Guidance Counselor: Wikis

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A school counselor is a counselor and educator who works in elementary, middle, and high schools to provide academic, career, college readiness, and personal/social competencies to all students through advocacy, leadership, systemic change, and teaming and collaborating with other stakeholders as part of a comprehensive developmental school counseling program. Older, dated terms for the profession were "guidance counselor" or "educational counselor" but "School Counselor" is preferred due to professional school counselors' advocating for every child's academic, career, and personal/social success in every elementary, middle, and high school (ASCA, 2005) [1]. In the Americas, Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Pacific, the terms school counsellor, school guidance counsellor, and guidance teacher are also used with the traditional emphasis career development [2]. Countries vary in how a school counseling program and school counseling program services are provided based on economics (funding for schools and school counseling programs), social capital (independent versus public schools), and School Counselor certification and credentialing movements in Education departments, professional associations, and national and local legislation.[2]. The major accreditation body for Counselor Education/School Counseling programs is the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP), which provides international program accreditation in Counselor Education disciplines including school counseling [3].

Worldwide, there are large achievement, opportunity, funding, and attainment gaps for who has access to a quality elementary, middle, and high school education and can then pursue additional educational resources including college. In some countries, school counseling, frequently career education/development/counseling, is provided by educational specialists (for example, Botswana, China, Finland, Israel, Malta, Nigeria, Romania, Taiwan, Turkey, United States). In other cases, school counseling is provided by classroom teachers who either have such duties added to their typical teaching load or teach only a limited load that also includes school counseling activities (for example- India, Japan, Mexico, South Korea, Zambia).[2]. There are groups in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe that have provided international counseling conferences but most have not had an exclusive school counseling focus. The IAEVG focus is primarily on career development and has some international school counseling foci in publications and conferences [2].

Contents

School counseling history: Botswana, Canada, China, Finland, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Korea, Lebanon, Malaysia, Nigeria, Philippines, Taiwan, USA

Some elementary school counselors use books and other media to facilitate the counseling process.

The history of school counseling varies on how countries and schools provide academic, career, college readiness, and personal/social skills and competencies to elementary, middle, and high school children and adolescents based on economic and social capital resources in a school counseling program [4].[5].

In Botswana,

In Canada, most provinces [6] have adapted K-12 comprehensive school counseling programs similar to those initiated by [7] and adapted in the ASCA National Model [8]. Various school counsellors reported in 2004 at the Canadian Counseling Association (CCA) conference in Winnipeg on issues such as budget cuts, lack of clarity about school counsellor roles, high student to school counselor ratios, especially in elementary schools, and how using a comprehensive school cousneling model helped to clarify school counselor roles with teachers and administrators and strengthen the profession [9].

In China,[10] discussed the main influences on school counseling as being Chinese philosophers Confucius and Lao-Tsu, who provided early models of child and adult development [11] that later influenced the work of Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers [12]. China also developed mental testing over 3,000 years ago, which was used for civil service examinations initially and eventually adopted by the British in the mid-1800s [13] and later in the USA. Currently only 15% of high school students are admitted to college in China, so the entrance exams are fiercely competitive and those who do enter university graduate at a rate of 99% [14]. Much pressure is put on children and adolescents to study and be able to attend college and this pressure is a central school counseling focus in China. An additional stressor is that there are not enough places for students to attend college, and over 1/3 of college graduates cannot find jobs [15], so career and employment counseling and development are central in school counseling. There is a strong stigma related to personal or emotional problems and even though most universities and many schools now have counselors, there is a strong reluctance of many students to seek counseling for issues such as anxiety and depression. There is no national system of certifying school counselors. Most are trained in Western-developed cognitive methods including REBT, Rogerian, Family Systems, Behavior Modification, and Object Relations [16] and also recommend Chinese methods such as qi-gong (deep breathing), acupuncture, and music therapy [17].[10] shared that Chinese school counselors always work within a traditional Chinese world view of a community and family-based system that lessens the primacy of focus on the individual. In Hong Kong, Hui (2000) discussed work on moving toward comprehensive whole-school counseling programs and away from a remediation-style model [18].

In Finland, specific legislation has been passed in terms of the school counseling system. The Basic Education Act of 1998 states that every student must receive school counseling services. All Finnish school counselors must have a teaching certificate as well as master's degree in a specific subject and a specialized certificate in school counseling.

In Ireland, school counseling began in County Dublin in the 1960s and went countrywide in the 1970s. However, legislation in the early 1980s severely curtailed the movement due to budget constraints. The main organization for school counseling profession is the IGE or Institute of Guidance Counselors, which has a code of ethics [19].

In Israel, a 2005 study by Erhard & Harel of 600 elementary, middle, and high school counselors found that a third of school counselors were delivering primarily traditional individual counseling services, about a third were delivering preventive classroom counseling curriculum lessons, and a third were delivering both individual counseling services and school counseling curriculum lessons in a more balanced or comprehensive developmental school counseling program; school counselor roles varied due to three elements: the school counselor's personal preferences, school level, and the principal's expectations.[20 ] Erhard & Harel stated that the profession in Israel, like many other countries, is transforming from various marginal and ancillary services to a comprensive school counseling approach integral in the total school's education program.[20 ].

In Japan, school counseling is a very recent phenomenon with school counselors being introduced only in the mid-1990s and then often only part-time with a strong emphasis on assisting with behavioral issues [21].

In Korea, school counselors must teach a subject besides counseling, and not all school counselors are appointed to counseling positions, even though Korean law has required school counselors in all middle and high schools [22].

In Lebanon,

In Malaysia,

In Malta, school counseling services were begun in 1968 within the Department of Education based on recommendations from a UNESCO consultant and the titles: Education Officer, School Counsellor, and Guidance Teacher and through the 1990s they included school counselor positions in primary and trade schools in addition to secondary schools. Guidance teachers are mandated at a 1:300 teacher to student ratio.

In Nigeria, school counseling began in 1959 and it exists in some high schools but not all and little at the elementary school level. Where there are federally funded secondary schools, there are some professionally trained school counselors but in many cases there are only teachers who function as career masters/mistresses. School counselors often have teaching and other responsibilities that take time away from their school counseling tasks. The Counseling Association of Nigeria (CASSON) was formed in 1976 to promote the profession, but there is not yet a code of ethics. However, a certification/licensure board has been formed. Aluede, Adomeh, & Afen-Akpaida (2004) discussed the overreliance on textbooks from the USA and the need for school counselors in Nigeria to take a whole-school approach and lessen the focus on individual approaches and honor the traditional African world view that values the family and community's roles in decision-making as a paramount for effective decision-making in schools.[23].

In the Philippines, the Congress of the Philippines passed the Guidance and Counseling Act of 2004, with a very specific focus Professional Practice, Ethics, National Certification, and the creation of a Regulatory Body, and specialists in school counseling are subject to this law [24].

In Romania,

In Taiwan, school counseling traditionally was done by "guidance teachers." Recent advocacy on the part of the Chinese Guidance and Counseling Association pushed for licensure for school counselors in Taiwan's public schools. Prior to this time, the focus had been primarily on individual and group counseling with a focus on play therapy,[25] career counseling and development [26], and stress related to national university examinations.

