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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Greater Toronto Area
—  Metropolitan Area  —
A view of the Toronto skyline at night
Nickname(s): Greater Toronto, GTA
A simulated-colour image of Greater Toronto Area taken by NASA's Landsat 7 satellite from 1985.
Country  Canada
Province  Ontario
 - Total 7,124.15 km2 (2,750.6 sq mi)
 - CMA 5,901.77 km2 (2,278.7 sq mi)
Population (2006)[1]
 - Total 5,555,912
 Density 779.9/km2 (2,019.9/sq mi)
 - CMA 5,113,149
 - CMA Density 866.4/km2 (2,244/sq mi)
 - Demonym Torontonians.
  Canadian CD rank: 1st
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Postal Code L, M
Area code(s) 289, 416, 519, 647, 705, 905
Greater toronto area map.svg

Municipalities in the Greater Toronto Area

The Greater Toronto Area (locally abbreviated as the GTA) is the most populous metropolitan area in Canada. With a 2006 census population of 5.9 million, the GTA consists of the City of Toronto and the surrounding regional municipalities of Durham, Halton, Peel and York. The entire region is larger than Prince Edward Island and has an identity different from the rest of the province.

The term GTA only came into use in the mid-1990s, after it was used in a widely discussed report on municipal governance restructuring in the region. The GTA is a provincial planning area in Southern Ontario and is part of the inner ring of the Greater Golden Horseshoe.


General information

Along with Toronto, the following regional municipalities are included in describing the Greater Toronto Area:[2]

The City of Hamilton, Regional Municipality of Niagara and City of Guelph all have significant ties to Toronto and the Greater Toronto Area. In some cases, the provincial government already includes Hamilton and Niagara with the rest of the GTA for urban planning.[3]


The Greater Toronto Area was home to a number of First Nations groups who lived on the shore of Lake Ontario long before the first Europeans arrived in the region. At various times the Neutral,[4] Seneca, Mohawk and Huron nations were living in the vicinity of the region.[5] The Mississaugas arrived in the late seventeenth or early eighteenth century, driving out the occupying Iroquois[6][7] While it is unclear to who was the first European to reach the Toronto area, there is no question that it occurred in the 17th century.[8]

The area would later become very crucial for its series of trails and water routes that led from northern and western Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. Known as the "Toronto Passage", it followed the Humber River, as an important overland shortcut between Lake Ontario, Lake Simcoe and the upper Great Lakes.[9] For this reason area became a hot spot for French fur traders.[8] The French would later establish two trading forts, Magasin Royale in the 1720s', although abandoned within the decade and Fort Rouillé in the 1750s, which would later be burnt down and abandoned in 1759 by the French garrison, who were retreating from invading British forces.[8][10]

A map of York County during the 1880s

The first large influx of European settlers to settle the region were the United Empire Loyalists arriving after the American Revolution, when various individuals petitioned the Crown for land in and around the Toronto area.[8] In 1787, the British negotiated the purchase of more than a quarter million acres (1,000 km²) of land in the area of Toronto with the Mississaugas of New Credit.[11] York County, would later be created by Governor John Graves Simcoe in 1792, which would at its largest size, comprise of all of what is now Halton Region, Toronto, Peel Region, York Region and parts of the current Durham Regional Municipality.[12] The Town of York (present day Toronto) would later be attacked by American forces in the War of 1812 in what is now known as the Battle of York, in 1813.[13]

In 1816, Wentworth County and Halton County were created from York County.[14] York County would later serve as the setting for the beginnings of the Upper Canada Rebellion with William Lyon Mackenzie's armed march from Holland Landing towards York Township on Yonge Street, eventually leading up to the battle at Montgomery's Tavern.[15] In 1851, Ontario County and Peel County were separated from York.[16][14] In 1953, the portion of York County south of Steeles Avenue, a concession road and township boundary, was severed from the county and incorporated as the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto.[17] With the concession of Metro Toronto, the offices of York County were moved from Toronto to Newmarket. The new Metropolitan government also held planning authority over the surrounding townships such as Vaughan, Markham, and Pickering, although these areas did not have representation on Metro Council.

