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Greater Serbian border proposed by Serbian Radical Party during the Yugoslav Wars.[1]

The term Greater Serbia (Serbian: Велика Србија, Velika Srbija) applies to nationalist ideology directed towards the creation of a Serbian land which would incorporate all regions of traditional significance to the Serbian nation. This movement's main ideology is to unite all Serbs (or all historically ruled or Serb populated lands) into one state, claiming, depending on the version, different areas of many surrounding countries.

The Greater Serbian ideology including claims to territories of modern day Croatia, Bosnia, Montenegro, Macedonia and Kosovo[a]. In some historical forms, Greater Serbian aspirations also included territories of Albania, Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary.

Its inspiration comes from the memory and existence of the relatively large and powerful Serbian Empire that existed in 14th Century south-eastern Europe prior to the Ottoman invasion.

Contents

Historical perspective

Following the growing nationalistic tendency in Europe from the 18th century onwards, such as the Unification of Italy, Serbia - after first gaining its principality within the Ottoman Empire in 1817 - experienced a popular desire for full unification with the Serbs of the remaining territories, mainly those living in neighbouring entities.

The Principality of Serbia mid-19th century.

The idea of territorial expansion of Serbia originally formulated 1844 in Načertanije, a secret political program of the Principality of Serbia, according to which the new Serbian state could include the neighboring areas of Montenegro, Northern Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina.[2] In the early 20th century, all political parties of the Kingdom of Serbia (except for the Social Democratic Party) planning to create a Balkan Federation, generally accepted the idea of uniting all Serbs into one only Serbian state.[3] From the creation of the Principality until the First World War, the territory of Serbia was constantly expanding.[4]

After the end of the Balkan Wars, the Kingdom of Serbia achieved the expantion towards the south, but there was a mixed reaction to the events, for the reason that the promises of lands gaining access to the Adriatic Sea were not fulfilled. Instead, Serbia received the territories of Vardar Macedonia that was intended to become part of the Kingdom of Bulgaria and the Serbian Army had to leave those coastal territories that would become part of the newly formed Kingdom of Albania. This event, together with the Austro-Hungarian Annexation of Bosnia, frustrated the majority of Serbian politicians, since there was still a large number of Serbs remaining out of the Kingdom.

The Serbian victory in the First World War was supposed to serve as compensation to this situation and there was an open debate between the followers of the Greater Serbia doctrine, that defended the incorporation of the parts of the defeated Austro-Hungarian Empire where Serbs lived to Serbia, opposed by the ones that supported an idea of uniting not only all the Serbian lands, but also to include other South Slav nations into a new country. Among other reasons, but also because of the fear of the creation of a bigger and stronger Orthodox Serbia, that could eventually became a Russian allied, the decision of making an ethnically mix South Slav state, where other nationalities would balance the Serb hegemony, was made.

The Serbian Royal family of Karađorđević was set to rule this new state called Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes that would be renamed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929. Inicially, the apologists of the Greater Serbia doctrine felt satisfied, since the main goal of uniting all Serbian inhabited lands under the rule of a Serbian Monarchic dinasty was mostly archived. During the inter-war period, the majority of Serbian politicians defended a strong centralised country, while its oppositors demanded major autonomy for the regions. This tension grow to a point that lead to the creation of opposing nationalistic organisations that culminated in the assassination of the King Alexander I in 1934.

When the German invasion of Yugoslavia happened in 1941, this tensions culminated in one of the most brutal civil wars that occurred in the World War Two. The Royal Governament soon capitulated, and the resistance was mainly made by the Četniks, that defended the restoration of the Monarchy, and the Partisans, wich defended a creation of a communist Yugoslav state. The Serbs were divided in this two fractions, that fought not only the Nazi Germany and all the other neighbour Axis allied countries that also invaded different territories of Yugoslavia, as the Italians, Hungarins, Albanians and Bulgarians, but also each other. Beside this, other Yugoslav non-Serb nationalists took advantage and allied themselves with the Axis countries, regarding this moment as their historical opportunity of fulfilling their own irredentist aspirations, being the Independent State of Croatia by far the most brutal one.

