Gujjar: Wikis

  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gurjar
Gurjar Samrat MihirBhoja TheGreat.JPG BhopSinghGurjarPathikJi.jpgSardarvp.pngShoaib Akhtar.jpg Choudhary Rahmat Ali.jpg KuldipsinghchandpuriGujjar.jpg Rajesh pilot Gurjar.jpg Sachin pilot Gurjar.jpg Kamal ram Gurjar.jpg
Mihir Bhoja · Vijay Singh Pathik · Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel · Shoaib Akhtar · Choudhary Rahmat Ali · Kuldip Singh Chandpuri · Rajesh Pilot · Sachin Pilot · Kamal Ram
Regions with significant populations
 India Pakistan
Languages

GojriPunjabiHindi. UrduEnglish[1]

Religion

Om.svg Hinduism (59,336,000)[2]
Allah-green.svg Islam (15,032,000)[3]
Khanda1.svg Sikhism (237,000)[4]

Related ethnic groups

Indo-Aryan peopleRajputsKhatrisJats

The Gujjar (Gojri: गुज्जर, گجر) or Gurjar (Gojri: गुर्जर, گُرجر) are an ethnic group in India, Afghanistan[5] and Pakistan. Alternative spellings include Gurjara, Gujar, Goojar and Gujur.

While the origin of the Gujjars is uncertain, the Gujjar clan appeared in northern India about the time of the Huna invasions of the region. In the 6th to 12th Century, they were primarily classed as Kshatriya and Brahmin,and many of them later converted to Islam during the Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent.[6][7] Today, the Gujjars are classified under the Other Backward Classes (OBC) category in some states in India.[8] The Gujjars today are assimilated into several varnas of Hinduism.[9]

Contents

History

Origin

Statue of Samraat Mihir Bhoj in the Bharat Upvan (Garden of India) of Akshardham Mandir, New Delhi

The origin of the Gujjars is uncertain.[10] There are various references talking about their origin. In Ramayana, it's described that a war was fought among demons and gods.Gurjars fought against demons under the leadership of King Dasharatha.[11]. There is also references of gurjar widows in Yoga Vasistha, whose husbands laid down their lives in the battlefield, having their heads tonsured as a mark of their bravement.[12].

In Mahabharata war also Gurjars fought and later on along with lord Krishna migrated from mathura to Dwarka, Gujarat.[13].

The Gujjar clan appeared in northern India about the time of the Huna invasions of northern India. Some scholars, such as V. A. Smith, believed that the Gurjars were foreign immigrants, possibly a branch of Hephthalites ("White Huns").[14] Mr. Devadatta Ramakrishna Bhandarkar (D. B. Bhandarkar) (1875-1950) believed that Gurjars came into India with the Hunas, and the name was sanskritized to "Gurjara".[15] He also believed that several places in Central Asia, such as "Gurjistan", are named after the Gujars and that the reminiscences of Gujar migration is preserved in these names.[15] General Cunningham identified the Gurjars with Yuezhi or Tocharians.[16]

General Cunningham and A. H. Bingley consider the Gurjars as descendants of Kushan/Yueh-chi or Tocharians of Indo-Scythian stock.[17][18] In the past, Gurjars have also been hypothesized to be descended from the nomadic Khazar tribes, although the history of Khazars shows an entirely different politico-cultural ethos[19] In Gazetteer of Bombay Presidency, the British civil servant James M. Campbell identified Gujars with Khazars. Scott Cameron Levi, in his The Indian Diaspora in Central Asia and its Trade, 1550-1900, mentions Kazar (Khazar, could also refer to Kassar) and Kujar (Gujar) as two different tribes with links to Central Asia.

Some others claim that the Gurjar caste is related to the Chechens and the Georgians, and argue that Georgia was traditionally called "Gujaristan" (actually Gorjestan).[20][20][21] However, there is little evidence for such claims. The word "Georgia" derived from the Arabic and Persian word Gurj, and not Gujjar or Gurjar.[22][23]

A 2009 study conducted by Tribal Research and Cultural Foundation, under the supervision of Gurjar scholar Dr.Javaid Rahi, claimed that the word "Gujar" has a Central Asian Turkic origin, written in romanized Turkish as Göçer. Study claimed that according to the new research, the Gurjar race "remained one of the most vibrant identity of Central Asia in BC era and later ruled over many princely states in northern India for hundred of years".[24]

The sociologist G. S. Ghurye believes that the name Gujjar is derived from the principal profession followed by the tribe: cattle-breeding (the Sanskrit word for cow is gau and the old Hindi word for sheep is gadar).[25], though "Gujjar" has come from "Gurjar" which is a sanskrit word which according to Sanskrit Dictionary (Shakabada1181), has been explained thus: Gur+Ujar; 'Gur' means 'enemy' and 'ujar' means 'destroyer'. The word means "Destroyer of the enemy" . [26] [27]The word "Gurjar" predicts the qualities of a warrior community.[28]

Gurjar rulers

The Gurjara-Pratihara kingdom and other contemporary kingdoms.

According to some historical accounts, the kingdom with capital at Bhinmal (or Srimal) was established by the Gujjars. A minor kingdom of Bharuch was the offshoot of this Kingdom.[29] In 640-41 CE, the Chinese traveller Xuanzang (Hieun Tsang) described the kingdoms of Su-la-cha (identified with Saurashtra) and Kiu-che-lo (identified with Gurjara) in his writings. He stated that the Gurjaras ruled a rich and populous kingdom with capital at Bhinmal (Pilo-mo-lo).[30] According to his expositor, M. Vivien de St. Martin, Su-la-cha represents the modern Gujarat, and Kiu-che-lo (Gurjjara), "the country of the Gujars", represents the region between Anhilwara and the Indus River, i.e. Sindh region.[31]

Vincent Smith believed that the Pratihara dynasty, which ruled a large kingdom in northern India from the 6th to the 11th centuries, and has been mentioned as "Gurjara-Pratiharas" in an inscription, was certainly of Gurjara origin. Smith also stated that there is possibility of other Agnikula Kshatriya clans being of same origin.[32] Dr. K. Jamanadas also states that the Pratihara clan of Rajputs descended from the Gurjars, and this "raises a strong presumption that the other Rajput clans also are the descendants from the Gurjaras or the allied foreign immigrants".[33] D. B. Bhandarkar also believed that Pratiharas were a clan of Gurjars.[15] In his book The Glory that was Gujardesh (1943), Gurjar writer K. M. Munshi stated that the Pratiharas, the Paramaras and the Solankis were imperial Gujjars.