Originally, the membership in Metropolitan Toronto included the Old City of Toronto and five other townships including East York, Etobicoke, North York, Scarborough, York, as well as seven villages and towns, which became amalgamated into their surrounding townships in 1967.[18] In 1971, the remaining areas of York County was replaced by the Ontario government with the Regional Municipality of York.[18] In 1980, North York would be incorporated into a city, with York following suit in 1983 and Etobicoke and Scarborough in 1984, although still part of the Toronto Municipal Government.[18] Eventually, the idea of boroughs and cities was discarded and Toronto, with the four other cities and the last remaining borough of East York, were amalgamated in 1998.[19]


Rattlesnake Point near Milton.

The Greater Toronto Area covers a total area of 7,125 km2 (2,751 sq mi).[20] The region itself is bordered by Lake Ontario to the south, Kawartha lakes to the east, the Niagara Escarpment to the west, and Lake Simcoe to the north. The region itself creates a natural ecosystem known as the Greater Toronto Bioregion.

Vast parts of the region remain farmland and forests, making it one of the distinctive features of the geography of the GTA. Most of the urban areas in the GTA holds large urban forest. For the most part designated as parkland, the ravines are largely undeveloped. Rouge Park is also one of the largest nature park within a core of a metropolitan area.[21] Much of these areas also constitute the Toronto ravine system, and a number of conservation areas in the region which are managed by Toronto and Region Conservation Authority.[22]

In 2005, the Government of Ontario had also passed legislation to prevent urban development and sprawl on environmentally-sensitive land in the Greater Toronto Area, known as the Greenbelt, many of these areas including protected sections of the Oak Ridges Moraine, Rouge Park and the Niagara Escarpment.[23] Nevertheless, low-density suburban developments continue to be built, some on or near ecologically sensitive and protected areas. The provincial government has recently attempted to address this issue through the "Places to Grow" legislation passed in 2005, which emphasizes higher-density growth in existing urban centres over the next 25 years.[24]


A worker at the Oakville Assembly installs a battery on a Ford Flex

Greater Toronto is a commercial, distribution, financial and economic centre, being the third largest financial centre in North America.[25] The work force is made up of approximately 2.9 million people and more than 100,000 companies[26] The Greater Toronto Area currently produces nearly 20% of the entire nation's GDP with $323 Billion, and from 1992 to 2002, has experienced an average GDP growth rate of 4.0% and a job creation rate of 2.4% (compared to the national average GDP growth rate of 3% and job creation rate of 1.6%).[27][28] The Greater Toronto Area also is home to 40% of Canadian business headquarters.[28] Currently, over 51% of the labour force in the Greater Toronto Area is employed in the service sector, with 19% in the manufacturing, 17% of the labour force employed in wholesale & retail trade, 8% of the labour force involved in transportation, communication &utilities, and 5% of the workforce is involved in construction.[29] Despite the fact that the service industry makes up only 51% of Greater Toronto's workforce, over 72% of the region's GDP is generated by service industries.[28]

The largest industry in the Greater Toronto Area would be the financial services in the province, accounting for an estimated 25% of the region's GDP.[28] Notably, the five largest banks in Canada all have their operational headquarters located in Toronto's Financial District.[30] Toronto is also where the headquarters of to the Toronto Stock Exchange and the Standard and Poor TSX Composite Index are located, with offices of the TSX Venture Exchange also located in Toronto.[30] The TMX Group, the owners and operators of TSX Exchanges as well as the Montreal Exchange are also headquartered in Toronto. The TSX and the TSX Venture Exchange represent 3,369 companies, including more than half of the world’s publicly traded mining companies.[30]

Markham had also attracted the highest concentration of high tech companies in Canada, and because of it, has positioned itself as Canada's High-Tech Capital.[31] The Greater Toronto Area is currently the second largest automotive centre in North America (after Detroit). Currently, General Motors, Ford and Chrysler run six assembly plants in the area, with Honda and Toyota having assembly plants just outside of the GTA. General Motors, Ford, Honda, KIA, Mazda, Suzuki, Nissan, Volkswagen, Toyota, Hyundai, Aston Martin, Jaguar, Land Rover, Subaru, Volvo, BMW, and Mitsubishi have chosen the Greater Toronto Area for their Canadian headquarters.[32] Magna International, the world's most diversified car supplier,[33] also has its headquarters located in Aurora.[34] The entire automobile industry within the region accounts for roughly 10% of the region's GDP.[28]