In the United States, the school counseling profession began with the vocational guidance movement at the beginning of the 20th century, now known as career development. Jesse B. Davis was the first to provide a systematic school guidance program. In 1907, he became the principal of a high school and encouraged the school English teachers to use compositions and lessons to relate career interests, develop character, and avoid behavioral problems. Many others during this time did the same. For example, in 1908, Frank Parsons, "Father of Vocational Guidance" established the Bureau of Vocational Guidance to assist young people in making the transition from school to work. From the 1920s to the 1930s, school counseling and guidance grew because of the rise of progressive education in schools. This movement emphasized personal, social, moral development. Many schools reacted to this movement as anti-educational, saying that schools should teach only the fundamentals of education. This, combined with the economic hardship of the Great Depression, led to a decline in school counseling and guidance. In the 1940s, psychologists and counselors selected, recruited, and trained military personnel. This propelled the counseling movement in schools by providing ways to test students and meet their needs. Schools accepted these military tests openly. Also, Carl Rogers' emphasis on helping relationships during this time influenced the profession of school counseling. In the 1950s the government established the Guidance and Personnel Services Section in the Division of State and Local School Systems. In 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik I. Out of concern that the Russians were winning the space race and that there were not enough scientists and mathematicians, the government passed the National Defense Education Act, spurring growth in vocational guidance through larger funding. In the 1960s, new legislation and professional developments refined the profession (Schmidt[27], 2003).

The 1960s was also a time of great federal funding for land grant colleges and universities in establishing Counselor Education programs [28]. School counseling shifted from an exclusive focus on career development to add personal and social issues paralleling the rise of social justice and civil rights movements. In the early 1970s, Dr. Norm Gysbers began shifting the profession from school counselors as solitary professionals into having a comprehensive developmental school counseling program for all students K-12 [8]. He and his colleagues' research evidenced strong correlations between fully implemented school counseling programs and student academic success; a critical part of the evidence base for the profession based on their work in the state of Missouri [29].

But school counseling in the 1980s and early 1990s was absent from educational reform efforts [30]. The profession was facing irrelevance as the standards-based educational movement gained strength with little evidence of systemic effectiveness for school counselors. In response,[31] consulted with elementary, middle, and high school counselors and created the ASCA National Standards for School Counseling with three core domains (Academic, Career, Personal/Social), nine standards, and specific competencies and indicators for K-12 students [8]. A year later, the first systemic meta-analysis of school counseling was published and gave a wake-up call to focus on outcome research in academic, career, and personal/social domains [32].

Also in the late 1990s, a former mathematics teacher, school counselor, and administrator, Pat Martin, was hired by The Education Trust [33] to focus the school counseling profession on closing the achievement gap that harmed children and adolescents of color, poor and working class children and adolescents, bilingual children and adolescents and children and adolescents with disabilities. Martin developed focus groups of K-12 students, parents, guardians, teachers, building leaders, and superintendents, and interviewed professors of School Counselor Education. She hired a school counselor educator from Oregon State University, Dr. Reese House, and they co-created what emerged in 2003 as the National Center for Transforming School Counseling (NCTSC) [34].

The NCTSC focused on both changing School Counselor Education at the graduate level and changing school counselor practice in local districts to teach school counselors how to prevent, intervene with, and close achievement and opportunity gaps. In the focus groups, they found what Hart & Jacobi [35] had indicated—-too many school counselors were gatekeepers for the status quo instead of advocates for the academic success of every child and adolescent. Too many school counselors used inequitable practices, supported inequitable school policies, and were unwilling to change. This professional behavior kept many students from nondominant backgrounds (ie, students of color, poor and working class students, students with disabilities, and bilingual students) from getting the rigorous coursework and academic, career, and college readiness skills needed to successfully graduate from high school and pursue post-secondary options including college. They funded six $500,000 grants for six different Counselor Education/School Counseling programs, with a special focus on rural and urban settings, to transform their school counseling programs to include a focus on teaching school counselor candidates advocacy, leadership, teaming and collaboration, equity assessment using data, and culturally competent program counseling and coordination in 1998 (Indiana State University, University of Georgia, University of West Georgia, University of California-Northridge, University of North Florida, and Lewis & Clark University) and then over 25 other Counselor Education/School Counseling programs joined as companion institutions in the following decade [33]. By 2008, NCTSC consultants had worked in over 100 school districts and major cities and rural areas to transform the work of school counselors.

In 2002, the American School Counselor Association released the ASCA National Model: A framework for school counseling programs, written by Dr. Trish Hatch and Dr. Judy Bowers, comprising key school counseling components into one model—the work of Drs. Norm Gysbers, Curly & Sharon Johnson, Robert Myrick, Carol Dahir & Cheri Campbell's ASCA National Standards, and the skill-based focus for closing gaps from the Education Trust's Pat Martin and Dr. Reese House into one document [8]. In 2003, the Center for School Counseling Outcome Research [36 ] was developed as a clearinghouse for evidence-based practice with regular research briefs disseminated and original research projects developed and implemented with founding director Dr. Jay Carey. One of the research fellows, Dr. Tim Poynton, developed the EZAnalyze [37] software program for all school counselors to use as free-ware to assist in using data-based interventions and decision-making.

In 2004, the ASCA Ethical Standards for School Counselors was revised to focus on issues of equity, closing gaps, and ensuring all K-12 students received access to a school counseling program [38]. Also in 2004, Pat Martin moved to the College Board and hired School Counselor Educator Dr. Vivian Lee. They developed an equity-focused entity on school counselors' role in college counseling, the National Office for School Counselor Advocacy (NOSCA) [39]. NOSCA has developed research scholarships for research on college counseling by K-12 school counselors and how it is taught in School Counselor Education programs. On January 1, 2006, the USA Congress declared the first week of February National School Counseling Week, which grew out of advocacy from ASCA members.

In 2008, The first NOSCA study was released by Dr. Jay Carey and colleagues focused on innovations in selected College Board "Inspiration Award" schools where school counselors collaborated inside and outside their schools for high college-going rates and strong college-going cultures in schools with large numbers of students of nondominant backgrounds [40]. In 2008, ASCA released School Counseling Competencies focused on assisting school counseling programs to effectively implement the ASCA Model [38]. Also in 2008, in support of the ASCA Model and new vision[41] school counseling, Dr. Rita Schellenberg introduced standards blending as a crosswalking approach to align school counseling with the academic achievement mission of schools as well as two data-based reporting systems, SCORE and SCOPE. [42] [43][44].

In 2009, NOSCA released a national study under the leadership of Dr. Vicki Brooks-McNamara addressing the school counselor/principal connection with specific recommendations for best practices in collaborative leadership in school counseling. In 2010, the Center for Excellence in School Counseling and Leadership (CESCAL) co-sponsored the first school counseling conference devoted to the needs of lesbian, bisexual, gay, and transgendered students in San Diego, California,[45].

The history of the school counseling profession internationally shifts as more parents, guardians, teachers, building and district leaders, and government officials support the changes in roles, expectations, and skills of current and future school counselor candidates and as the evidence base and equity-building skills of school counselors develop school counseling programs delivering academic, career, college, and personal/social competencies for every child and adolescent. Both the IAEVG and the Vanguard of Counsellors have been active in promoting school counseling internationally.[2].

