Greek Macedonia: Wikis

Advertisements
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Macedonia (Greece) article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coordinates: 40°45′N 22°54′E / 40.75°N 22.9°E / 40.75; 22.9

Μακεδονία
Makedonía
Macedonia
Flag of Greece.svg
(Greek national flag)
Flag of Greek Macedonia.svg
(Macedonian flag)
Anthem: Μακεδονία ξακουστή ("Famous Macedonia")[citation needed]
Macedonia's location in south-eastern Europe Macedonia's location in Greece
 
Country: Greece
Capital: Thessaloniki Thessaloniki Municipal Flag.png
Peripheries: West Macedonia
Central Macedonia
East Macedonia
Population: 2,424,765 (2001 census)
2,625,681 (2006 estimate)
Area: 34,177 km²
Population density: 77/km²
Website: Ministry for Macedonia–Thrace

Macedonia (en-us-Macedonia.ogg [ˌmæsəˈdoʊniə] ; Greek: Μακεδονία, Makedonía, [makʲe̞ðo̞ˈnia]) is a geographical and historical region of Greece in southeastern Europe. Macedonia is the largest and second most populous Greek region. The region and that of Thrace are often together referred to informally as northern Greece.

This northern Greek region incorporates most of the territories of ancient Macedon, the kingdom ruled by the Argeads whose most celebrated members were Alexander the Great and his father Philip II. The name Macedonia was later applied to identify various administrative areas in the Roman and Byzantine Empires with widely differing borders. Under the Ottomans, the name disappeared altogether.

Even before the establishment of the Modern Greek state in 1830, it was identified as a Greek province, even though Macedonia had no geographical borders [1][2][3] By the mid 19th century, the name was becoming consolidated informally, defining more of a a distinct geographical, rather than political, region in the southern Balkans. At the end of the Ottoman Empire most of the region known as Rumelia or "Turkey in Europe" was divided by the Treaty of Bucharest of 1913, following the Ottoman defeat in the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913. Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria and Albania each took control of portions of the territory, with Greece obtaining the largest portion. The region was an administrative subdivision of Greece until the administrative reform of 1987, when the region was subdivided into the peripheries of West Macedonia and Central Macedonia and part of the periphery of East Macedonia and Thrace, the latter containing also the whole of the region of Thrace[4]

Contents

History

Advertisements

Prehistory

Macedonia lies at the crossroads of human development between the Aegean and the Balkans. The earliest signs of human habitation date back to the palaeolithic period. At different periods strong links can be seen in different directions.[5] With the introduction of farming at the beginning of the Neolithic period c. 7000 BC, human settlement rapidly spread through the region from the mountains of the Pindus to the coastal strip along the northern Aegean shore. Nea Nikomedeia is one of the earliest known settlements.[6] In the Late Neolithic period (c. 4500 to 3500 BC), rapid changes in pottery styles and the discovery of fragments of pottery showing trade with quite distant regions, indicate that society, economy and technology were all changing rapidly. Amongst the most important of these changes were the start of copper working, convincingly demonstrated by Renfrew to have been learnt from the cultural groups of Bulgaria and Roumania to the North.[7] Principal excavated settlements of this period include Makryialos and Paliambela near the western shore of the Thermaic gulf, Thermi to the south of Thessaloniki and Sitagroi and Dikili Tas in the Drama plain.[8] Remarkable evidence for cult activity has been found at Promachonas–Topolnica, which straddles the Greek Bulgarian border to the north of Serres.[9]

