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Green Bay, Wisconsin

Seal
Coordinates: 44°30′48″N 88°0′57″W / 44.51333°N 88.01583°W / 44.51333; -88.01583Coordinates: 44°30′48″N 88°0′57″W / 44.51333°N 88.01583°W / 44.51333; -88.01583
Country United States
State Wisconsin
County Brown
Government
 - Mayor James J. Schmitt (R)
Area
 - City 54.3 sq mi (140.7 km2)
 - Land 43.9 sq mi (113.6 km2)
 - Water 10.5 sq mi (27.1 km2)
Elevation 581 ft (177 m)
Population (2006)
 - City 101,203
 Density 3,332.1/sq mi (1,900.5/km2)
 Metro 226,778
Time zone Central (UTC−6)
 - Summer (DST) CDT (UTC−5)
Area code(s) 920
FIPS code 55-31000[1]
GNIS feature ID 1565801[2]
Website www.ci.green-bay.wi.us

Green Bay is a city in and the county seat of Brown County in the U.S. state of Wisconsin,[3] located at the head of Green Bay, a sub-basin of Lake Michigan, at the mouth of the Fox River. It has an elevation of 581 feet (177 m) above sea level and is located 112 miles (180 km) north of Milwaukee. As of the 2000 census Green Bay had a population of 102,313.[1] Its 2008 estimated census was 101,025.[4] The Town of Green Bay is located several miles northeast of the city. It is the third-largest city in the state of Wisconsin, after Milwaukee and Madison. It is also the third-largest city on the west shore of Lake Michigan, after Chicago and Milwaukee.

Green Bay is the principal city of the Green Bay Metropolitan Statistical Area, which covers Brown, Kewaunee, and Oconto Counties[5] and had a combined population of 282,599 at the 2000 census.[1] The 2008 estimated population of the Green Bay metropolitan area is 302,935.

Green Bay is an industrial city with several meatpacking and paper plants, and a port on the Bay of Green Bay, an arm of Lake Michigan. It is home to the National Railroad Museum; the Neville Public Museum with exhibitions of art, history, and science; and the University of Wisconsin–Green Bay.

The Green Bay Packers professional football team was formed in the city in 1919 and joined the National Football League in 1921. Green Bay is by far the smallest market with an NFL team[6], although the Packers are avidly supported in the larger Milwaukee market and throughout Wisconsin. Green Bay is nicknamed "Titletown, USA"[6] for the number of NFL titles (12) it has won over the years (including the first two Super Bowls and Super Bowl XXXI), more than any other NFL team. The name appears on the city seal, is used by the Green Bay Chamber of Commerce for its web address (www.titletown.org) and variations of the word appear in the name of more than two dozen local businesses.[7]

Green Bay was awarded the title of All-America City twice in the city's history, in 1964, and 1999.

Contents

History

Heritage Hill State Park in Green Bay

Archaeological studies have shown that people lived in the Green Bay area before the first French settlers arrived. Animals that are common today in the thick woods of the Green Bay area also lived in the area long ago. They are mostly creatures with very long and thick coats, as it was necessary for survival in the cold winters. Along with mammals were also fish that are similar to the species found today in the waters around Green Bay.[8]

Jean Nicolet was commissioned by New France’s founder, Samuel de Champlain to explore land that he had heard about, whose people referred to themselves as "People of the Sea". Champlain had also heard about resources in the area, including fertile soil, forests, and animals. Nicolet set out on his journey for this new land shortly before winter in 1634.[8]

A small trading post, originally named La Baye or La Baie des Puants, was established by Nicolet at this location in 1634,[9] making Green Bay the 13th oldest permanent settlement in America. When Nicolet arrived in the Green Bay area, the first group he encountered was one that spoke a Sioux language, the Ho-Chunk, also known as the Winnebago. “Besides hunting and fishing, the Winnebagos cultivated corn, bean, squash, and tobacco. Wild rice, a dietary staple, grew in abundance in the river and its tributaries, and was gathered along with nuts, berries, and edible roots of the woods."[8] In this tribe there were distinguished and easily identified gender roles. The men typically hunted and fished for food, and the women cooked and prepared the furs of the dead animals for rugs, furniture and other uses around the house. Women were an important aspect of the political process, as no action could be taken without agreement of half of the women. Nicolet stayed with this tribe for about a year, becoming an ally, which helped open up opportunities for trade and commerce. He then returned to Quebec.[8]

A few months after Nicolet returned from his quest, Champlain died. His death put a halt on journeys to the newly discovered land, La Baie Verte.

Nicolas Perrot was the next journeyman sent to La Baie by Pere Claude Allouez. After this, the French avoided the area because of the intensity of Indian and European wars. In 1671 a Jesuit Mission was set up in the area. A fort was added in 1717. The town was incorporated in 1754, and was passed to British control in 1761.

One of the first permanent French settlers was Charles de Langlade and his family, who moved to Green Bay in 1765, becoming the first permanent settlers in Wisconsin. Langlade, called the "Father of Wisconsin", was a half-French Ottawa war chief who is credited with planning the ambush of British General Braddock and George Washington in the French and Indian War. The Grignons, Porliers and Lawes who followed brought Canadian-French culture with them. Colorful "jack-knife Judge" Reaume dispensed British justice in the territory.” [8] These early French settlers set the tone for the remainder who came to the area.

