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The Green Revolution changed the face of agriculture

Green Revolution refers to the transformation of agriculture that began in 1945, largely due to the life work of Norman Borlaug. One significant factor in this revolution was the Mexican government's request to establish an agricultural research station to develop more varieties of wheat that could be used to feed the rapidly growing population of the country.

In 1943, Mexico imported half its wheat, but by 1956, the Green Revolution had made Mexico self-sufficient; by 1964, Mexico exported half a million tons of wheat.[1] The associated transformation has continued as the result of programs of agricultural research, extension, and infrastructural development. These programs were instigated and largely funded by the Rockefeller Foundation along with the Ford Foundation, and other major agencies.[2][3]

The Green Revolution allowed food production to enable, or keep pace with worldwide population growth. The Green Revolution has had major social and ecological impacts, making it a popular topic of study among sociologists.[citation needed]

The term "Green Revolution" was first used in 1968 by former USAID director William Gaud, who noted the spread of the new technologies and said,

"These and other developments in the field of agriculture contain the makings of a new revolution. It is not a violent Red Revolution like that of the Soviets, nor is it a White Revolution like that of the Shah of Iran. I call it the Green Revolution."[4]

Contents

History

Indian success

With the experience of agricultural development begun in Mexico by Norman Borlaug in 1943 judged as a success, the Rockefeller Foundation sought to spread it to other nations. The Office of Special Studies in Mexico became an informal international research institution in 1959, and in 1963 it formally became CIMMYT, The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.

In 1961 India was on the brink of mass famine[5]. Borlaug was invited to India by the adviser to the Indian minister of agriculture M. S. Swaminathan. Despite bureaucratic hurdles imposed by India's grain monopolies, the Ford Foundation and Indian government collaborated to import wheat seed from CIMMYT. Punjab was selected by the Indian government to be the first site to try the new crops because of its reliable water supply and a history of agricultural success. India began its own Green Revolution program of plant breeding, irrigation development, and financing of agrochemicals.[6]

India soon adopted IR8 - a semi-dwarf rice variety developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) that could produce more grains of rice per plant when grown with certain fertilizers and irrigation. In 1968, Indian agronomist S.K. De Datta published his findings that IR8 rice yielded about 5 tons per hectare with no fertilizer, and almost 10 tons per hectare under optimal conditions. This was 10 times the yield of traditional rice.[7] IR8 was a success throughout Asia, and dubbed the "Miracle Rice". IR8 was also developed into Semi-dwarf IR36.

In the 1960s, rice yields in India were about two tons per hectare; by the mid-1990s, they had risen to six tons per hectare. In the 1970s, rice cost about $550 a ton; in 2001, it cost under $200 a ton.[8] India became one of the world's most successful rice producers, and is now a major rice exporter, shipping nearly 4.5 million tons in 2006.[9]

IR8 and the Philippines

In 1960, the Government of the Republic of the Philippines with Ford and Rockefeller Foundations established IRRI (International Rice Research Institute). A rice crossing between Dee-geo-woo-gen and Peta was done at IRRI in 1962. In 1966, one of the breeding lines became a new cultivar, IR8.[10] IR8 required the use of fertilizers and pesticides, but produced substantially higher yields than the traditional cultivars. Annual rice production in the Philippines increased from 3.7 to 7.7 million tonnes in two decades.[11] The switch to IR8 rice made the Philippines a rice exporter for the first time in the 20th century.[12] But the heavy pesticide use reduced the number of fish and frog species found in rice paddies. [13]

CGIAR

In 1970, foundation officials proposed a worldwide network of agricultural research centers under a permanent secretariat. This was further supported and developed by the World Bank; on May 19, 1971, the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research was established, co-sponsored by the FAO, IFAD and UNDP. CGIAR, has added many research centers throughout the world.