According a number of scholars Chauhan was a prominent clan of Gurjars.[34][35]

H. A. Rose and Denzil Ibbetson stated that there is no conclusive proof that the Agnikula Rajput clans are of Gurjara origin; they believed that there is possibility of the indigenous tribes adopting Gurjara names, when their founders were enfiefed by Gurjara rulers.[32] Some other historians believe that although some sections of the Pratiharas (eg. the one to which Mathanadeva belonged) were Gurjars by caste, the Pratiharas of Kannauj were not Gurjars and there was no Gurjara empire in Northern India in 8th and 9th century.[36][37], though from the work of other historians it has been known that Kannauj was capital of Gurjara-Pratihara. [38] [39] [40]

Historian Sir Jervoise Athelstane Baines also stated Gurjars as forefathers of Sisodiyas, chauhan, Parmar, Parihar and Chalukya.[41]

Chavdas, also known as Gurjar Chapas [42]was also one of the ruling clans of Gurjars[43], who extended the power of the race in the south. [44]

The pratiharas belonged to the same clan that of Gurjaras was proved by the "Rajor inscription".From the phrase "Gurjara Pratiharanvayah" inscribed in the "Rajor inscription".[45] It is known that the Pratiharas belonged to the Gurjara clan.The Rashtrakuta records and the Arabian chronicles also identify the Pariharas with Gurjaras.[46]

Over the years, the Gurjars were assimilated mainly into the castes of Kshatriya varna, although some Gurjar groups (such as Gaur Gurjars of central India) are classified as Brahmins. During the Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent, many of the Gurjar Hindus converted to Islam.[47]

Gurjar pratihar rulers (650-1036)
Dadda I (650 - ?)
Dadda II
Dadda III (? - 750)
Nagabhata I (750 - 780)
Vatsraj (780 - 800)
Nagabhata II (800 - 833)
Rambhadra (833 - 835)
Mihir Bhoja the Great (835 - 890)
Mahenderpal 1 (890 - 910)
Bhoj II (910 - 913)
Mahipal 1 (913 - 944)
Mahenderpal II (944 - 948)
Devpal (948 - 954)
Vinaykpal (954 - 955)
Mahipal II (955 - 956)
Vijaypal II (956 - 960)
Rajapala (960 - 1018)
Trilochanpala (1018 - 1027)
Jasapala (Yashpal) (1024 - 1036)
Court Poet Rajshekhara

British rule

In the eighteenth century, several Gujjar chieftains and small kings were in power. During the reign of Rohilla Nawab Najib-ul-Daula, Dargahi Singh, the Gurjar chieftain of Dadri possessed 133 villages at a fixed revenue of Rs. 29,000.[48] A fort at Parlchhatgarh in Meerut District, also known as Qila Parikishatgarh, is ascribed to a Gujjar Raja Nain Singh.[49] According to a legend, the fort was built by Parikshit and restored by Nain Singh in the eighteenth century. The fort was dismantled in 1857, to be used as a police station.[50]

The Imperial Gazetteer of India states that throughout the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Gujars and Musalman (Muslim) Rajputs proved the "most irreconcilable enemies" of the British in the Bulandshahr area.[51] A band of rebellious Gurjars ransacked Bulandshahr after a revolt by the 9th Native Infantry on May 21, 1857. The British officers initially left for Meerut but later sent a small force to retake the town. The British forces were able to retake the town with the help of Dehra Gurkhas, but the Gujars rose again after the Gurkhas marched off to assist General Wilson's column in another area. Under the leadership of Walidad Khan of Malagarh, the British garrison was driven out the district. Walidad Khan held Bulandshahr from July to September, until he was expelled after an engagement with Colonel Greathed's flying column. On October 4, the Bulandshahr District was regularly occupied by the British Colonel Farquhar and measures of repression were adopted against the armed Gujars.

During the revolt of 1857, the Muslim Gujars in the villages of the Ludhiana District showed dissent to the British authorities.[52] The British interests in Gangoh city of Saharanpur District were threatened by the rebel Gujars under the self-styled Raja Fathua. These Gujars rebels were defeated by the British forces under H. D. Robertson and Lieutenant Boisragon, in June 1857.[53] The Gujars of Chundrowli rose against the British, under the leadership of Damar Ram. The Gujars of Shunkuri village, numbering around three thousand, joined the rebel sepoys. According to British records, the Gurjars plundered gunpowder and ammunition from the British and their allies.[54][55] In Delhi, the Metcalfe House was sacked by the Gurjar villagers from whom the land was taken to erect the building.[56] The British records claim that the Gujars carried out several robberies. Twenty Gujars were reported to have been beheaded by Rao Tula Ram for committing dacoities in July 1857.[54] In September 1857, the British were able to enliist the support of many Gujars at Meerut.[57] Some believe that the British classified the nomadic tribes as "criminal tribes" because they considered these tribes to be prone to criminality in the absence of legitimate means of livelihood, and also because of their participation in the revolt of 1857.[58] The Imperial Gazetteer of India stated that the Gujars were impoverished due to their "lawlessness in the Mutiny".[59] and that the Gujars in Delhi had a "bad reputation as thieves".[60] During the World War II, several Gurjars served in the British Indian army. Kamal Ram, a Gurjar sepoy, was awarded the Victoria Cross for gallantry.

Demographics

Stone pillar representing Gurjar-pratihar art.

Gurjars are mainly concentrated in the Indo-Gangetic plains, the Himalayan region, and eastern parts of Afghanistan, although the Gujjar diaspora is found in other places as well. A majority of Gurjars follow Hinduism and Islam, though small Gujjar communities following other religions exist.

Gurjari-Raga is a ragni of the Gurjars.They were worshipper of lord Krishna as tradition tells.This ragni is sung at the time of worship viz morning. Radha, the consort of Lord Krishna was a Gurjari, belonging to village Barsana, near Mathura.[61]

India

In India, Gurjar populations are found mainly in Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, western Uttar Pradesh,Uttarakhand,Haryana, northern Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra. The semi-nomadic Gujjar groups are found in the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and north-western Uttar Pradesh.[62] The name for the state of Gujarat has derived from "Gurjar".[63]

Gujari (or Gojri), classified under Rajasthani,[64] has traditionally been the primary language of the Gujjars. But, Gurjars living in different areas speak several other languages including Hindi, Marathi, Urdu, Punjabi, Pothohari, Pahari languages (such as Dogri and Kangri), Pashto language, Dardic languages (such as Kashmiri and Khowar), and Balti.

Gurjars in North India are now considered as a vote bank by some political parties.[65][66] Rajesh Pilot was a major Gurjar leader in North India. The Gujjars were classified as a Scheduled Tribe in Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir, and as Other Backward Class in Rajasthan Haryana and Madhya Pradesh & Uttar Pradesh.