Farmland seen from the summit of Rattlesnake Point in Milton

While it was once the most dominant industry for residents in the Greater Toronto Area, agriculture now occupies a small percentage of the population, but still a large part of land in the surrounding four regional municipalities. Census data from 2006 has shown that there are 3,707 census farms in the GTA, down 4.2% from 2001 and covering 274,363 ha (677,951 acres).[35] Almost every community in the GTA is currently experienced a decrease in the acreage of farmland, with Mississauga seeing the most significant. The only communities in the GTA which are experiencing a growth in the acreage of farmland are Aurora, Georgina, Newmarket, Oshawa, Richmond Hill and Scugog, with Markham experiencing neither any growth nor decline.[36] Most of the farmland in the GTA is located in Durham Region, with 55% of their total land area being farmland. This is followed by York Region with 41% of their lands being farm land, Peel Region with 34%, and Halton Region with 41%.[36] The average size of the farm in the GTA (183 acres) is a lot lower than the farms in the rest of Ontario (averaging 233 acres). This has been attributed to the shift of farm types in the GTA, shifting from the traditional livestock and cash crop farms (requiring an extensive land base), towards more intensive enterprises including greenhouse, floriculture, nursery, vegetable, fruit, sheep and goats.[35]

The most numerous farms types however in the GTA is miscellaneous specialty farms (including horse and pony, sheep and lamb, and other livestock specialty), followed by cattle, grain and oilseed, dairy and field crop farms.[36] Although the output of dairy production has dropped with farms from within the GTA, dairy has remained the most productive sector in the agricultural industry by annual gross farm receipts.[36] Despite the decreased amount of farmland around the region, farm capital value increased from $5.2 billion in 1996 to $6.1 billion in 2001, making the average farm capital value in the GTA continued to be the highest in the province.[36]

Toronto CMA

A map of Toronto's Census Metropolitan Area, which contains a large portion of the Greater Toronto Area.

Some municipalities that are considered part of the GTA are not within Toronto's Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) whose land area (5,904 km² in 2006)[37] and population (5,113,149 as of the 2006 census)[37] is thus smaller than the land area and population of the GTA planning area. For example, Oshawa, which is the centre of its own CMA, or Burlington, which is included in the Hamilton CMA are both deemed part of the Greater Toronto Area.[38] Other municipalities, such as New Tecumseth in southern Simcoe County and Mono Township in Dufferin County are included in the Toronto CMA but not in the GTA.[38] These different border configurations result in the GTA's population being higher than the Toronto CMA by nearly one-half million people, often leading to confusion amongst people when trying to sort out the urban population of Toronto.

Other nearby urban areas, such as Hamilton, Barrie or St. Catharines-Niagara and Kitchener-Waterloo are not part of the GTA or the Toronto CMA, but form their own CMAs that are in fairly close proximity to the GTA (all within one hour's drive to downtown Toronto).[39] Ultimately, all the aforementioned places are part of the Golden Horseshoe metropolitan region, an urban agglomeration[40], which is the sixth most populous in North America. When the Hamilton, Oshawa and Toronto CMAs are agglomerated with Brock and Scugog, they have a population of 6,170,072.[41]

Area codes

The Greater Toronto Area is served by seven distinct area codes. Before 1993, the GTA used the 416 area code. In a 1993 zone split, the City of Toronto retained the 416 code, while the rest of the Greater Toronto Area was assigned the new area code 905.[42] This division by area code has become part of the local culture to the point where local media refer to something inside Toronto as "the 416" and outside of Toronto as "the 905".[43] Though for the most part this was correct, it is not entirely true as some portions of Durham and York Regions use the 705 area code, and some portions of Halton and Peel Regions use the 519 area code.[44] Furthermore, there are areas, such as the Regional Municipality of Niagara, Ontario and Port Hope, Ontario that use the 905 area code, but are not part of the GTA.[44]

To meet the increased demand for phone numbers, two overlay area codes were introduced in 2001. Area code 647 (supplementing the 416 area code)[45] was introduced in March 2001 and area code 289 (supplementing the 905 area code) was introduced in July 2001.[46] In 2006, area code 226 was created as an overlay, supplementing the 519 area code.[47] Some individuals within the 905 area code region may have to dial long distance to reach each other; although residents of Mississauga and Hamilton share the same area code (905), an individual from Toronto, for example, would have to dial "1" to reach Hamilton, but not to reach Mississauga. Ten-digit telephone dialling, including the area code for local calls, is required throughout the GTA.[46]


Highway 401 serves as a major roadway in the Greater Toronto Area.