After the war, victorious, Partisans leader Marshal Tito will become the head of state of Yugoslavia until his death in 1980. During this period the country was divided in six republics. In 1976, within the Socialist Republic of Serbia two autonomous provincies, SAP Kosovo and SAP Vojvodina, were created. During this period, most of the Great Serbian ideology followers were encarcerated as accused of betrail, or exilade. Within the rest of the Serbian population, the vast majority became strong supporters of this new Non-Aligned Yugoslavia.

During the Yugoslav Wars, Serbia stood accused of attempting to create the entity of a Greater Serbia through Belgrade's direct involvement with the unrecognised Serbian entities functioning in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia.[1]

Development of Greater Serbian ideology

Garašanin's Načertanije

French map of Greater Serbia (1862) with the supposed borders of the medieval Serbian Empire.

Roots of the Greater Serbian ideology are often traced back to Načertanije (1844), Serbian minister Ilija Garašanin's work aimed at uniting the Serbian people which was separated among foreign Austria-Hungary and Ottoman empires. Načertanije was an offshoot of the Pan-Slavist movement of the mid-19th century. It was initially conceived as a federation of South Slavic peoples by the influential Polish émigré Adam Czartoryski. But version of Ilija Garašanin focused specifically on Serbs rather than Slavs in general. From 1850s onward, this concept has had a significant influence on Serbian politics.

Serbia must endeavour to break down, but only stone by stone, the edifice of the Ottoman state, preserving its good material in order to erect, upon the solid foundation of the old Serbian Empire, a great new Serbian state.
 

The work describes the lands on the Balkans, then inhabited mostly or partially by Serbs but ruled by the empires, and included Macedonia, Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Vojvodina, Bulgaria as well as parts of Romania and Hungary. Garašanin's plan proposes methods of spreading Serbian influence in these countries, mainly by propaganda efforts and by network of pro-Serbian agitators in order to achieve optimal situation for Serbian national interests when the Ottoman empire finally collapses. Essentially, this secret plan (not made public until 1897) can be interpreted as a blueprint for Serbian national unification, with primary concern of strengthening Serbia's position by inculcating Serbian and pro-Serbian national ideology in all surrounding peoples that are considered to be devoid of national consciousness.

Vuk Karadžić's pan-Serbism

The most notable Serbian linguist of the 19th century, Vuk Karadžić, was a follower of the view that all south Slavs that speak the štokavian dialect (in the central south Slavic language group) are Serbs who speak the Serbian language. As this definition implied that large areas of continental Croatia and Dalmatia, as well as Bosnia and Herzegovina, including areas inhabited by Roman Catholics - Vuk Karadžić is considered by some to be the progenitor of the Greater Serbia program. More precisely, Karadžić was the shaper of modern secular Serbian national consciousness, with the goal of incorporating all indigenous štokavian speakers (Eastern Othodox, Catholic, Muslim) into one, modern Serbian nation. It should be noted that this linguistic definition of nation would have excluded parts of southern Serbia where the Torlak dialect is spoken.

Shtokavian dialect, whose speakers Vuk considered Serbs.
There are at least 5 million people who speak the same language, but by religion they can be split into three groups ... Only the first 3 million call themselves Serbs, but the rest will not accept the name.[5]
 
Vuk Karadzic, Serbs All and Everywhere

This negative view is not shared by Andrew Baruch Wachtel (Making a Nation, Breaking a Nation) who sees him as a partisan of South Slav unity, albeit in a limited sense, in that his linguistic definition emphasized what united South Slavs rather than the religious differences that had earlier divided them. However, one might argue that such a definition is very partisan: Karadžić himself eloquently and explicitly professed that his aim was to unite all native štokavian speakers whom he identified as Serbs. Therefore, Vuk Karadžić's central linguistic-political aim was the growth of the realm of Serbdom according to his ethnic-linguistic ideas and not a unity of any sort between Serbian, Croatian or other nations. It has often been suggested that the Muslims of Bosnia are the descendants of Serbs who converted from Orthodox Christianity to Islam under the rule of the Ottoman Empire.[6] Such views have been used to claim ownership of lands inhabited by other peoples (sometimes subsequently, sometimes not), much to the dismay of those inhabitants.