Built in 1837, the Hazelwood Historic House Museum was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1964 and is home of the Brown County Historical Society.[10]

The Green Bay area was still under British control until years after the end of the Revolutionary War, even after America had gained its independence. "Doty, Whitney, Arndt, Baird and Martin were among the American settlers who pushed French culture into the background following the American establishment of Fort Howard in 1816."[8] As British settlers in the area came to outnumber the French, the name "Green Bay" (from the French: Baie Verte) became the more common name for the town. In 1783 the town became part of the United States of America. The United States Army built Fort Howard on the banks of the Fox River in 1816.

Before Wisconsin became a state in 1848, the majority of commerce had to do with fur trading. After statehood, there was a shift away from fur trading toward lumbering. "For a short time in 1860s and 1870s, iron smelting in charcoal kilns rivaled the timber industry while the port handled increasing amounts of fuel, feed, and lumber. Today's major local industry had its start in 1895 when the first paper mill was built." [8]

Wisconsin's first newspaper, The Green Bay Intelligencer, was first published in 1833. The borough of Green Bay was created in 1838 and is the main center of the current city. By 1850 the town had a population of 1,923. The town was incorporated as the city of Green Bay, joining several small towns including Navarino, Astor (created by John Jacob Astor) and Fort Howard in 1854. The Green Bay Area Public School District was founded in 1856.[8]

The 1850s brought much change to the city of Green Bay when other groups started immigrating to the area. That decade brought an influx of Belgian, German, Scandinavian, Irish and Dutch immigrants as word spread of America's cheap land and good soil. The greatest concentration of newcomers came from Belgium. They cleared the land to farm and build their homes. [8]

The railroad arrived in the 1860s. Chicago and Northwestern Railroad companies were formed, which allowed people and products to travel all over the state, increasing business and trade opportunities. The area was able to grow and enrich itself with the use of the river and the plentiful timber resources. This led to the paper industry becoming the major employer in Green Bay, and opened up the port for international trade.[8]

In 1934, President Franklin D. Roosevelt came to Green Bay to honor its tricentennial.[9] By 1950 the city had a population of 52,735. In 1964, the Town of Preble was consolidated with the city of Green Bay.[11]

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 54.3 square miles (140.7 [[km2]]), of which 43.9 square miles (113.6 km2) is land and 10.4 square miles (27.1 km2) is water. The total area is 86.59% land.

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Climate

The city of Green Bay has a continental climate, moderated slightly by the city's proximity to Lake Michigan. The city's climate features four distinct seasons, with warm, frequently hot summers and long, cold and snowy winters. The variance in temperature and precipitation between months is severe and often extreme. The warmest month is July, when the average high temperature is 81°F (27°C). During July, the average low temperature is 59°F (15°C). The coldest month of the year is January, when the high temperature averages only 24°F (−4°C), and the low temperatures average 7°F (−14°C).

The wettest month in Green Bay is August, when 3.77 inches (95.8 mm) of precipitation falls, mostly in the form of rainfall from thunderstorms. The driest month in Green Bay is February, when the majority of precipitation falls as low moisture-content snow due to cold, dry air. On average, 1.01 inches (25.7 mm) of precipitation falls in February.

Climate data for Green Bay, Wisconsin
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 24.1
(-4.4)
28.9
(-1.7)
40.0
(4.4)
54.6
(12.6)
68.0
(20)
76.8
(24.9)
81.2
(27.3)
78.5
(25.8)
70.2
(21.2)
57.9
(14.4)
42.4
(5.8)
29.0
(-1.7)
54.3
(12.4)
Average low °F (°C) 7.1
(-13.8)
12.1
(-11.1)
22.6
(-5.2)
33.9
(1.1)
44.7
(7.1)
54.0
(12.2)
58.6
(14.8)
56.5
(13.6)
47.5
(8.6)
36.9
(2.7)
25.6
(-3.6)
13.3
(-10.4)
34.4
(1.3)
Precipitation inches (mm) 1.21
(30.7)
1.01
(25.7)
2.06
(52.3)
2.56
(65)
2.75
(69.9)
3.43
(87.1)
3.44
(87.4)
3.77
(95.8)
3.11
(79)
2.17
(55.1)
2.27
(57.7)
1.41
(35.8)
29.19
(741.4)
Snowfall inches (mm) 13.7
(348)
8.4
(213.4)
9.2
(233.7)
2.9
(73.7)
0.2
(5.1)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.2
(5.1)
5.4
(137.2)
11.9
(302.3)
51.9
(1,318.3)
Avg. snowy days 10.0 7.4 6.9 2.4 0.1 0 0 0 0 0.2 4.6 9.1 40.7
Avg. precipitation days 10.7 8.5 10.8 11.1 10.1 10.1 10.4 11.3 10.0 9.7 10.3 10.6 123.6
Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration[12] February 2010

Demographics

City of Green Bay
Population by year
[13]
1860 2,276
1870 4,698
1880 7,476
1890 9,069
1900 23,748
1910 25,216
1920 31,643
1930 37,407
1940 46,205
1950 52,735
1960 62,952
1970 87,829
1980 87,947
1990 96,466
2000 102,313

As of the census of 2000,[1] there were 102,313 people, 41,591 households, and 24,663 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,332.1 people per square mile (900.5/km2). There were 43,123 housing units at an average density of 982.9/sq mi (379.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 85.86% White, 1.38% African American, 3.28% Native American, 3.76% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 3.72% from other races, and 1.97% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.13% of the population.