There are a number of public transportation operators within the Greater Toronto Area, providing services within their jurisdictions. While these operators are largely independent, provisions are being made to integrate them under Metrolinx, which manages transportation planning including public transport in both the GTA and Hamilton.[48] GO Transit, which had recently merged with Metrolinx, is the Ontario's only intra-regional public transit service, linking the communities in the GTA and the cities of Hamilton.[49] Implementation of a 'Presto card' by Metrolinx is currently under way, which would create a common means for all fare payments and allow for seamless connection between these and other transit operators.[50]

A list of public transit operators in the GTA[51]:

The GTA also has the largest and busiest freeway network in Canada, consisting of the King's Highways and supplemented by municipal expressways.[52] One of the most principal highways in the GTA, Highway 401 is also longest in Ontario and is also one of the busiest highways in the world.[53]. Notably, segments of the highway passing through the GTA holds the distinction of being the North America's busiest highway.[54] The GTA is laced with a number of limited-access highways, including the 400-series highways. These highways would include[55]:

Air travel

The Toronto Pearson International Airport in Mississauga serves as the primary airport for the GTA.

The main airport serving the GTA is Toronto Pearson International Airport in Mississauga, which is Canada's largest[56] and busiest airport.[57] Toronto Pearson International Airport is operated by the Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA), and could potentially be asked to help observe in the operations of the other airports in the area, but has yet to be asked to do so.[58] John C. Munro Hamilton International Airport in nearby Hamilton also handles international flights handles some discount flights and charters and acts as an alternate to Pearson.[59] Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport on Toronto Island is used for civil aviation, air ambulance traffic and regional scheduled airlines.[60] YTO is a multiple airport code that works for Pearson, City Centre, and Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport (located in Markham). There are also a number of smaller airports which are scattered throughout the GTA.

The Greater Toronto Airport Authority has also placed a tentative proposal to develop a new airport in Pickering (which also spills over into Markham and Uxbridge).[61] As the GTAA predicts that Toronto Pearson would be unable to indefinitely be the sole provider for the bulk of Toronto's commercial air traffic in the next 20 years, the believe that a new airport in Pickering would address the need for a regional/reliever airport east of Toronto Pearson, as well as complement the airport in Hamilton, Ontario.[58] The GTAA also stated that the new airport would create more opportunities for economic development in the eastern region of the Greater Toronto Area.[58]


Results of the 2008 Federal election shown, with the ridings in GTA segmented at the bottom

The Greater Toronto Area is currently represented by 45 Members of Parliament in the Canadian House of Commons, including party leaders Michael Ignatieff of the Liberal Party and Jack Layton of the New Democratic Party.[62][63] 44 Members of Provincial Parliament also represent the GTA in the Ontario Legislature. Four Senators from Ontario have also designated themselves as representatives of certain areas in the GTA in the Canadian Senate.[64]

Federal Politics

Federally, the Conservatives, Liberals, and the New Democrats all hold several electoral districts in the GTA. The City of Toronto has often been supportive of the Liberal party, which had shut out the Conservative Party from any of the constituents within the city for the past 6 elections.[65] Traditionally, Liberal support is strongest in Downtown Toronto, while Conservative support is stronger in the surrounding communities outside Toronto. The NDP also has a strong base within the GTA.[65]

In recent years however, the political leanings of Toronto's surround communities have begun to shift closer to that of Toronto.[66] Political analysts had pointed out that this is attributed to the urban sprawl occurring in the GTA, which resulted in rural voters being displaced by more diversified suburbanites who tend to lean Liberal.[66] This has been reflected in recent polls taken in 2009, which indicated that the Liberals have the support of 52% of those living in Toronto, while the Conservatives and NDP are tied at 19%.[67] Similarly, the Liberals in the surrounding areas hold 50% of their support, while the Conservatives hold 27%, and the NDP at 11%.[67]