Ancient History

Map of Alexander's Empire

The history of Macedonia streches from ancient to modern Macedonia. According to Herodotus, the history of Macedonia began with the Makednoi tribe, among the first to use the name, migrating to the region from Histiaeotis in the south. There they lived near non-Greek tribes such as the Bryges that would later leave Macedonia for Asia Minor and become known as Phrygians. Macedonia was named after the Makednoi. Accounts of other toponyms such as Emathia are attested to have been in use before that. A branch of Macedonians invaded Southern Greece, where, upon reaching Peloponnese were renamed to Dorians triggering the accounts of the Dorian invasion. For centuries the Macedonian tribes were organized in independent kingdoms, in what is now Central Macedonia, and their role in Greek politics was minimal. The rest of the region was inhabited by various Thracian and Illyrian tribes as well as mostly coastal colonies of other Greek states such as Amphipolis, Olynthos, Potidea, Stageira and many others. During the late 6th and early 5th century BC, the region was under Persian rule until the destruction of Xerxes at Plataea. In the next century, Macedonia became the theatre of many military actions regarding the Lacedaemonians and the Athenians and saw incursions of Thracians and Illyrians, as attested by Thucidydes. The kingdom of Macedon, was reorganised by Philip II and achieved Greek hegemony during his years. With Philip's exploits begins the Greek history of the remainder of today's Greek Region of Macedonia. After his assassination, his son Alexander succeeded to the throne of Macedon and, retaining the office of "General of Greece", he became one of the best known persona this land ever gave birth to. Macedonia remained an important and powerful kingdom until it was annexed by the Romans in 148 BC. The region remained under Roman rule for centuries, a part of many provinces with various names.

Medieval history

Map showing the Byzantine themata in 1045 AD, focusing on central Balkans around the region of Macedonia. The Macedonian thema is in what today is part of present-day Bulgaria. The Thessaloniki and Strymon themata roughly correspond to modern-day Greek Macedonia and Thrace.

Under Byzantine rule, the territory of the Greek region of Macedonia was divided as part of various administrative regions, called themata. Confusion sometimes occurs when referring to the Theme of Macedonia, which was in fact located in Thrace.[10] Following the Bulgarian incursions of the 7th century, for long only the coastal areas remained under effective Byzantine control, while most of the hinterland was disputed between Byzantium and Bulgaria.

Metrophanes Kritopoulos was a Monk, Patriarch and theologian and was born in Veria, Macedonia[11] in 1589.

The familiarity with the strong Slavic element in the area led two brothers from Macedonia, Saints Cyril and Methodius, to be chosen to convert the Slavs to Christianity. Following the campaigns of Basil II, all of Macedonia returned to the Byzantine state. Following the Fourth Crusade 1203–1204, a short-lived Crusader realm, the Kingdom of Thessalonica, was established in the region, but it was subdued by the Greek Despotate of Epirus in 1224. Returning to the restored Byzantine Empire shortly thereafter, the area remained in Byzantine hands until the 1340s, when all of Macedonia (except Thessaloniki, and possibly Veria) was conquered by the Serbian ruler Stefan Dusan.[12] Divided between Serbia and Bulgaria after Dusan's death, the region fell quickly to the advancing Ottomans, with Thessaloniki alone holding out until 1387. After a brief Byzantine interval in 1403–1430, the city and its immediate area returned to the Ottomans.[13]

The capture of Thessalonica threw the Greek world into a state of consternation, being regarded as the prelude to the fall of Constantinople itself. The living folk traditions have carried the story of that fateful day through the centuries, adapting it to the mythological form of the folk medium. Apostolos Vacalopoulos records the following Turkish tradition connected with the capture of Thessalonica:[14]

While Murad was asleep in his palace at Yenitsa, the story has it that, God appeared to him in a dream and gave him a lovely rose to smell, full of perfume. The sultan was so amazed by its beauty that he begged God to give it to him. God replied, "This rose, Murad, is Thessalonica. Know that it is to you granted by heaven to enjoy it. Do not waste time; go and take it". Complying with this exhortation from God, Murad marched against Thessalonica and, as it has been written, captured it.

Ottoman Rule

Modern history

Greece gained the region from the Ottoman Empire, after the Second Balkan War with the Treaty of Bucharest (1913).