School counselor roles, school counseling program framework, professional associations, and ethics

Professional School Counselors ideally implement a data-driven, evidence-based [36 ] comprehensive school counseling program that promotes and enhances student achievement, career and college readiness, and personal and social competencies at the elementary, middle, and high school levels [8]. A fully-implemented school counseling program ideally delivers academic, career, college readiness, and personal/social competencies to every student K-12—just as the district's mathematics program is for 100% of the students. Professional School Counselors, in most U.S. states, usually have a Master's degree in school counseling from a Counselor Education graduate program. In Canada, they must be licensed teachers with additional school counseling training and focus on academic, career, and personal/social issues. China requires at least three years of college experience. In Japan, school counselors were added in the mid-1990s, but only on a very part-time basis and primarily focused on behavioral issues. In Taiwan, they are often teachers with recent legislation requiring school counseling licensure focused on individual and group counseling related to academic, career, and personal issues. In Korea, school counselors are mandated in middle and high schools.

They are employed in elementary, middle, and high schools and in district supervisory, counselor education faculty positions (usually with an earned Ph.D. in Counselor Education in the USA or related graduate doctorates abroad) and post-secondary settings doing academic, career, college readiness, and personal/social counseling, consultation, and program coordination. Their work is varied, with attention focused on developmental stages of student growth, including the needs, tasks, and student interests related to those stages(Schmidt[27], 2003).

Professional School Counselors meet the needs of student in three basic domains: academic development, career development, and personal/social development (Dahir & Campbell, 1997; ASCA, 2005) with an increasing emphasis on college readiness [46]. Knowledge, understanding and skill in these domains are developed through classroom instruction, appraisal, consultation, counseling, coordination, and collaboration. For example, in appraisal, school counselors may use a variety of personality and career assessment methods (such as the [47] or [48] (based on the [49]) to help students explore career and college needs and interests.

Delivery methods include academic, career, college and personal/social planning for every student; developmental classroom lessons for all students; and individual and group counseling for some students who need more intensive assistance beyond classroom lessons or planning/advising sessions. Classroom lessons and the school counseling curriculum are designed to be preventive in nature and include academic, career, college, and personal/social skills and competencies including self-management and self-monitoring skills [30]. The Responsive Services component of the Professional School Counselor's role provides individual and/or small group counseling for students. For example, if a student's behavior is interfering with his or her achievement, the Professional school counselor will observe that student in a class, provide consultation to teachers and other personnel to develop (with the student) a plan to address the behavioral issue(s), and then work together (collaboration) to implement the plan. They also help by providing consultation services to family members such as college readiness, career development, parenting skills, study skills, child and adolescent development, and help with school-home transitions.

Additionally, professional school counselors may lead classroom lessons on a variety of topics within the three domains such as personal/social issues relative to student needs, or establish groups to address common issues among students, such as divorce or death. The topics of character education, diversity and multiculturalism (Portman, 2009), and school safety are important areas of focus for school counselors. Often counselors will coordinate outside groups that wish to help with student needs such as academics, or coordinate a state program that teaches about child abuse or drugs, through on-stage drama (Schmidt[27], 2003)

The ASCA National Model [8] operationalizes much of the above into four main areas of focus: Foundation (a written school counseling program mission statement, a beliefs and philosophy statement, and a focus on the ASCA standards and competencies and how they are implemented for every student; Delivery System (how lessons and individual and group counseling are delivered); Management System (use of calendars, time, building leader-school counselor role agreements, creation of action plans); and Accountability System (use of a SC program audit, results reports, and School Counselor Evaluations based on 13 key competencies. The model is implemented using key skills from the Education Trust's Transforming School Counseling Initiative: Advocacy, Leadership, Teaming and Collaboration, and Systemic Change [33].

School Counselors around the world are affiliated with national and regional school counseling associations including: Asociacion Argentina de Counselors (AAC-Argentina), American Counseling Association (ACA-USA), African Counseling Association (AfCA), American School Counselor Association (ASCA-USA), Associacao Portuguesa de Psicoterapia centrada na Pessoa e de Counselling (APPCPC-Portugal), Australian Guidance and Counselling Association (AGCA), British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP-UK), Canadian Counseling Association (CCA)/Association Canadienne de Counseling (ACC), Center for Excellence in School Counseling and Leadership(CESCaL) (USA), Center for School Counseling Outcome Research (CSCOR-USA) Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP-USA and international), Counselling Children and Young People (BACP affiliate, UK), Counseling & Psychotherapy in Scotland (COSCA), Cypriot Association of School Guidance Counsellors (OELMEK), European Counseling Association (ECA), France Ministry of Education, Federacion Espanola de Orientacion y Psicopedagogia (FEOP-Spain), Department of Education-Malta, Hellenic Society of Counselling and Guidance (HESCOG-Greece), Hong Kong Association of Guidance Masters and Career Masters (HKAGMCM), Institute of Guidance Counselors (IGC) (Ireland), International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance (IAEVG)/Association Internationale d'Orientation Scolaire et Professionnelle (AIOSP)/ Internationale Vereinigung für Schul- und Berufsberatung (IVSBB)/Asociación Internacional para la Orientación Educativa y Profesional(AIOEP), International Baccalaureate (IB), International Vanguard of Counsellors (IVC), Kenya Association of Professional Counselors (KAPC), National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC, USA), National Center for Transforming School Counseling (NCTSC) at The Education Trust (USA), National Office for School Counselor Advocacy (NOSCA) at The College Board (USA), New Zealand Association of Counsellors/Te Roopu Kaiwhiriwhiri o Aotearoa (NZAC), Counseling Association of Nigeria (CASSON), Philippine Guidance and Counseling Association (PGCA), Overseas Association of College Admissions Counselors (OACAC, an affiliate of National Association of College Admissions Counselors-USA), Singapore Association for Counseling (SAC), and the Taiwan Guidance and Counseling Association (TGCA) [50].

School Counselors are also expected to follow a professional code of ethics in many countries. For example, In the USA, they are the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) Code of Ethics [38] and the American Counseling Association (ACA) Code of Ethics [51]. Additional codes of ethics for other countries may be found in the reference links for the international school counseling professional associations above.

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Elementary school counseling

Elementary professional school counselors following best practices provide developmental school counseling curriculum lessons [30] on academic, career, college readiness, and personal and social competencies, advising and academic/career/college readiness planning to all students, and individual and group counseling for some students and their families to meet the developmental needs of young children K-6 [8]. Increased emphasis is starting to be placed on college readiness counseling at the elementary school level as more school counseling programs move to evidence-based work with data and specific results [52]. Research has shown that school counseling programs help to close achievement and opportunity gaps in terms of which students have access to school counseling programs and early college readiness activities and which students do not [53 ]. To facilitate the school counseling process, school counselors use a variety of theories and techniques including developmental, cognitive-behavioral, person-centered (Rogerian) listening and influencing skills, systemic, family, multicultural [54], narrative, and play therapy[55].[56] released a research study showing the effectiveness of elementary school counseling programs in Washington state.