There were 41,591 households of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.1% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.7% were non-families. About 31.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.06.

In the city the population was spread out with 25.4% under the age of 18, 11.6% from 18 to 24, 31.7% from 25 to 44, 19.5% from 45 to 64, and 11.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 97.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $38,820, and the median income for a family was $48,678. Males had a median income of $33,246 versus $23,825 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,269. About 7.4% of families and 10.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.7% of those under the age of 18 and 9.2% of those 65 and older.

Government

Green Bay is governed by a mayor and a city council. The city council consists of 12 members each elected from districts. The mayor is elected in a citywide vote.

Mayors
  • W. C. E. Thomas 1854
  • Francis X. Desnoyers 1855
  • H. E. Eastman 1856, 1857
  • Burley Follett 1858, 1863
  • E. H. Ellis 1860
  • Henry S. Baird 1861, 1862
  • Nathan Goodell 1859, 1864
  • M. P. Lindsley 1865
  • Charles D. Robinson 1866,1872
  • James S. Marshall 1867
  • Anton Klaus 1868,1869, 1870
  • Alonzo Kimball 1871, 1873
  • Dr. C. E. Crane 1874, 1875, 1877, 1878, 1879
  • F. S. Ellis 1876
  • J. C. Neville 1880
  • J. H. M. Wigman 1882
  • W. J. Abrams 1881,1883, 1884
  • Charles Hartung 1885, 1886, 1887
  • Arthur C. Neville 1888,1889
  • James H. Elmore 1890, 1891, 1892, 1893, 1894, 1895      
  • Frank B. Desnoyers 1896, 1897, 1898
  • Simon J. Murphy, Jr. 1899,1900, 1901
  • J. H. Tayler 1902, 1903
  • Robert E. Minahan 1904-1907
  • Winford Abrams 1908-1916
  • Elmer S. Hall 1916-1920
  • W. Wiesner 1921-1927
  • James H. McGillan 1927–1929
  • John V. Diener 1929–1937
  • John S. Farrell 1937–1938
  • Alex Biemeret 1938–1945
  • Dominic Olejniczak 1945–1955
  • Otto Rachals 1955–1959
  • Roman Denissen 1959–1965
  • Donald Tilleman 1965–1972
  • Harris Burgoyne 1972–1973
  • Thomas Atkinson 1973–1975
  • Michael Monfils 1975–1979
  • Samuel J. Halloin 1979–1995
  • Paul F. Jadin 1995–2003
  • James J. Schmitt 2003–
City Hall
W. C. E. Thomas, first mayor of Green Bay
US Army 101, on display at the National Railroad Museum.
Brown County Courthouse.
Weidner Center, part of UW–Green Bay
Cathedral of Saint Francis Xavier
Lambeau Field
WBAY-TV studio.

Transportation

The majority of the people in Green Bay use cars. The city was the headquarters of the Green Bay and Western Railroad from 1896 to 1993. After the GB&W quit, the line was purchased by Wisconsin Central Transportation. In 2001, the WC was merged into the Canadian National system. The Chicago and North Western Railway also served Green Bay, and their depot still stands today. Green Bay was last served with a regular passenger train, the CNW's Peninsula 400, in 1971. The CNW sold its trackage from Green Bay south to Sheboygan in 1987 to the Fox River Valley Railroad, which became part of the WC in 1993. Green Bay also saw passenger service from the Milwaukee Road's Chippewa Hiawatha, which ran from Chicago into the UP of Michigan. Green Bay is also served by the Escanaba and Lake Superior Railroad. Amtrak expansion to Green Bay is part of the Midwest Regional Rail Project, and would follow a route from Milwaukee through Fond du Lac, Oshkosh and Appleton. Wisconsin DOT plan service starting in 2019[14]. A ciizens group, NEWRails, is lobbying for an earlier start.[15]

Green Bay is served by Austin Straubel International Airport. Green Bay also has its own mass transit system known as Green Bay Metro (formerly known as Green Bay Transit).

Green Bay is connected to the rest of the state by four major highways. US-41 connects Green Bay to the Fox Cities, Fond du Lac and Milwaukee to the south and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan via Oconto, Peshtigo, and Marinette. US-141 starts in Green Bay and joins with US-41 to the north for 18 miles before splitting off and providing access to the Upper Peninsula via Niagara. I-43, which terminates at US-41/US-141, heads south along Lake Michigan to Milwaukee and on to Illinois via Beloit. Recently WI-29 has been upgraded to four lanes to provide better access to western Wisconsin and Minnesota via Wausau and Eau Claire.
Other highways of importance are :
WI-172: Forms a southern highway bypass of Green Bay, and continuing to Austin Straubel Airport.
WI-32: Two lane highway which runs from Illinois to Michigan and provides alternative routes to the north and south and travels through many small communities.
WI-54: Two lane highway which runs through Green Bay from Algoma to New London and Waupaca.
WI-57: Heads to Green Bay from I-43 near Port Washington and continues through Sturgeon Bay to the Door Peninsula, terminating with WI-42 at Gills Rock with ferry access to Washington Island. Southbound the highway runs to Chilton.