Etymology

There are a number of theories for the etymology of the name Macedonia:

  1. According to Herodotus, both the Dorians and Macedonians descended from the Makednoi tribe. The name of the latter two probably derives from the Doric noun μᾶκος, mākos (Attic and modern Greek μάκρος, mákros and μῆκος, mēkos), meaning "length", and the adjective μακεδνός, makednós, meaning "tall, taper", since both the Macedonians (Makedónes) and their Makednoi tribal ancestors were regarded as tall people. The adjective is used by Homer in Odyssey (7.105f), to describe a tall poplar tree, and by Aristophanes in his comedy the Birds, to describe a wall built around their imaginary city.
  2. The district of Macedonia took its name from the Macedonian people, who in turn owe their name to Macedon, who according to Hesiod was the son of Zeus and Thyia, Deucalion's daughter. Hesiod makes Magnes and Macedon brothers, cousins of Graecus, sons of Zeus and grandchildren of Deucalion, the progenitor of all Greeks.

Local government

Macedonia is divided into three peripheries comprising thirteen prefectures (Greek: νομοί). Two of these prefectures (Drama and Kavala) are part of the Drama–Kavala–Xanthi super-prefecture. The prefectures are further divided into municipalities (Greek: δήμοι, demoi) or "communities" (Greek: κοινότητες – roughly equivalent to British or Australian shires). They are overseen by the Ministry for the Interior, while the Ministry of Macedonia and Thrace is responsible for the coordination and application of the government's policies in the region.[15]

Macedonia borders the neighboring peripheries of Thessaly, Thrace (part of the East Macedonia and Thrace periphery) and Epirus. The three Macedonian peripheries and their prefectures are:

Map of Macedonia Number Periphery Capital Area Population
Macedonia greece prefectures.png
Total West Macedonia Kozani 9,451 km² 301,522
1 Kastoria Prefecture Kastoria 1,720 km² 53,483
2 Florina Prefecture Florina 1,924 km² 54,768
3 Kozani Prefecture Kozani 3,516 km² 155,324
4 Grevena Prefecture Grevena 2,291 km² 37,947
Total Central Macedonia Thessaloniki 18,811 km² 1,871,952
5 Pella Prefecture Edessa 2,506 km² 145,797
6 Imathia Prefecture Veria 1,701 km² 143,618
7 Pieria Prefecture Katerini 1,516 km² 129,846
8 Kilkis Prefecture Kilkis 2,519 km² 89,056
9 Thessaloniki Prefecture Thessaloniki 3,683 km² 1,057,825
10 Chalkidiki Prefecture Polygyros 2,918 km² 104,894
11 Serres Prefecture Serres 3.968 km² 200,916
Total East Macedonia (Part of East Macedonia and Thrace) Kavala 5,579 km² 249,029
12 Drama Prefecture (Part of the Drama–Kavala–Xanthi super-prefecture) Drama 3,468 km² 103,975
13 Kavala Prefecture (Part of the Drama–Kavala–Xanthi super-prefecture) Kavala 2,111 km² 145,054
- Mount Athos (Autonomous) Karyes 336 km² 2,262
Total Macedonia Thessaloniki 34,177 km² 2,424,765[16]

The geographical region of Macedonia also includes the male-only autonomous monastic state of Mount Athos, but this is not part of the Macedonia precincts. Mount Athos is under the spiritual jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, and enjoys a special status: it is inaccessible to women;[17] its territory is a self-governed part of Greece, and the powers of the state are exercized through a governor. The European Union takes this special status into consideration, particularly on matters of taxation exemption and rights of installation.[18]

Economy and Transport

Despite its rugged terrain, Macedonia possesses some of the richest farmland in Greece in the plain of Drama and the valleys of the Strimon and Axios. A wide variety of foodstuffs and cash crops are grown, including rice, wheat, beans, olives, cotton, tobacco, fruit, grapes, wine and other alcoholic beverages. Food processing and textile weaving constitute the principal manufacturing industries. Tourism is a major industry along the coast, particularly in the Chalcidice peninsula, the island of Thasos and the northern approaches to Mount Olympus. Many tourists originate from Greece's immediate neighbors.

Thessaloniki is a major port city and industrial center; Kavala is the other harbor of Macedonia. Apart from the principal airport at Thessaloniki (Makedonia Airport), airports also exist in Kavala (M.Alexandros Airport), Kozani (Filippos Airport), and Kastoria (Aristotelis Airport). The "Via Egnatia" motorway crosses the full distance of Macedonia, linking its main cities.