Regional Politics

There has been a growing tension between Toronto and the surrounding GTA area since the mid-1990s, with Toronto complaining that it has been economically exploited by its neighbours. The election of the Harris government was attributed to his support base in the suburban "905" region. During his time in office, many provincial services were transferred to the municipal governments, which caused great financial strain on an already indebted city. The King City Sanitary Servicing Project, known as The Big Pipe has also been a rather hot issue between residents in York Region and residents in Pickering.[68]

Most of the "905" municipalities have few cultural institutions, despite their significant populations. Despite having attracted significant investment over the last few decades, the surrounding cities are still considered bedroom suburbs of Toronto, rather than independent municipalities, and as a result many are virtually unknown outside of Ontario. Prior to the municipal amalgamations that took place with the introduction of regional government, Oshawa was the only nearby city with a significant population and recognition.

Despite the political tensions between the city and its neighbouring regions, the groups have managed to cooperate with one another. Past attempts to create a interregional organization includes the Greater Toronto Services Board, which included officials from the City of Toronto, Peel Region, York Region as well as the City of Hamilton.[69][70] However, with the lack of real political power, the board ceased to exist in 2001. Recently however, discussions of creating a Greater Toronto economic cabinet has surfaced after municipal leaders of the GTA, the federal Minister of Finance, and Premier of Ontario met at the Greater Toronto Region Economic Summit in 2009.[69]

There are currently several other interregional public authorities including Metrolinx, which manages the interregional transit system, GO Transit system[71], as well as the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority, which manages the conservations in the area.[72] The municipal and regional governments, as well as local businesses in the region have also created a public-private partnership known as the Greater Toronto Marketing Alliance to help with the overall growth of the GTA.[73]


According to the latest census data from 2006 from Statistics Canada, the population of this area is 5,555,912. Population growth studies have projected the City of Toronto's population in 2031 to be 3,000,000 and the Greater Toronto Area's population to be 7,450,000.[74] Statistics Canada had identified in 2001 that four major urban regions in Canada exhibited a cluster pattern of concentrated population growth among which included the Greater Golden Horseshoe Census Region, which includes all of the Greater Toronto Area (which includes Oshawa), as well as other Southern Ontario cities including Niagara, Hamilton, Guelph, Kitchener-Waterloo and Barrie. Combined, the Greater Golden Horseshoe has a population of 8,116,000 in 2006,[75] containing approximately 25% of Canada's population.

Statistics Canada had also found that there were 31,910 aboriginal people living in the Greater Toronto Area, which represented 2.7 per cent of all aboriginal persons in Canada and 13.2 per cent of those in Ontario.[76] The majority of which however are not registered with the Indian reserves within the Greater Toronto Area, the Chippewas of Georgina Island First Nation and the Mississaugas of Scugog Island.

Name Total area (km²) Population Density
Province of Ontario 1,076,395 km² 13,425,124 13.8 / km²
City of Toronto 630 km² 2,503,281 3,972/ km²
Regional Municipality of Durham 2523.15 km² 561,258 222.4/ km²
Regional Municipality of Peel 1,241.99 km² 1,159,405 933.2/ km²
Regional Municipality of York 1,761.84 km² 892,712 506.7/ km²
Regional Municipality of Halton 967.17 km² 439,526 454.45/ km²
Greater Toronto Area 7124.15 km² 5,555,912 779.9/ km²
Mother tongue languages, Toronto CMA (2006)[77]
Language Toronto Ontario Canada
English 56.2% 69.8% 58.4%
Italian 3.8% 2.5% 1.5%
Unspecified Chinese 3.5% 1.8% 1.5%
Cantonese 3.4% 1.5% 1.2%
Punjabi 2.7% 1.3% 1.2%
Tagalog 2.2% 1.1% 0.9%
Portuguese 2.2% 1.4% 0.7%
Spanish 2.2% 1.4% 1.2%
Urdu 2.1% 1.0% 0.5%
Tamil 1.9% 0.9% 0.4%
Polish 1.6% 1.2% 0.7%
French 1.4% 4.4% 22.3%
Russian 1.3% 0.7% 0.4%
Persian 1.3% 0.7% 0.4%
Mandarin 1.3% 0.6% 0.6%
Arabic 1.2% 1.0% 0.9%
Gujarati 1.1% 0.5% 0.3%


The University of Toronto, which was established in 1827 is not only the oldest university in the Greater Toronto Area, but in the Province of Ontario.

