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Children's and Household Tales
or
Grimm's Fairy Tales  
Grimm's Kinder- und Hausmärchen, Erster Theil (1812).cover.jpg
Frontispiece of first volume of Grimms' Kinder- und Hausmärchen (1812)
Author Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm
Country Germany
Language German
Genre(s) Fairy tales
Folklore
Publisher Various
Publication date 1812
ISBN n/a

Children's and Household Tales (German: Kinder- und Hausmärchen) is a collection of German origin fairy tales first published in 1812 by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, the Brothers Grimm. The collection is commonly known today as Grimm's Fairy Tales (German: Grimms Märchen). It popularised the fairy tales which had mostly been taken from the Italian fairy tale writers Giambattista Basile and Giovanni Francesco Straparola.

Contents

Composition

In 1803, the Grimms met the Romantics Clemens Brentano and Ludwig Achim von Arnim at the University of Marburg. These two men stirred in the brothers an interest in ancient fairy tales. In Kassel they started to collect and write down tales that they alleged had been handed down for generations. Among their sources were Dorothea Viehmann, and two Huguenot families, Hassenpflug and Wild, who introduced them to several tales of French origin. The most important sources were the works of the Italian fairy tale writers Giovanni Francesco Straparola and Giambattista Basile, on which most the fairy tales were based. The Brothers Grimm praised Giambattista Basile as the first writer to have collected fairy tales into a book only for fairy tales.

On December 20, 1812 they published the first volume of the first edition, containing 86 stories; the second volume of 70 stories followed in 1814. For the second edition, two volumes were issued in 1819 and a third in 1822, totalling 170 tales. The third edition appeared in 1837; fourth edition, 1840; fifth edition, 1843; sixth edition, 1850; seventh edition, 1857. Stories were added, and also subtracted, from one edition to the next, until the seventh held 211 tales.

The first volumes were much criticized because, although they were called "Children's Tales", they were not regarded as suitable for children, both for the scholarly information included and the subject matter.[1] Many changes through the editions – such as turning the wicked mother of the first edition in Snow White and Hansel and Gretel to a stepmother, were probably made with an eye to such suitability. They removed sexual references, such as Rapunzel's innocently asking why her dress was getting tight around her belly, and thus naively revealing her pregnancy and the prince's visits to her step mother, but, in many respects, violence, particularly when punishing villains, was increased.[2]

The tales were also criticized for being insufficiently German; this not only affected the tales they included, but their language as they changed "Fee" (fairy) to an enchantress or wise woman, every prince to a king's son, every princess to a king's daughter.[3] They also went to considerable effort to "reconstruct" the tales, merging variants (particularly fragmentary ones) and attempting to amend corruptions.[4]

They also added a prologue discussing the extent to which such tales were not, in fact, German, citing the many English and Norwegian analogues to the tales they had collected, and that the most extensive similarities were to Serbian fairy tales; they pointed to the Indian and Persian equivalents as proof that the tales came with the languages as part of the Indo-European heritage.[5]

In 1825 the Brothers published their Kleine Ausgabe or "small edition," a selection of 50 tales designed for child readers. This children's version went through ten editions between 1825 and 1858.

Influence of the book

The influence of these books was widespread. W. H. Auden praised it, during World War II, as one of the founding works of Western culture.[6] The tales themselves have been put to many uses. The Nazis praised them as folkish tales showing children with sound racial instincts seeking racially pure marriage partners, and so strongly that the Allied forces warned against them.[7] Writers about the Holocaust have combined the tales with their memoirs, as Jane Yolen in her Briar Rose.[8].

The work of the Brothers Grimm influenced other collectors, both inspiring them to collect tales and leading them to similarly believe, in a spirit of romantic nationalism, that the fairy tales of a country were particularly representative of it, to the neglect of cross-cultural influence. Among those influenced were the Russian Alexander Afanasyev, the Norwegians Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe, the English Joseph Jacobs, and Jeremiah Curtin, an American who collected Irish tales.[9] There was not always a pleased reaction to their collection. Joseph Jacobs was in part inspired by his complaint that English children did not read English fairy tales;[10] in his own words, "What Perrault began, the Grimms completed".

Three individual works of Wilhelm Grimm include Altdänische Heldenlieder, Balladen und Märchen (Old Danish Heroic Lays, Ballads, and Folktales) in 1811 Über deutsche Runen (On German Runes) in 1821. Die deutsche Heldensage (The German Heroic Legend) in 1829.

List of fairy tales

The code "KHM" stands for Kinder- und Hausmärchen, the original title. All editions from 1812 until 1857 split the stories into two volumes.