Culture

Macedonian cuisine

Macedonian music

Demographics

The inhabitants are overwhelmingly ethnic Greeks and most are Greek Orthodox Christians. From the Middle Ages to the early 20th century, the ethnic composition of the region of Macedonia is characterized by uncertainty both about numbers and identification. The 1904 Ottoman census of Hilmi Pasha recorded 373,227 Greeks and 204,317 Bulgarians in the vilayet of Selânik (Thessaloniki) alone, while it makes no mention of a Macedonian Slav ethnicity (which at the time was regarded as Bulgarian). According to the same census, Greeks were also dominant in the vilayet of Manastır (Bitola), counting 261,283 Greeks and 178,412 Bulgarians. Hugh Poulton, in his Who Are the Macedonians, notes that "assessing population figures is problematic"[19] for the territory of Greek Macedonia before its incorporation into the Greek state in 1913.[19] The area's remaining population was principally composed of Ottoman Turks and also some Jews, and at much smaller numbers of Roma, Albanians and Vlachs.

During the first half of the twentieth century, major demographic shifts took place, which resulted in the region's population becoming overwhelmingly ethnic Greek. In 1919, Bulgaria and Greece signed the Treaty of Neuilly, which called for an exchange of populations between the two countries. According to the treaty, Bulgaria was considered to be the parent state of all ethnic Slavs living in Greece. Most ethnic Greeks from Bulgaria were resettled in Greek Macedonia; most Slavs were resettled in Bulgaria but a number, remained, most of them by changing or adapting their surnames and declaring themselves to be Greek so as to be exempt from the exchange. In 1923 Greece and Turkey signed the Treaty of Lausanne, and 600,000 Greek-speaking refugees from Anatolia were resettled in the region replacing Macedonian Turks and other Muslims (of Albanian, Greek, Roma, Slavic and Vlach ethnicity) under similar terms.

Macedonian cities during Ottoman rule were often known by multiple names (Greek, Slavic or Turkish by the respective populations). After the partition of Ottoman Europe, cities in Greece became officially known only by their Greek names, and cities in Bulgaria and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia became likewise officially known only in the languages of their respective states. After the population exchanges, many locations were renamed to the languages of their new occupants.

Year Greeks Bulgarians Muslims Others Total
1926 League of nations data 88.8%
(1,341,000)
5.1%
(77,000)
0.1%
(2,000)
6.0%
(91,000)
1,511,000

The population was badly affected by the Second World War through starvation, executions, massacres and deportations. Nazi-aligned Bulgarian occupation forces persecuted the local Greek population and settled Bulgarian colonists in their occupation zone in eastern Macedonia and western Thrace, deporting all Jews from the region. Total civilian deaths in Macedonia are estimated at over 400,000, including 55,000 Greek Jews. Further heavy fighting affected the region during the Greek Civil War which, combined with post-war poverty, drove many inhabitants of rural Macedonia to emigrate either to the towns and cities, or abroad. Even today, many parts of Macedonia are fairly sparsely inhabited.

Greek is by far the most widely spoken and the only official language of public life and education in Macedonia. The local Macedonian dialect is spoken alongside dialects from other parts of Greece and Pontic Greek still spoken by some Greeks of Pontic descent. Macedonian Slavic is the most widely spoken minority language while Aromanian, Arvanitic, Megleno-Romanian, Turkish and Romani are also spoken. Ladino is still spoken by some Jews in Thessaloniki.

Since the fall of communism throughout Eastern Europe in the late 1980s and early 1990s, a large number of economic refugees and immigrants from other south-east European countries, such as Albania, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Romania and Serbia, as well as from more distant countries such as Russia, the Ukraine, Armenia and Georgia, have arrived in Greece (including Macedonia) to seek employment.

