and early Venda history". Goodwin Series 6: 54-61. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3858132. 
  42. ^ Evers, T.M.; Thomas Huffman and Simiyu Wandibba (1988). "On why pots are decorated the way they are". Current Anthropology 29: 739-741. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2743612. 
  43. ^ Summers (1970) p195
  44. ^ Summers (1970) p164
  45. ^ Summers (1970) p35
  46. ^ a b Hammond Tooke, W.D. (1974 (originally 1937)). The Bantu-speaking peoples of southern Africa; see pp. 81-84 and 115-116. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. 
  47. ^ Thomas, Mark G; Tudor Parfitt, Deborah A. Weiss, Karl Skorecki, James F. Wilson, Magdel le Roux, Neil Bradman, and David B. Goldstein (2000). "Y chromosomes traveling south: the Cohen Modal Haplotype and the origins of the Lemba - the “Black Jews of Southern Africa”". American Journal of Human Genetics 66: 674–686. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1288118/pdf/AJHGv66p674.pdf. 
  48. ^ Ruwitah, A. (1997). "Lost tribe, lost language? the invention of a false Remba identity". Zimbabwea 5. 
  49. ^ a b c Gayre, R. (1972). The origin of the Zimbabwean Civilization. Galaxie Press, Zimbabwe. 
  50. ^ a b Murdock, G.P. (1959). Africa: its peoples and their culture history; see pp. 387 and 204 et seq.. New York: McGraw Hill. 
  51. ^ Garlake (2002)
  52. ^ Pikirayi (2001) p23
  53. ^ Garlake (1982) 63
  54. ^ Parfitt, Tudor; Emanuela Trevisan Semi (2002). Judaising movements: studies in the margins of Judaism. Routledge. p. 44. ISBN 9780700715152. 
  55. ^ Garlake (1973)
  56. ^ Garlake (1982)
  57. ^ Garlake (2002)
  58. ^ Webber Ndoro (1994). "The preservation and presentation of Great Zimbabwe". Antiquity 68: 616–623. http://antiquity.ac.uk/Ant/068/0616/Ant0680616.pdf. 
  59. ^ Joost Fontein (2006). "Closure at Great Zimbabwe: Local Narratives of Desecration and Alienation". Journal of Southern African Studies 32: 771–794. doi:10.1080/03057070600995723. 
  60. ^ Hall, Martin (1984). "The Burden of Tribalism: The Social Context of Southern African Iron Age Studies". American Antiquity 49 (3): 455–467. doi:10.2307/280354. 
  61. ^ Frederikse, Julie (1990) [1982]. "(1) Before the war". None But Ourselves. Biddy Partridge (photographer). Harare: Oral Traditions Association of Zimbabwe with Anvil Press. pp. 10–11. ISBN 0-7974-0961-0. 
  62. ^ De Baets, Antoon (2002). Censorship of Historical Thought: a World Guide 1945-2000. London: Greenwood Press. pp. 621–625. http://arts.eldoc.ub.rug.nl/FILES/publications/general/Historical/2002/debaets_zimbabwe/zimbabwe.pdf. 
  63. ^ Garlake (2002) 23-25

Sources

  • Garlake, Peter (1973). Great Zimbabwe: New Aspects of Archaeology. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0812815993. 
  • Garlake, Peter (1982). Great Zimbabwe. Harare: Zimbabwe Publishing Houdse. ISBN 978-0949932181. 
  • Garlake, Peter (2002). Early Art and Architecture of Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-284261-7. 
  • Pikirayi, Innocent (2001). The Zimbabwe culture: origins and decline of southern Zambezian states. Rowman Altamira. ISBN 978-0759100916. 
  • Summers, Roger (1970). "The Rhodesian Iron Age". in J.D. Fage and Roland Oliver. Papers in African Prehistory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521095662. 

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