Middle school counseling

In middle school counseling, professional school counselors following best practices provide developmental school counseling curriculum lessons [30] on academic, career, college readiness, and personal and social competencies, advising and academic/career/college readiness planning to all students and individual and group counseling for some students and their families to meet the developmental needs of late childhood and early adolescence according to sources such as the ASCA National Model [8]. Increasing emphasis has been placed on college readiness counseling at the middle school level as more school counseling programs move to evidenced-base work with data and specific results [52] that show how school counseling programs help to close achievement and opportunity gaps in terms of which students have access to school counseling programs and early college readiness activities and which students do not [53 ].

Middle School College Readiness curricula have been developed by The College Board that can be used to assist students and their families in this process. To facilitate the school counseling process, school counselors use a variety of theories and techniques including developmental, cognitive-behavioral, person-centered (Rogerian) listening and influencing skills, systemic, family, multicultural [54], narrative, and play therapy. Transitional issues to ensure successful transitions to high school are a key area including career exploration and assessment with seventh and eighth grade students [57]. Sink, Akos, Turnbull, & Mvududu released a study in 2008 confirming the effectiveness of middle school comprehensive school counseling programs in Washington state [58].

High school counseling

In high school, professional school counselors following best practices provide developmental school counseling curriculum lessons [30] on academic, career, college readiness, and personal and social competencies, advising and academic/career/college readiness planning to all students and individual and group counseling for some students to meet the developmental needs of adolescents according to sources such as the ASCA National Model [8]. Increasing emphasis is being placed on college readiness counseling at the early high school level as more school counseling programs move to evidence-based work with data and specific results [52] that show how school counseling programs help to close achievement and opportunity gaps ensuring all students have access to school counseling programs and early college readiness activities [59]. High School College Readiness curricula have been developed by The College Board to assist this process.

To facilitate school counseling, school counselors use varied theories and techniques including developmental, cognitive-behavioral, person-centered (Rogerian) listening and influencing skills, systemic, family, multicultural [54], narrative, and play therapy. Transitional issues to ensure successful transitions to college, other post-secondary educational options, and careers are a key area.[60] The high school counselor helps students and their families prepare for rigorous post-secondary education and/or training options (e.g. college, trade school) by engaging students and their families in finding accurate and meaningful information on entrance requirements, financial aid, recommendation letters, test-preparation and so forth. Professional School Counselors at the high school level spend much of their time helping students and their families monitor their progress toward graduation and being adequately prepared for post-secondary options including college.[61] Some students now turn to private college admissions counselors specialized in college admissions but the ethics of so doing is open to great debate in terms of who has access to this funding and there is little research-based evidence of effectiveness on the part of these outside parties. The fees for these college admissions counselors can be as high as $30,000.[62]

A framework for Professional School Counselor responsibilities and roles is outlined in the ASCA National Model [8].[63] study showed correlational evidence of the effectiveness of fully implemented school counseling programs on high school students' academic success. Carey et al.'s 2008 study showed specific best practices from school counselors raising college-going rates within a strong college-going environment in multiple USA-based high schools with large numbers of students of nondominant cultural identities.

Education and professional credentials including certification for school counselors

The education of school counselors (school counsellors) around the world varies greatly based on the laws and cultures of specific countries and the historical influences of their respective educational and credentialing systems and professional identities related to who delivers academic, career, college readiness, and personal/social information, advising, curriculum, and counseling and related services.[2].

In Canada, school counsellors must be certified teachers with additional school counseling training.

In China, there is no national certification or licensure system for school counselors.

Korea requires school counselors in all middle and high schools [64].

In the Philippines, school counselors must be licensed with a master's degree in counseling [65]

Taiwan instituted school counselor licensure for public schools (2006) through advocacy from the [66]

In the United States, a professional School Counselor is a certified educator with a master's degree in school counseling (usually housed in a Counselor Education graduate program) with specific school counseling graduate training including unique qualifications and skills to address all students’ academic, career, college readiness and personal/social needs through the use of school counseling programs that deliver specific measurable competencies.

About half of all Counselor Education programs that offer school counseling are accredited by the Council on the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) and all are in the USA with one in Canada and one under review in Mexico as of 2008. CACREP maintains a current list of accredited programs and programs in the accreditation process on their website [67]. CACREP desires to accredit more international counseling university programs [67].

According to CACREP, an accredited school counseling program offers specific coursework in Professional Identity and Ethics, Human Development, Counseling Theories, Group Work, Career Counseling, Multicultural/Diversity Counseling, Assessment, Research and Program Evaluation, and Clinical Coursework in a 100-hour practicum under the supervision of both a school counseling faculty member and a certified school counselor site supervisor (master's degree in school counseling or higher, and appropriate certification) and a 600-hour internship under the supervision of both a school counseling faculty member and a certified school counselor site supervisor (master's degree in school counseling or higher, and appropriate certification) (CACREP[68], 2001).

CACREP released the revision of the Standards for 2009 in 2008, and made a major change moving toward performance-based accreditation including evidence of school counselor candidate learning. In addition, in the 2009 standards, CACREP greatly tightened and enhanced the school counseling standards with specific evidence needed of how school counseling students receive education in foundations; counseling prevention and intervention; diversity and advocacy; assessment; research and evaluation; academic development; collaboration and consultation; and leadership in K-12 school counseling contexts.[69].

Certification practices for school counselors vary around the world. School Counselors in the United States may opt for national certification through two different boards. The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) requires a two-to-three year process of performance based assessment, and demonstrate (in writing) content knowledge in human growth/development, diverse populations, school counseling programs, theories, data, and change and collaboration [70]. As of February, 2005, 30 states offer financial incentives for this certification.

Also based in the USA, The National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC) requires passing the National Certified School Counselor Examination (NCSC), which includes 40 multiple choice questions and seven simulated cases which assess school counselors' abilities to make critical decisions on the spot. Additionally, a master's degree and three years of supervised experience are required. NBPTS also requires three years of experience, however a master's degree is not required, but only state certification (41 of 50 require a master's degree). At least four states offer financial incentives for the NCSC certification (McLeod[71], 2005). Both certifications have benefits and costs that a school counselor would want to consider for national certification[72]. NBCC has credentials counselors in the United States [73] and internationally [74] . For more information, see external links.

Job growth and earnings for school counselors

The rate of job growth and earnings for school counselors depends greatly on the country that one is employed in and whether the school is funded publicly or privately. School Counselors working in international schools or "American" schools around the world may find similar work environments and expectations to the USA. School counselor pay varies based on the level of school counselor or school counselor roles, identity, expectations, and legal and certification requirements and expectations of each country. According to the Occupational Outlook Handbook[75] (OOH) the median salary for school counselors in the USA in May 2006 was (USD) $53,750. In Australia, a survey by the Australian Guidance and Counseling Association found that school counselor salary ranged from (AUD) the high 50,000s to the mid 80,000s. Also, school counselors can earn additional money working summer months in school or agency counseling positions. Among all counseling specialty areas, public elementary, middle and high school counselors are currently (2009) paid the highest salary on average of all counselors. Overall employment for counselors is average, especially in rural and urban areas. Budget cuts, however, have affected placement of public school counselors in Canada, Ireland and the United States in recent years. In the United States, rural areas and urban areas traditionally have been under-served by school counselors in public schools due to both funding shortages and often a lack of best practice models. With the advent of No Child Left Behind legislation in the USA and a mandate for school counselors to be working with data and showing evidence-based practice, school counselors able to show and share results in assisting to close gaps are in the best position to argue for increased school counseling resources and positions for their programs [8]. For more specifics, see international external links below.

