Gujrat District: Wikis

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Gujrat District
—  District  —
Education.
Gujrat is located in the north of Punjab
Country  Pakistan
Province Punjab
Capital Gujrat
Established
Government
 - District Nazim Chaudhry Shafaat Hussain
 - District Naib Nazim Mian Muhammad Asghar Hayat[1]
Area
 - Total 3,192 km2 (1,232.4 sq mi)
Population (1998)
 - Total 2,048,008
 Density 642/km2 (1,662.8/sq mi)
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
District Council
Number of Tehsils 3

Gujrat (Urdu: ضلع گجرات) is a district of Punjab Province in Pakistan. It is an ancient district located in between two famous rivers, the Jhelum and Chenab. Because of its proximity with the rivers the land is good for cultivation with rice and sugar cane as main crops. It is bounded on the northeast by Mirpur, on the northwest by the River Jhelum which separates it from Jhelum District, on the east and southeast by the Chenab River, separating it from the districts of Gujranwala and Sialkot, and on the West by Mandi Bahauddin. District Gujrat is spread over an area of 3,192 square kilometres, and is divided into three tehsils, Gujrat, Kharian, and Sarai Alamgir. There are many historic villages and towns in the district such as Chakdina, Kunjah, Dinga.

Contents

History

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Ancient history

According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India:

GUJRAT Town itself is a place of some antiquity, and the District bounds in ancient sites.The district formed part of the kingdom of Porus, who was defeated by Alexander, probably in the Karri plain beyond the Jammu border, in July, 326 B.C. ; but four years later was conquered by Chandragupta Maurya in the national rising which took place on the death of Alexander. It remained under the Mauryas until shortly after the death of Asoka in 231, and about forty years later came under the sway of Demetrius the Graeco-Bactrian. The overthrow of the Bactrians by the Parthians in the latter half of the second century brought another change of rulers, and the coins of the Indo-Parthian Maues (c. 120 B. c.), who is known to local tradition as Raja Moga, have been found at Mong. At the end of the first century A. D., ie whole of the Punjab was conquered by the Yueh-chi. For several hundred years nothing is known of the history of the District, except that between 455 and 540 it must have been exposed to the ravages of the White Huns. Dr. Stein holds that the District formed part of the kingdom of Gurjara, which, according to the Rajatarangini, was

invaded between 883 and 902 by Sankara Varman of Kashmir, who defeated its king Alakhana. This may be the Ali Khan to whom tradition ascribed the refounding of GUJRAT.[2]

However the foundation of the capital, Gujrat, according to the Ancient Geography of India:

is ascribed to a king named Bachan Pal of whom nothing more is known ; and its restoration is attributed to Ali Khan a Gujar, whose name is strangely like that of Alakhana, the Raja of Gurjara , who was defeated by Sangkara Varmma between AD 883 AD 901.[3]

Lodhi-Mughal era

Authentic history commences only in the Lodi period, when Bahlolpur, 23 miles (37 km) north-east of Gujrat, was founded in the reign of Bahlol (1451-89). Khwas Khan, governor of the Rohtas under Sher Shah Suri, founded Khwaspur near Gujrat. The settlement of the tract was completed by Akbar[citation needed], who built a fort and compelled the Gujars to settle in it. The tract was then named Gujrat and formed into a separate district. Revenue records have been preserved in the families of the hereditary registrars (kanungos), and these exhibit Gujrat the capital of a district containing 2,592 villages, paying a revenue of 16 lakhs. In 1605 the famous Saiyid Abdul Kasim received Gujrat as a tuyul or fief from Akbar. On the decay of the Mughal power, Nadir Shah ravaged the District and destroyed Gujrat. The country also suffered at the same time from the ravages of Ahmad Shah Durrani, whose armies frequently crossed and recrossed it[2].

Sikh era

Meanwhile the Sikh power had been asserting itself in the Easter Punjab; and in 1765 Sardar Gujar Singh, head of the Bhangi confederacy, crossed the Chenab, defeated the Gakhar chief, Mukarrab Khan, and extended his dominions to the banks of the Jhelum. On Gujar Singh's death in 1788, his son, Sahib Singh, became involved in a war with Mahan Singh, the chieftain of Gujranwala, and afterwards with his son, the celebrated Ranjit Singh. After a few months of desultory warfare in 1798, the Gujrat leader found it well to accept a position of dependence under the young ruler of Gujranwala. At length, in 1810, Ranjit Singh, now master of the consolidated Sikh empire, determined to depose his tributary vassal. Sahib Singh with drew to the hills without opposition, and shortly afterwards accepted the Bajwat territory in the present Sialkot District conferred on him in jagir.[2].