Education

Elementary Schools
Junior High/Middle Schools
High Schools
Colleges and Universities

Religion

The city is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Green Bay. The Cathedral of Saint Francis Xavier in Green Bay is the mother church of the Diocese. The diocese is in the province of the Archdiocese of Milwaukee. The Saint Joseph Oratory is located in Green Bay.

In 2000, the American Religion Data Archive reported Green Bay to be predominantly Catholic (71.5%), with Lutherans composing an additional 16.4%. The remaining 12% are almost entirely Protestant denominations. There is also an Islamic mosque and an Unitarian Universalist Fellowship located in the city.

Congregation Gnesses Israel Temple, serving the area's Jewish population, is on the city's east-side.

Sports

Professional
Collegiate
Junior

Media and internet

See also: List of radio stations in Green Bay, List of television stations in Green Bay

Green Bay is served by the Green Bay Press-Gazette. Another local newspaper, the Green Bay News-Chronicle, ceased publication in 2005.

There is a free public Wi-Fi system in the downtown Green Bay Broadway District that went into operation in 2007.[17]

Major Employers

Points of interest

Modern-day Old City Stadium

Shopping

Shopko store #1.

Green Bay is home to two shopping malls, and dozens of strip malls. Green Bay is also home to the first Shopko discount department store, and all kinds of unique shopping destinations.

  • Bay Park Square & The Village at Bay Park

Built in 1980, Bay Park Square is the main shopping center in the Green Bay area, being located in the suburb of Ashwaubenon. Bay Park Square is anchored by Shopko, Kohl's, and Younkers/Younkers Furniture Gallery, and has hundreds of specialty shops. Bay Park Square has a football stadium-themed food court filled with seven different eateries and two giant flatscreen television sets at both ends of the food court. Bay Park Cinema is located behind Shopko. Neighboring Bay Park Square, is a shopping plaza known as The Village at Bay Park, home to Fashion Bug, JCPenney, DSW, and a few specialty shops.

  • East Town Mall

Built in 1982, and remodeled three times, East Town Mall is a small shopping center/strip mall hybrid located on Green Bay's east side, near Interstate 43 on East Mason Street. East Town's current anchors are Hobby Lobby, Fashion Bug, Office Max, Kohl's, Petco, Shopko and ALDI. East Town has around 10 specialty shops (and one restaurant) inside the climate-controlled interior, with room for a few more. A budget cinema is also located inside the mall near Hobby Lobby.

  • Green Bay Plaza

Green Bay Plaza is a large strip mall located on Green Bay's west side at the Military Ave./West Mason St. intersection. It is currently anchored by Michaels, Factory Card Outlet, T.J. Maxx, HomeGoods, Office Depot, and a free-standing Sears department store. Green Bay Plaza also has numerous specialty shops and restaurants.

Notable residents

Politics
Military
Religion
Sports
Literature, music, arts
Inventors, business leaders
  • George F. Kress – paper maker; invented a process for (fluting) corrugated containers, pioneer of paper recycling
  • Alfred Lawson - credited as inventor of the airliner
  • James Mulva – Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer of ConocoPhilips

Gallery

Sister cities

References

  1. ^ a b c d "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  2. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. http://geonames.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  3. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Template.cfm?Section=Find_a_County&Template=/cffiles/counties/usamap.cfm. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  4. ^ "Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2006 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006" (CSV). 2005 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 2007-06-28. http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2006-01.csv. Retrieved 2007-06-28. 
  5. ^ METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREAS AND COMPONENTS, Office of Management and Budget, 2007-05-11. Accessed 2008-07-30.
  6. ^ a b Will, Tracy (1997). Wisconsin. Oakland, California: Compass American Guides. pp. 83. ISBN 1878867490. 
  7. ^ ESPN.com, "There is no other TitleTown USA", April 10, 2008.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j City of Green Bay. "City of Green Bay." www.ci.green-bay.wi.us. 5 Oct. 2008 <http://www.ci.green-bay.wi.us/geninfo/history_o.html>
  9. ^ a b Rodesch, Gerrold C. (1984). "Jean Nicolet". University of Wisconsin–Green Bay. http://www.uwgb.edu/wisfrench/library/articles/nicolet.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-13. 
  10. ^ Warren Gerds, A is for architecture: Hazelwood stands out in Greek Revival style, Press-Gazette, July 16, 2009, Accessed July 16, 2009.
  11. ^ Mayor Denissen
  12. ^ "Climatography of the United States No. 20 (1971-2000)" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://cdo.ncdc.noaa.gov/climatenormals/clim20/wi/473269.pdf. 
  13. ^ United States Census Bureau. [1]
  14. ^ http://www.dot.wisconsin.gov/projects/state/connections2030.htm
  15. ^ http://www.newrails.org/
  16. ^ http://www.wisconsinpower.net/gb/
  17. ^ Ryman, Richard (October 12, 2007). "Broadway District businesses go Wi-Fi". Green Bay Press-Gazette. http://www.greenbaypressgazette.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=2007710120580. Retrieved 2007-12-09. 