Delhi

There are near about 70 Gurjar dominated villages in Delhi, most of them concentrated in South and East Delhi. The main Gurjar gotras in Delhi are":

  • Lohmod Lohia: (about 3 - 4 village in South delhi i.e. Aayanagar, Ghitorni & Nathupur)
  • Dedha: (about 24 villages in East Delhi)
  • Baisoya :(6 villages mainly in the central zone—Pilanji, Aliganj, Khairpur, Joodbagh, Purani Pilanji, Garhi-Jhariya Marhiya)
  • Chaprana: 1 village Julaina which was established by Haryana's village Mewla's Gurjars since 150 years ago
  • Basista/Bosatta: 2 villages in Delhi - Sarai Kale Khan and Khanpur
  • Tanwar: 7 villages in Delhi namely Chandan Hola, Asola, Fathpur Beri, Mandi, Dera, Choti Bhati and Bhati Mines or Baas
  • Bidhuri: 5-6 villages in Delhi such as Tughlaqabad, Madanpur Khadar and Jasola.
  • Khari: 5-6 villages in Delhi such as Sultanpur, Rampura, Chandrawal and Wazirpur
  • Rankne: 2 villages in Dellhi Aali and badarpur.
  • Bainsla: Kotla Mubarak Pur one village in Delhi.
  • Naagar: Hasanpur Nagla in East Delhi.
  • Daak: 1 village tamur nagar.
  • Maavi: 1 village Tekhand
  • Koli: 1 village Zamrudpur (originally established by Koli Gujjars of bandhwari village, Gurgaon)

Haryana

Haryana has a big population of Gurjars, most of whom are engaged in farming. The main gotras of Gurjars of Haryana are:Ambavata(1 village in Gurgaon Ullawass and 2nd is Jonapur in Delhi), Chaprana (1 Village Mevla-Maharajpur), Basista/Bosatta (2 villages- Siha & Khatela), Bhadana (14 villages), Tanwar ( villages- Karna, Rampur), Kasana, Mavi (10 Village), Nagar (84 villages), Khatana (village Rithauz and 11 more), Dhakar (7 Village), Baisla (26 village), Phagna (1 Village) and Poswal (3 village), Chhokar 51 village in Panipat Rawal (81 village),Mundan(panwar),Devdhar,Rawat in yamunanagar,ambala disst., Chandila (5 villages)n chechi(25 villages), Chauhans (near Hissar).

The Gurjar community in Haryana has set elaborate guidelines for solemnizing marriages and holding other functions.[67] They also highly concentrated in Yamunanagar, Ambala, Krukshetra, Karnal, Panipat, Gurgaon, Kaithal, Hissar, and in many othercities.[citation needed] In a mahapanchayat ("the great panchayat"), the Gujjar community decided that those who sought dowry would be excommunicated from the society.[68] Dasrath Bhadana, a Commando is now an officer in Indian Navy from Village Mandori near Mandkola awarded Saurya Chakra in Kashmir Valley.

Jammu and Kashmir

In the Indian state of Jammu & Kashmir, the concentration of Gujjars is observed in the districts of Rajouri and Poonch, followed by, Ananatnag, Udhampur and Doda districts.[69] It is believed that Gujjars migrated to Jammu and Kashmir from Gujarat (via Rajasthan) and Hazara district of NWFP.[70] Another group called Bakarwal (or Bakerwal) belongs to the same ethnic stock as the Gujjars, and inter-marriages freely take place among them.

The Gujjars and the Bakarwals in Jammu and Kashmir were notified as the Scheduled Tribes vide the Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order (Amendment) Act, 1991.[69] According to the 2001 Census of India, Gujjar is the most populous scheduled tribe in J&K, having a population of 763,806. Around 99.3 per cent population of Gujjar and Bakarwal in J&K follow Islam.[69] But according to local NGOs. Gujjars constitute 20% of total population of State.

The Gujjars of Jammu and Kashmir in 2007 demanded to treat this tribal community as a linguistic minority in the State and provide constitutional safeguards to their language Gojri. They also impressed upon the state government to take up the matter with Delhi for inclusion of Gojri in the list of official languages of India.[71][72]

In 2002, some Gujjars and Bakarwals in J&K demanded a separate state (Gujaristan) for Gujjar and Bakerwal communities, under the banner of All India Gujjar Parishad.[73] The Gujjars who moved to the state remained in an almost oblivion as there is hardly any mention of these people in the history of the state. In the 17th century, however, there were Gujjars of high official status in Poonch. They lived at Lahore-Kot now known as Loran, in the Haveli Tehsil of the Poonch District. They provided ministers to assist the rulers of the area. At the end of the 18th century one of their leaders named Ruh-Ullah Khan obtained full control of the country and assumed the title of Raja. He was the most important Gujjar personality of the time. He was Wazir of Raja Khan Bahadur of Poonch. On the murder of the later Ruh-Ullah Khan ruled as the deceased Raja's representative until he got his own son, Amir Khan, declared Raja of Poonch in 1797 A.D. Ruh Ullah Khan died in 1819 and Amir Khan is around 1825. The later was succeeded by his son Mir Baz Khan, who was captured by Maharaja Rajnit Singh of Punjab and removed to Lahore where he was murdered by one Pir Bakhsh Khan Chib in 1837 A.D. The dynasty started by Ruh-Ullah Khan was known as the Sango line of Gujjars. With the disappearance of Mir Baz Khan, their short period of power came to an end and the statues and influence of the Gujjars gradually declined. No outstanding Gujjar has since appeared in the state in comparison to Ruh-Ullah Khan. As generations have passed, the Gujjars throughout the state have become less important in all respects except in numbers.[citation needed]

Van Gujjars

The Van Gujjars ("forest Gujjars") are found in the Shivalik hills area of North India. The Van Gujjars follow Islam, and they have their own clans, similar to the Hindu gotras.[74] They are a pastoral semi-nomadic community, practising transhumance. In the winter season, the Van Gujjars migrate with their herds to the Shiwalik foothills, and in summer, they migrate to pastures high up in the mountains. The Van Gujjars have had conflicts with the forest authorities, who prohibited human and livestock populations inside a reserved park, and blamed the Van Gujjar community for poaching and timber smuggling.[74] After the creation of the Rajaji National Park (RNP), the Van Gujjars in Deharadun were asked to shift to a resettlement colony at Pathari near Hardwar. In 1992, when the Van Gujjars returned to the foothills, the RNP authorities tried to block them from the park area. The community fought back and finally the forest authorities had to relent.[75] Later, a community forest management (CFM) programme aiming to involve the Van Gujjars in forest management was launched.

Rajasthan

Fairs of Shri Devnarayan Bhagwan are organized two times in a year at Demali, Maalasheri, Asind and Jodhpuriya

For Gurjars in Rajasthan, Pushkar is considered one of the holiest place to visit.According to Rajputana Gazetteer Pushkar was held by Chechi Gujjars (Gurjars) till about 700 years ago.[76]

There are still priests from Gurjar community in Pushkar temple known as Bhopas.[77]


Songs pertaining to lord Krishna and Gurjars are well famous in Gurjar inhibited areas as Nand Meher, the foster father of Lord Krishna, also belonged to this caste[78] and Radha, the consort of Lord Krishna was also a Gurjari, belonging to village Barsana, near Mathura.[79]

Major focus is given to worship lord Devnarayan as incarnation of lord Vishnu.