Early criticism

Serbian writers and politicians in Austria-Hungary Svetozar Miletić and Mihailo Polit-Desančić fiercely opposed the Greater Serbia ideology, as well as the premier Serbian socialist from Serbia proper, Svetozar Marković. They all envisioned some sort of "Balkan confederation" that would include Serbia, Bulgaria and sometimes Romania, plus Vojvodina, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, should the Austro-Hungarian Empire dissolve.

The term Greater Serbia first appears in a derogatory manner in a book authored by a Serbian socialist Svetozar Marković in 1872. The title «Velika Srbija» (Greater Serbia) was meant to express the author's dismay at the prospect of expansion of the Serbian state without social and cultural reforms as well as possible ethnic confrontation with neighboring nations, from Croats to Bulgarians.

Balkan Wars

Short-lived territorial expansion of the Kingdom of Serbia in 1913.

The idea of reclaiming historic Serbian territory has been put into action several times during the 19th and 20th centuries, notably in Serbia's southward expansion in the Balkan Wars. Serbia claimed "historical rights" to the possession of Macedonia, acquired by Stephen Dušan in fourteenth century.[7]

Serbia gained significant territorial expansion in the Balkan Wars and almost doubled its territory, with the areas populated mostly by the foreign population (Albanians, Bulgarians, Turks and others).[8] Kingdom of Serbia temporarily occupied most of the land Albania and Albanian Adriatic coast. A series of massacres of Albanians in the Balkan Wars were committed by the Serbian and Montenegrin Army.[8] According to the Report of the International Commission on the Balkan Wars, Serbia consider annexed territories "as a dependency, a sort of conquered colony, which these conquerors might administer at their good pleasure".[8] Newly acquired territories were subjected to military dictatorship, and was not included in Serbian constitutional sistem.[8] The opposition press demanded the rule of law for the population of the annexed territories and the extension of the constitution of the Kingdom of Serbia to these regions.[8]

Black Hand

Extremist Greater Serbian nationalist groups included the secret society called Black Hand, headed by Serbian colonel Dragutin Dimitrijević Apis which took an active and militant stance on the issue of a Greater Serbian state. This organization is believed to have been responsible for numerous atrocities following the Balkan Wars in 1913.[9] In 1914, Bosnian Serb Black Hand member Gavrilo Princip was responsible the assassination of Habsburg Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, which set off an international crisis that led to the First World War.

First World War and Creation of Yugoslavia

[[Image:Balkan aspirations 1914.jpg|thumb|right|Balkan countries aspirations before the wars 1912-1918

By 1914 the Greater Serbian concept was eventually replaced by the Yugoslav Pan-Slavic movement. The change in approach was meant as a means to gain support of other Slavs which neighboured Serbs who were also occupied by Austria-Hungary. The intention to create a south Slav or "Yugoslav" state was expressed in the Niš declaration by Serbian premier Nikola Pašić in 1914, as well as in Serbia's regent Aleksandar's statement in 1916. The documents showed that Serbia would pursue a policy that would integrate all territory that contained Serbs and southern Slavs, including Croatians, Slovenes and Bosnian Muslims.

[[Image:Banovine kj.jpg|thumb|right|Kingdom of Yugoslavia was divided into regions called banovinas which were designed to maximize the connection of Serb populated territories as a means to reduce legitimacy of separatism by other nationalities, as the banovinas were mixed populations.]]

In 1918, the Triple Entente (Britain, France, and Russia) defeated Germany and Austria-Hungary. Serbia, which was allied with the Entente, pressured the allies to give Serbia the territory it requested. After the First World War, Serbia achieved a maximalist nationalist aspirations with the incorporation of the south Slavic regions of Austria-Hungary and Montenegro, into a Serbian-dominated Kingdom of Yugoslavia.[10] The Allies agreed to give the lands of Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina to Serbia. At this time Montenegro had already annexed by Serbia[11][12].