CGIAR has responded, at least in part, to criticisms of Green Revolution methodologies. This began in the 1980s, and mainly was a result of pressure from donor organizations.[14] Methods like Agroecosystem Analysis and Farming System Research have been adopted to gain a more holistic view of agriculture. Methods like Rapid Rural Appraisal and Participatory Rural Appraisal have been adopted to help scientists understand the problems faced by farmers and even give farmers a role in the development process.

Problems in Africa

There have been numerous attempts to introduce the successful concepts from the Mexican and Indian projects into Africa. These programs have generally been less successful, for a number of reasons. Reasons cited include widespread corruption, insecurity, a lack of infrastructure, and a general lack of will on the part of the governments. Yet environmental factors, such as the availability of water for irrigation, the high diversity in slope and soil types in one given area are also reasons why the Green Revolution is not so successful in Africa[15].

A recent program in western Africa is attempting to introduce a new high-yield variety of rice known as "New Rice for Africa"(NERICA). NERICAs yield about 30% more rice under normal conditions, and can double yields with small amounts of fertilizer and very basic irrigation. However the program has been beset by problems getting the rice into the hands of farmers, and to date the only success has been in Guinea where it currently accounts for 16% of rice cultivation.[16]

Agricultural production and food security

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Technologies

The projects within the Green Revolution spread technologies that had already existed, but had not been widely used outside industrialized nations. These technologies included pesticides, irrigation projects, synthetic nitrogen fertilizer and improved crop varieties developed through the conventional, science-based methods available at the time.

The novel technological development of the Green Revolution was the production of novel wheat cultivars. Agronomists bred cultivars of maize, wheat, and rice that are generally referred to as HYVs or “high-yielding varieties”. HYVs have higher nitrogen-absorbing potential than other varieties. Since cereals that absorbed extra nitrogen would typically lodge, or fall over before harvest, semi-dwarfing genes were bred into their genomes. A Japanese dwarf wheat cultivar (Norin 10 wheat), which was sent to Washington, D.C. by Cecil Salmon, was instrumental in developing Green Revolution wheat cultivars. IR8, the first widely implemented HYV rice to be developed by IRRI, was created through a cross between an Indonesian variety named “Peta” and a Chinese variety named “Dee-geo-woo-gen.”

With advances in molecular genetics, the mutant genes responsible for Arabidopsis genes (GA 20-oxidase,[17] ga1,[18] ga1-3[19]), wheat reduced-height genes (Rht)[20] and a rice semidwarf gene (sd1)[21] were cloned. These were identified as gibberellin biosynthesis genes or cellular signaling component genes. Stem growth in the mutant background is significantly reduced leading to the dwarf phenotype. Photosynthetic investment in the stem is reduced dramatically as the shorter plants are inherently more stable mechanically. Assimilates become redirected to grain production, amplifying in particular the effect of chemical fertilizers on commercial yield.

HYVs significantly outperform traditional varieties in the presence of adequate irrigation, pesticides, and fertilizers. In the absence of these inputs, traditional varieties may outperform HYVs. Therefore, several authors have challenged the apparent superiority of HYVs not only compared to the traditional varieties alone, but by contrasting the monocultural system asssociated with HYVs with the polycultural system associated with traditional ones [22]

Production increases

Cereal production more than doubled in developing nations between the years 1961 – 1985.[23] Yields of rice, maize, and wheat increased steadily during that period.[23] The production increases can be attributed roughly equally to irrigation, fertilizer, and seed development, at least in the case of Asian rice.[23]

While agricultural output increased as a result of the Green Revolution, the energy input to produce a crop has increased faster,[24] so that the ratio of crops produced to energy input has decreased over time. Green Revolution techniques also heavily rely on chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides, some of which must be developed from fossil fuels, making agriculture increasingly reliant on petroleum products.[25] Proponents of the Peak Oil theory fear that a future decline in oil and gas production would lead to a decline in food production or even a Malthusian catastrophe.[26]

Effects on food security

The effects of the Green Revolution on global food security are difficult to understand because of the complexities involved in food systems.