External links


Green Bay, Wisconsin
File:City logo of Green Bay,
Seal

Green Bay, Wisconsin
Coordinates: 44°30′48″N 88°0′57″W / 44.51333°N 88.01583°W / 44.51333; -88.01583Coordinates: 44°30′48″N 88°0′57″W / 44.51333°N 88.01583°W / 44.51333; -88.01583
Country United States
State Wisconsin
County Brown
Government
 - Mayor James J. Schmitt (R)
Area
 - City 54.3 sq mi (140.7 km2)
 - Land 43.9 sq mi (113.6 km2)
 - Water 10.5 sq mi (27.1 km2)
Elevation 581 ft (177 m)
Population (2008)
 - City 101,025
 Density 3,332.1/sq mi (1,900.5/km2)
 Metro 282,599
Time zone Central (UTC−6)
 - Summer (DST) CDT (UTC−5)
Area code(s) 920
FIPS code 55-31000[1]
GNIS feature ID 1565801[2]
Website www.ci.green-bay.wi.us

Green Bay is a city in and the county seat of Brown County in the U.S. state of Wisconsin,[3] located at the head of Green Bay, a sub-basin of Lake Michigan, at the mouth of the Fox River. It has an elevation of 581 feet (177 m) above sea level and is located 112 miles (180 km) north of Milwaukee. As of the 2000 census Green Bay had a population of 102,313.[1] Its 2008 estimated census was 101,025.[4] The Town of Green Bay is located several miles northeast of the city. It is the third-largest city in the state of Wisconsin, after Milwaukee and Madison. It is also the third-largest city on the west shore of Lake Michigan, after Chicago and Milwaukee.

Green Bay is the principal city of the Green Bay Metropolitan Statistical Area, which covers Brown, Kewaunee, and Oconto Counties[5] and had a combined population of 282,599 at the 2000 census.[1] The 2008 estimated population of the Green Bay metropolitan area is 302,935.

Green Bay is an industrial city with several meatpacking and paper plants, and a port on the Bay of Green Bay, an arm of Lake Michigan. It is home to the National Railroad Museum; the Neville Public Museum with exhibitions of art, history, and science; and the University of Wisconsin–Green Bay.

The Green Bay Packers professional football team was formed in the city in 1919 and joined the National Football League in 1921. Green Bay is by far the smallest market with an NFL team[6], although the Packers are avidly supported in the larger Milwaukee market and throughout Wisconsin and in Michigan in the Upper Peninsula. Green Bay is unofficially nicknamed "Titletown, USA"[6] for the number of NFL titles (12) it has won over the years (including the first two Super Bowls and Super Bowl XXXI), more than any other NFL team. The name appears on the city seal, is used by the Green Bay Chamber of Commerce for its web address (www.titletown.org) and variations of the word appear in the name of more than two dozen local businesses.[7]

Green Bay was awarded the title of All-America City twice in the city's history, in 1964, and 1999.

Contents

History


Archaeological studies have shown that people lived in the Green Bay area before the first French settlers arrived. Animals that are common today in the thick woods of the Green Bay area also lived in the area long ago. They are mostly creatures with very long and thick coats, as it was necessary for survival in the cold winters. Along with mammals were also fish that are similar to the species found today in the waters around Green Bay.[8]

Jean Nicolet was commissioned by New France’s founder, Samuel de Champlain to explore land that he had heard about, whose people referred to themselves as "People of the Sea". Champlain had also heard about resources in the area, including fertile soil, forests, and animals. Nicolet set out on his journey for this new land shortly before winter in 1634.[8]

A small trading post, originally named La Baye or La Baie des Puants (French for The stinking Bay), was established by Nicolet at this location in 1634,[9] making Green Bay the 13th oldest permanent settlement in America. When Nicolet arrived in the Green Bay area, the first group he encountered was one that spoke a Sioux language, the Ho-Chunk, also known as the Winnebago. “Besides hunting and fishing, the Winnebagos cultivated corn, bean, squash, and tobacco. Wild rice, a dietary staple, grew in abundance in the river and its tributaries, and was gathered along with nuts, berries, and edible roots of the woods."[8] In this tribe there were distinguished and easily identified gender roles. The men typically hunted and fished for food, and the women cooked and prepared the furs of the dead animals for rugs, furniture and other uses around the house. Women were an important aspect of the political process, as no action could be taken without agreement of half of the women. Nicolet stayed with this tribe for about a year, becoming an ally, which helped open up opportunities for trade and commerce. He then returned to Quebec.[8]

A few months after Nicolet returned from his quest, Champlain died. His death put a halt on journeys to the newly discovered land, La Baie Verte (French for The Green Bay).

Nicolas Perrot was the next journeyman sent to La Baie by Pere Claude Allouez. After this, the French avoided the area because of the intensity of Indian and European wars. In 1671 a Jesuit Mission was set up in the area. A fort was added in 1717. The town was incorporated in 1754, and was passed to British control in 1761.

One of the first permanent French settlers was Charles de Langlade and his family, who moved to Green Bay in 1765, becoming the first permanent settlers in Wisconsin. Langlade, called the "Father of Wisconsin", was a half-French Ottawa war chief who is credited with planning the ambush of British General Braddock and George Washington in the French and Indian War. The Grignons, Porliers and Lawes who followed brought Canadian-French culture with them. Colorful "jack-knife Judge" Reaume dispensed British justice in the territory.” [8] These early French settlers set the tone for the remainder who came to the area.