References

  1. ^ ASCA/Hatch, T, & Bowers, J. (2005). The ASCA National Model: A framework for school counseling programs. Alexandria, VA: Author.
  2. ^ a b c d e f www.iaevg.org; www.vanguardofcounsellors.org.
  3. ^ (www.cacrep.org).
  4. ^ ASCA, 2005; www.iaevg.org; www.vanguardofcounsellors.org
  5. ^ www.schoolcounselor.org;www.iaevg.org; www.vanguardofcounsellors.org.
  6. ^ (Alberta Education, Special Education Branch, 1995; Nova Scotia Department of Education, 2002)
  7. ^ Gysbers et al
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k (ASCA, 2005)
  9. ^ (http://74.125.47.132/search?q=cache:hsG3Kuw5704J:local.nstu.ca/web/NSSCA%3Fservice%3Dfile/307+school+counselling+in+canada&cd=5&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client=firefox-a)
  10. ^ a b Thomason & Qiong (2007)
  11. ^ (Higgins & Zheng, 2002)
  12. ^ (Jenni, 1999)
  13. ^ (Zhang, 1988)
  14. ^ (Jiang, 2007)
  15. ^ (Hou & Zhang, 2007)
  16. ^ (Thomason & Qiong, 2007)
  17. ^ (Zhiyong, 2006)
  18. ^ Hui,2000
  19. ^ http://www.igc.ie/about-us/history
  20. ^ a b Erhard & Harel, 2005
  21. ^ (Kurosawa, 2000; Murayama, 2000; Okamoto, 2002).
  22. ^ Kim, Kay-Hyon, 2006
  23. ^ Aluede, Adomeh, & Afen-Akpaida, 2004
  24. ^ http://www.ops.gov.ph/records/ra_no9258.htm
  25. ^ (Shen & Herr, 2003)
  26. ^ (Chang, 2002)
  27. ^ a b c Schmidt, J.J. (2003) Counseling in schools: Essential services and comprehensive programs. 4th ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
  28. ^ www.aces.org
  29. ^ (Lapan, Gysbers, & Sun, 1997)
  30. ^ a b c d e (Stone & Dahir, 2006)
  31. ^ Campbell & Dahir (1997)
  32. ^ (Whiston & Sexton, 1998)
  33. ^ a b c (www.edtrust.org)
  34. ^ www.edtrust.org
  35. ^ Hart & Jacobi (1992)
  36. ^ a b (Dimmitt, Carey, & Hatch, 2007)
  37. ^ (http://www.ezanalyze.com)
  38. ^ a b c (www.schoolcounselor.org)
  39. ^ (http://professionals.collegeboard.com/policy-advocacy/educators/nosca)
  40. ^ (College Board, 2008)
  41. ^ http://www.thenewschoolcounselor.com
  42. ^ Schellenberg, R. (2008). The new school counselor: Strategies for universal academic achievement. Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield Education.
  43. ^ Schellenberg, R., & Grothaus, T. (2009). Promoting cultural responsiveness and closing the achievement gap with standards blending. Professional School Counseling, 12, 440-449.
  44. ^ Schellenberg, R. (2007). Standards blending: Aligning school counseling programs with school academic achievement missions. Virginia Counselors Journal, 29, 13-20.
  45. ^ http://www.cescal.org/
  46. ^ (Carey et al., 2008)
  47. ^ Self-Directed Search (SDS)
  48. ^ Career Key
  49. ^ Holland Codes
  50. ^ www.aacounselors.org.ar/, www.counseling.org, www.oocities.com/Athens/Crete/1919/, www.schoolcounselor.org, www.appcpc.com/, www.agca.com.au/, www.bacp.co.uk/, www.ccacc.ca/home.html, /www.cescal.org/index.cfm, www.umass.edu/schoolcounseling/, www.cacrep.org, www.ccyp.co.uk/, www.cosca.org.uk/, www.symvoulevein.com, www.eacnet.org/prospectus.html, www.education.gouv.fr/cid160/lieux-information.html, www.uned.es/feop-reop/index.htm, http://schoolnet.gov.mt/guidance/default.html, www.elesyp.gr/, www.hkacmgm.org/, www.igc.ie/, www.iaevg.org/, www.ibo.org/, www.vanguardofcounsellors.org/, www.kapc.or.ke/, www.nbcc.org, www.edtrust.org, http://professionals.collegeboard.com/policy-advocacy/educators/nosca, www.nzac.org.nz/, www.cassonng.org/, www.pgca.org.ph/index.shtml, http://new.oacac.com/, www.sac-counsel.org.sg/, www.guidance.org.tw/internation.html
  51. ^ (www.counseling.org)
  52. ^ a b c (Young & Kaffenberger, 2009; Dimmitt, Carey, & Hatch, 2007)
  53. ^ a b (Bryan, Holcomb-McCoy, Moore-Thomas, & Day-Vines, 2009; College Board, 2008; Holcomb-McCoy, 2007)
  54. ^ a b c (Holcomb-McCoy & Chen-Hayes, 2007; Portman, 2009)
  55. ^ Stone & Dahir, 2006; Shen & Herr, 2003
  56. ^ Sink & Stroh (2003)
  57. ^ Schmidt, 2003; Trolley et al, 2009
  58. ^ (Sink, Akos, Turnbull, & Mvududu, 2008)
  59. ^ (Bryan, Holcomb-McCoy, Moore-Thomas, & Day-Vines, 2009; Carey et al., 2008; Holcomb-McCoy, 2007)
  60. ^ http://professionals.collegeboard.com/policy-advocacy/educators/nosca
  61. ^ www.http://professionals.collegeboard.com/policy-advocacy/educators/nosca
  62. ^ Jeffrey Gangemi,J. (October 3, 2006). "How to buy your way into college".Business Week. http://www.businessweek.com/smallbiz/content/oct2006/sb20061003_685293.htm?chan=smallbiz_smallbiz+index+page_today's+top+stories
  63. ^ Lapan, Gysbers, & Sun's (1997)
  64. ^ <Kim, Kay-Hyon, 2006)
  65. ^ http://www.pgca.org.ph/index.shtml
  66. ^ Chinese Guidance and Counseling Association.
  67. ^ a b (www.cacrep.org)
  68. ^ Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP). (CACREP, 2001, 2009) The 2001 Standards. Retrieved on November 25, 2003, from http://www.counseling.org/ cacrep/2001standards700.htm
  69. ^ (CACREP, 2009)
  70. ^ (www.nbpts.org)
  71. ^ Mcleod, K. (March/April 2005). Certification by the books. ASCA School Counselor. Alexandria, VA: American School Counseling Association
  72. ^ Schellenberg, R. (2008). The new school counselor: Strategies for universal academic achievement. Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield Education
  73. ^ (www.nbcc.org)
  74. ^ (www.vanguardofcounsellors.org)
  75. ^ United States Bureau of Labor and Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook

School Counselor Directories - www.campusyellowpages.com

Evidence-based School Counseling articles, books, and DVDs

  • Alberta Education, Special Education Branch (1995). From position to program: Building a comprehensive school guidance and counselling program: Planning and resource guide. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada: Author.
  • American School Counselor Association/Hatch, T. & Bowers, J. (2005). The ASCA National Model: A framework for school counseling programs, (2nd ed.) Alexandria, VA: Author.
  • Aluede, O. O., Adomeh, I. O. C., & Afen-Akpaida, J. E. (2004). Some thoughts about the future of guidance and counseling in Nigeria. Education Winter, 2004.
  • Amatea, E. S., & West-Olatunji, C. A. (2007). Joining the conversation about educating our poorest children: Emerging leadership roles for school counselors in high-poverty schools Professional School Counseling 11, 81-89.
  • Ayyash-Abdo, H., Alamuddin, R., & Mukallid, S. (2010). School counseling in Lebanon: Past, present, and future. Journal of Counseling & Development 88, 13-17.
  • Bemak, F. (2000). Transforming the role of the counselor to provide leadership in educational reform through collaboration. Professional School Counseling 3, 323-331.
  • Bemak, F., & Chung, R. C.-Y. (2005). Advocacy as a critical role for urban school counselors: Working toward equity and social justice. Professional School Counseling 8, 196-202.
  • Bodenhorn, N., & Skaggs, G. (2005). Development of the School Counselor Self-Efficacy Scale. Measurement & Evaluation in Counseling & Development, 38 14-28.
  • Brigman, G. A., & Campbell, C. (2003). Helping students improve academic achievement and school success behavior. Professional School Counseling 7, 91-98.
  • Brigman, G., & Early, B. (2001). Group counseling for school counselors: A practical guide. Portland, ME: Walch.
  • Brigman, G. A., Webb, L. D., & Campbell, C. (2007). Building skills for school success: Improving the academic and social competence of students. Professional School Counseling 10, 279-288.
  • Brooks-McNamara, V., & Torres, D. (2008). The reflective school counselor's guide to practitioner research: Skills and strategies for successful inquiry. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Bruce, A. M., Getch, Y. Q., & Ziomek-Daigle, J. (2009). Closing the gap: A group counseling approach to improve test performance of African-American students. Professional School Counseling 12, 450-457.
  • Bruhn, R. A., Irby, B. J., Lou, M., Thweatt, W. T. III, & Lara-Alecio, R. (2005). A model for training bilingual school counselors. In J. Tinajero and V. Gonzales (Eds.), Review of research and practice, (pp. 145-161). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Bryan, J. (2005). Fostering educational resilience and academic achievement in urban schools through school-family-community partnerships. Professional School Counseling 8, 219-227.
  • Bryan, J., & Holcomb-McCoy, C. (2004). School counselors' perceptions of their involvement in school family community partnerships. Professional School Counseling 7, 162-171.
  • Bryan, J., Holcomb-McCoy, C., Moore-Thomas, C, and Day-Vines, N. L. (2009). Who sees the school counselor for college information? A national study. Professional School Counseling 12, 280-291.
  • Camizzi, E., Clark, M. A., Yacco, S., & Goodman, W. (2009). Becoming "difference makers": School-university collaboration to create, implement, and evaluate data-driven counseling interventions. Professional School Counseling 12, 471-479.
  • Campbell, C. A., & Dahir, C. A. (1997). The national standards for school counseling programs. Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor Association.
  • Chang, D. H. F. (2002). The past, present, and future of career counseling in Taiwan. Career Development Quarterly 50, 218-225.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2001). Counseling and advocacy with transgendered and gender-variant persons in schools and families. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education, and Development 40, 34-48.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F., & Haley-Banez, L. (2000). Lesbian, bisexual, gay, and transgendered counseling in schools and families (1, 2). DVDs. Hanover, MA: Microtraining Associates.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F., Saud Maxwell, K., & Bailey, D. F. (2009). Equity-based school counseling: Ensuring career and college readiness for every student. DVD. Hanover, MA: Microtraining Associates.
  • Clark, M. A., & Amatea, E. (2004). Teacher perceptions and expectations of school counselor contributions: Implications for program planning and training. Professional School Counseling 8, 132-140.
  • Clemens, E. V., Milsom, A., & Cashwell, C. S. (2009). Using leader-member exchange theory to examine principal-school counselor relationships, school counselors' roles, job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Professional School Counseling 13, 75-85.
  • The College Board. (2008). Inspiration & innovation: Ten effective counseling practices from the College Board's Inspiration Award schools. Washington, D.C.: Author.
  • The College Board. (2008). The college counseling sourcebook: Advice and strategies from experienced school counselors. (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
  • Corbin, D. S., & McNaughton, K. (2004). Perceived needs of educational administrators for student services offices in a Chinese context: School counselling programs addressing the needs of children and teachers. School Psychology International 25, 373-382.
  • Curry, J. R., & DeVoss, J. A. (2009). Introduction to special issue: The school counselor as leader. Professional School Counseling 13, 64-67.
  • Dahir, C. A., & Stone, C. B. (2009). School counselor accountability: The path to social justice and systemic change. Journal of Counseling & Development 87, 12-20.
  • Day-Vines, N. L., & Day-Hairston, B. O. (2005). Culturally congruent strategies for addressing the behavioral needs of urban African-American male adolescents. Professional School Counseling 8, 236-243.
  • Depaul, J., Walsh, M., E., & Dam, U. C. (2009). The role of school counselors in addressing sexual orientation in schools. Professional School Counseling.
  • Devoss, J. A., & Andrews, M. F. (2006). School counselors as educational leaders. Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin.
  • Dollarhide, C. T., Smith, A. T., & Lemberger, M. E. (2007). Critical incidents in the development of supportive principals: Facilitating school counselor-principal relationships. Professional School Counseling 10, 360-369.
  • Dimmitt, C. (2009). Why evaluation matters: Determining effective school counseling practices. Professional School Counseling 12, 395-399.
  • Dimmitt, C., Carey, J. C., & Hatch, T. (2007). Evidence-based school counseling: Making a difference with data-driven practices. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Dodson, T. (2009). Advocacy and impact: A comparison of administrators' perceptions of the high school counselor role. Professional School Counseling 12, 480-487.
  • Dogan, S. (2002). The historical development of counseling in Turkey. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling 22, 57-67.
  • Erhard, R., & Harel, Y. (2005). International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 27, 87-98.
  • Foster, L. H., Watson, T. S., Meeks, C., & Young, J. S. (2002). Single-subject research design for school counselors: Becoming an applied researcher. Professional School Counseling 6, 146-159.
  • Gizir, C. A., & Aydin, G. (2009). Protective factors contributing to the academic resilience of students living in poverty in Turkey. Professional School Counseling 13, 38-49.
  • Gysbers, N. C. (2006). Improving school guidance and counseling practices through effective and sustained state leadership: A response to Miller. Professional School Counseling 9, 245-247.