In Rajasthan, Gurjars form two divisions .They are Lor or Lava Gurjars, who claim to be descendant from Lava, son of lord Ramchandra) and Khari Gurjars, who claim to be descendant from Kush, other son of lord Ramchandra.Lor Gurjars usually don't intermarry with Khari Gurjars, though both enjoy same social status.[80] Gurjars form one of the major communities in Rajashtan, and are seen as a vote bank by political parties. The Gurjars of Rajasthan are predominantly rural, pastoral and agriculturist community. They keep cows, buffalo, goats and sheep for milk products.The Gujars lead a technologically simple life in close harmony with its natural environment. In Rajasthan, some members of the Gurjar community resorted to violent protests over the issue of reservation in 2006 and 2007. The more powerful and more influential Jat community had been included under the Other Backward Classes (OBC) category, which prompted the Gurjars to demand Scheduled Tribe (ST) status. During the 2003 election to the Rajasthan assembly, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) promised them ST status.[81] However, the party failed to keep its promise after coming to the power, resulting in protests by the Gujjars in September 2006.[82]

In May 2007, during violent protests over the reservation issue, the members of the Gurjar community clashed with the police twenty six people (including two policemen).[83] Subsequently, the Gurjars protested violently, under various groups including the Gurjar Sangarsh Samiti,[84] Gujjar Mahasabha[85] and the Gujjar Action Committee[86] The protestors blocked roads and set fire to two police stations and some vehicles.[87] Presently, the Gurjars in Rajasthan are classified as Other Backward Classes (OBCs).[88]

On June 5, 2007 the Gurjar rioted over their desire to be added to the governments of India list of tribes who are given preference in India government job selection as well as placement in the schools sponsored by the states of India. This preference is given under a system designed to help India's poor and disadvantaged citizens. However, other tribes on the list oppose this request as it would make it harder to obtain the few positions already set aside.[89]

In December 2007, the Akhil Bhartiya Gurjar Mahasabha ("All-India Gurjar Council") stated that the community would boycott BJP, which is in power in Rajasthan.[90] But now in 2009 all Gurjars were supporting BJP so that they can be politically benefitted. Kirori Singh Bainsala fought and lost at BJP ticket. In early 2000s, the Gujjar community in Rajasthan was also in news for the falling sex ratio, unavailability of brides and the resulting polyandry.[91][92]

In Rajasthan, a guest, even if he is total stranger, is treated with great courtesy and looked after with much warmth which is specially characteristic of rural people.[93]

Uttar Pradesh

In Uttar Pradesh, the Gurjar populations are found mainly in the western U.P. region. This includes Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Bijnor, Moradabad, Ghaziabad, Noida, Bulandshahar, Pilibhit and Bareilly. In Noida to a lesser extent, they are also found in Rampur, Agra and Bundelkhand (Baghpat). In the Central U P they are thickly populated in the parliamentary constituencies Amethi & Raebareli where there population is about three lacs, apart from this they also reside in the districts of Barabanki (80thousands), Gonda (30thousands), Behraich (35thousands), Faizabad (30thousands), Goakhpur & Maharajganj (50 thousands), Lakhimpur (30 thousands). The most common Gotras are Bhati (250+ Villages), Nagar, Khatana, Kataria, Boukan, Ambauta, Bhatiya, Sikarwar, Motla (Dadri, Meerut),Rousa(village sharakpur,bisnoli in greater noida) Awana, Adhana, Chaudhary, Mundan, Khubbad, Chhokar, Kalsiyan, Chauhan, Poswal, Rathi, Chechi, Hun, Panwar (Mandar), Bavra, Bataar, Bainsla (24 villages), Tanwar, Tomar, Kasana, Karhana, Bhadana, Nagar, Chandila and Mavi (Pali, Meerut).

Generally, the Gurjars in Western U.P. and N.C.R. are well-off; their economy depends on agriculture, milk trade and production, and to a minor extent, real estate. Recently, the current generation boys & girls have started doing well in the field of education as well. Villages like Bhagout, Bhaidapur, Shaklpura, Dagarpur & Jawli have started progressing mainly because they are granting good education to their children. However, 70% of the population remains uneducated & backward.

Madhya Pradesh

According to the British records, the Gurjar population in Central India was around 56,000 in 1911. Most of these Gurjars were concentrated in the Nimar and Hoshangabad regions of the Narmada vallery. Most of these were migrants from the Gwalior region, Bhind Dist. in Gurjar Villages Kanathar, Kairora, Kaimokhari, Dandaraoa (famous Hanuman Temple), Katarol, Etayada, Bagarai, Habipura, Kadhuma, Karaua, like samething 50-60 villages in Bhind dist. in Madhya Pradesh. While some of the Gurjars in Nimar area were immigrants from Gujarat.[16] Presently, the Gurjars in Madhya Pradesh are classified as Other Backward Classes (OBCs).[94]

Gujarat and Maharashtra

Prataprao Gujar Smarak Place, Nesri

A few scholars believe that the Leva Kunbis (or Kambis) of Gujarat, a section of the Patidars, are possibly of Gurjar origin.[95].[96][97] However, several others state that the Patidars are Kurmis or Kunbis (Kanbis);[98][99] the National Commission for Backward Classes of India lists Leva Patidars (or Lewa Petidars) as a sub-caste of Kunbis/Kurmis. Dode Gujar and Dore Gujar are listed as separate caste in Maharastra and Gujjar are included in OBC list in Gujarat but Patidars are not.[100] Most of Patidar associations clearly mention in their history that they are the part of Kurmi Samaj.[98][99][101][102][103][104][105]

Among Marathas, one of the major clans is called "Bargujar".[106] Prataprao Gujar was the third royal Sarnaubat (Commander-in-chief) of Maratha ruler Shivaji's army. Sidhoji Bargujar was a notable admiral in Shivaji's navy.[107] The Khandesh region in Maharashtra has a sizable Gujar population, the major sub-castes being Dode Gujar, Leva Gujar, Bargujar etc.

A community using Gurjar and Gurjarpadhye as their surnames resides in the coastal Konkan region of Maharashtra, inhabiting Pangre, Hasol, and other villages in Ratnagiri District. Originally bearing the name "Gurjarpadhye", many now prefer to call themselves Gurjar. The community may have been living in the Konkan region for at least three centuries, although this estimate may be inaccurate. The community is a sub-caste of the larger Karhade Brahmin group[108] and speaks the Marathi language. This community might be a part of the bigger Gujar community. However, it is difficult to explain how they settled down in the Konkan region and are Brahmins rather than Kshatriyas. Local pandits claim that the Gurjars are essentially a priestly community and that it is only the subcastes that assumed Kshatriya status in order to earn a livelihood in other more practical professions.

Gujar are also found in some clans of Kshtriya Dhangar.Dode Gujar and Dore Gujar are listed as separate caste in Maharastra and are included in OBC list in Maharashtra.

Gujars of Nagpur form one of the leading clan of Satghare or Seven Houses.Last prince of Nagpur was from Gurjar clan.[109]

There is also one another separate caste in Maharashtra called as "Reve Gujars". Dode Gujars and Reve Gujars speak a special kind of language called as "Gujari" or "Gujrau".

