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Greater London Council
Coat of arms of the Greater London Council
Type
Type County council of Greater London
Timeline
Established 1 April 1965
Preceded by London County Council
Succeeded by Various agencies
Disbanded 31 March 1986
Leadership and Structure
Members 100
Election
Last election 1981
Meeting place
County.hall.london.arp.jpg
County Hall, Lambeth

The Greater London Council (GLC) was the top-tier local government administrative body for Greater London from 1965 to 1986. It replaced the earlier London County Council (LCC) which had covered a much smaller area.

Contents

Creation

The GLC was established by the London Government Act 1963. The Labour Party had controlled the London County Council from 1934 and by the 1950s the Conservative Government considered that elections were becoming one-sided, since the LCC covered only the inner (generally Labour-voting) districts. The government sought to create a new body covering all of London.

A Royal Commission was set up under Sir Edwin Herbert in 1957 and reported in 1960, recommending the creation of 52 new London boroughs as the basis for local government. It further recommended that the LCC be replaced by a weaker strategic authority, with responsibility for public transport, road schemes, housing development and regeneration.

The recommendations were accepted in most part, but the number of new boroughs reduced instead to 32. Greater London covered the counties of London and most of Middlesex, plus parts of Essex, Kent and Surrey, a small part of Hertfordshire and the County Boroughs of Croydon (Surrey), East Ham and West Ham (both Essex) which had been independent of county control.

Some areas on the boundary of the area fought successfully to be excluded from it, notably the Sunbury-on-Thames Urban District, Staines Urban District and Potters Bar Urban District of Middlesex, fearing increased local taxation. Other areas in the Report that were not eventually made part of Greater London included Epsom and Ewell, Caterham and Warlingham, Esher, and Weybridge.

GLC councillors elected for the LCC area became ex officio members of the Inner London Education Authority, which took over the LCC responsibility for education; in outer London, the London boroughs each operated as a local education authority.

Powers

The GLC was responsible for running strategic services such as the fire service, emergency planning, waste disposal and flood prevention. The GLC shared responsibility with the London boroughs for providing roads, housing, city planning and leisure services. It had a very limited role in direct service provision with most functions the responsibility of the London boroughs. The GLC did not take control of public transport from the London Transport Board until 1970 and lost control to London Regional Transport in 1984.

Under the 1963 Act, the GLC was required to produce a Greater London Development Plan. The plan included in its wide ranging remit: population changes, employment, housing, pollution, transport, roads, the central area, growth and development areas, urban open spaces and the urban landscape, public services and utilities and planning standards. The plan included the comprehensive redevelopment of Covent Garden and creating a central London motorway loop. The plan was subject to an Inquiry which lasted from July 1970 until May 1972.[1] The campaign to save Covent Garden along with various opposition on other matters largely derailed the plan.

Composition and political control

Council Chamber of the GLC, from the majority benches

Each of the six GLC elections was won by the leading national opposition party, with the party in government nationally coming second in the GLC elections.

The first GLC election was on 9 April 1964. Each of the new boroughs elected a number of representatives under the bloc vote system. Despite Conservative hopes, the first GLC consisted of 64 Labour and 36 Conservative councillors and Labour Group leader Bill Fiske became the first Leader of the Council.

At the next election in 1967 the unpopularity of the national Labour government produced a massive Conservative victory with 82 seats, to Labour's 18. Desmond Plummer became the first Conservative leader of London-wide government in 33 years. The Conservatives retained control in 1970 with a reduced majority.

In 1972 the electoral system was reformed to introduce single-member constituencies for the election after the 1973 contest, and extend the term of office to four years. Labour fought the 1973 election on a strongly socialist platform and won with 57 seats to 33 for the Conservatives. The Liberals won two seats.

The GLC's hopes under the Labour administration of Reg Goodwin were badly affected by the oil crisis of 1974. Massive inflation which when combined with the GLC's £1.6 billion debt led to heavy rate increases (200% in total before the next election in 1977) and unpopular budget cuts. Some months before the 1977 elections the Labour Group began to split. A left group, including Ken Livingstone, denounced the election manifesto of the party.