Serbian and Yugoslav nationalists claimed that the peoples' had few differences and were only separated by religious divide imposed by occupiers. It was under this belief that Serbia believed the large annexations would be followed by assimilation. During the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, the government of the Kingdom pursued a linguistic Serbisation policy towards the Macedonians in Macedonia[13] , then called "Southern Serbia" (unofficially) or "Vardar Banovina" (officially). The dialects spoken in this region were referred to as dialects of Serbo-Croatian.[14] Either way, those southern dialects were suppressed with regards education, military and other national activities, and their usage was punishable[15].

The concept of “Greater Serbia” was put in practice during the early 1920s, under the Yugoslav premiership of Nikola Pašić. Using tatics of police intimidation and vote rigging[16] , he diminished the role of the oppositions (mainly those loyal to his Croatian rival, Stjepan Radić) to his government in parliament[17], creating an environment to centralization of power in the hands of the Serbs in general and Serbian politicians in particular.[18]

Chetniks Greater Serbian project

Chetnik project of Greater Serbia within Greater Yugoslavia.

During the Second World War, the largely Serbian royalist Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland headed by General Draža Mihailović attempted to define its vision of a postwar future. One of its intellectuals was the Bosnian Serb nationalist Stevan Moljević who, in 1941, proposed in a paper entitled "Homogeneous Serbia" that an even larger Greater Serbia should be created, incorporating not only Bosnia and much of Croatia but also chunks of Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary. In the territories under their military control, chetniks applied policy of ethnic cleansing against ethnic Croats and Bosniaks.[19][20]

The Serbs today have a primary and basic duty - to create and organize a homogeneous Serbia which must consist of the entire ethnic territory on which the Serbs live.[21]
 
Stevan Moljevic, Homogeneous Serbia

It is alleged to have been a significant point of discussion at a Chetnik congress held in village Ba in central Serbia in January 1944. However, Moljević's ideas were never put into practice due to the Chetniks' defeat by Tito's Partisans (also predominantly Serb resistance movement) and it is difficult to assess how influential they were, due to the lack of records from the Ba congress. Nonetheless, Moljević's core idea—that Serbia is defined by the pattern of Serbian settlement, irrespective of existing national borders—was to remain an underlying theme of the Greater Serbian ideal. Also: Moljević's excursus into cartography has become a standard reference tool in modern Serbian nationalist repertory, ranging from a familiar image of Greater Serbia map frequently appearing in the mass media to the programme of the Serbian Radical Party.

Role in the dissolution of Yugoslavia

SANU Memorandum

The modern elaboration of Serbs' grievances and allegation of inequality in Yugoslavia was to be developed in the Memorandum of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (1986), which was the single most important document to set into motion the pan-Serbian movement of the late 1980s which led to Slobodan Milošević's rise to power and the subsequent Yugoslav wars. The authors of the Memorandum included the most influential Serbian intellectuals, among them: Pavle Ivić, Antonije Isaković, Dušan Kanazir, Mihailo Marković, Miloš Macura, Dejan Medaković, Miroslav Pantić, Nikola Pantić, Ljubiša Rakić, Radovan Samardžić, Miomir Vukobratović, Vasilije Krestić, Ivan Maksimović, Kosta Mihailović, Stojan Čelić and Nikola Čobelić. Christopher Bennett (Yugoslavia's Bloody Collapse) characterized the memorandum as "an elaborate, if crude, conspiracy theory." The memorandum alleged systematic discrimination against Serbs and Serbia culminating with the allegation that the Serbs of Kosovo and Metohija were being subjected to genocide. According to Bennett, despite most of these claims being obviously absurd, the memorandum was merely one of several similar polemics published at the time.

The Memorandum's central theses are:

  • Yugoslavia is a Croatian-Slovene hegemony, in order to reduce the Serbs to a smaller representative group, or "power-sharing".
  • Serbs are, in Yugoslavia, oppressed as a nation. This oppression is especially brutal in Serbian Autonomous Province of Kossovo-Metochia, and in Croatia, where their status is "the worst ever as far as recorded history goes".
  • Serbia is economically exploited, being subjected to the political-economical mechanisms that drain much of her wealth and redistribute it to Slovenia, Croatia and Kossovo-Metochia.
  • borders between Yugoslav republics are arbitrary, drawn by dominant Croatian and Slovene communists (motivated, supposedly, by anti-Serbian animus) and their Serbian political lapdogs.