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Volume 1

Frontispiece used for the first volume of the 1840 4th edition

Volume 2

Frontispiece used for the second volume of the 1840 4th edition
  • KHM 87: The Poor Man and the Rich Man (Der Arme und der Reiche)
  • KHM 88: The Singing, Springing Lark (Das singende springende Löweneckerchen)
  • KHM 89: The Goose Girl (Die Gänsemagd)
  • KHM 90: The Young Giant (Der junge Riese)
  • KHM 91: The Gnome (Dat Erdmänneken)
  • KHM 92: The King of the Gold Mountain (Der König vom goldenen Berg)
  • KHM 93: The Raven (Die Rabe)
  • KHM 94: The Peasant's Wise Daughter (Die kluge Bauerntochter)
  • KHM 95: Old Hildrebrand (Der alte Hildebrand)
  • KHM 96: The Three Little Birds (De drei Vügelkens)
  • KHM 97: The Water of Life (Das Wasser des Lebens)
  • KHM 98: Doctor Know-all (Doktor Allwissend)
  • KHM 99: The Spirit in the Bottle (Der Geist im Glas)
  • KHM 100: The Devil's Sooty Brother (Des Teufels rußiger Bruder)
  • KHM 101: Bearskin (Bärenhäuter)
  • KHM 102: The Willow-Wren and the Bear (Der Zaunkönig und der Bär)
  • KHM 103: Sweet Porridge (Der süße Brei)
  • KHM 104: Wise Folks (Die klugen Leute)
  • KHM 105: Tales of the Paddock (Märchen von der Unke)
  • KHM 106: The Poor Miller's Boy and the Cat (Der arme Müllersbursch und das Kätzchen)
  • KHM 107: The Two Travelers (Die beiden Wanderer)
  • KHM 108: Hans My Hedgehog (Hans mein Igel)
  • KHM 109: The Shroud (Das Totenhemdchen)
  • KHM 110: The Jew Among Thorns (Der Jude im Dorn)
  • KHM 111: The Skillful Hunstman (Der gelernte Jäger)
  • KHM 112: The Flail from Heaven (Der Dreschflegel vom Himmel)
  • KHM 113: The Two Kings' Children (De beiden Künigeskinner)
  • KHM 114: The Clever Little Tailor (vom klugen Schneiderlein)
  • KHM 115: The Bright Sun Brings it to Light (Die klare Sonne bringt's an den Tag)
  • KHM 116: The Blue Light (Das blaue Licht)
  • KHM 117: The Willful Child (Das eigensinnige Kind)
  • KHM 118: The Three Army Surgeons (Die drei Feldscherer)
  • KHM 119: The Seven Swabians (Die sieben Schwaben)
  • KHM 120: The Three Apprentices (Die drei Handwerksburschen)
  • KHM 121: The King's Son Who Feared Nothing (Der Königssohn, der sich vor nichts fürchtete)
  • KHM 122: Donkey Cabbages (Der Krautesel)
  • KHM 123: The Old Woman in the Wood (Die alte im Wald)
  • KHM 124: The Three Brothers (Die drei Brüder)
  • KHM 125: The Devil and His Grandmother (Der Teufel und seine Großmutter)
  • KHM 126: Ferdinand the Faithful and Ferdinand the Unfaithful (Ferenand getrü und Ferenand ungetrü)
  • KHM 127: The Iron Stove (Der Eisenofen)
  • KHM 128: The Lazy Spinner (Die faule Spinnerin)
  • KHM 129: The Four Skillful Brothers (Die vier kunstreichen Brüder)
  • KHM 130: One-Eye, Two-Eyes, and Three-Eyes (Einäuglein, Zweiäuglein und Dreiäuglein)
  • KHM 131: Fair Katrinelje and Pif-Paf-Poltrie (Die schöne Katrinelje und Pif Paf Poltrie)
  • KHM 132: The Fox and the Horse (Der Fuchs und das Pferd)
  • KHM 133: The Shoes that were Danced to Pieces (Die zertanzten Schuhe)
  • KHM 134: The Six Servants (Die sechs Diener)
  • KHM 135: The White and the Black Bride (Die weiße und die schwarze Braut)
  • KHM 136: Iron John (Eisenhans)
  • KHM 137: The Three Black Princesses (De drei schwatten Prinzessinnen)
  • KHM 138: Knoist and his Three Sons (Knoist un sine dre Sühne)
  • KHM 139: The Maid of Brakel (Dat Mäken von Brakel)
  • KHM 140: My Household (Das Hausgesinde)