Pakistan

The Muslim Gujjars are considered to be a major tribe in Pakistan; in fact, they compromise as much as twenty percent of the country's entire populaion.[110] Gujjars have given their names to several places in Pakistan, including Gujranwala, Gujjar Nallah, Gujar Khan, Gojra and Gujrat. The Gujjars have migrated and settled in many urban areas of Pakistan. Islamabad, Sialkot, Lahore, Faisalabad, Samundri and Karachi has now large Gujjar population. Some population is also present in urban and rural areas of Sindh and Balochistan. Rehmat Ali writer of pamphlet "Now or Never" also named Pakistan as "Pakistan". Fazal Elahi former President of Pakistan belongs to Village Marala Tehsil Kharian District Gujrat (Pakistan), Chaudhry Aftab Ahmed Gujjar senior advocate of Supreme Court of Pakistan, land lord & well known figure from Tehsil Bhalwal District Sargodha, Inder Kumar Gujral Indian Prime minister previously belongs to District Jhelum (Pakistan), are famous name among Gujjars of Pakistan. Male Gujjars are entitled to use the prefix Ch. (abbreviation for Chaudhury) in front of their first name. This acts as a courtesy title.

In North West Frontier Province, Gujjars normally use the pre-fix of "Sardar" in their name. Well known personalities are Sardar Abdul Rab Nishtar, Sardar Mehtab Abbassi (Former chief Minister of NWFP) etc. Gujjars are settled in vast majority in Hazara division specially in Mansehra, Haripur and Abbottabad.

Pakistan Administered Kashmir

There are many prominent Gujjar families in the Pakistan Administered Kashmir , in the following places: Pramekot, Rahimkot, Riat, Dadyal, Mirpur, Bhalot Chowk (Mirpur), Mandi Village (Ddayal),Sahalia (Dadyal) Saliah Village (Dayal), Kund (Dadyal), Kotli (Khoi Ratta, Anderla Kothera, Shaheen Abad, Dakkhana, Phalini, Khor, Ghayeen, Kerjai, Barali Gala, Nidi Sohana. In the Nakiyal District, Kotli the Gujjars are majority, in population, business, education, and politics the majority of Gujjars families are settled in America, England, France, Canada and other European countries, the common Gujjars villages in Teh Nakiyal are Nirgal, Karaila, Lanjot, Mhandethar, Balmi, Narran ni Tarrar, Bhandi, Tharkundi, Palani, Jair, Mohrha sharief, Khandhar, Supply, Phanag, Sehnsa, Bagh (Haveli), Hajirah, Abbaspour Bura Jungle, Muzaffarabad and Neelum District. Bhalot Gujjars such as the Masud Family are prominent, well respected in society.

Afghanistan

A significant number of Gujjars are also found in Afghanistan, mainly in the eastern Kunar province of Afghanistan.[111]

In fact, they are mentioned in the national anthem of Afghanistan in the list of the names of the people.

The Gujjars of Afghanistan speak Pashto as they have settled in Pashtuns dominated areas and have adopted their language.