The Memorandum's defenders claims go as follows: far from calling for a breakup of Yugoslavia on Greater Serbian lines claimed to be in favor of Yugoslavia. Its support for Yugoslavia was however conditional on fundamental changes to end what the Memorandum argued was the discrimination against Serbia which was inbuilt into the Yugoslav constitution. The chief of these changes was abolition of the autonomy of Kosovo and Vojvodina. According to Norman Cigar, because the changes were unlikely to be accepted passively, the implementation of the Memorandum's program would only be possible by force.[22]

Milošević's rise to power

With the rise to power of Milošević the Memorandum's discourse became mainstream in Serbia. According to Bennett, Milošević used a rigid control of the media to organize a propaganda campaign in which the thesis that Serbs were the victims and the need for reajust Yugoslavia to redress the alleged bias against Serbia. This then was then followed by Milošević's anti-bureaucratic revolution in which the provincial governments of Vojvodina and Kosovo along with the Republican government of Montenegro, were overthrown which gave Milošević the dominating position of 4 votes out of 8 in Yugoslavia's collective presidency. Milošević had achieved such a dominant position for Serbia because, according to Bennett, the old communist authorities had failed to stand up to him. This changed first when in 1990 free elections brought opposition parties to power in Croatia and Slovenia.

By this point several opposition parties in Serbia were openly calling for a Greater Serbia, rejecting the then existing boundaries of the Republics as the artificial creation of Tito's partisans. These included Šešelj's Serbian Radical Party, claiming that the recent changes had rectified most of the anti-Serb bias that the Memorandum had alleged. Milošević supported the groups calling for a Greater Serbia, insisting on the demand for "all Serbs in one state". The Socialist Party of Serbia appeared to be defenders of the Serb people in Yugoslavia. Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic, who was also the leader of the Socialist Party of Serbia, has repeatedly stated that all Serbs should enjoy the right to be included in Serbia.[23] Opponents and critics of Milošević claimed that "Yugoslavia could be that one state but the threat was that, should Yugoslavia break up, then Serbia under Milošević would carve out a Greater Serbia".[24]

In 1990, power had seeped away from the federal government to the republics and the republics were deadlocked over the future of Yugoslavia with the Slovene and Croatian republics seeking a confederacy and Serbia a stronger federation. Gow states, "it was the behavior of Serbia that added to the Croatian and Slovene Republic's belief that no accommodation was possible with the Serbian Republic's leadership". The last straw was on 15th of May 1991 when the outgoing Serb president of the collective presidency along with the Serb satellites on the presidency blocked the succession of the Croatian representative Stjepan Mesić as president. According to Gow (p. 20), from this point Yugoslavia de facto "ceased to function".

Yugoslav wars

Map of former Yugoslavia during last wars. War political entities in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovia are marked.
Milosevic believes he now has the historic opportunity to, once and for all, settle accounts with the Croats and do what Serbian politicians after World War I did not - rally all Serbs in one Serbian state.[23]
 
— Belgrade newspaper Borba, August 1991.

During the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s, the concept of a Greater Serbia was widely seen outside of Serbia as the motivating force for the military campaigns undertaken to form and sustain Serbian states on the territories of the breakaway Yugoslav republics of Croatia (the Republic of Serbian Krajina) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (the Republika Srpska).[25] From the Serb point of view, the objective of this policy was to assure Serbs' rights by ensuring that they could never be subjected to potentially hostile rule, particularly by their historic Croatian enemies (cf. Ustaše).[citation needed]

During the Bosnian war, it was a part of the strategic plan by Serb leadership, aimed at linking Serb-populated areas in Bosnia and Herzegovina together, gaining control over these areas and creating a separate Serb state, from which most non-Serbs would be permanently removed. The Serb leadership was aware that the Strategic Plan could only be implemented by the use of force and fear, thus by the commission of war crimes.[26][27]