The world population has grown by about four billion since the beginning of the Green Revolution and many believe that, without the Revolution, there would have been greater famine and malnutrition. India saw annual wheat production rise from 10 million tons in the 1960s to 73 million in 2006.[27] The average person in the developing world consumes roughly 25% more calories per day now than before the Green Revolution.[23] Between 1950 and 1984, as the Green Revolution transformed agriculture around the globe, world grain production increased by over 250%[28]

The production increases fostered by the Green Revolution are often credited with having helped to avoid widespread famine, and for feeding billions of people.[29]

There are many claims that the Green Revolution has decreased food security for a large number of people. One claim involves the shift of subsistence-oriented cropland to cropland oriented towards production of grain for export or animal feed. For example, the Green Revolution replaced much of the land used for pulses that fed Indian peasants for wheat, which did not make up a large portion of the peasant diet.[30]

Criticisms

Food security

Malthusian criticism

Some criticisms generally involve some variation of the Malthusian principle of population. Such concerns often revolve around the idea that the Green Revolution is unsustainable,[31][32][33] and argue that humanity is now in a state of overpopulation with regards to the sustainable carrying capacity and ecological demands on the Earth.

Although 36 million people die each year as a direct or indirect result of hunger and poor nutrition,[34] Malthus' more extreme predictions have frequently failed to materialize. In 1798 Thomas Malthus made his prediction of impending famine.[35] The world's population had doubled by 1923 and doubled again by 1973 without fulfilling Malthus' prediction. Malthusian Paul R. Ehrlich, in his 1968 book The Population Bomb, said that "India couldn't possibly feed two hundred million more people by 1980" and "Hundreds of millions of people will starve to death in spite of any crash programs."[35] Ehrlich's warnings failed to materialize when India became self-sustaining in cereal production in 1974 (six years later) as a result of the introduction of Norman Borlaug's dwarf wheat varieties.[35]

Is food production related to famine?

To some modern Western sociologists and writers, increasing food production is not synonymous with increasing food security, and is only part of a larger equation. For example, Harvard professor Amartya Sen claimed large historic famines were not caused by decreases in food supply, but by socioeconomic dynamics and a failure of public action.[36] However, economist Peter Bowbrick refutes that Sen's theory is incorrect as Sen relies on inconsistent arguments, and contradicting available information, including sources that Sen himself cited.[37] Bowbrick further argues that Sen's views coincide with that of the Bengal government at the time of the Bengal famine of 1943 and the policies Sen advocates failed to relieve the famine.[37]

Quality of diet

Some have challenged the value of the increased food production of Green Revolution agriculture. Miguel A. Altieri, (a pioneer of agroecology and peasant-advocate), writes that the comparison between traditional systems of agriculture and Green Revolution agriculture has been unfair, because Green Revolution agriculture produces monocultures of cereal grains, while traditional agriculture usually incorporates polycultures.[38]

These monoculture crops are often used for export, feed for animals, or conversion into biofuel. According to Emile Frison of Biodiversity International, the Green Revolution has also led to a change in dietary habits, as less people are affected by hunger and die from starvation, but many are affected by malnutrition such as iron or vitamin-A deficiencies.[15] Frison further asserts that almost 60% of yearly deaths of children under age five in developing countries are related to malnutrition.[15]

High-yield rice (HYR), introduced since 1964 to poverty-ridden Asian countries, (such as the Philippines), was found to have inferior flavor and be more glutinous and less savory than their native varieties[citation needed]. This caused its price to be lower than the average market value.[39]

In the Philippines the introduction of heavy pesticides to rice production, in the early part of the green revolution, poisoned and killed off fish and weedy green vegetables that traditionally coexisted in rice paddies. These were nutritious food sources for many poor Filipino farmers prior to the introduction of pesticides, further impacting the diets of locals. [40]

Political impacts

The Green Revolution is unpopular among many leftists[citation needed] because of its context within the Cold War. A major critic[citation needed] of the Green Revolution, U.S. investigative journalist Mark Dowie, writes[citation needed]:

The primary objective of the program was geopolitical: to provide food for the populace in underdeveloped countries and so bring social stability and weaken the fomenting of communist insurgency.