British era

In 1846 Gujrat came under the supervision of British officials, when a settlement of land revenue was effected under order from the provisional government at Lahore. Two years later, the District was the scene of some of the battles which decided the even of the second Sikh War. While the siege of MULTAN still dragged slowly on, Sher Singh established himself at Ramnagar on the Gujrawala side of the Chenab, 22 miles (35 km) below Gujrat, leaving the main body of his army on the northern bank. Here he awaited the attack of the British, who attempted unsuccessfully to drive him across the river, on November 22, 1848. Lord Gough withdrew from the assault with heavy loss ; but sending round a strong detachment under Sir Joseph Thackwell by the Wazirabad ferry, he turned the flank of the enemy, and won the battle of Sadullapur. Sher Singh retired northward, and took up a strong position between the Jhelum and the Pabb Hills. The bloody battle of Chilianwala followed (January 13, 1849) a victory as costly as a defeat. On February 6 Sher Singh again eluded Lord Gough's vigilance, and marched southwards to make a dash upon Lahore; but the British pressed him close in the rear and, on February 22, he turned to offer battle at Gujrat. The decisive engagement which ensued broke irretrievably the power of the Sikh. The Punjab lay at the feet of the conquerors, and passed by annexation under British rule.[2].

Climate and Ecology

Map showing location of Gujrat District (highlighted in green) in relation to neighbouring districts of Punjab Pakistan and the Kashmir region.

This district has moderate climate, which is hot in summer and cold in winter. During peak summer, the day temperature shoots up to 50 °C, but the hot spells are comparatively shorter due to proximity of Azad Kashmir Mountains. The winter months are very pleasant and the minimum temperature may fall below 2 °C. The average rainfall on the Kashmir border is over 1000 mm, at Kharian it is 750 mm, at Gujrat 670 mm, and at Dinga 500 mm.

Administration

The district is administratively subdivided into three tehsils, these are:[4]

  1. Gujrat
  2. Kharian
  3. Sarai Alamgir

Politics

The district has a wide political importance. It has produced many historic names like Major Raja Aziz Bhatti Shaheed (Nishan-e-Haider), Maj. Shabbir Sharif Shaheed (Nishan-e-Haider) and Majar M. Akram Shaheed (Nishan-e-Haider).

Ch. Innayat ullah Akbar, founder of Taleem ul Islam High school Murarian, ex Haakim e Aala Khaaksaar Tehrik West Pakistan. He was the son of Ch. Fateh Mohammad, VCO in Royal Indian Engineers.His brothers, Ch. Rehmat ullah and Ch. Nazir Ahmed also did serve in Royal Indian Army in the Engineers Regiment.

A big name in the history of Gujrat is Khan Bahadur saab he was one of most respected and feared person in gujrat one of the biggest zamendar of gujrat with his support his younger brother had made is mark also Nawab Sir Fazal Ali ,the head of the Nawabzada family of Gujrat and also the founder of the Zamendara College of Gujrat. Nawabzada Gazanfar Ali Gul, ex-MNA is from Nawab family.

Prominent leaders include Chaudhry brothers from gujrat. Ch. SHUJAT HUSSAIN is the leader of PML(Q), big political party of pakistan. He is also the former prime minister of Pakistan. His brother Chaudry Pervez elahi is former cheif minister of Punjab. Another brother Ch. Wajahat Hussain also known as Gujrat´s "commander" is elected MNA from Gujrat district. The smallest brother Ch Shaffat is nazim of District Gujrat.

Education

A university UOG was established in 2003, just near the Govt College for Girls. The main campus of the University is called Hafiz Hayat Campus. Hafiz Hayat is an ancient legend for the Gujrat city. At the same time there are two more Govt Colleges in the city but to complete the lack of hunger for knowledge there are so many private colleges. These colleges cover some special subjects for each. As the population of the city was increasing day by day so there was great need for Elementary, Middle and High Schools too. As the Govt had not a lot of resources to cover this whole need, so private schools started to born. But having Govt and Private institutions in the same city dosen't mean that the standard of education is low. But a competition can be seen between them which encourages the students as well as the teachers to go beyond the limits of theoratical studies. So students can learn more not just by understanding the material but also by practicing it.

Demography

According to the 1998 census of Pakistan the total population of Gujrat district was 2,048,008 of which 1,026,000 are males and 1,022,000 are females, with a population density of 642 persons per square kilometre. Over 25.62% of the population was recorded as being urban.[5]

Major Tribes

The principal tribes of the districts are Gujjars, Jats, , Mughals, Syeds, Rajputs, Kashmiris, Arians and Awans.[6]

The principal gujjar clans are:

khatana, maher, mahrana, kalo, chachi, thikria, tinday, paswal,

The principal Jat clans are:

Bagril, Bangial, Badhan, Chadhar, Cheema, Dhillon, Dhotar, Gujjral, Ghumman, Gondal Jat, Heer or Hayer , Hanjra, Kang, Khokhar, Langrial, Mangat, Sahi, Sarai, Sipra, Tarar, Sandhu, Sial, Tatla, Thathaal, Virk, Waraich, Malhi

External links

References

Coordinates: 32°35′N 73°45′E / 32.583°N 73.75°E / 32.583; 73.75


Simple English

Gujrat District (Urdu:ضلع گجرات) is a district in the Punjab province of Pakistan. The city of Gujrat is the capital.

=Administration

= The district is composed of 3 tehsils:


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