The war crimes charges against Milošević is based on the allegation that he sought the establishment of a "Greater Serbia". Prosecutors at the Hague argued that "the [Croatia, Bosnia, and Kosovo] indictments were all part of a common scheme, strategy or plan on the part of the accused [Milošević] to create a 'Greater Serbia', a centralized Serbian state encompassing the Serb-populated areas of Croatia and Bosnia and all of Kosovo, and that this plan was to be achieved by forcibly removing non-Serbs from large geographical areas through the commission of the crimes charged in the indictments. Although the events in Kosovo were separated from those in Croatia and Bosnia by more than three years, they were no more than a continuation of that plan, and they could only be understood completely by reference to what had happened in Croatia and Bosnia."[28]

The concept of a Greater Serbia has been widely criticised by other nations in the former Yugoslavia as well as by foreign observers. The two principal objections have been:

  • Questionable historical justifications for claims to territory; for instance, during the Croatian War of Independence, Dubrovnik and other parts of Dalmatia were claimed as a historically Serbian territory — claims which were opposed by Croatian authorities, and by high-profile international governments.
  • The coercive nature of creating a Greater Serbian state against the will of other nations; before the wars, the peoples of Yugoslavia were highly intermingled and it was physically impossible to create ethnic states without taking in large numbers of other ethnic groups against their will. An answer to this was the widespread use of ethnic cleansing to ensure that mono-ethnic territories could be established without opposition from potentially disloyal minority groups. A converse argument is used against the upgrading the status of Croatia and of Bosnia and Herzegovina from republics to independent states—taking in large numbers of other ethnic groups against their will in the process.

Vuk Draskovic, leader of the Serbian Renewal Movement, called for the creation of a Greater Serbia which would include Serbia, Kosovo, Vojvodina, Macedonia and Montenegro, as well as regions within BiH and Croatia with high concentrations of Serbs.[23] Jovan Marjanovic of the Serbian Renewal Movement asked that "the Yugoslav Army must come into Croatia and occupy the line Benkovac-Karlovac-Pakrac-Baranja".[29] About 160,000 Croats were expelled from territories Serbian forces sought to control.[30]

Much of the fighting in the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s was the result of an attempt to keep Serbs unified. Mihajlo Markovic, the Vice President of the Main Committee of Serbia's Socialist Party, rejected any solution that would make Serbs outside Serbia a minority. He proposed establishing a federation consisting of Serbia, Montenegro, BiH, Macedonia and Serbs residing in the Serbian Autonomous Region of Krajina, Slavonia, Baranja, and Srem.[23]

Failure of the Greater Serbian project

The military defeat of the Republic of Serb Krajina, the creation of the Republika Srpska within a sovereign Bosnia-Hercegovina, the UN Administration of Kosovo, the exodus of Serbs from large areas of Croatia, Bosnia, and Kosovo and the indictment of some Serbian leaders for war crimes have greatly discredited the Greater Serbian ideal in Serbia as well as abroad. Western countries claim that atrocities of the Yugoslav Wars have prompted them to take a much stronger stance against the Greater Serbian goal, most notably in Kosovo.

So I say: if a Great Serbia should be held by committing crime, I would never accept it; may Great Serbia disappear, but to hold it by crime - no. If it were necessary to hold only a small Serbia by crime, I would not accept it. May small Serbia disappear, but to hold it by crime - no. And if there is only one Serb, and if I am that last Serb, to hold on by crime - I do not accept. May we disappear, but disappear as humans, because then we will not disappear, we will be alive in the hands of the living God.[31]
 

Slobodan Milošević and many other Serb leaders were charged by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) with crimes against humanity including murder, forcible population transfer, deportation and "persecution on political, racial or religious grounds". Tribunal prosecutor's office has accused Milosevic of "the gravest violations of human rights in Europe since the Second World War."[30] Milosevic died in prison before sentencing.

However, the idea of a Greater Serbia is still seen by many Croats, Bosnian Muslims, and Albanians as a barrier to good relations and unity between Serbs and other neighbouring peoples.[32]

Notes and references

Notes:

a.   ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia and the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo. The Assembly of Kosovo unilaterally declared its independence on 17 February 2008, a move that is recognised by 65 of the 192 UN member states and the Republic of China (Taiwan), but not by other UN member states. Serbia claims it as part of its own sovereign territory.