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ http://www.crawley.gov.uk/stellent/groups/public/documents/otherdocs/int153691.pdf Gurjar Hindu Union section
  2. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/peoples.php?rop3=112160
  3. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/peoples.php?rop3=112971
  4. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/peoples.php?rop3=113579
  5. ^ http://www.nationalanthems.info/af%27.htm
  6. ^ P.K. Mohanty (2006). Encyclopaedia Scheduled Tribes In India 5 Vol. Set. Gyan Publishing House. p. 184 to 185. ISBN 9788182050525. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=DfZBc1Gy9g4C&pg=PA185&. "At page 184 "Gujjars belonged to the Kshatria and Brahmin castes, while they formerly ruled the Gujara-Prathihara Kingdom....during the 6th and 12th Centuries" .At page 185 "With the decline of Budhism in the 8th-10th centuries in parts of northwest India, and the rise of brahmanism, Gujjars were mainly assimilated either into the Kshatriya or brahmin castes. While the majority of Gujjars are classified as Kshatriya, evidently from their clan/caste/family names such as chauhan, there are others who have been classified as very high brahmins"." 
  7. ^ Hari Shanker Sharma; Mohan Lal Sharma (1992). Geographical facets of Rajasthan. Kuldeep Publications. p. 262. "Gujar is Kshatriya caste of the Hindus" 
  8. ^ Jeremy Page (30 May 2008). "India's Gujjar caste fight for a downgrade". The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article4027974.ece. Retrieved 2009-12-01. 
  9. ^ Sharma, RS (2001,2003). "6". Early medieval Indian society: a study in feudalisation. Orient Longman Private Limited. pp. 207. ISBN ISBN 8125025235. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=i_sIE1sO5kwC&pg=PA207&dq=vaishya+caste+gujjar#v=onepage&q=&f=false. Retrieved 30th November 2009. "It would be wrong to think that all foreigners were accepted as kshatriya and Rajputs for, in course of time, the Gujar people broke up into brahmans, banias, potters, goldsmiths, not to speak of herdsmen and cultivators (kunbis), who were looked upon as sudras." 
  10. ^ "Gurjara-Pratihara Dynastyrv". Britannica Concise. Encyclopædia Britannica. http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article-9038563/Gurjara-Pratihara-dynasty. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  11. ^ Nau Nihal Singh (2003). The royal Gurjars: their contribution. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD.. p. 329-330. ISBN 8126114142, ISBN 9788126114146. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=BznWnPT5aYcC&pg=PA330&. "There used to be internecine conflicts between gods and demons.Gurjars fought against demons in order to put an end to their excesses on behalf of King dasrath.We get reference of Gurjar widows, whose husbands laid down their lives in the battlefield, having their heads tonsured as a mark of their bravement.This reference has been given in the stage 19 in the 35 canto of Yoga Vashistha." 
  12. ^ stage 19 in the 35 canto of Yoga Vashistha
  13. ^ Nau Nihal Singh (2003). The royal Gurjars: their contribution. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD.. p. 329-330. ISBN 8126114142, ISBN 9788126114146. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=BznWnPT5aYcC&pg=PA330&. "In mahabharat war Gurjar supported Pandavas under the leaderships of lord krishna.There are evidences that Gurjar also followed Lord Krishna when the later migrated from mathura to dwarka." 
  14. ^ Smith, Vincent Arthur (1999) [1904]. The Early History of India; From 600 B.C. to the Muhammadan Conquest Including The Invasion of Alexander The Great. Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. pp. 166–174. ISBN 8171566189. 
  15. ^ a b c Bhandarkar, Devadatta Ramakrishna (1989). Some Aspects of Ancient Indian Culture. Asian Educational Services. pp. 64. ISBN 8120604571. 
  16. ^ a b Russell, R. V; R.B.H. Lai (1995). Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India. Asian Educational Services. pp. 166–174. ISBN 812060833X. 
  17. ^ Parvez Dewan (2004). Parvez Dewan's Jammu, Kashmir, and Ladakh. Manas Publications. p. 361. ISBN 9788170491798. OCLC 55616090. 
  18. ^ Ajay Singh Rawat (1993). Man and forests: the Khatta and Gujjar settlements of sub-Himalayan Tarai. Indus Publishing. p. 106. ISBN 9788185182971. 
  19. ^ Gurjara aura Unakā Itihāsa meṃ Yogadāna Vishaya para Prathama Itihāsa Sammelana. The Packard Humanities Institute. 1996. pp. 34–65. http://books.google.com/books?id=9kwIAAAAIAAJ&q=khazar&pgis=1#search. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  20. ^ a b Stephen M. Lyon. "Gujars and Gujarism: simple quaum versus network activism". University of Kent at Canterbury. http://sapir.ukc.ac.uk/SLyon/Reports/gujarism.html. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  21. ^ "Gujjars from Georgia: seminar". The Tribune. 1999-05-12. http://www.tribuneindia.com/1999/99may13/j&k.htm#1. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  22. ^ Curtis, Glenn E. (2004). Georgia a Country Study. Kessinger Publishing. pp. 89. ISBN 1419121650. 
  23. ^ Nasmyth, Peter (2001). Georgia: In the Mountains of Poetry. Routledge. pp. 9. ISBN 0700713956. 
  24. ^ "www.dailyexcelsior.com". Daily Excelsior. http://www.dailyexcelsior.com/web1/09apr27/state.htm#1. Retrieved 2009-06-29. 
  25. ^ Caste And Race In India by G. S. Ghurye. Popular Prakashan 2004 reprint page: 31,32,33.
  26. ^ Indirā Gāndhī Rāshṭrīya Mānava Saṅgrahālaya, Kulbhushan Warikoo, Sujit Som. Gujjars of Jammu and Kashmir. Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya. pp. 4. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=zxtuAAAAMAAJ&q=gurjar+in+ramayan&dq=gurjar+in+ramayan&cd=4. ""Gurjar" is a sanskrit word which has been explained thus: Gur+Ujjar;'Gur' means 'enemy' and 'ujjar' means 'destroyer'.The word means "Destroyer of the enemy"." 
  27. ^ Bhāratīya Gurjara Parishada (1993). Gurjara aura Unakā Itihāsa meṃ Yogadāna Vishaya para Prathama ..., Volume 2. Bharatiya Gurjar Parisha. pp. 27. http://books.google.co.in/books?lr=&cd=16&id=9kwIAAAAIAAJ&dq=gurjari+Gurjar&q=gur#search_anchor. "Sanskrit Dictionary Compiled by Pandit Radha Kant (Shakabada 1181) explains: Gurjar=Gur (enemy)+Ujar(destroyer)" 
  28. ^ India. Office of the Registrar General (1961). Census of India, Volume 20, Part 6, Issue 27. Manager of Publications. pp. 7. http://books.google.co.in/books?cd=4&id=CsjUAAAAMAAJ&dq=Gurjar+origin&q=gurjar#search_anchor. "These people used to enjoy a title of 'Gorjan' (Leader of masses).In sanskrit the word Gurjar was used and now-a-days Gujjar is used in place of Gurjar which predicts the qualities of a warrior community." 
  29. ^ Malabari, Behramji Merwanji; Krishnalal M. Jhaveri (1998). Gujarat and the Gujaratis: Pictures of Men and Manners Taken from Life. Asian Educational Services. pp. 2. ISBN 8120606515. 
  30. ^ Campbell, James MacNabb; Reginald Edward Enthoven (1901). Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency. Govt. Central Press. pp. 2. ISBN 8120606515. 
  31. ^ "Juzr or Jurz.". Persian Texts in Translation. The Packard Humanities Institute. http://persian.packhum.org/persian/index.jsp?serv=pf&file=80201011&ct=90. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  32. ^ a b Rose, Horace Arthur (1990). Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North West Frontier Province. Asian Educational Services. pp. 300. ISBN 8120605055. 
  33. ^ Jamanadas, K.. "Rajput Period Was Dark Age Of India". Decline And Fall Of Buddhism: A tragedy in Ancient India. New Delhi: Bluemoon Books. http://www.ambedkar.org/books/dob8.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  34. ^ Dasharatha Sharma (1975). Early Chauhān dynasties: a study of Chauhān political history, Chauhān political institutions, and life in the Chauhān dominions, from 800 to 1316 A.D.. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 280. ISBN 0842606181, ISBN 9780842606189. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=n4gcAAAAMAAJ&q=bhandarkar++gurjara&dq=bhandarkar++gurjara&cd=6. "According to a number of scholars, the agnikula clas were originally Gurjaras." 
  35. ^ Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (1834). Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Volume 1999. Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland.. p. 651. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=TPgAAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA651&. "By that marriage Haarsha had contracted an alliance with the dominant race of the Gurjaras, of whom the chohans were a prominent clan." 
  36. ^ Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra (2002) [1976]. Readings in Political History of India, Ancient, Mediaeval, and Modern. B.R. Pub. Corp (on behalf of Indian Society for Prehistoric and Quaternary Studies), D.K. Publishers' Distributors. pp. 209. "But he refused to believe that the Imperial Pratiharas of Kanauj were also Gujars in this sense." 