Population of largest towns

Kavala's port and downtown
Panorama of Kastoria with its lake
Towns/Cities Greek Name Population[16]
01. Thessaloniki (municipality) Δήμος Θεσσαλονίκης 363,987
02. Kavala Καβάλα 63,293
03. Katerini Κατερίνη 56,434
04. Serres Σέρρες 56,145
05. Drama Δράμα 55,632
06. Kozani Κοζάνη 47,451
07. Veria Βέροια 47,411
08. Ptolemaida Πτολεμαΐδα 35,539
09. Giannitsa Γιαννιτσά 26,296
10. Kilkis Κιλκίς 24,812
11. Naoussa Νάουσα 22,288
12. Aridaia Αριδαία 20,213
13. Alexandria Αλεξάνδρεια 19,283
14. Edessa Έδεσσα 18,253
15. Nea Moudania Νέα Μουδανιά 17,032
16. Florina Φλώρινα 16,771
17. Kastoria Καστοριά 16,218
18. Grevena Γρεβενά 15,481
19. Polygyros Πολύγυρος 10,721
20. Skydra Σκύδρα 5,081
Apogevmatini headline quoting Kostas Karamanlis:
"I myself am a Macedonian, just as 2.5 million Greeks are Macedonians."

Regional identity

Macedonians (Greek: Μακεδόνες, Makedónes) is the term by which ethnic Greeks originating from the region are known. Macedonians came to be of particular importance during the Balkan Wars when they were a minority population inside the Ottoman province of Macedonia. The Macedonians now have a strong regional identity, manifested both in Greece[20] and by emigrant groups in the Greek diaspora.[21] This sense of identity has been highlighted in the context of the Macedonian naming dispute after the break-up of Yugoslavia, in which Greece objects to its northern neighbour calling itself the "Republic of Macedonia", since explicit self-identification as Macedonian is a matter of national pride for many Greeks.[22] A characteristic expression of this attitude could be seen when Greek newspapers reported in big headlines a declaration by Prime Minister Kostas Karamanlis at a meeting of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg in January 2007, saying that "I myself am a Macedonian, and another two and a half million Greeks are Macedonians."

Minority populations

The exact size of the linguistic and ethnic minority groups of Macedonia is officially unknown, as Greece has not conducted a census on the question of mother tongue since 1951. The main minority groups in Macedonia are:

Slavic-speakers

Distribution of the Slavic Macedonian language in the Florina Prefecture and Aridaia regions (1993)

Slavic-speakers are concentrated in the Florina, Kastoria, Edessa, Giannitsa, Ptolemaida and Naousa regions. Their dialects are linguistically classified variously either as Macedonian or Bulgarian, depending on the region and on political orientation. The exact number of the minority is difficult to know, together with its members' choice of ethnic identification, is difficult to ascertain; most maximum estimates range around 100,000–120,000. The Greek branch of the former International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights has estimated that those of an ethnic Macedonian national conscienceness number between 10,000–30,000.[23]

Aromanians

See also: Aromanians in Greece and Aromanian speakers of Greece

Aromanians form a minority population through out much of Macedonia. They largely identify as Greeks and most belong to the Greek Orthodox Church. In the 1951 census they numbered 39,855 in all Greece (the number in Macedonia proper is unknown). Many Aromanians villages can be found along the slopes of the Vermion Mountains and Mount Olympus. Smaller numbers can be found in the Prespes region and near the Gramos mountains.

Megleno-Romanians

Right: The Megleno-Romanian and the Aromanian linguistic area
Left:Map of the Megleno-Romanians settlements

Megleno-Romanians can be found in the Moglena region of Macedonia. The Megleno-Romanian language is traditionally spoken in the 11 Vlach villages, Archangelos, Notia, Karpi, Koupa, Langadia, Perikleia, Skra and Kastaneri (the other three are found in the Republic of Macedonia). They are generally adherents to the Orthodox Church while the former majority in Notia was Muslim.