Citing internal Foundation documents, Dowie states that the Ford Foundation had a greater concern than Rockefeller in this area.[41]

There is significant evidence that the Green Revolution weakened socialist movements in many nations. In countries such as India, Mexico, and the Philippines, technological solutions were sought as an alternative to expanding agrarian reform initiatives, the latter of which were often linked to socialist politics.[42]

Socioeconomic impacts

The transition from traditional agriculture, in which inputs were generated on-farm, to Green Revolution agriculture, which required the purchase of inputs, led to the widespread establishment of rural credit institutions. Smaller farmers often went into debt, which in many cases results in a loss of their farmland.[14][43] The increased level of mechanization on larger farms made possible by the Green Revolution removed a large source of employment from the rural economy.[14] Because wealthier farmers had better access to credit and land, the Green Revolution increased class disparities. The rich - poor gap widened due to that. Because some regions were able to adopt Green Revolution agriculture more readily than others (for political or geographical reasons), interregional economic disparities increased as well. Many small farmers are hurt by the dropping prices resulting from increased production overall.[citation needed]

The new economic difficulties of small holder farmers and landless farm workers led to increased rural-urban migration. The increase in food production led to a cheaper food for urban dwellers, and the increase in urban population increased the potential for industrialization.[citation needed]

Globalization

In the most basic sense, the Green Revolution was a product of globalization as evidenced in the creation of international agricultural research centers that shared information, and with transnational funding from groups like the Rockefeller Foundation, Ford Foundation, and United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Additionally, the inputs required in Green Revolution agriculture created new markets for seed and chemical corporations, many of which were based in the United States. For example, Standard Oil of New Jersey established hundreds of distributors in the Philippines to sell agricultural packages composed of HYV seed, fertilizer, and pesticides.[citation needed]

Environmental impact

Pesticides

Green Revolution agriculture relies on extensive use of pesticides, which are necessary to limit the high levels of pest damage that inevitably occur in monocropping - the practice of producing or growing one single crop over a wide area.

Water

Industrialized agriculture with its high yield varieties are extremely water intensive. In the US, agriculture consumes 85% of all fresh water resources. For example, the Southwest uses 36% of the nations water while at the same time only receiving 6% of the country's rainfall.[citation needed] Only 60% of the water used for irrigation comes from surface water supplies. The other 40% comes from underground aquifers that are being used up in a way similar to topsoil that makes the aquifers,[citation needed] as Pfeiffer says, “for all intents and purposes non renewable resources.”[citation needed] The Ogallala Aquifer is essential to a huge portion of central and southwest plain states, but has been at annual overdrafts of 130-160% in excess of replacement. This irrigation source for America's bread basket will become entirely unproductive in another 30 years or so.[citation needed]

Likewise, rivers are drying up at an alarming rate. In 1997, the lower parts of China’s Yellow River were dry for a record 226 days. Over the past ten years, it has gone dry an average of 70 days a year.[citation needed] Famous lifelines such as the Nile and Ganges along with countless other rivers are sharing in the same fate.[citation needed] The Aral Sea has lost half its area and two-thirds its volume due to river diversion for cotton production.

Also the water quality is being compromised. In the Aral Sea, water salinization has wiped out all native fish, leaving an economy even more dependent on the agricultural model that originated the problem.[citation needed]

Fish are disappearing through another form of agricultural run off as well.[citation needed] When nitrogen-intensive fertilizers wash into waterways it results in an explosion of algae and other microorganisms that lead to oxygen depletion resulting in “dead zones”, killing off fish and other creatures.[citation needed]

Biodiversity

The spread of Green Revolution agriculture affected both agricultural biodiversity and wild biodiversity [44]. There is little disagreement that the Green Revolution acted to reduce agricultural biodiversity, as it relied on just a few high-yield varieties of each crop.