  • Hart, P. J., & Jacobi, M. (1992). From gatekeeper to advocate: Transforming the role of the school counselor. New York: College Entrance Examination Board.
  • Hatch, T., & Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2008). School counselor beliefs about ASCA National Model school counseling program components using the SCPCS. Professional School Counseling 4, 34-42.
  • Hipolito-Delgado, C. P., & Lee, C. C. (2007). Empowerment theory for the professional school counselor: A manifesto for what really matters. Professional School Counseling 10, 327-332.
  • Hayes, R. L., Nelson, J.-L., Tabin, M., Pearson, G., & Worthy, C. (2002). Using school-wide data to advocate for student success. Professional School Counseling 6, 86-95.
  • Herr, E. L. (2001). The impact of national policies, economics, and school reform on comprehensive guidance programs. Professional School Counseling 4, 236-245.
  • Holcomb-McCoy, C., Gonzalez, I., & Johnston, G. (2009). School counselor dispositions as predictors of data usage. Professional School Counseling 12, 343-351.
  • Holcomb-McCoy, C. (2007). School counseling to close the achievement gap: A social justice framework for success. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Holcomb-McCoy, C. & Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2007). Multiculturally competent school counselors: Affirming diversity through challenging oppression. In B. T. Erford, (Ed). Transforming the school counseling profession. (2nd ed). (pp. 98–120). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
  • Holcomb-McCoy, C., & Mitchell, N. (2005). A descriptive study of urban school counseling programs. Professional School Counseling 8, 203-209.
  • House, R. M., & Hayes, R. L. (2002). School counselors: Becoming key players in school reform. Professional School Counseling 5, 249-256.
  • House, R. M., & Martin, P. J. (1998). Advocating for better futures for all students: A new vision for school counselors. Education 119, 284-291.
  • Hui, E. K. P. (2000). Guidance as a whole school approach in Hong Kong: From remediation to student development. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling 22, 69-82.
  • Isaacs, M. L. (2003). Data-driven decision-making: The engine of accountability. Professional School Counseling 6," 288-295.
  • Iwuama, B. C. (1998). School counseling in Nigeria: Today and tomorrow. Journal of Educational Systems Research and Development 1, 8-18.
  • Jackson, C. M., Snow, B. M., Boes, S. R., Phillips, P. L., Powell-Standard, R., & Painter, L. C. (2002). Inducting the transformed school counselor into the profession. Theory into Practice 41, 177-185.
  • Janson, C. (2009). High school counselors' views of their leadership behaviors: A Q methodology study. Professional School Counseling 13, 86-97.
  • Janson, C., Militello, M., & Kosine, N. (2008). Four views of the professional school counselor and principal relationship: A Q methodology study. Professional School Counseling 11, 353-361.
  • Janson, C., Stone, C., & Clark, M. A. (2009). Stretching leadership: A distributed perspective for school counselor leaders. Professional School Counseling 13, 98-106.
  • Jiang, G. R. (2007). The development of school counseling in the Chinese mainland. Journal of Basic Education 14" 65-82.
  • Johnson, S., & Johnson, C. D. (2003). Results-based guidance: A systems approach to student support programs. Professional School Counseling 6, 180-185.
  • Johnson, R. S. (2002). Using data to close the achievement gap: How to measure equity in our schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
  • Kaffenberger, C., & Davis, T. (2009). Introduction to special issue: A call for practitioner research. Professional School Counseling 12, 392-394.
  • Kaplan, L. S. (1999). Hiring the best school counseling candidates to promote student achievement. NASSP Bulletin 83, 34-39.
  • Keys, S. G., & Lockhart, E. (2000). The school counselor's role in facilitating multisystemic change. Professional School Counseling 3," 101-107.
  • Kurosawa, S. (2000). Sukuru kaunseringu katsudo no gohonbasira/Five important roles in school counselling. In M. Murayama (Ed.), Rinsyoshinrisi niyoru sukuru kaunsera: Jissai to tenbo (pp. 89-99). Tokyo, Shibundo.
  • Lambie, G. W., & Williamson, L. L. (2004). The challenge to change from guidance counseling to professional school counseling: A historical proposition. Professional School Counseling 8, 124-131.
  • Lapan, R. T. (2001). Results-based comprehensive guidance and counseling programs: A framework for planning and evaluation. Professional School Counseling 4.
  • Lapan, R. T., Gysbers, N. C., & Petroski, G. F. (2001). Helping seventh graders be safe and successful in school: A statewide study of comprehensive guidance and counseling programs. Journal of Counseling and Development 79," 320-330.
  • Lapan, R. T., Gysbers, N. C., & Sun, Y. (1997). The impact of more fully implemented guidance programs on the school experiences of high school students: A statewide evaluation study. Journal of Counseling and Development 75, 292-302.
  • Lee, S. M., Daniels, M. H., Puig, A., Newgent, R. A., & Nam, S. K. (2008). A data-based model to predict postsecondary educational attainment of low-socioeconomic-status students. Professional School Counseling 11, 306-316.
  • Leuwerke, W. C., Walker, J., & Shi, Q. (2009). Informing principals: The impact of different types of information on principals' perceptions of professional school counselors. Professional School Counseling 12 263-271.
  • Lim, S.-L., Lim, B. K. H., Michael, R., Cai, R., & Schock, C. K. (2010). The trajectory of counseling in China: Past, present, and future trends. Journal of Counseling & Development 88, 4-8.
  • MacDonald, G., & Sink, C. A. (1999). A qualitative developmental analysis of comprehensive guidance program in schools in the United States. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling 27, 415-430.
  • Malott, K. M., Alessandria, K. P., Kirkpatrick, M., & Carandang, J. (2009). Ethnic labeling in Mexican-origin youth: A qualitative assessment. Professional School Counseling 12, 352-364.
  • Marisco, M., & Getch, Y. Q. (2009). Transitioning Hispanic seniors from high school to college. Professional School Counseling 12, 458-462.
  • Martin, I., Carey, J., & DeCoster, K. (2009). A national study of the current status of state school counseling models. Professional School Counseling 12, 378-386.
  • Martin, P. J. (2002). Transforming school counseling: A national perspective. "Theory into Practice 41, 148-153.
  • Mason, E. C. M., & McMahon, H. G. (2009). Leadership practices of school counselors. Professional School Counseling 13, 107-115.
  • McFarland, W. P. (2001). The legal duty to protect gay and lesbian students from violence in school. Professional School Counseling 4, 171-179.
  • McMahon, H. G., Mason, E. C. M., & Paisley, P. O. (2009). School counselor educators as educational leaders promoting systemic change. Professional School Counseling 13, 116-124.
  • Milsom, A., & Dietz, L. (2009). Defining college readiness for students with learning disabilities: A Delphi study. Professional School Counseling 12, 315-323.
  • Murayama, S. (2002). Rinsyoshinrisi niyoru sukuru maunsera no tenkai/The development of school counsellors by clinical psychologists. In M. Murayama (Ed.), Rinsyoshinrisi niyoru sukuru kaunsera: Jissai to tenbo (pp. 9-22). Tokyo: Shibundo.
  • Nova Scotia Department of Education. (2002). Comprehensive guidance and counselling program. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Author.
  • Ohrt, J. H., Lambie, G. W., & Ieva, K. P. (2009). Supporting Latino and African-American students in Advanced Placement courses: A school counseling program's approach. Professional School Counseling 13," 59-63.