The Conservatives regained control in May 1977, winning 64 seats under their new Thatcherite leader Horace Cutler against a Labour total of just 28. Cutler headed a resolutely right-wing administration, cutting spending, selling council housing and deprioritising London Transport. In opposition the Labour party continued to fractionalise: Goodwin resigned suddenly in 1980 and in the following leadership contest the little-regarded left-winger Ken Livingstone was only just beaten in an intensely tactical campaign by the moderate Andrew McIntosh. However the Labour left were strong at constituency level and as the 1981 election approached they worked to ensure that their members were selected to stand and that their ideologies shaped the manifesto. The eventual manifesto topped out at over 50,000 words.

The May 1981 election was presented as a clash of ideologies by the Conservatives - Thatcherism against a 'tax high, spend high' Marxist Labour group, claiming that Andrew McIntosh would be deposed by Ken Livingstone after the election. McIntosh and Labour Party leader Michael Foot insisted this was untrue, and Labour won a very narrow victory with a majority of six. At a pre-arranged meeting of the new Councillors the day after the election, the Left faction won a complete victory over the less-organised Labour right. McIntosh lost with 20 votes to 30 for Ken Livingstone. Livingstone, dubbed 'Red Ken' by some newspapers, managed to gain the guarded support of the Labour deputy leader Illtyd Harrington and the party Chief Whip and set about his new administration.

Livingstone was able to push through the majority of his policies. The increased spending of the council led the national government to reduce and eventually end the GLC's central government grant as punishment.

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Elections to the GLC

Overall control Conservative Labour Liberal
1981 Labour 41 50 1
1977 Conservative 64 28 -
1973 Labour 32 58 2
1970 Conservative 65 35 -
1967 Conservative 82 18 -
1964 Labour 36 64 -

Abolition

Livingstone's high-spend socialist policies put the GLC into direct conflict with Margaret Thatcher's Conservative government. Livingstone soon became a thorn in the side of the sitting Conservative government. He deliberately antagonised Thatcher through a series of actions (including posting a billboard of London's rising unemployment figures on the side of County Hall, directly opposite Parliament); a Fares Fair policy of reducing Tube and bus fares using government subsidies; entering into dialogue with Sinn Féin leader Gerry Adams at a time when Adams was banned from entering Britain due to his links with the Provisional IRA; and endorsing a statue of Nelson Mandela while Thatcher regarded the future South African president as a terrorist. After what was regarded as a punitive funding cut by the Thatcher government, which had the effect of cutting school lunch subsidies for London schoolchildren, the GLC hung a banner with the words "Maggie Thatcher, Milk Snatcher" from the County Hall. From this point on, the Conservative government moved to abolish the GLC for its adamant opposition.

By 1983, the government argued for the abolition of the GLC, claiming that it was inefficient and unnecessary, and that its functions could be carried out more efficiently by the boroughs. The arguments for this case which were detailed in the White Paper Streamlining the cities. Critics of this position argued that the GLC's abolition (as with that of the Metropolitan County Councils) was politically motivated, claiming that it had become a powerful vehicle for opposition to Margaret Thatcher's government. Ken Livingstone and 3 other Labour councilors resigned in protest, and won back their seats easily in the September 1984 by-elections because the Conservatives refused to stand.[2]

The Local Government Act 1985, which abolished the GLC, faced considerable opposition from many quarters but was narrowly passed in Parliament, setting the end of the council for 31 March 1986. It also cancelled the scheduled May 1985 elections. GLC assets were assigned to the quango London Residuary Body for disposal, including County Hall, which was sold to a Japanese entertainment company and now houses the London Aquarium and the London Film Museum, amongst other things.

The Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) continued in existence for a few years, and direct elections to it were held, but ILEA was finally also disbanded in 1990, with the Inner London Boroughs assuming control over education as the Outer boroughs had done on their creation in 1965.