[[File:|left|thumb|275px|Built in 1837, the Hazelwood Historic House Museum was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1964 and is home of the Brown County Historical Society.[10]]]

The Green Bay area was still under British control until years after the end of the Revolutionary War, even after America had gained its independence. "Doty, Whitney, Arndt, Baird and Martin were among the American settlers who pushed French culture into the background following the American establishment of Fort Howard in 1816."[8] As British settlers in the area came to outnumber the French, the name "Green Bay" (from the French: Baie Verte) became the more common name for the town. In 1783 the town became part of the United States of America. The United States Army built Fort Howard on the banks of the Fox River in 1816.

Before Wisconsin became a state in 1848, the majority of commerce had to do with fur trading. After statehood, there was a shift away from fur trading toward lumbering. "For a short time in 1860s and 1870s, iron smelting in charcoal kilns rivaled the timber industry while the port handled increasing amounts of fuel, feed, and lumber. Today's major local industry had its start in 1895 when the first paper mill was built." [8]

Wisconsin's first newspaper, The Green Bay Intelligencer, was first published in 1833. The borough of Green Bay was created in 1838 and is the main center of the current city. By 1850 the town had a population of 1,923. The town was incorporated as the city of Green Bay, joining several small towns including Navarino, Astor (created by John Jacob Astor) and Fort Howard in 1854. The Green Bay Area Public School District was founded in 1856.[8]

The 1850s brought much change to the city of Green Bay when other groups started immigrating to the area. That decade brought an influx of Belgian, German, Scandinavian, Irish and Dutch immigrants as word spread of America's cheap land and good soil. The greatest concentration of newcomers came from Belgium. They cleared the land to farm and build their homes. [8]

The railroad arrived in the 1860s. Chicago and Northwestern Railroad companies were formed, which allowed people and products to travel all over the state, increasing business and trade opportunities. The area was able to grow and enrich itself with the use of the river and the plentiful timber resources. This led to the paper industry becoming the major employer in Green Bay, and opened up the port for international trade.[8]

In 1934, President Franklin D. Roosevelt came to Green Bay to honor its tricentennial.[9] By 1950 the city had a population of 52,735. In 1964, the Town of Preble was consolidated with the city of Green Bay.[11]

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 54.3 square miles (140.7 [[km2]]), of which 43.9 square miles (113.6 km2) is land and 10.4 square miles (27.1 km2) is water. The total area is 86.59% land.

Climate

The city of Green Bay has a continental climate, moderated slightly by the city's proximity to Lake Michigan. The city's climate features four distinct seasons, with warm, frequently hot summers and long, cold and snowy winters. The variance in temperature and precipitation between months is severe and often extreme. The warmest month is July, when the average high temperature is 81°F (27°C). During July, the average low temperature is 59°F (15°C). The coldest month of the year is January, when the high temperature averages only 24°F (−4°C), and the low temperatures average 7°F (−14°C).

The wettest month in Green Bay is August, when 3.77 inches (95.8 mm) of precipitation falls, mostly in the form of rainfall from thunderstorms. The driest month in Green Bay is February, when the majority of precipitation falls as low moisture-content snow due to cold, dry air. On average, 1.01 inches (25.7 mm) of precipitation falls in February.

Climate data for Green Bay, Wisconsin
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 24.1
(-4.39)
28.9
(-1.72)
40.0
(4.44)
54.6
(12.56)
68.0
(20)
76.8
(24.89)
81.2
(27.33)
78.5
(25.83)
70.2
(21.22)
57.9
(14.39)
42.4
(5.78)
29.0
(-1.67)
54.3
(12.39)
Average low °F (°C) 7.1
(-13.83)
12.1
(-11.06)
22.6
(-5.22)
33.9
(1.06)
44.7
(7.06)
54.0
(12.22)
58.6
(14.78)
56.5
(13.61)
47.5
(8.61)
36.9
(2.72)
25.6
(-3.56)
13.3
(-10.39)
34.4
(1.33)
Precipitation inches (mm) 1.21
(30.7)
1.01
(25.7)
2.06
(52.3)
2.56
(65)
2.75
(69.9)
3.43
(87.1)
3.44
(87.4)
3.77
(95.8)
3.11
(79)
2.17
(55.1)
2.27
(57.7)
1.41
(35.8)
29.19
(741.4)
Snowfall inches (cm) 13.7
(34.8)
8.4
(21.3)
9.2
(23.4)
2.9
(7.4)
0.2
(0.5)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.2
(0.5)
5.4
(13.7)
11.9
(30.2)
51.9
(131.8)
Avg. precipitation days 10.7 8.5 10.8 11.1 10.1 10.1 10.4 11.3 10.0 9.7 10.3 10.6 123.6
Avg. snowy days 10.0 7.4 6.9 2.4 0.1 0 0 0 0 0.2 4.6 9.1 40.7
Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration[12]

Demographics

City of Green Bay
Population by year
[13]
1860 2,276
1870 4,698
1880 7,476
1890 9,069
1900 23,748
1910 25,216
1920 31,643
1930 37,407
1940 46,205
1950 52,735
1960 62,952
1970 87,829
1980 87,947
1990 96,466
2000 102,313

As of the census of 2000,[1] there were 102,313 people, 41,591 households, and 24,663 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,332.1 people per square mile (900.5/km2). There were 43,123 housing units at an average density of 982.9/sq mi (379.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 85.86% White, 1.38% African American, 3.28% Native American, 3.76% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 3.72% from other races, and 1.97% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.13% of the population.