References:

  1. ^ a b Šešelj ICTY Case information sheet
  2. ^ Ilija Garasanin's "Nacertanije": A Reasessment
  3. ^ Ivo Banac, The national question in Yugoslavia: origins, history, politics (pp. 110)
  4. ^ Heavenly Serbia: From Myth to Genocide, New York University Press, 1999. (pp. 89.)
  5. ^ Vuk Karadzic, Serbs All and Everywhere (1849)
  6. ^ Note that Croatian nationalists claim something very similar, except involving Catholicism rather than Orthodoxy.
  7. ^ Report of the International Commission to Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars (p. 25-27)
  8. ^ a b c d e Report of the International Commission to Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars (p. 159-164)
  9. ^ Report of the International Commission to Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars (p. 169)
  10. ^ Richard C Hall, The Balkan Wars 1912-1913
  11. ^ Montenegrins' Effort to Prevent Annexation of Their Country to Serbia
  12. ^ Serbs wipe out royalist party in Montenegro
  13. ^ "An article by Dimiter Vlahov about the persecution of the Bulgarian population in Macedonia". newspaper "Balkanska federatsia", No. 140, Aug.20, 1930, Vienna, original in Bulgarian. http://www.kroraina.com/knigi/en/ban/pww2.html#60. Retrieved 2007-08-03. 
  14. ^ Friedman, V. (1985) "The sociolinguistics of literary Macedonian" in International Journal of the Sociology of Language. Vol. 52, pp. 31-57
  15. ^ "By the Shar Mountain there is also terror and violence". newspaper "Makedonsko Delo", No. 58, Jan. 25, 1928, Vienna, original in Bulgarian. http://www.kroraina.com/knigi/en/ban/pww2.html#50. Retrieved 2007-08-03. 
  16. ^ Balkan Politics, TIME Magazine, March 31, 1923
  17. ^ Elections, TIME Magazine, February 23, 1925
  18. ^ The Opposition, TIME Magazine, April 6, 1925
  19. ^ Noel Malcolm, Bosnia: a Short History (1994) - 188 details Foca-Cajnice massacres
  20. ^ Lampe, Yugoslavia as History, 206, 209, 210
  21. ^ Stevan Moljevic, Homogeneous Serbia (1941)
  22. ^ Norman Cigar, Genocide in Bosnia p24
  23. ^ a b c d The policy of ethnic cleansing
  24. ^ James Gow: Triumph of the Lack of Will p. 19.
  25. ^ Decision of the ICTY Appeals Chamber; 18 April 2002; Reasons for the Decision on Prosecution Interlocutory Appeal from Refusal to Order Joinder; Paragraph 8
  26. ^ "ICTY: Radoslav Brđanin verdict - 1. Joint Criminal Enterprise". http://www.un.org/icty/brdjanin/trialc/judgement/brd-tj040901e1.htm#VIIA1. 
  27. ^ "ICTY: Radoslav Brđanin verdict - C. The implementation of the Strategic Plan in the Bosnian Krajina". http://www.un.org/icty/brdjanin/trialc/judgement/brd-tj040901e1.htm#IVC. 
  28. ^ Decision of the ICTY Appeals Chamber; 18 April 2002; Reasons for the Decision on Prosecution Interlocutory Appeal from Refusal to Order Joinder; Paragraph 8
  29. ^ International Centre Against Censorship. "Forging War: The Media in Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina". International Centre Against Censorship, Article 19. Avon, United Kingdom: Bath Press, May 1994. P79.
  30. ^ a b Atrocities in Yugoslavia unraveled much later
  31. ^ Interview with Patriarch Pavle (serbian)
  32. ^ David Bruce MacDonald, Balkan holocausts?: Serbian and Croatian victim-centred propaganda

Literature

  • Svetozar Marković (1872), Serbija na istoku (Serbia in the East), Novi Sad 
  • Branimir Anzulovic: Heavenly Serbia: From Myth to Genocide, NYU Press, 1999.
  • Philip J. Cohen: Serbia's Secret War: Propaganda and the Deceit of History (Eastern European Studies, No 2), Texas A & M University Press, Reprint Edition, February 1997.
  • Ivo Banac: The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics, Cornell University Press, Reprint edition, 1988.

See also

External links

From Project Rastko website:

From Croatian Information Centre website:

International sources








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