The Greater Toronto Area is home to five post-secondary education institutions with degree-granting authority, many of which are well known and respected throughout the world.[78] There also are eleven private institutions spread throughout the GTA with degree granting authority.[79] The five public degree-granting institutions are:

The City of Toronto is also home to the University of Guelph-Humber, a university-college partnership between the University of Guelph (located just outside the GTA in Guelph) and Humber College.[80] In 2009, the City of Burlington and the McMaster University (located just outside the GTA in Hamilton) have agreed upon housing an expansion campus, known as the Ron Joyce Centre.[81][82] The campus is scheduled to be completed on September, 2010.[83]

The Greater Toronto Area is also home to six publicly funded community colleges[84], which have campuses spread throughout Greater Toronto as well as outside of it. There are also a number of private career colleges spread throughout the Greater Toronto.[85] The six publicly funded community colleges are:

See also


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  2. ^ "Greater Toronto Area Regions map". City of Toronto. Retrieved 2007-05-23. 
  3. ^ "Planning for Growth". Understanding the Growth Plan for the Greater Golden Horseshoe. Ministry of Public Infrastructure Renewal. 
  4. ^ Chris J. Ellis & Neal Ferris, ed (1990). The Archaeology Of Southern Ontario To A.D. 1650. London Chapter of the Ontario Archaeological Society. pp. 410–411. ISBN 0-919350-13-5. 
  5. ^ "First Peoples, 9000 BCE to 1600 CE". Toronto Culture – Exploring Toronto's past. City of Toronto. 
  6. ^ The Ojibwa-Iroquois War: The War the Five Nations Did Not Win. Leroy V. Eid. Ethnohistory, Vol. 26, No. 4 (Autumn, 1979), Duke University Press,pp. 297-324
  7. ^ Schmalz, Peter S., The Ojibwa of Southern Ontario. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-2736-9. pp 21-22
  8. ^ a b c d "Natives and Newcomers, 1600-1793". Toronto Culture – Exploring Toronto's past. City of Toronto. 2009. 
  9. ^ "The Toronto Carrying-place". Nature Conservancy of Canada. Retrieved 2010-02-28. 
  10. ^ Rayburn, Alan (2007-09-18). "The real story of how Toronto got its name". Mapping Services. Natural Resources Canada. 
  11. ^ Missisaugas of the New Credit CURRENT LAND CLAIMS
  12. ^ Ontario's Districts - 1798, Queen's Printer, Ontario. Retrieved on 2010-02-06.
  13. ^ "A Provincial Centre, 1793-1851". Toronto Culture – Exploring Toronto's past. City of Toronto. 2009. 
  14. ^ a b Archives of Ontario (2010-02-28). "18th and 19th Century Ontario Counties and Corresponding Districts". Queen's Printer, Ontario. 
  15. ^ Robert M. Stamp (1991). "The Road to Rebellion". Tories and Reformers. Town of Richmond Hill Public Library. 
  16. ^ Archives of Ontario (2010-02-28). "Ontario's Districts - 1851". The Evolution of the District and County System 1788-1899. Queen's Printer, Ontario. 
  17. ^ Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto Act, Queen's Printer, Ontario. Retrieved on 2010-02-06.
  18. ^ a b c Archives of Ontario (2010-02-28). "Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto and the Regional Municipality of York". Queen's Printer, Ontario. 
  19. ^ City of Toronto Act, 1997, Queen's Printer, Ontario. Retrieved on 2010-02-06.
  20. ^ Population and land area figures for Toronto and the regional municipalities come from the 2006 Canadian census: [1].
  21. ^ About Us, Rouge Park. Retrieved on 2010-02-07.
  22. ^ Jurisdiction and Participating Municipalities, Toronto and Region Conservation Authority. Retrieved on 2010-02-07.
  23. ^Greenbelt Plan Area,” Greenbelt Protection. (Retrieved 2010-02-07.)
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  30. ^ a b c Financial Services, Greater Toronto Marketing Services. Retrieved on 2010-02-07.
  31. ^ Markham's High-Tech Companies in The Branham Top 300 Canadian IT Companies, Town of Markham. Retrieved on 2010-02-07.