Arvanites

Arvanites communities can be found in Greek Macedonia. 5 Arvanite communities exist in Serres prefecture while many can be found in the capital, Thessaloniki. There are three Arvanites villages in the Florina prefecture (Drosopigi, Lechovo and Flambouro) with others located in Kilkis and Thessaloniki regions.[24]

Others

Other minority groups include Jews (Sephardim and Romaniotes), Armenians and Roma. Roma communities are concentrated mainly around the city of Thessaloniki. An uncertain number of them live in Macedonia from the total of about 200,000-300,000 that live scattered on all the regions of Greece.[25]

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Council of Europe, Steering Committee on Local and Regional Democracy (2001). "Special Regulations for Particular Areas – the Legal Status of Aghion Oros". Structure and operation of Local and Regional Democracy. Council of Europe. ISBN 9-287-14644-6. 
  • Elster, Ernestine S.; Renfrew, Colin, ed (2003). Prehistoric Sitagroi: Excavations in Northeast Greece, 1968–1970. Monumenta Archaeologica 20. 2. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology. ISBN 1-931745-03-X. 
  • Fine, John Van Antwerp (1994). "Serbian Participation in the Byzantine Civil War". The Late Medieval Balkans. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08260-4. 
  • Renfrew, Colin; Gimbutas, Marija; Elster, Ernestine S., ed (1986). Excavations at Sitagroi: a Prehistoric Village in Northeast Greece. Monumenta Archaeologica 13. 2. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology. ISBN 0-917-95651-6. 
  • Renfrew, Colin (1969). "The Autonomy of the South-east European Copper Age". Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 35: 12–47. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/prehistoric/pps/contents/contentsbyvolume.html#35. Retrieved 2009-05-11. 
  • Rodden, R.J.; Wardle, K.A., ed (1996). Nea Nikomedeia: the Excavation of an Early Neolithic Village in Northern Greece 1961-1963. Supplementary series 25. 1. Athens: British School of Athens. 
  • Souvatzi, Stella G. (2008). A Social Archaeology of Households in Neolithic Greece : an Anthropological Approach. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83689-0. 
  • Treadgold, Warren (1995). "The Roman Army's Second Millenium". Byzantium and Its Army, 284–1081. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-804-73163-2. 
  • Vacalopoulos, Apostolos E. (1973). History of Macedonia, 1354–1833 (translated by P. Megann). Zeno Publishers. ISBN 0-900-83489-7. http://www.promacedonia.org/en/av/. 
  • Wardle, K.A. (1997). "The Prehistory of Northern Greece: a Geographical Perspective". Afieroma to N.G.L. Hammond. Society of Macedonian Studies. ISBN 9-607-26536-Χ. 