Replacement

Most of the powers of the GLC were devolved to the London boroughs. Some powers, such as the fire service, were taken over by joint boards made up of councillors appointed by the boroughs - see waste authorities in Greater London for an example. In total, around 100 organisations were responsible for service delivery in Greater London.[3]

Tony Blair's Labour government was elected in 1997, and was committed to bringing back London-wide government. In 1999 a referendum was held on the establishment of a new London authority and elected mayor, which was approved by a two to one margin.

The new Greater London Authority (GLA) was established in 2000. The GLA has a very different structure to the GLC, consisting of a directly elected Mayor of London and a London Assembly. The Mayor of London elections were won by the same Ken Livingstone, who began his victory speech with the words: "As I was saying before I was so rudely interrupted 14 years ago ...".[4]

The archives of the Greater London Council are held at London Metropolitan Archives

Leaders of the GLC

See also

References

  1. ^ British Official Publications Collaborative Reader Information Service - Greater London development plan: report of the panel of inquiry
  2. ^ http://books.google.co.nz/books?id=-tZp1J2AjRMC&pg=PA172&lpg=PA172&dq=Greater+London+Council+byelection+1984&source=bl&ots=Cu28vI8jgo&sig=8NL6Za7MXKRq1zQ0yqpDugY5lG0&hl=en&ei=MSJ2SuaPOpTUsQPypsD_CA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5#v=onepage&q=&f=false Local elections in Britain By Colin Rallings, Michael Thrasher p.172
  3. ^ Atkinson, H. & Wilks-Heeg, S., Local Government from Thatcher to Blair: The Politics of Creative Autonomy, (2000)
  4. ^ Paul Waugh and Andrew Grice. Ken reclaims the capital, The Independent 6 May 2000

Simple English

The Greater London Council (GLC) was the local government administrative body for Greater London from 1965 to 1986. It replaced the earlier London County Council (LCC) which had covered a much smaller area.

Contents

Creation

The Labour Party had controlled the LCC from 1934 and by the 1950s the Conservative Government considered that elections were becoming one-sided, since the London County Council (LCC) covered only the inner (generally Labour-voting) districts. The government sought to create a new body covering all of London.

Abolition

Livingstone's high-spend socialist policies put the GLC into direct conflict with Margaret Thatcher's Conservative government. Livingstone soon became a thorn in the side of the sitting Tory government. He deliberately antagonised Mrs. Thatcher through a series of actions (including posting a billboard of London's rising unemployment figures on the side of, and endorsing a statue of Nelson Mandela whilst Thatcher regarded the future South African president as a terrorist.

By 1983, Thatcher was determined to crush both Livingstone and the GLC, and the Cabinet agreed "in principle" to abolish the GLC and give its functions to the boroughs.

The Local Government Act 1985, which abolished the GLC, faced considerable opposition from many quarters but was narrowly passed in Parliament, setting the end of the council for 31 March 1986.

Replacement

After its abolition, London was left as the only major city in the world without a central administrative body. Most of the powers of the GLC were given to the London boroughs. Some powers, such as the fire service, were taken over by joint boards made up of councillors appointed by the boroughs - see waste authorities in Greater London for an example. In total, around 100 organisations were responsible for service delivery in Greater London.[1]

It was argued by many people that this situation was chaotic and un-coordinated and a new London-wide body was needed to co-ordinate the whole city.

Tony Blair's Labour government was elected in 1997, and was committed to bring back London-wide government. In 1999 a referendum was held on the establishment of a new London authority and elected mayor, which was approved by a two to one margin.

The new Greater London Authority (GLA) was established in 2000. The GLA has a very different structure to the GLC, it consisted of a directly elected Mayor of London and a London Assembly. The Mayor of London elections were won by the same Ken Livingstone, who began his victory speech with the words: "As I was saying before I was so rudely interrupted 14 years ago".

References

  1. Atkinson, H. & Wilks-Heeg, S., Local Government from Thatcher to Blair: The Politics of Creative Autonomy, (2000)
Preceded by
London Transport Board
London transport authority
1970–1984
Succeeded by
London Regional Transport


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