  • KHM 141: The Lambkin and the Little Fish (Das Lämmchen und das Fischchen)
  • KHM 142: Simeli Mountain (Simeliberg)
  • KHM 143: Going a Traveling (Up Reisen gohn) appeared in the 1819 edition
  • KHM 144: The Donkey (Das Eselein)
  • KHM 145: The Ungrateful Son (Der undankbare Sohn)
  • KHM 146: The Turnip (Die Rübe)
  • KHM 147: The Old Man Made Young Again (Das junggeglühte Männlein)
  • KHM 148: The Lord's Animals and the Devil's (Des Herrn und des Teufels Getier)
  • KHM 149: The Beam (Der Hahnenbalken)
  • KHM 150: The Old Beggar-Woman (Die alte Bettelfrau)
  • KHM 151: The Twelve Idle Servants (Die drei Faulen)
  • KHM 151: The Three Sluggards (Die zwölf faulen Knechte)
  • KHM 152: The Shepherd Boy (Das Hirtenbüblein)
  • KHM 153: The Star Money (Die Sterntaler)
  • KHM 154: The Stolen Farthings (Der gestohlene Heller)
  • KHM 155: Looking for a Bride (Die Brautschau)
  • KHM 156: The Hurds (Die Schlickerlinge)
  • KHM 157: The Sparrow and his Four Children (Der Sperling und seine vier Kinder)
  • KHM 158: The Story of Schlauraffen Land (Das Märchen vom Schlaraffenland)
  • KHM 159: The Ditmars Tale of Wonders (Das dietmarsische Lügenmärchen)
  • KHM 160: A Riddling Tale (Rätselmärchen)
  • KHM 161: Snow-White and Rose-Red (Schneeweißchen und Rosenrot)
  • KHM 162: The Wise Servant (Der kluge Knecht)
  • KHM 163: The Glass Coffin (Der gläserne Sarg)
  • KHM 164: Lazy Henry (Der faule Heinz)
  • KHM 165: The Griffin (Der Vogel Greif)
  • KHM 166: Strong Hans (Der starke Hans)
  • KHM 167: The Peasant in Heaven (Das Bürli im Himmel)
  • KHM 168: Lean Lisa (Die hagere Liese)
  • KHM 169: The Hut in the Forest (Das Waldhaus)
  • KHM 170: Sharing Joy and Sorrow (Lieb und Leid teilen)
  • KHM 171: The Willow-Worn (Der Zaunkönig)
  • KHM 172: The Sole (Die Scholle)
  • KHM 173: The Bittern and the Hoopoe (Rohrdommel und Wiedehopf)
  • KHM 174: The Owl (Die Eule)
  • KHM 175: The Moon (Der Mond)
  • KHM 176: The Duration of life (Die Lebenszeit)
  • KHM 177: Death's Messengers (Die Boten des Todes)
  • KHM 178: Master Pfreim (Meister Pfriem)
  • KHM 179: The Goose-Girl at the Well (Die Gänsehirtin am Brunnen)
  • KHM 180: Eve's Various Children (Die ungleichen Kinder Evas)
  • KHM 181: The Nixie of the Mill-Pond (Die Nixe im Teich)
  • KHM 182: The Little Folk's Presents (Die Geschenke des kleinen Volkes)
  • KHM 183: The Giant and the Tailor (Der Riese und der Schneider)
  • KHM 184: The Nail (Der Nagel)
  • KHM 185: The Poor Boy in the Grave (Der arme Junge im Grab)
  • KHM 186: The True Bride (Die wahre Braut)
  • KHM 187: The Hare and the Hedgehog (Der Hase und der Igel)
  • KHM 188: Spindle, Shuttle, and Needle (Spindel, Weberschiffchen und Nadel)
  • KHM 189: The Peasant and the Devil (Der Bauer und der Teufel)
  • KHM 190: The Crumbs on the Table (Die Brosamen auf dem Tisch)
  • KHM 191: The Sea-Hare (Das Meerhäschen)
  • KHM 192: The Master Thief (Der Meisterdieb)
  • KHM 193: The Drummer (Der Trommler)
  • KHM 194: The Ear of Corn (Die Kornähre)
  • KHM 195: The Grave-Mound (Der Grabhügel)
  • KHM 196: Old Rinkrank (Oll Rinkrank)
  • KHM 197: The Crystal Ball (Die Kristallkugel)
  • KHM 198: Maid Maleen (Jungfrau Maleen)
  • KHM 199: The Boots of Buffalo Leather (Der Stiefel von Büffelleder)
  • KHM 200: The Golden Key (Der goldene Schlüssel)

The children's legends (Kinder-legende) first appeared in the G. Reimer 1819 edition at the end of volume 2).