Notes

  1. ^ “The whole of Greece is divided into four great pashaliks; Tripolizza, Egripo or Neropont, Yanina, and Salonica. The pashalik of […] Salonica [comprises], the southern divisions of Macedonia. The north of Macedonia is governed by beys;…” Quoted from: Thomas Thornton, The Present State of Turkey, London 1807, Vol. 2, p. 10,[1][2]
  2. ^ “The most fertile districts of Greece are Macedonia, Thessaly, and the eastern parts of Phocis and Boeotia.” Quoted from: Conder, Josiah: The Modern Traveller, Volume the Fifteenth: Greece. London : J.Duncan, 1830, Vol. 1, p. 12 [3]
  3. ^ “There is some difficulty in prescribing the exact boundaries of the country properly called Greece. Formerly it included Macedonia, Peloponnesus, the Ionian Islands, Crete and a part of what is now called Albania. [...] The present divisions of Greece, adopted by the [1829] provisional government, are the following: Eastern Hellas, Western Hellas, Morea, Epirus, Thessaly, Macedonia, Crete, and the Islands. […] What proportion of Macedonia is considered as coming within the boundaries of Greece, we have no means of deciding" Quoted from: John L. Comstock, History of the Greek Revolution compiled from official documents of the Greek government, New York 1829, pages 5 and 6 [4][5].
  4. ^ Π.Δ. 51/87 “Καθορισμός των Περιφερειών της Χώρας για το σχεδιασμό κ.λ.π. της Περιφερειακής Ανάπτυξης” (Determination of the Peripheries of the Country for the planning etc. of the development of the peripheries, Efimeris tis Kyverniseos ΦΕΚ A 26/06.03.1987
  5. ^ Wardle, The Prehistory of Northern Greece, 509–541
  6. ^ Rodden & Wardle, Nea Nikomedia, passim
  7. ^ Renfrew, The autonomy of the South-east European Copper Age, 12–47
  8. ^ Renfrew & Gimbutas & Elster, Excavations at Sitagroi, passim
    * Elster & Renfrew, Prehistoric Sitagroi, passim
    * Souvatzi, Social Archaeology, 166–178
  9. ^ Souvatzi, Social Archaeology, 217–220
  10. ^ Treadgold, Byzantium and Its Army, 29
  11. ^ "Metrophanes Kritopoulos.". www.britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/378855/Metrophanes-Kritopoulos. Retrieved 2009-08-31. "Metrophanes Kritopoulos Greek patriarch and theologian - born 1589, Beroea, Macedonia, Ottoman Empire died May 30, 1639, Walachia" 
  12. ^ Fine, The Late Medieval Balkans, 301–302
  13. ^ Vacalopoulos, History of Macedonia 1354–1833, 89–97
  14. ^ Vacalopoulos, History of Macedonia 1354–1833, 97
  15. ^ "The Role of the Ministry" (in Greek). Greek Ministry of Macedonia and Thrace. http://www.mathra.gr/default_15.aspx. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  16. ^ a b "National Statistical Service of Greece". NSSG. www.statistics.gr. 2001. http://www.statistics.gr. Retrieved 2007-12-26.  2001 census
  17. ^ Greek laws provide for a penalty of incarceration up to twelve months for women that violate this rule. For criticisms of this provision, see "European Parliament Adopts Report on Fundamental Rights in the EU – Mt Athos Status". Embassy of Greece in the US. 5 September 2003. http://www.greekembassy.org/embassy/Content/en/Article.aspx?office=3&folder=360&article=11935&hilite=rehabilitation. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  18. ^ Council of Europe, Structure and Operation of Local and Regional Democracy, 8. See also the article 105 of the Constitution of Greece and the Common Declaration on Mount Athos attached to the Treaty of Entry of Greece to the EEC (1 January 1981).
  19. ^ a b Poulton, Hugh (2000). "Greece". in Second. Who Are the Macedonians?. Indiana University Press. pp. 85–86. ISBN 0-253-21359-2. http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&id=8_zeaeTOz6YC&pg=PA85&lpg=PA85&dq=85&prev=http://books.google.com/books%3Fq%3D%2522Who%2Bare%2Bthe%2BMacedonians%2522%2BPoulton&sig=NobKDU7Unvc2AqCZLCn0vSM5VIo. 
  20. ^ Liotta, P. H. and Simons, A. Thicker than Water? Kin, Religion, and Conflict in the Balkans, from Parameters, Winter 1998, pp. 11-27
  21. ^ Jupp, J. The Australian People: An Encyclopedia of the Nation, Its People and Their Origins, Cambridge University Press, October 1, 2001. ISBN 0-521-80789-1, p. 147.
  22. ^ Floudas, Demetrius Andreas; ""A Name for a Conflict or a Conflict for a Name? An Analysis of Greece's Dispute with FYROM”,". 24 (1996) Journal of Political and Military Sociology, 285. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3719/is_199601/ai_n8752910. Retrieved 2008-02-11. 
  23. ^ "Greece – Report about Compliance with the Principles of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (along guidelines for state reports according to Article 25.1 of the Convention)". Greek Helsinki Monitor (GHM) & Minority Rights Group – Greece (MRG-G). 1999-09-18. http://dev.eurac.edu:8085/mugs2/do/blob.html?type=html&serial=1044526702223. Retrieved 2009-01-12. 
  24. ^ Euromosaic (1996): "L'arvanite / albanais en Grèce". Report published by the Institut de Sociolingüística Catalana.
  25. ^ Hellenic Republic: National Commission for Human Rights: The state of Roma in Greece

External links

Official links


Redirecting to Macedonia (Greece)


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message