  37. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, vol. 2. Digital South Asia Library. pp. 320. http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/text.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V02_355.gif. Retrieved 2007-05-31. "But whatever our theories regarding the infusion of Gujar blood among the Rajputs, there was certainly no Gurjara (Gujar) empire in Northern India" 
  38. ^ Kulke, Hermann. A history of India (4, illustrated ed.). Routledge, 2004. pp. 432 pages. ISBN 0415329205, IBSN 9780415329200. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=V73N8js5ZgAC&pg=PA163&dq=gurjara+pratihara&ei=hpIPS_fhOqDAzQT85pXrDA#v=onepage&q=gurjara%20pratihara%20kanauj&f=false. "In 9th century the Gurjara pratiharas kings, Bhoja (836-885) and Mahendrapala (885-910), proved to be more powerful than their contemporaries of the other two dynasties whom they defeated several times.Kanauj then emerged as the main focus of power in India. ." 
  39. ^ Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra. The History and Culture of the Indian People: The classical age. G. Allen & Unwin, original from-the University of Michigan. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=8QhuAAAAMAAJ&q=gurjara+pratihara&dq=gurjara+pratihara&ei=hpIPS_fhOqDAzQT85pXrDA. "Rajasekharan, the great poet and playwright at the Gurjara-pratihara court of Kannauj.." 
  40. ^ Chopra, Pran Nath (2003). A comprehensive history of ancient India. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. pp. 196. ISBN 8120725034, ISBN 9788120725034. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=gE7udqBkACwC&pg=PA196&dq=gurjara+pratihara&lr=&ei=A5MPS5nlJ5TszASI-oiTDQ#v=onepage&q=gurjara%20pratihara&f=false. "Al-Masudi who visited his (Gurjara mahipala) court, also refers to the great power and resources of the Gurjara pratihara rules of Kannauj." 
  41. ^ Ethnography: castes and tribes, Volume 2,Part 5. 1912. p. 31. http://books.google.co.in/books?lr=&cd=20&id=L2ILAAAAIAAJ&dq=mathura+gujar&q=gurjara#search_anchor. "sun and fire worshiping huna or Gurjara was converted into the blue blood of Rajputana, and became the forefathers of the Sisodia, chahaun, parmar, parihar or calukya,.." 
  42. ^ Chintaman Vinayak Vaidya (1979). History of mediaeval Hindu India, Volume 1. Cosmo Publications. p. 355. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=sXpDAAAAYAAJ&q=history+is+all+about+gurjara&dq=history+is+all+about+gurjara&lr=&cd=40. 
  43. ^ Bombay Gazetter vol. 1 part 1 PP 467
  44. ^ Vincent A. Smith. 'White Hun' Coin of Vyaghramukha of the Chapa (Gurjara) Dynasty of Bhinmal:Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Volume 1999. Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland.. p. 926. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25210490?seq=4. "The chavadas seems to have been a branch of the Gurjaras who extended the power of the race in the south" 
  45. ^ University of Kerala, Dept. of History (1963). Journal of Indian history, Volume 41. Dept. of History, University of Kerala,Original from the University of California. pp. 765. http://books.google.co.in/books?ei=mQIQS6_7JaD4yATovNX7DA&id=ZzO2AAAAIAAJ&dq=rajor+inscription+gurjara&q=rajor++gurjara#search_anchor. "Gurjara-Prathiranvaya, of the Rajor inscription, which was incised more than a hundred years later than Bhoja's Gwalior prasasti, nearly fifty years later than the works of the poet rajasekhara." 
  46. ^ Chopra, Pran Nath (2003). A comprehensive history of ancient India. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. pp. 196. ISBN 8120725034, ISBN 9788120725034. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=gE7udqBkACwC&pg=PA196&dq=gurjara+pratihara&lr=&ei=A5MPS5nlJ5TszASI-oiTDQ#v=onepage&q=gurjara%20pratihara&f=false. "Al-Masudi who visited his (Gurjara mahipala) court, also refers to the great power and resources of the Gurjara pratihara rules of Kannauj." 
  47. ^ "The Gujur Rajasthani of South Asia". Bethany World Prayer Center. 1997. http://www.global12project.com/2004/profiles/clusters/8022.html. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  48. ^ Uttar Pradesh District Gazetteers. Govternment of Uttar Pradesh. 1993. pp. 152. 
  49. ^ "Tourist Places". District Administration Meerut. http://meerut.nic.in/tourist.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  50. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, vol. 20. Digital South Asia Library. pp. 2. http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/text.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V20_008.gif. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  51. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, vol. 9. Digital South Asia Library. pp. 50. http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/text.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V09_056.gif. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  52. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, vol. 16. Digital South Asia Library. pp. 201. http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/text.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V16_207.gif. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  53. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, vol. 12. Digital South Asia Library. pp. 139. http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/text.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V12_145.gif. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  54. ^ a b Jivanlala (Jeewan Lal), Munshi; Mu‘in al-Din Hasan Khan (1974) [1898]. "Narrative Of Munshi Jeewan Lal". in Charles Metcalfe, 1st Baron Metcalfe. Two Native Narratives of the Mutiny in Delhi. Seema Publications (original publisher: A. Constable & Co). pp. 10–27. http://www.kapadia.com/NativeNarrative/NarrativeofMunshiJeewanLal.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  55. ^ Agha Humayun Amin (January 2000). "The Delhi Campaign". Defence Journal. http://www.defencejournal.com/2000/jan/dehli-campaign.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  56. ^ Sen, Geeti; Ashis Banerjee (2001). The Human Landscape. Orient Longman. pp. 236. ISBN 8125020454. 
  57. ^ C.R. Bijoy (February 2003). The Adivasis of India - A History of Discrimination, Conflict, and Resistance. People's Union for Civil Liberties. 
  58. ^ Meena Radhakrishna (2006-07-16). "Dishonoured by history". folio: Special issue with the Sunday Magazine. The Hindu. http://www.hinduonnet.com/folio/fo0007/00070240.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  59. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, vol. 9. Digital South Asia Library. pp. 55. http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/text.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V09_061.gif. Retrieved 2007-05-31. "In 1860, the same tracts suffeered, being largely inhabited by Gujars, still impoverished due to their lawlessness in the Mutiny" 
  60. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, vol. 11. Digital South Asia Library. pp. 226. http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/text.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V11_232.gif. Retrieved 2007-05-31. "The Gujars (28,ooo) are nearly all Hindus; they have a bad reputation as thieves, and levy a kind of blackmail on the residents of the civil station by ensuring that the rash householder who does not employ a Gujar watchman shall infallibly have his house robbed." 
  61. ^ Taran Singh (1992). Guru Nanak, his mind and art. Bahri Publications. p. 142. ISBN 8170340667, ISBN 9788170340669. 
  62. ^ Chib, Sukhdev Singh (1977). Himachal Pradesh. Light & Life Publishers. pp. 99. 
  63. ^ Gujrat Government. "Gujrat state official site". http://www.gujaratindia.com/about-gujarat/history-1.htm. "The State took it’s name from the Gujara, the land of the Gujjars, who ruled the area during the 700’s and 800’s." 
  64. ^ Dr. R.P. Khatana. "Gujari Language and Identity in Jammu and Kashmir". Kashmir News Network: Language Section (koshur.org). http://www.koshur.org/Linguistic/5.html. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  65. ^ "Congress lauds Gujjar, Poorvanchal voters". The Hindu. 2004-05-16. http://www.hindu.com/2004/05/16/stories/2004051604450400.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  66. ^ "BJP adds a twist to Pilot's maiden show". The Hindu. 2004-04-03. http://www.hindu.com/2004/04/23/stories/2004042309390500.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  67. ^ Chattar Pal Tanwar (2003-08-03). "Anti-dowry campaign renewed before marriage season". The Tribune, Chandigarh. http://www.tribuneindia.com/2003/20030803/ncr1.htm#4. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  68. ^ Parmindar Singh (2003-06-29). "No band, no dhol, and just 11 baratis". The Tribune, Chandigarh. http://www.tribuneindia.com/2003/20030630/ncr1.htm#5. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  69. ^ a b c "Jammu & Kashmir Data Highlights: The Scheduled Tribes". Census of India 2001. Office of the Registrar General, India. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  70. ^ Kapoor, A. K.; M. K. Raha, D. Basu, Satwanti Kapoor (1994). Ecology and man in the Himalayas. M. D. Publications. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-8185880167. 
