The Full Wiki

Greenbelt, Maryland: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Greenbelt, Maryland
—  City  —
Roosevelt Center typifies the Art Deco style used during the original construction of Greenbelt.

Flag

Seal
Location in Maryland
Coordinates: 39°0′2″N 76°53′18″W / 39.00056°N 76.88833°W / 39.00056; -76.88833Coordinates: 39°0′2″N 76°53′18″W / 39.00056°N 76.88833°W / 39.00056; -76.88833
Country United States
State Maryland
County Prince George's
Incorporated 1937
Government
 - Mayor Judith F. Davis (D)
Area
 - Total 6.0 sq mi (15.6 km2)
 - Land 6.0 sq mi (15.5 km2)
 - Water 0.04 sq mi (0.1 km2)  0.50%
Elevation 157 ft (48 m)
Population (2000)
 - Total 21,456
 Density 3,586.6/sq mi (1,385.3/km2)
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 20768, 20770, 20771
Area code(s) 301 and 240
FIPS code 24-34775
GNIS feature ID 0597493
Website www.greenbeltmd.gov

Greenbelt is a city in Prince George's County, Maryland, United States.[1] Contained within today's City of Greenbelt is the historic, planned community now known locally as "Old Greenbelt" and designated as the Greenbelt Historic District. Greenbelt's population was 21,456 at the 2000 census.

Contents

History

Old Greenbelt was settled in 1937 as a public cooperative community in the New Deal Era. The concept was at the same time both eminently practical and idealistically utopian: the federal government would foster an "ideal" self-sufficient cooperative community that would also ease the pressing housing shortage near the nation's capital. Construction of the new town would also create jobs and thus help stimulate the national economic recovery following the Great Depression.

Greenbelt, which provided affordable housing for federal government workers, was one of three "green" towns planned in 1935 by Rexford Guy Tugwell, head of the United States Resettlement Administration, under authority of the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act. The two other green towns are Greendale, Wisconsin (near Milwaukee) and Greenhills, Ohio (near Cincinnati). A fourth green town, Roosevelt, New Jersey (originally called Homestead), was planned but was not fully developed on the same large scale as Greenbelt. Eleanor Roosevelt, wife of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, helped Tugwell lay out the town on a site that had formerly consisted largely of tobacco fields. Eleanor Roosevelt also was heavily involved in the first cooperative community designed by the federal government in the New Deal Era, Arthurdale, West Virginia, which sought to better the lives of impoverished laborers by enabling them to create a self-sufficient, and relatively prosperous, cooperative community. Cooperatives in Greenbelt include the Greenbelt News Review, Greenbelt Consumers Coop grocery store, the New Deal Cafe, and the cooperative forming the downtown core of original housing, Greenbelt Homes Incorporated (GHI).[2]

The architectural planning of Greenbelt was innovative, but no less so than the social engineering involved in this federal government project. Applicants for residency were interviewed and screened based on income and occupation. African-Americans were initially excluded,[3] but came to number 41% of residents by 2000.[4]

Much of the community is located within the Greenbelt Historic District; listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.[5]

Bordering Areas

Geography and Highlights

Greenbelt is located at 39°0′2″N 76°53′18″W / 39.00056°N 76.88833°W / 39.00056; -76.88833 (39.000460, -76.888325)[6].

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.0 square miles (15.6 km²), of which, 6.0 square miles (15.5 km²) of it is land and 0.04 square miles (0.1 km²) of it (0.50%) is water.

Greenbelt's ZIP codes are 20768, 20770, and 20771.

Greenbelt Road is a portion of State Highway 193, a highway connecting several suburban towns, with links to the Baltimore-Washington Parkway and to the nation's capital.

The Goddard Space Flight Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is located there, as is Greenbelt Park.

The Greenbelt Arts Center is located in Old Greenbelt.

Demographics

As of the census[4] of 2000, there were 21,456 people, 9,368 households, and 4,965 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,586.6 people per square mile (1,385.3/km²). There were 10,180 housing units at an average density of 1,701.7/sq mi (657.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 39.74% White, 41.35% African American, 0.23% Native American, 12.05% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 3.11% from other races, and 3.47% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.45% of the population.