  • KHM 201: Saint Joseph in the Forest (Der heilige Joseph im Walde)
  • KHM 202: The Twelve Apostles (Die zwölf Apostel)
  • KHM 203: The Rose (Die Rose)
  • KHM 204: Poverty and Humility Lead to Heaven (Armut und Demut führen zum Himmel)
  • KHM 205: God's Food (Gottes Speise)
  • KHM 206: The Three Green Twigs (Die drei grünen Zweige)
  • KHM 207: The Blessed Virgin's Little Glass (Muttergottesgläschen) or Our Lady's Little Glass
  • KHM 208: The Little Old Lady (Das alte Mütterchen) or The Aged Mother
  • KHM 209: The Heavenly Marriage (Die himmlische Hochzeit) or The Heavenly Wedding
  • KHM 210: The Hazel Branch (Die Haselrute)

Later additions

  • Von der Nachtigall und der Blindschleiche
  • Die Hand mit dem Messer
  • Wie Kinder Schlachtens miteinander gespielt haben
  • Der Tod und der Gänsehirt
  • Der gestiefelte Kater
  • Von der Serviette, dem Tornister, dem Kanonenhütlein und dem Horn
  • Die wunderliche Gasterei
  • Hans Dumm
  • Blaubart
  • Hurleburlebutz
  • Der Okerlo
  • Prinzessin Mäusehaut
  • Das Birnli will nit fallen
  • Das Mordschloß
  • Vom Schreiner und Drechsler
  • Die drei Schwestern
  • Schneeblume (Fragment)
  • Vom Prinz Johannes (Fragment)
  • Der gute Lappen (Fragment)
  • Die treuen Tiere
  • Die Krähen
  • Der Faule und der Fleißige
  • Der Löwe und der Frosch
  • Der Soldat und der Schreiner
  • De wilde Mann
  • Die heilige Frau Kummernis
  • Das Unglück
  • Die Erbsenprobe
  • Der Räuber und seine Söhne

See also

References

  1. ^ Maria Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p15-17, ISBN 0-691-06722-8
  2. ^ A. S. Byatt, "Introduction" p. xlii-iv, Maria Tatar, ed. The Annotated Brothers Grimm, ISBN 0-393-05848-4
  3. ^ Maria Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p31, ISBN 0-691-06722-8
  4. ^ Jack Zipes, The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World, p 31-2, ISBN 0-312-29380-1
  5. ^ Donald Ward, "New Misconceptions about Old Folktales" p 98 James M. McGlathery, ed., The Brothers Grimm and Folktale, ISBN 0-252-01549-5
  6. ^ A. S. Byatt, "Introduction" p. xxx, Maria Tatar, ed. The Annotated Brothers Grimm, ISBN 0-393-05848-4
  7. ^ A. S. Byatt, "-xxxix, Maria Tatar, ed. The Annotated Brothers Grimm, ISBN 0-393-05848-4
  8. ^ A. S. Byatt, "Introduction" p. xlvi, Maria Tatar, ed. The Annotated Brothers Grimm, ISBN 0-393-05848-4
  9. ^ Jack Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p 846, ISBN 0-393-97636-X
  10. ^ Maria Tatar, p 345-5, The Annotated Classic Fairy Tales, ISBN 0-393-05163-3
  • Grimm Brothers. The Complete Grimm's Fairy Tales. New York: Pantheon Books, 1944. ISBN 0-394-49414-6. (in English, based on Margarate Hunt's translation)

External links

  • Grimm's fairy tales The complete collection of Grimm's Household Tales along with alternative translations.
  • Grimm's Fairy Tales with original illustration at HolyeBooks.org
  • Wikisource-logo.svg German Wikisource has original text related to this article: extensive table of each story's occurrence

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Grimm's Fairy Tales
by Brothers Grimm, translated by Edgar Taylor and Marian Edwardes
The world famous collection of German (and French) fairy tales commonly known as Grimm's Fairy Tales was first published by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in 1812, and a second volume followed in 1814.— Excerpted from Grimm's Fairy Tales on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The text is based on translations from the Grimms' "Kinder und Hausmärchen" by Edgar Taylor (1793 - 1839) and Marian Edwardes.
Speaker Icon.svg one or more chapters are available in a spoken word format.

Fairy Tales


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