There were 41,591 households of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.1% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.7% were non-families. About 31.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.06.

In the city the population was spread out with 25.4% under the age of 18, 11.6% from 18 to 24, 31.7% from 25 to 44, 19.5% from 45 to 64, and 11.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 97.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $38,820, and the median income for a family was $48,678. Males had a median income of $33,246 versus $23,825 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,269. About 7.4% of families and 10.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.7% of those under the age of 18 and 9.2% of those 65 and older.

Government

Green Bay is governed by a mayor and a city council. The city council consists of 12 members each elected from districts. The mayor is elected in a citywide vote.

Mayors
  • W. C. E. Thomas 1854
  • Francis X. Desnoyers 1855
  • H. E. Eastman 1856, 1857
  • Burley Follett 1858, 1863
  • E. H. Ellis 1860
  • Henry S. Baird 1861, 1862
  • Nathan Goodell 1859, 1864
  • M. P. Lindsley 1865
  • Charles D. Robinson 1866,1872
  • James S. Marshall 1867
  • Anton Klaus 1868,1869, 1870
  • Alonzo Kimball 1871, 1873
  • Dr. C. E. Crane 1874, 1875, 1877, 1878, 1879
  • F. S. Ellis 1876
  • J. C. Neville 1880
  • J. H. M. Wigman 1882
  • W. J. Abrams 1881,1883, 1884
  • Charles Hartung 1885, 1886, 1887
  • Arthur C. Neville 1888,1889
  • James H. Elmore 1890, 1891, 1892, 1893, 1894, 1895      
  • Frank B. Desnoyers 1896, 1897, 1898

  • Simon J. Murphy, Jr. 1899,1900, 1901
  • J. H. Tayler 1902, 1903
  • Robert E. Minahan 1904-1907
  • Winford Abrams 1908-1916
  • Elmer S. Hall 1916-1920
  • W. Wiesner 1921-1927
  • James H. McGillan 1927–1929
  • John V. Diener 1929–1937
  • John S. Farrell 1937–1938
  • Alex Biemeret 1938–1945
  • Dominic Olejniczak 1945–1955
  • Otto Rachals 1955–1959
  • Roman Denissen 1959–1965
  • Donald Tilleman 1965–1972
  • Harris Burgoyne 1972–1973
  • Thomas Atkinson 1973–1975
  • Michael Monfils 1975–1979
  • Samuel J. Halloin 1979–1995
  • Paul F. Jadin 1995–2003
  • James J. Schmitt 2003–

.]] ]] [[File:|thumb|200px|right|Brown County Courthouse.]] , part of UW–Green Bay]]

in De Pere, Wisconsin.]]

[[File:|thumb|right|200px|Cathedral of Saint Francis Xavier]] [[File:||thumb|right|200px|Lambeau Field]] ]]

studio.]]

Transportation

The majority of the people in Green Bay use cars. The city was the headquarters of the Green Bay and Western Railroad from 1896 to 1993. After the GB&W quit, the line was purchased by Wisconsin Central Transportation. In 2001, the WC was merged into the Canadian National system. The Chicago and North Western Railway also served Green Bay, and their depot still stands today. Green Bay was last served with a regular passenger train, the CNW's Peninsula 400, in 1971. The CNW sold its trackage from Green Bay south to Sheboygan in 1987 to the Fox River Valley Railroad, which became part of the WC in 1993. Green Bay also saw passenger service from the Milwaukee Road's Chippewa Hiawatha, which ran from Chicago into the UP of Michigan. Green Bay is also served by the Escanaba and Lake Superior Railroad. Amtrak expansion to Green Bay is part of the Midwest Regional Rail Project, and would follow a route from Milwaukee through Fond du Lac, Oshkosh and Appleton. Wisconsin DOT plan service starting in 2019[14]. A ciizens group, NEWRails, is lobbying for an earlier start.[15]

Green Bay is served by Austin Straubel International Airport. Green Bay also has its own mass transit system known as Green Bay Metro (formerly known as Green Bay Transit).

Green Bay is connected to the rest of the state by four major highways. US-41 connects Green Bay to the Fox Cities, Fond du Lac and Milwaukee to the south and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan via Oconto, Peshtigo, and Marinette. US-141 starts in Green Bay and joins with US-41 to the north for 18 miles before splitting off and providing access to the Upper Peninsula via Niagara. I-43, which terminates at US-41/US-141, heads south along Lake Michigan to Milwaukee and on to Illinois via Beloit. Recently WI-29 has been upgraded to four lanes to provide better access to western Wisconsin and Minnesota via Wausau and Eau Claire.
Other highways of importance are :
WI-172: Forms a southern highway bypass of Green Bay, and continuing to Austin Straubel Airport.
WI-32: Two lane highway which runs from Illinois to Michigan and provides alternative routes to the north and south and travels through many small communities.
WI-54: Two lane highway which runs through Green Bay from Algoma to New London and Waupaca.
WI-57: Heads to Green Bay from I-43 near Port Washington and continues through Sturgeon Bay to the Door Peninsula, terminating with WI-42 at Gills Rock with ferry access to Washington Island. Southbound the highway runs to Chilton.