There were 9,368 households out of which 26.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.1% were married couples living together, 15.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 47.0% were non-families. 35.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 3.00.

In the city the population was spread out with 21.9% under the age of 18, 12.5% from 18 to 24, 39.1% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, and 6.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $46,328, and the median income for a family was $55,671. Males had a median income of $39,133 versus $35,885 for females. The per capita income for the city was $25,236. About 6.0% of families and 10.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.7% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over.

Government

The City of Greenbelt operates under a council-manager government as established by the city charter. The Council consists of seven members elected by plurality-at-large voting. From their members, the Council selects the Mayor and the Mayor Pro Tem (who assumes the duties of the Mayor when the Mayor is unavailable). The Council has traditionally chosen the member with the highest vote count to be Mayor, and the member with the second-highest vote count as Mayor Pro Tem. Elections are held every two years, in odd-numbered years, in part to diminish the influence of political parties. Political party affiliations are not an official part of the city election process, and are seldom part of candidate campaigns. Regular council meetings are held on Mondays, twice per month except during July, August, and December, when meetings are held once per month.[7]

The City Council is supported by 14 advisory boards and committees of citizen volunteers. The council appoints a professional city manager responsible for supervising government operations and implementing the policies adopted by the council.

The 2009 election selected the current city council:[8]

  • Mayor: Judith "J" Davis
  • Mayor Pro Tem: Emmett Jordan
  • Council Members: Konrad Herling, Leta Mach, Silke Pope, Edward Putens, and Rodney Roberts.

The council selects the City Manager:

  • City Manager: Michael McLaughlin.
Advertisements

2009 Election Reform

Of the ten incorporated cities in Prince George's County, Greenbelt is one of three with at-large elections for council and mayor. (The others are District Heights and New Carrollton.) The remaining seven use combinations of districts and at-large voting. On 2008-02-28, the Maryland ACLU and Prince George's County NAACP sent a letter to the Greenbelt City Council claiming that Greenbelt's at-large system may violate section 2 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965.[9] According to the letter, the 2000 Census indicated that African-Americans constituted 38% of Greenbelt's voting-age population, Asians 13%, and Latinos 6%. At the time, however, all members of the city council were white. The letter proposed that the city switch to single-winner district-based voting, cumulative voting, or choice voting, and indicated a lawsuit would follow if no reform were implemented.[10] While the city population is racially diverse, only two African Americans had run for Council in the 30 years preceding the 2009 election[11], one of whom had withdrawn before the election.[12] In June 2008, the United States Department of Justice opened an investigation into the city's election system.[13]

In 2008, the city government hosted three public community meetings regarding election reform, in concert with the ACLU, NAACP, and FairVote.[14] Over 100 residents attended the forums, including one of the unsuccessful African American candidates, Jeanette Gordy, who said, "My concern is that people don’t get off their royal behinds. By going to meetings I got what I wanted and found out I had power as a citizen."[15]

In 2009, the city implemented several election reforms with the goal of increasing diversity: increasing the city council from five to seven members, adding an additional precinct in Greenbelt East to shorten voter lines, and amending the city charter to allow early voting.[16]

In the election held 2009-11-03, African American Emmett Jordan was chosen by 75% of voters,[8] electing him to the Council as Mayor Pro Tem, the second-highest city official.[17] Voter turnout increased from 1,898 to 2,399 voters (a 26% increase in ballots cast) from 2007 to 2009.[18]

Education

Greenbelt is served by Prince George's County Public Schools.

The city is served by four elementary schools:

  • Greenbelt Elementary School (Greenbelt)
  • Magnolia Elementary School (unincorporated Prince George's County, Lanham address)
  • Springhill Lake Elementary School (Greenbelt) and
  • Saint Hugh's Parochial School

All of Greenbelt is served by Greenbelt Middle School and Eleanor Roosevelt High School, a highly-rated magnet school; both schools are in the city.

Transportation

Two major highways pass through and have interchanges in Greenbelt: I-95 and the Baltimore-Washington Parkway. In addition, Greenbelt is served by the Greenbelt Metro Station, which is the northern terminus of the Green Line of the Washington Metro system and along the Camden line of the MARC Train, using the original Baltimore and Ohio Railroad track route between Washington and Baltimore.