  32. ^ Automotive & Advanced Manufacturing, Greater Toronto Marketing Alliance. Retrieved on 2010-02-07.
  33. ^ About Magna, Magna International. Retrieved on 2010-02-07.
  34. ^ Contact Us, Magna International. Retrieved on 2010-02-07.
  35. ^ a b GTA Agricultural Profile, Greater Toronto Area Agricultural Action Committee. Retrieved on 2010-02-12.
  36. ^ a b c d eGREATER TORONTO AREA AGRICULTURAL PROFILE UPDATE,” Greater Toronto Area Agricultural Action Committee. (Retrieved 2010-02-12.)
  37. ^ a b "Population and dwelling counts, for census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations, 2006 and 2001 censuses - 100% data". Statistics Canada, 2006 Census of Population. 2007-03-13. Retrieved 2007-03-13. 
  38. ^ a b "What's the difference between the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and CMA Toronto (census metropolitan area)?". Computing in the Humanities and Social Sciences University of Toronto. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 
  39. ^ "Population of census metropolitan areas (2006 Census boundaries)". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 
  40. ^ "2006 Census: Portrait of the Canadian Population in 2006: Subprovincial population dynamics". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 
  41. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for census metropolitan areas, 2006 and 2001 censuses - 100% data". Canada 2006 Census. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2008-07-25.  The constituent CMAs are Toronto (5,113,149), Hamilton (692,911), Oshawa (330,594), Brock(11,979) and Scugog(21,439) for a total agglomerated population of 6,170,072.
  42. ^ "Area Why are some 905 numbers long distance while others aren’t? And what’s with this 647 business?". Toronto Life.’t-and-what’s-with-this-647-business/. Retrieved 2010-02-28. 
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  46. ^ a b "Order CRTC 2001-840". Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. Retrieved 2010-02-28. 
  47. ^ "NANPA Planning Letter 343: NPA 226 to Overlay 519". North American Numbering Plan Administration. Retrieved 2010-02-28. 
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  50. ^ About PRESTO, Queen's Printer, Ontario. Retrieved on 2010-02-07.
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  52. ^ [2], Queen's Printer, Ontario. Retrieved on 2010-02-22
  53. ^ "Ontario government investing $401 million to upgrade Highway 401". Ministry of Transportation. 2002-08-06. Retrieved 2007-03-18. "Highway 401 is the busiest highway in the world and represents a vital link in Ontario's transportation infrastructure, carrying more than 400,000 vehicles per day through Toronto." 
  54. ^ [3], Cameron Bevers. Retrieved on 2010-02-22.
  55. ^ "Southern Ontario Road Maps Map 3". Ministry of Transportation. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 
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  58. ^ a b cPickering Airport Draft Plan Report,” GTAA Pickering Project. (Retrieved 2010-01-29.)
  59. ^ Alternate Airports, Cheapflights. Retrieved on 2010-02-07.
  60. ^ "Tenant List". Toronto Port Authority. Retrieved 2010-02-26. 
  61. ^ "Pickering airport idea revived". The Toronto Star. Retrieved 2010-02-26. 
  62. ^ History of Federal Ridings since 1867 TORONTO--DANFORTH, Parliament of Canada. Retrieved on 2010-02-07.
  63. ^ History of Federal Ridings since 1867 ETOBICOKE--LAKESHORE, Parliament of Canada. Retrieved on 2010-02-07.
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External links

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

North America : Canada : Ontario : Golden Horseshoe : Greater Toronto Area

The Greater Toronto Area (GTA) is centered on the city of Toronto, in Ontario's Golden Horseshoe. It is not legally defined but is used as a catch-all reference, and extends west to include Mississauga and Oakville, and east to include Ajax, Pickering, and Whitby.