This has led to concerns about the susceptibility of a food supply to pathogens that cannot be controlled by agrochemicals, as well as the permanent loss of many valuable genetic traits bred into traditional varieties over thousands of years. To address these concerns, massive seed banks such as Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research’s (CGIAR) International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (now Bioversity International) have been established (see Svalbard Global Seed Vault).

There are varying opinions about the effect of the Green Revolution on wild biodiversity. One hypothesis speculates that by increasing production per unit of land area, agriculture will not need to expand into new, uncultivated areas to feed a growing human population [45]. However, land degradation and soil nutrients depletion have forced farmers to clear up formerly forested areas in order to keep up with production [46]. A counter-hypothesis speculates that biodiversity was sacrificed because traditional systems of agriculture that were displaced sometimes incorporated practices to preserve wild biodiversity, and because the Green Revolution expanded agricultural development into new areas where it was once unprofitable or too arid. For example, the development of wheat varieties tolerant to acid soil conditions with high aluminium content, permitted the introduction of agriculture in the Amazonian Cerrado ecosystem in Brazil [45].

Nevertheless, the world community has clearly acknowledged the negative aspects of agricultural expansion as the 1992 Rio Treaty, signed by 189 nations, has generated numerous national Biodiversity Action Plans which assign significant biodiversity loss to agriculture's expansion into new domains.

Health impact

The consumption of the chemicals and pesticides used to kill pests by humans in some cases may be increasing the likelihood of cancer in some of the rural villages using them. Poor farming practices including non-compliance to usage of masks and over-usage of the chemicals by un-educated farmers in poor countries compound this situation.[47]

Pesticides and cancer

Long term exposure to pesticides such as organochlorines, creosote, and sulfallate have been correlated with higher cancer rates and organochlorines DDT, chlordane, and lindane as tumor promoters in animals[citation needed]. Contradictory epidemiologic studies in humans have linked phenoxy acid herbicides or contaminants in them with soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and malignant lymphoma, organochlorine insecticides with STS, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), leukemia, and, less consistently, with cancers of the lung and breast, organophosphorous compounds with NHL and leukemia, and triazine herbicides with ovarian cancer.[48][49] AIRY KABEEEEEEEEEEEEEEER!~

Punjab case

The Indian state of Punjab pioneered green revolution among the other states transforming India into a food-surplus country.[50] The state is witnessing serious consequences of intensive farming using chemicals and pesticide.[citation needed] A comprehensive study conducted by Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER) has underlined the direct relationship between indiscriminate use of these chemicals and increased incidence of cancer in this region.[51] Increase in the number of cancer cases has been reported in several villages including Jhariwala, Koharwala, Puckka, Bhimawali, Khara.[52]

Ecologist Vandana Shiva has written extensively about the social, political and economic impacts of the Green Revolution in Punjab. She has shown how the Green Revolution's reliance on heavy use of chemical inputs and monocultures has resulted in a precarious situation of water scarcity, vulnerability to pests, and incidence of violent conflict and social marginalization. [53]

Organic farming

About four decades after the Green Revolution widely helped the world to be able to produce food in sufficient levels, a small percentage of farmers in India have chosen to employ organic farming methods in response to side effects from their adoption of modern agriculture techniques.[54]

However, the techniques which these farmers perceive as harmful enough to sacrifice as much as a half of their food production are often not properly applied in the way they were developed, many conventional Indian farmers misuse concentrated chemicals in ways such as not wearing protective clothing or equipment, re-using pesticide containers as kitchen containers, and using more pesticide and fertilizer than necessary to maximize yield.[54]

Norman Borlaug's response to criticism

He dismissed certain claims of critics, but did take other concerns seriously and stated that his work has been:

"a change in the right direction, but it has not transformed the world into a Utopia". [55]

Of environmental lobbyists he said:

"some of the environmental lobbyists of the Western nations are the salt of the earth, but many of them are elitists. They've never experienced the physical sensation of hunger. They do their lobbying from comfortable office suites in Washington or Brussels...If they lived just one month amid the misery of the developing world, as I have for fifty years, they'd be crying out for tractors and fertilizer and irrigation canals and be outraged that fashionable elitists back home were trying to deny them these things".[56]

See also

References

  1. ^ www.rand.org/pubs/occasional_papers/2007/RAND_OP179.pdf
  2. ^ Defining the Green Revolution
  3. ^ New Hope for African Farmers-The Gates Foundation
  4. ^ Speech by William S. Gaud to the Society for International Development. 1968. [1]
  5. ^ http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/06/0621_bamboo.html
  6. ^ http://www.cgiar.org/newsroom/releases/news.asp?idnews=532
  7. ^ De Datta SK, Tauro AC, Balaoing SN (1 November 1968). "Effect of plant type and nitrogen level on growth characteristics and grain yield of indica rice in the tropics". Agron. J. 60 (6): 643–7. http://agron.scijournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/60/6/643. 
  8. ^ Barta, Patrick (July 28, 2007). "Feeding Billions, A Grain at a Time". The Wall Street Journal: pp. A1. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB118556810848880619.html. 
  9. ^ http://online.wsj.com/article/SB118556810848880619.html
  10. ^ IRRI Early research and training resurts (pdf)pp.106-109.
  11. ^ FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture - Rice paddies
  12. ^ Rice of the Gods - TIME
  13. ^ [2]
  14. ^ a b c Oasa 1987
  15. ^ a b c http://www.inwent.org/ez/articles/070224/index.en.shtml
  16. ^ In Africa, Prosperity From Seeds Falls Short, New York Times, 10 October 2007
  17. ^ Xu YL, Li L, Wu K, Peeters AJ, Gage DA, Zeevaart JA (July 1995). "The GA5 locus of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a multifunctional gibberellin 20-oxidase: molecular cloning and functional expression". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92 (14): 6640–4. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.14.6640. PMID 7604047. PMC 41574. http://www.pnas.org/content/92/14/6640.abstract. 
  18. ^ Silverstone AL, Chang C, Krol E, Sun TP (July 1997). "Developmental regulation of the gibberellin biosynthetic gene GA1 in Arabidopsis thaliana". Plant J. 12 (1): 9–19. doi:10.1046/j.1365-313X.1997.12010009.x. PMID 9263448. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/resolve/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=0960-7412&date=1997&volume=12&issue=1&spage=9. 
  19. ^ Silverstone AL, Ciampaglio CN, Sun T (February 1998). "The Arabidopsis RGA gene encodes a transcriptional regulator repressing the gibberellin signal transduction pathway". Plant Cell 10 (2): 155–69. doi:10.1105/tpc.10.2.155. PMID 9490740. PMC 143987. http://www.plantcell.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9490740. 
  20. ^ Appleford NE, Wilkinson MD, Ma Q, et al (2007). "Decreased shoot stature and grain alpha-amylase activity following ectopic expression of a gibberellin 2-oxidase gene in transgenic wheat". J. Exp. Bot. 58 (12): 3213–26. doi:10.1093/jxb/erm166. PMID 17916639. http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/erm166v1. 
  21. ^ Monna L, Kitazawa N, Yoshino R, et al (February 2002). "Positional cloning of rice semidwarfing gene, sd-1: rice "green revolution gene" encodes a mutant enzyme involved in gibberellin synthesis". DNA Res. 9 (1): 11–7. doi:10.1093/dnares/9.1.11. PMID 11939564. http://dnaresearch.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11939564. 