Education

Elementary Schools
  • Anne Sullivan Elementary School                     
  • Baird Elementary School
  • Beaumont Elementary School
  • Chappell Elementary School
  • Danz Elementary School
  • Doty Elementary School
  • Eisenhower Elementary School
  • Elmore Elementary School
  • Fort Howard Elementary School
  • Howe Elementary School
  • Jackson Elementary School
  • Keller Elementary School
  • Kennedy Elementary School
  • King Elementary School
  • Langlade Elementary School
  • Lincoln Elementary School
  • MacArthur Elementary School
  • Martin Elementary School
  • Mount Carmel Academy
  • McAuliffe Elementary School
  • Nicolet Elementary School
  • Tank Elementary School
  • Webster Elementary School
  • Wilder Elementary School

Kindergarten to 8th Grade Schools
  • Aldo Leopald Community School
  • Red Smith School
Junior High/Middle Schools
High Schools
Colleges and Universities

Religion

The city is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Green Bay. The Cathedral of Saint Francis Xavier in Green Bay is the mother church of the Diocese. The diocese is in the province of the Archdiocese of Milwaukee. The Saint Joseph Oratory is located in Green Bay.

In 2000, the American Religion Data Archive reported Green Bay to be predominantly Catholic (71.5%), with Lutherans composing an additional 16.4%. The remaining 12% are almost entirely Protestant denominations. There is also an Islamic mosque and an Unitarian Universalist Fellowship located in the city.

Congregation Cnesses Israel Temple, serving the area's Jewish population, is on the city's east-side.

Sports

Professional
Semi-Professional
Collegiate
Junior

Media and internet

See also: List of radio stations in Green Bay, List of television stations in Green Bay

Green Bay is served by the Green Bay Press-Gazette. Another local newspaper, the Green Bay News-Chronicle, ceased publication in 2005.

There is a free public Wi-Fi system in the downtown Green Bay Broadway District that went into operation in 2007.[17]

Major employers

Points of interest

]]

Shopping

Green Bay is home to two shopping malls, and dozens of strip malls. Green Bay is also home to the first Shopko discount department store, and all kinds of unique shopping destinations.

  • Bay Park Square & The Village at Bay Park

Built in 1980, Bay Park Square is the main shopping center in the Green Bay area, being located in the suburb of Ashwaubenon. Bay Park Square is anchored by Shopko, Kohl's, and Younkers/Younkers Furniture Gallery, and has hundreds of specialty shops. Bay Park Square has a football stadium-themed food court filled with seven different eateries and two giant flatscreen television sets at both ends of the food court. Bay Park Cinema is located behind Shopko. Neighboring Bay Park Square is a shopping plaza known as The Village at Bay Park, home to Fashion Bug, JCPenney, DSW, and a few specialty shops.

  • East Town Mall

Built in 1982, and remodeled three times, East Town Mall is a small shopping center/strip mall hybrid located on Green Bay's east side, near Interstate 43 on East Mason Street. East Town's current anchors are Hobby Lobby, Fashion Bug, Office Max, Kohl's, Petco, Shopko and ALDI. East Town has around 10 specialty shops (and one restaurant) inside the climate-controlled interior, with room for a few more. A budget cinema is also located inside the mall near Hobby Lobby. The East Town Mall also has seven Windspire vertical wind turbines outside of their main entrance. Official East Town Mall Website

  • Green Bay Plaza

Green Bay Plaza, built in 1960, is a large strip mall located on Green Bay's west side at the Military Ave./West Mason St. intersection. It is currently anchored by Michaels, Factory Card Outlet, T.J. Maxx, HomeGoods, Big Lots, Office Depot, and a free-standing Sears department store. Green Bay Plaza also has numerous specialty shops and restaurants.

Notable residents

Politics

Military
Religion

Sports
Literature, music, arts
Inventors, business leaders
  • George F. Kress – paper maker; invented a process for (fluting) corrugated containers, pioneer of paper recycling
  • Alfred Lawson - credited as inventor of the airliner
  • James Mulva – Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer of ConocoPhilips
  • Al Schneider- Founder, Schneider National
  • Don Schneider - Former Chairman, Schneider National Trucking, 2004, Forbes magazine ranked Schneider National as the nation’s 63rd largest privately held company.

Gallery

References

External links


Simple English

Green Bay, Wisconsin
—  City  —
Nickname(s): Packerland, USA; Titletown
Coordinates: 44°30′48″N 88°0′57″W / 44.51333°N 88.01583°W / 44.51333; -88.01583
Country United States
State Wisconsin
County Brown
Government
 - Mayor James J. Schmitt, (R)
Area
 - City 54.3 sq mi (140.7 km2)
 - Land 43.9 sq mi (113.6 km2)
 - Water 10.5 sq mi (27.1 km2)
Elevation 581 ft (177 m)
Population (2006)
 - City 100,353
 Density 2,332.1/sq mi (900.5/km2)
 Metro 226,778
Time zone Central (UTC-6)
 - Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
Area code(s) 920
FIPS code 55-31000[1]
GNIS feature ID 1565801[2]
Website www.ci.green-bay.wi.us

Green Bay is a city in the U.S. State of Wisconsin. It is the third largest city in Wisconsin. Just over 100,000 people live there. It is named after Green Bay, an arm of Lake Michigan. Green Bay is home of the Green Bay Packers that play at Lambeau field.

Sister cities

References

Other websites

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