Get in

By public transportation

GO Transit runs trains and buses between Toronto and its suburbs. Most train routes only operate during rush hour and are replaced by coach services at other times. The exceptions are the Lakeshore East and West rail lines, which run all day and on weekends from Aldershot to Oshawa. GO Trains as well as a few GO bus routes run to Union Station in downtown Toronto, which is connected to a subway station with the same name. Most GO buses run to Yokdale or York Mills stations on the Yonge-University-Spadina subway line or Scarborough Centre on the Scarborough RT line.

Get around

By public transit

GO Transit [1] operates the commuter transit services between the different regions of the GTA. It operates 7 commuter rail lines, all coming together at Union Station at the base of Toronto's financial district. All the rail lines other than the Lakeshore West and Lakeshore East operate into Union Station during morning rush hour and out of Union Station during evening rush hour and run only on weekdays. The two lakeshore lines run all day from around 6 am to around 1 am on weekdays and weekends. Buses replace the rail lines while they're not running, most GO buses operate out of Yorkdale and York Mills subway stations at the north end of Toronto and several use the Union Station bus terminal, across the street from the train station.

Within each region of the GTA, local municipalities operate transit services. The TTC [2] is by far the largest and serves the city of Toronto, it runs all the buses, streetcars and subways within the city. York Region Transit operates buses in York Region, to the north of Toronto. YRT also runs 5 bus rapid transit lines, known as VIVA; two of these lines operate only during rush hour and four of them connect to subway stations. Mississauga Transit serves Mississauga to the west of Toronto. Most of its services are centred on the Square One shopping centre and many of its routes connect to the Bloor-Danforth subway line at Islington station. There are several express routes that run on expressways, many routes connect to GO train stations and route 7 connects Square One with Pearson International Airport.

  • Parkwood Estate Gardens (Parkwood National Historic Site), 270 Simcoe Street North (north-west corner of Adelaide and Simcoe Streets, across the street from the Hospital (Lakeridge Health) and the R.S. McLaughlin Durham Regional Cancer Centre.), +1 905-433-4311 (, fax: +1 905-721-4765), [3]. The museum is closed Mondays. Museum hours are Tuesday-Saturday, 9:00am-5pm.. A grand private estate featuring architectural, landscape and interior designs of the early twentieth century English Arts and Crafts period.  edit
  • Casa Loma, Visit Canada's Majestic Castle, Casa Loma and step back in time to a period of European elegance and splendour. The former home of Canadian financier Sir Henry Pellatt, Canada's foremost castle is complete with decorated suites, secret passages, an 800-foot tunnel, towers, stables, and beautiful 5-acre estate gardens (open May through October). A self-guided digital audio tour in 8 languages (English, French, Japanese, German, Italian, Spanish, Mandarin and Korean) is available. Casa Loma is located at One Austin Terrace near the corner of Davenport Rd. and Spadina Ave.

Toronto B&B's

213 Carlton - Toronto Townhouse B&B 213 Carlton - Toronto Townhouse B&Bis a Toronto Tourism award winning B&B that is highly ranked on They offer Suites and rooms at affordable prices in the heart of downtown Toronto, and are conveniently located in the vibrant, historic neighbourhood of Old Cabbagetown in the heart of Downtown Toronto. They are about 3 blocks from Yonge and College Street Subway @213 Carlton Street (Parliament & Carlton Street), Toronto, and within walking distance of the Church Street Village, Riverdale Farm & Allan Gardens.

They are located on a 24 hr streetcar route and all Toronto tourist sites are easily accessed.

Their officially Designated Heritage home has been lovingly restored but has all the modern conveniences including a commercial rooftop central air conditioning system, FREE Local and FREE Long Distance calling within North America, and FREE Wi-Fi internet. Business Fax service is also available at a nominal fee. Breakfast is included and parking is available on site. Call 416-323-8898

Click for map

Get out

Some options for further travel include:

  • The Niagara Region - home to the Falls, the Shaw Theatre, a multitude of wineries, and many other tourist attractions.
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Simple English

The Greater Toronto Area (GTA) is the area that includes Toronto and the surrounding cities such as Mississauga, and Brampton.

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