  22. ^ Igbozurike, U.M. (1978). "POLYCULTURE AND MONOCULTURE: CONTRAST AND ANALYSIS". GeoJournal 2 (5): 443–49. 
  23. ^ a b c d Conway, 1997 chpt. 4.
  24. ^ Why Our Food is So Dependent on Oil
  25. ^ Fuel costs, drought influence price increase
  26. ^ Rising food prices curb aid to global poor
  27. ^ The end of India's green revolution?
  28. ^ Kindall, Henery W & Pimentel, David (May 1994). "Constraints on the Expansion of the Global Food Supply". Ambio. 23 (3). http://dieoff.org/page36.htm. 
  29. ^ [3]
  30. ^ Spitz, 1987
  31. ^ Food, Land, Population and the U.S. Economy
  32. ^ Peak Oil: the threat to our food security
  33. ^ Agriculture Meets Peak Oil
  34. ^ Mortality statistics w/references in Wikipedia article on hunger.
  35. ^ a b c Technology Review: Green Revolutionary
  36. ^ Drezé and Sen 1991
  37. ^ a b Bowbrick, Peter (May 1986). "A Refutation of Professor Sen’s Theory of Famine". Food Policy 11 (2): 105–124. doi:10.1016/0306-9192(86)90059-X. 
  38. ^ Altieri 1995.
  39. ^ Chapman, Graham P. (2002). “The Green Revolution.” The Companion to Development Studies. London: Arnold. (pp.155-159).
  40. ^ The Great Rice Robbery
  41. ^ Primary objective was geopolitical - see Mark Dowie, American Foundations: An Investigative History, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2001, (pp. 109-114)
  42. ^ Ross 1998. Chpt. 5.
  43. ^ Ponting, Clive (2007). A New Green History of the World: The Environment and the Collapse of Great Civilizations. New York: Penguin Books. p. 244. ISBN 978-0-14-303898-6. 
  44. ^ http://www.collectivetech.org/apc/sites/default/files/IRRI_Resource%20Kit_Final_SIBAT_0.pdf#page=21
  45. ^ a b Davies, Paul (June 2003). "An Historical Perspective from the Green Revolution to the Gene Revolution". Nutrition Reviews 61 (6): S124–S134. doi:10.1301/nr.2003.jun.S124-S134. PMID 12908744. 
  46. ^ Shiva, Vandana (March-April 1991). "The Green Revolution in the Punjab". The Ecologist 21 (2): 57–60. 
  47. ^ Punjab suffers from adverse effect of Green revolution, BBC news
  48. ^ Pesticides and cancer, Jan Dich1, Shelia Hoar Zahm, Annika Hanberg and Hans-Olov Adami, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
  49. ^ Pesticides and childhood cancer, Environ Health Perspect, Zahm SH and Ward MH, Occupational Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute
  50. ^ Green revolution in Punjab, India
  51. ^ PGIMER research
  52. ^ Green revolution's cancer train
  53. ^ Green revolution in Punjab, by Vandana Shiva
  54. ^ a b The Toxic Consequences of the Green Revolution
  55. ^ "http://www.agbioworld.org/biotech-info/topics/borlaug/iowans.html"
  56. ^ Tierney, John (2008). "Greens and Hunger". TierneyLab - Putting Ideas in Science to the Test. The New York Times. http://tierneylab.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/05/19/greens-and-hunger/?pagemode=print. Retrieved 2009-02-13. 

Bibliography

External links


Simple English

In the 20th century, big spending in modern scientific research for agriculture led to higher crop yields in the industrial countries. The Rockefeller Foundation and Ford Foundation helped to transfer and adapt these scientific advances to the conditions in developing countries.The first investments were in research on rice and wheat, two of the most important food crops for developing countries.The breeding of improved plant varieties, combined with the expanded use of fertilizers and pesticides, and irrigation, led to big yield increases in Asia and Latin America, beginning in the late 1960s. The term “Green Revolution” was used to describe this large growth in agriculture.[1]

References

  1. Green Revolution: Curse or Blessing?


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