  71. ^ "Meri News". Meri News. http://www.merinews.com/catFull.jsp?articleID=128044. Retrieved 2009-04-16. 
  72. ^ "Kashmir Watch". Kashmir Watch. http://www.kashmirwatch.com/showarticles.php?subaction=showfull&id=1223720396&archive=&start_from=&ucat=3&var0news=value0news. Retrieved 2009-04-16. 
  73. ^ "Gujjars, Bakerwals demand Gujaristan in J&K". Indian Express. 2002-07-29. http://www.expressindia.com/fullstory.php?newsid=13233. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  74. ^ a b Radhakrishna Rao (2000-09-04). "Outside the jungle book". Business Line. The Hindu. http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/businessline/2000/09/04/stories/100444m8.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  75. ^ Gooch, Pernille (1998). At the Tail of the Buffalo: Van Gujjar pastoralists between the forest and the world arena. Dept. of Sociology, Lund University. ISBN 9189078535. 
  76. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Volume 9,Part 1. 1901. p. 490. 
  77. ^ Social science probings,Volume 10. 1993. p. 49. 
  78. ^ J. Kennedy (1907). The child Krishna, Christianity and the Gujars. Royal Asiatic Society. 
  79. ^ Taran Singh (1992). Guru Nanak, his mind and art. Bahri Publications. p. 142. ISBN 8170340667, ISBN 9788170340669. 
  80. ^ Bombay (India : State) (1901). Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Volume 9, Part 1. Govt. Central Press. p. 491. 
  81. ^ "Gujjar of Rajasthan and ST Status". Countercurrents.org ! News. 2008-06-06. http://www.countercurrents.org/rahi060608.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-24. 
  82. ^ "Gujjar community goes berserk in Rajasthan". Yahoo! News. 2006-09-05. http://in.news.yahoo.com/060905/139/67ale.html. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  83. ^ "Gujjar unrest: CPI(M) demands judicial probe". The Hindu. 2007-05-30. http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/001200705301541.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  84. ^ "Talks between Rajasthan Government, Gujjars collapse". Zee News. 2007-05-30. http://www.zeenews.com/articles.asp?aid=374252&sid=REG&ssid=. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  85. ^ "Gujjars seek resignation of Minister Kalulal Gujjar". Deccan Herald. 2007-05-30. http://www.deccanherald.com/Content/May302007/national200705304597.asp?section=updatenews. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  86. ^ "Four dead in Gujjar-police clash in Rajasthan". The Times of India. 2007-05-29. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Four_dead_in_Gujjar-police_clash/articleshow/2082202.cms. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  87. ^ "Impoverished villagers burn police stations, vehicles in India". Pravda.ru. 2007-05-29. http://english.pravda.ru/news/hotspots/30-05-2007/92454-clash_india-0. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  88. ^ "Central List Of Other Backward Classes: Rajasthan". National Commission for Backward Classes. http://ncbc.nic.in/backward-classes/rajasthan.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  89. ^ "The Race to the Bottom of India's Ladder". Time Magazine. June 5 2007. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1628192,00.html?xid=rss-world&iid=sphere-inline-bottom. Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  90. ^ "Gurjar community 'threatens' to boycott BJP". The Hindu. December 31, 2007. http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/holnus/004200712311013.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  91. ^ Manipadma Jena (2003-08-03). "Men without women". The Hindu. http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/mag/2003/08/31/stories/2003083100250400.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  92. ^ Astrid Lobo Gajiwala (2005-02-07). "Diminishing returns". The National Catholic Reporter. http://www.nationalcatholicreporter.org/globalpers/gp021505.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  93. ^ Virendra N. Misra (2007). Rajasthan: prehistoric and early historic foundations. Aryan Books International. p. 26. ISBN 8173053219, ISBN 9788173053214. 
  94. ^ "Central List Of Other Backward Classes: Madhya Pradesh". National Commission for Backward Classes. http://ncbc.nic.in/backward-classes/mp.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  95. ^ B K., Mohapatra; R. Trivedi, A. K. Mehta, J. M. Vyas, V. K. Kashyap (June 2004). "Genetic Diversity at 15 Fluorescent-Labeled Short Tandem Repeat Loci in the Patel and Other Communities of Gujarat, India.". American Journal of Forensic Medicine & Pathology 25 (2): 108–112. doi:10.1097/01.paf.0000114137.01885.01. http://www.amjforensicmedicine.com/pt/re/ajfmp/abstract.00000433-200406000-00003.htm;jsessionid=GdtDnGQq8blktYN2GKllqTLZLPyyVLdGHhh1Qbpsv2skJJT3w4PH!-1547828331!-949856145!8091!-1. Retrieved 2007-05-31. "They are a section of the Kambi who address themselves as Patidar, and probably they are Gujjar in origin.". 
  96. ^ "Buldhana: Castes". Buldhana District Gazetteer. Gazetteers Department, Cultural Affairs Department of Government of Maharashtra. http://www.maharashtra.gov.in/english/gazetteer/BULDHANA/people_castes.html. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  97. ^ Panjabi, Kewalram Lalchand (1977). The Indomitable Sardar. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. pp. 4. "Vallabhbhai Patel belonged to the famous clan of Leva Gujar Patidars who played a notable role in the history of Gujarat. They were Gujars who came from Punjab and had occupied the rich charotar land between Mahi and Tapi rivers." 
  98. ^ a b "Culture and Traditions". Patidar Samaj. http://www.patidarsamaj.org/culture-traditions.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  99. ^ a b Pocock, David Francis (1972). Kanbi and Patidar: A Study of the Patidar Community of Gujarat. Clarendon Press. ISBN 019823175X. 
  100. ^ "Central List of Other Backward Classes". National Commission for Backward Classes. http://ncbc.nic.in/backward-classes/maharashtra.html. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  101. ^ "Leuva Connextion Issue 2 May 2006". Leuva Patidar Samaj USA. http://www.lpstnvs.com/history.php. Retrieved 2007-09-16. 
  102. ^ "PRIDE OF OUR HISTORY". Sree Kadwa Patidar Samaj UK. http://kpsuk1.members.beeb.net/Pride_of_our_history.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-16. 
  103. ^ "HISTORY OF THE MATIYA PATIDAR SAMAJ". Matiya Patidar Samaj. http://www.matiyapatidar.com/history-by-ramanbhai.html. Retrieved 2007-09-16. 
  104. ^ "Culture and Traditions" (PDF). Patidar Samaj. http://www.leuvapatidarsamaj.com/pdfs/leuvaconnection-2.pdf. Retrieved 2007-09-16. 
  105. ^ "The Patidars: A Golden Page in History" (PDF). Patidar Samaj. http://bakrol.pustakalay.com/history.pdf. Retrieved 2007-09-16. 
  106. ^ "Rural & Urban Population". Nagpur District Gazetteer. Gazetteers Department, Cultural Affairs Department of Government of Maharashtra. http://www.maharashtra.gov.in/english/gazetteer/FINAL_GAZETTEE/people1.html. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  107. ^ "Maritime History Of India". Indian Navy. http://indiannavy.nic.in/maritime_history.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  108. ^ Saraswati, Baidyanath (1977). Brahmanic Ritual Traditions in the Crucible of Time. Indian Institute of Advanced Study. pp. 45. 
  109. ^ R. V. Russell (2009). The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India. p. 259. ISBN 0559128681, ISBN 9780559128684. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=CLTfRUOuQ1YC&pg=PA259&lpg=PA259&dq. 
  110. ^ "Who are the Gujjars?". Hindustan Times. http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/FullcoverageStoryPage.aspx?id=cf47c3b7-311e-4a6f-9ce1-a19f9052d911Desertstorm_Special&&Headline=Who%2Bare%2Bthe%2BGujjars%3F%2B. Retrieved 2009–06–29. 
  111. ^ Who are the Gujjars?

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Alternative spellings

  • Gurjar
  • Gurjara
  • Gajar
  • Goojar

Proper noun

Singular
Gujjar

Plural
-

Gujjar

  1. An ethnic group in India and Pakistan.

Related terms

Translations

  • Hindi: गुज्जर
  • Urdu: گجر

Noun

Singular
Gujjar

Plural
Gujjars

Gujjar (plural Gujjars)

  1. A member of the Gujjar.

is a person of royal family in pakistan and indian








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message