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Street-side swale and adjacent pervious concrete sidewalk in Seattle, Washington. Stormwater is infiltrated through these features into soil, thereby reducing levels of urban runoff to city storm sewers.

Green Infrastructure is a concept originating in the United States in the mid-1990s that highlights the importance of the natural environment in decisions about land use planning.[1][2] In particular there is an emphasis on the "life support" functions provided by a network of natural ecosystems, with an emphasis on interconnectivity to support long term sustainability. Examples include clean water and healthy soils, as well as the more anthropocentric functions such as recreation and providing shade and shelter in and around towns and cities.

The United States Environmental Protection Agencyā€ˇ (EPA) has extended the concept to apply to the management of stormwater runoff at the local level through the use of natural systems, or engineered systems that mimic natural systems, to treat polluted runoff.[3][4] This use of the term "green infrastructure" to refer to urban "green" best management practices (BMPs), although not central to the larger concept, does contribute to the over health of natural ecosystems.

Contents

Planning approach

The Green Infrastructure approach analyses the natural environment in a way that highlights its function and subsequently seeks to put in place, through regulatory or planning policy, mechanisms that safeguard critical natural areas. Where life support functions are found to be lacking, plans may propose how these can be put in place through landscaped and/or engineered improvements.[5] The term "green infrastructure" is sometimes expanded to "multifunctional" green infrastructure. Multifunctionality in this context refers to the integration and interaction of different functions or activities on the same piece of land. This is key to the efficient and sustainable use of land, especially in a compact and bustling country like England where pressures on land are particularly acute. An example might be an urban edge river flood plain which provides a repository for flood waters, acts as a nature reserve, provides a recreational green space and could also be productively farmed (probably through grazing).

UK applications

In the United Kingdom, Green Infrastructure planning is increasingly recognised as a valuable approach for spatial planning and is now seen in national, regional and local planning and policy documents and strategies, for example in the Milton Keynes and South Midlands Growth area.[6]

In 2009, guidance on green infrastructure planning was published by Natural England, and can be accessed online at [1] This guidance promotes the importance of green infrastructure in 'place-making', i.e. in recognising and maintaining the character of a particular location, especially where new development is planned.[7]

In North West England the Regional Spatial Strategy has a specific Green Infrastructure Policy (EM3 - Green Infrastructure) as well as other references to the concept in other land use development policies (e.g. DP6).[8] The policy is supported by the North West Green Infrastructure Guide.[9] The Green Infrastructure Think Tank (GrITT) provides the support for policy development in the region and manages the web site that acts as a repository for information on Green Infrastructure.[10]

The Natural Economy Northwest programme has supported a number of projects, commissioned by The Mersey Forest to develop the evidence base for green infrastructure in the region. In particular it has work has been undertaken to look at the economic value of green infrastructure, the linkage between grey and green infrastructure and also to identify areas where green infrastructure may play critical role in helping to overcome issues such as risks of flood or poor air quality.

US applications

Alley renovated with permeable paving located in Chicago, Illinois.

Green infrastructure programs managed by EPA and partner organizations are intended to improve water quality generally through more extensive management of stormwater runoff. The practices are expected to reduce stress on traditional water drainage infrastructure--storm sewers and combined sewers--which are typically extensive networks of underground pipes and/or surface water channels in U.S. cities, towns and suburban areas. Improved stormwater management is expected to reduce the frequency of combined sewer overflows and sanitary sewer overflows, and provide other environmental benefits.[11][12]

GIS applications

The continued development of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and their increasing level of use is particularly important in the development of Green Infrastructure plans. The plans frequently are based on GIS anaysis of many layers of geographic information.

See also

References

  1. ^ The Conservation Fund, Arlington, VA. "Green Infrastucture." Accessed 2009-10-06.
  2. ^ Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis, MD. Maryland's Green Infrastructure Assessment: A Comprehensive Strategy for Land Conservation and Restoration. May 2003.
  3. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, D.C., et al., Green Infrastructure Statement of Intent. 2007-04-19.
  4. ^ EPA et al. "Managing Wet Weather with Green Infrastructure: Action Strategy 2008." January 2008.
  5. ^ Mark Benedict and Edward T. McMahon (2006). Green Infrastructure, Linking Landscapes and Communities. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. ISBN 1559635584.
  6. ^ Environment Agency, Bristol, UK. Green Infrastructure Guide
  7. ^ Natural England website 2009
  8. ^ North West Regional Assembly, Wigan, UK. "The North West Plan: Submitted Draft Regional Spatial Strategy for the North West of England." January 2006.
  9. ^ Green Infrastructure Think Tank (GrITT), Warrington, UK. "North West Green Infrastructure Guide." September 2007.
  10. ^ GrITT. "Green Infrastructure North West." Accessed 2009-10-06.
  11. ^ EPA. "How Does Green Infrastructure Benefit the Environment?" December 15, 2008.
  12. ^ American Rivers, Washington, D.C. "Water infrastructure: Green investments create jobs, save money." 2008-12-17.

Further reading

External links


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