  • Okamoto, J. (2002). Sukuru kaunsera tono renkei/Collaboration with school counsellors. In T. Matsuhara (Ed.), Sukuru kausera to renkei shita shido (pp. 4-13). Tokyo: Kyoikukaihatsukenkyusyo.
  • Paisley, P. O. (2001). Maintaining and enhancing the developmental focus in school counseling programs. Professional School Counseling 4, 271-277.
  • Paisley, P. O., & McMahon. G. (2001). School counseling for the 21st Century: Challenges and opportunities Professional School Counseling 5, 106-115.
  • Perna, L., Rowan-Kenyon, H., Thomas, S., Bell, A., Anderson, R., & Li, C. (2008). The role of college counseling in shaping college opportunity: Variations across high schools. Review of Higher Education 31, 131-159.
  • Perusse, R., & Goodnough, G. D. (2001). A comparison of existing school counselor program content with the Education Trust initiatives. Counselor Education and Supervision 41, 100-110.
  • Perusse, R., & Goodnough, G. E., (Eds.). (2004). Leadership, advocacy, and direct service strategies for professional school counselors. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
  • Perusse, R., Goodnough, G. D., Donegan, J., & Jones, C. (2004). Perceptions of school counselors and school principals about the National Standards for School Counseling programs and the Transforming School Counseling Initiative. Professional School Counseling 7, 152-161.
  • Perusse, R., Goodnough, G. E., & Noel, C. J. (2001). Use of the national standards for school counseling programs in preparing school counselors. Professional School Counseling 5, 49-56.
  • Portman, T. A. A. (2009). Faces of the future: School counselors as cultural mediators. Journal of Counseling & Development 87, 21-27.
  • Poynton, T. A. (2009). Evaluating the effectiveness of a professional development workshop to increase school counselors' use of data: The role of technology. Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision 1, 29-48.
  • Poynton, T. A., Carlson, M. W., Hopper, J. A., & Carey, J. C. (2006). Evaluating the impact of an innovative approach to integrate conflict resolution into the academic curriculum on middle school students' academic achievement. Professional School Counseling 9, 190-196.
  • Poynton, T. A., & Carey, J. C. (2006). An integrated model of data-based decision making for school counseling. Professional School Counseling 10, 121-130.
  • Ratts, M., DeKruyf, L., & Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2008). The ACA Advocacy Competencies: A social justice advocacy framework for professional school counselors. Professional School Counseling 11, 90-97.
  • Reiner, S. M., Colbert, R. D., & Perusse, R. (2009). Teacher perceptions of the professional school counselor role: A national study. Professional School Counseling 12, 324-332.
  • Reynolds, S. E., & Hines, P. L. (2001). Guiding all kids: Systemic guidance for achievement-focused schools (2nd ed.). Bloomington, IN: American Student Achievement Institute.
  • Reynolds, S. E., & Hines, P. L. (2001). Vision-to-action: A step-by-step activity guide for systemic educational reform. (6th ed.). Bloomington, IN: American Student Achievement Institute.
  • Rose, H., Miller, L, & Martinez, Y. (2009). "FRIENDS for Life": The results of a resilience-building, anxiety-prevention program in a Canadian elementary school. Professional School Counseling 12, 400-407.
  • Rowell, L. L. (2006). Action research and school counseling: Closing the gap between research and practice. Professional School Counseling 9, 376-384.
  • Schellenberg, R., & Grothaus, T. (2009). Promoting cultural responsiveness and closing the achievement gap with standards blending. Professional School Counseling 12, 440-449.
  • Schellenberg, R. (2008). The new school counselor: Strategies for universal academic achievement. Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield Education.
  • Schellenberg, R. (2007). Standards blending: Aligning school counseling programs with school academic achievement missions. Virginia Counselors Journal, 29, 13-20.
  • Schellenberg, R., Parks-Savage, A., Rehfuss, M. (2007). Reducing levels of elementary school violence with peer mediation. Professional School Counseling, 10, 475-481.
  • See, C. M., & Ng, K-M. (2010). Counseling in Malaysia: History, current status, and future trends. Journal of Counseling & Development 88, 18-22.
  • Shen, Y., & Herr, E. L. (2003). Perceptions of play therapy in Taiwan: The voices of school counselors and school counselor educators. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling 25, 27-41.
  • Shin, R. Q., Daly, B. P., & Vera, E. M. (2007). The relationships of peer norms, ethnic identity, and peer support to school engagement in urban youth. Professional School Counseling 10, 379-388.
  • Sink, C. A. (2009). School counselors as accountability leaders: Another call for action. Professional School Counseling 13, 68-74.
  • Sink, C. A., & Stroh, H. R. (2003). Raising achievement test scores of early elementary school students through comprehensive school counseling programs. Professional School Counseling 6, 352-364.
  • Sink, C. A., Akos, P., Turnbull, R. J., & Mvududu, N. (2008). An investigation of comprehensive school counseling programs and academic achievement in Washington State middle schools. Professional School Counseling 12, 43-53.
  • Stockton, R., Nitza, A., & Bhusumane, D.-B. (2010). The development of professional counseling in Botswana. Journal of Counseling & Development 88, 9-12.
  • Stone, C. B. (2005). School counseling principles: Ethics and law. Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor Association.
  • Stone, C. B., & Dahir, C. A. (2006). The transformed school counselor. Boston, MA: Lahaska Press/Houghton Mifflin.
  • Stone, C. B., & Dahir, C. A. (2007). School counselor accountability: A MEASURE of student success (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
  • Studer, J. R. (2008). The school counselor as an emerging professional in the Japanese educational system. International Education 37, 30-42.
  • Studer, J. R. (2006). Supervising the school counselor trainee: Guidlines for practice. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
  • Studer, J. R. (2005). The professional school counselor: An advocate for students. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
  • Studer, J. R., Oberman, A. H., & Womack, R. H. (2006). Producing evidence to show counseling effectiveness in schools. Professional School Counseling 9, 385-391.
  • Szilagyi, S., & Paredes, D. M. (2010). Professional counseling in Romania: An introduction. Journal of Counseling & Development 88, 23-27.
  • Thomas, S. R. (2005). The school counselor alumni peer consultation group. Counselor Education & Supervision 45, 16-29.
  • Thomas, S. R., DeKruf, L., Hetherington, P., & Lesicko, D. (2009). Developing a global culture of collaboration for school counselors. Journal for International Counselor Education 1, 15-31.
  • Thomason, T. C., & Qiong, X. (2007). School counseling in China Today. Journal of School Counseling, Downloaded from [www.jsc.montana.edu/articles/v6n11.pdf] June 19, 2009.
  • Trolley, B. C., Haas, H. S., & Patti, D. C. (2009). The school counselor's guide to special education. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Varjas, K., Graybill, E., Mahan, W., Dew, B., Marshall, M., & Singh, A. (2007). Urban service providers' perspectives on school responses to gay, lesbian, and questioning students: An exploratory study. Professional School Counseling 11, 113-119.
  • Vera, E. M., Shin, R. Q., Montgomery, G., Mildner, C., & Speight, S. L (2004). Conflict resolution, self-efficacy, self-control, and future orientation of urban adolescents. Professional School Counseling 8, 73-80.
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See also


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