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographical Names Information System: Greenbelt, Maryland
  2. ^ Halpern, Sue (May/June 2002), "New Deal City", Mother Jones, http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2002/05/new-deal-city, retrieved 2007-07-07 
  3. ^ Vick, Karl (1997-04-20), "In FDR Years, 'Sleepy Southern Town' Woke Up", The Washington Post, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/local/longterm/tours/fdr/impact.htm, retrieved 2009-11-03 
  4. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  5. ^ "Greenbelt Historic District". Maryland Historical Trust. http://www.marylandhistoricaltrust.net/nr/NRDetail.aspx?HDID=658&COUNTY=Prince%20Georges&FROM=NRCountyList.aspx?COUNTY=Prince%20Georges. Retrieved 2008-10-29. 
  6. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2000 and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2005-05-03. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  7. ^ "Greenbelt City Government". Greenbelt CityLink. City of Greenbelt, Maryland. http://www.greenbeltmd.gov/city_government/index.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-24. 
  8. ^ a b Giese, James (2009-11-05), "Jordan, Davis, City Are the Big Winners in City Council Election" (PDF), Greenbelt News Review: 1, 8, http://www.greenbeltnewsreview.com/issues/GNR20091105.pdf, retrieved 2009-11-07 
  9. ^ "ACLU Contacts City re: Reform for Fairness of Election System" (PDF), Greenbelt News Review: 1, 6, 2008-03-27, http://www.greenbeltnewsreview.com/issues/GNR20080327.pdf, retrieved 2008-08-24 
  10. ^ Jeon, Deborah A. (Legal Director, ACLU of Maryland) (2008-02-28). "Letter to the Greenbelt City Council" (PDF). http://www.aclu-md.org/Index%20content/Attachments/Greenbelt.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-24. 
  11. ^ McLaughlin, Michael (City Manager of Greenbelt) (2008-06-03). "Response to Gazette editorial" (PDF). http://www.greenbeltmd.gov/administration/Gazette_edit%20_2.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-24. 
  12. ^ Attebury, Jordan; Lyles, Jeffrey K. (December 3, 2009), "A change in complexion for Greenbelt", Washington Post, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/12/02/AR2009120202181.html, retrieved 2010-01-12 
  13. ^ McGill, Natalie (June 5, 2008), "Probe of election system begins", Maryland Gazette, http://www.gazette.net/stories/060508/greenew124118_32362.shtml, retrieved 2008-07-17 
  14. ^ Woods, Bay (2008-10-09), "NAACP and ACLU Hold Their Third Meeting in Greenbelt West" (PDF), Greenbelt News Review: 1, 6, http://www.greenbeltnewsreview.com/issues/GNR20081009.pdf, retrieved 2009-11-07 
  15. ^ White, Thomas X. (2008-08-28), "County Groups Seek to Change Manner of Voting in Greenbelt" (PDF), Greenbelt News Review: 1, 12, http://www.greenbeltnewsreview.com/issues/GNR20080828.pdf, retrieved 2008-09-11 
  16. ^ Attebury, Jordan (September 24, 2009), "Nine candidates vie for city office", Maryland Gazette, http://www.gazette.net/stories/09242009/greenew173354_32522.shtml, retrieved 2009-11-04 
  17. ^ Attebury, Jordan (November 3, 2009), "Greenbelt elects first black city councilman", Maryland Gazette, http://www.gazette.net/stories/11032009/prinnew231722_32545.shtml, retrieved 2009-11-04 
  18. ^ City of Greenbelt 2009 Election Results, November 4, 2009, http://www.greenbeltmd.gov/city_government/election/results.htm, retrieved 2009-11-04 

Further reading

  • Cathy D. Knepper (2001). Greenbelt, Maryland: A Living Legacy of the New Deal (Creating the North American Landscape). The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6490-9. 
  • Mary Lou Williamson (editor) (1987). Greenbelt: History of a New Town, 1937-1987. The Donning Company. ISBN 0-89865-607-9. 

External links


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message